Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Pride



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

A. Irving Osser

Bed Check Charlie

A. Irving Osser explains the nightly disturbance of "Bed Check Charlie." Because his Air Force unit was not prepared to fight back the attacks, he traded alcohol for weapons at a local weapons depot. He describes how his unit successfully shot down one of the plans after several attempts.



Setting up an Orphanage

As a highlight of his time in Korea, A. Irving Osser describes how he and other men organized the opening of an orphanage for tent boys, teenage Korean orphans who had assisted them while they were fighting there. He explains how the wife of Syngman Rhee, Franziska, was vital in setting up this orphanage and making it possible for the boys to go to college. While he does not know what happened after he left, A. Irving Osser fondly remembers helping set up the electricity and carpentry to give back to these boys.



Abisai González Camacho

The Bronze Medal with Valor / La Medalla de Bronce con Valor

Abisai González Camacho provides an account of the events which earned him a Bronze Medal. He details the way in which he saved the lives of many by jumping into a river and grabbing a rope to help fellow soldiers safely cross. He explains that enemy troops were nearby during the ordeal. He laments that he witnessed the way in which many others drowned during this incident.

Abisai González Camacho relata los hechos que hizo el para que le dieran la Medalla de Bronce. El detalla la forma en que le salvó la vida a muchos cuando salto al río que estaban cruzando para agarrar la cuerda que se había rota para ayudar a sus compañeros a cruzar con seguridad. También explica que las tropas enemigas estaban cerca durante esta terrible experiencia. Lamenta haber visto como muchos otros se ahogaron durante este incidente.



His Life Saving Helmet / El Casco que le Salvó la Vida

Abisai González Camacho shows off the helmet which saved his life many times in Korea. He shares that it was the most important part of his uniform as it was the first thing he put on whenever he moved. He explains that the helmet saved his life and points out where it was damaged.

Abisai González Camacho muestra el casco que le salvó la vida muchas veces en Corea. Comparte que era la parte más importante de su uniforme ya que era lo primero que se ponía cada vez que se movía de lugar. Explica que el casco le salvó la vida y señala dónde se dañó.



Achille Ragazzoni

Impressions after Return Trips to Korea

Achille Ragazzoni's father Gianluigi Ragazzoni returned to Korea ten or twelve times over his lifetime. His son shares how his father marveled at the improvements made, especially related to the sanitary situation of the country. He recalls his father expressing sadness that many Korean people had abandoned tradition and history but that Gianluigi Ragazzoni was impressed with one young woman he met along the way studying a medieval Italian map.

English translations begin: 51:05 and 53:46.



Adam McKenzie

Clearing Sariwon

Adam McKenzie describes clearing the town of Sariwon, North Korea. Although they received no tank support from American aid, his battalion mounted their miniature tanks to make an advance. He recounts capturing roughly three thousand North Korean soldiers as a result of the advance.



Chinese Troops and a Rare Medal

Adam McKenzie describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers during the Korean War. He goes on to describe and show a rare Presidential Citation Medal that his regiment qualified to earn, yet he cannot wear along side awarded British medals. The rare medal was awarded to him by Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).



Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Message to the Audience / Mensaje para la Audiencia

Adolfo Lugo Gaston asks anyone that is watching the interview to be useful to their nation. If a group of people in another nation are under attack, he impels watchers to help. He believes that God will recognize this type of goodwill.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón le pide a cualquiera que esté viendo la entrevista que sea útil a su nación. Si un grupo de personas en otra nación está bajo ataque, le pide a la futura generación que los ayude. Él cree que Dios reconocerá este tipo de buena voluntad.



Ahmet Tan

Returning Home

Ahmet Tan describes the enemy and fighting conditions near Cheorwon when he first arrived. The action was very violent, but eased when the Armistice was signed. After the Armistice, Turkish soldiers returned home. Ahmet Tan was happy to be home in Istanbul. He has revisited South Korea once and describes it as beautiful. Also, if war ever breaks out again, Ahmet Tan would go again.



Al Lemieux

Koreans Supporting Veterans Today

Al Lemieux discusses the relationship he has developed with the Korean people in the greater Kansas City area. He describes the positive dynamic between the Korean community and veterans including attending luncheons, Thanksgiving dinners, and other activities. He has worked closely with these groups to carry on the legacy of the Korean War.



Return to Korea

Al Lemieux describes what it was like on his first trip back to the Punchbowl area where he had his last mission. He reports he was able to see the tunnels dug by the North Koreans as well as in the DMZ. He states it did not look like it did when he left Korea in 1951 as it is now heavily forested. Additionally, he is amazed at the "forest of the biggest buildings I've every seen in my life" and everyone carrying cell phones even back in 2001.



Alan Maggs

The Journey to Korea

Alan Maggs recounts his long journey to Korea, which began when he was just eighteen and too young to join the war effort. Initially sent to Hong Kong and then Japan, he recalls attended a school for signal training. Graduating at the top of his class, he notes he was deployed to Korea just two weeks before his nineteenth birthday.



Lacking Support for the Remembrance of the War

When questioned about the legacy of the Korean War in England, Alan Maggs mentions that in a sense, there is "no legacy." He explains that while the government has funded other war memorials, they declined to do so for the Korean War memorial, citing the argument that these soldiers fought under the United Nations' banner, not specifically for England. However, he and others were fortunate enough to raise the funds needed to construct their own monument.



Albert Cooper

Proud at Every Bend of the Road

Albert Cooper compares and contrasts the Korea that he left in 1953 with the Korea he revisited in 2009. Amazed at Korea's progress, he describes being "proud at every bend of the road." He says he is most proud that Koreans are happy and prosperous.



Albert Gonzales

Korea is Thankful

Albert Gonzales describes how he believed South Korea is the only country thankful for what America has done for them. He explains how they have assisted in several other wars and have shown their appreciation over time. He states that they are proud of us and we are proud of them too.

*There is some explicit language in this clip.



Albert Grocott

For the Love of Learning a Language

Albert Grocott remembers encountering several orphaned children in need of food and clothing during his Rest and Relaxation (R&R) in Seoul during the war,. He describes how he brought them food from the mess hall and obtained clothing for them through less conventional means. Grocott explains that his motivation was driven by his desire to learn the language, and in return for his assistance, he asked the children to teach him Korean words and songs as payment.



Albert Kleine

The Kindness of the Korean People

Albert Kleine was brought to tears when talking about his Korean revisit. When he revisited Korea, he was wearing his uniform and the adults along with the children were so kind to him since he was a soldier. In 2016 he went back for a funeral there and he wants to go there to live for the rest of his life because he has seen the evolution of the city.



Albert McCarthy

Smiles on Their Faces

Albert McCarthy believes the South Koreans were the most grateful of any people the United States have assisted. He says the Koreans saw the possibilities with the freedom the United States allowed. He foresees the future is promising after have been deflated for decades by outside controlling forces. He is impressed with the smiles on Korean faces.



Albert Morrow

From Desolate to Utopia

Albert Morrow recounted Seoul peasants with no possessions except what they had on A frames. He described bridges over the Han River that had been blown up. After he returned in 2013 and 2018, he could not believe his eyes. He recalled Seoul had gone from "desolate" to "utopia." He was appreciative of how he was treated on the tour with charter busses and police escorts.



Saving a Chinese Soldier

Albert Morrow was in charge of taking walking wounded to MASH stations behind the front lines. On one occasion, he found a Chinese soldier and escorted him to the MASH unit. When he got there, the soldier helping him carry the Chinese soldier dropped the Chinese soldier when he recognized his nationality. He could not believe anyone would be so callous while he was trying to save lives.



Albert R. Sayles

GI Bill Benefits

Albert Sayles recalls receiving GI Bill benefits of $600 to attend Hagerstown Community College upon his return. He describes working for the post office while also attending accounting courses. He adds his thoughts on how wonderful the GI Bill was at the time and the opportunities it provided.



Impact of Service

Albert Sayles recounts returning home, stepping off the bus, and not a word being said to him regarding his service. He emphasizes that he simply went back to work and shares his thoughts on why the war was not a topic of conversation on the home front. He acknowledges that his service had a positive impact on his life and is glad the Korean people are appreciative of American efforts.



Albino Robert “Al” D’Agostino

Radio Communications Defense and Guerillas

Al D'Agostino described his role in establishing a radio relay to communicate with the soldiers. The winters were very cold and they had to set up shelter on a mountain. They handled their own defense against the guerilla fighters which was an extremely difficult job.



Letter From A Friend

Al D'Agostino discussed about an interpreter friend of his near Gumi. He was sent a letter expressing his gratitude for the Americans and how they helped the Koreans during the war. He received the letter when returned to America.



No More Honey Buckets or Honey Carts

Though Al D'Agostino has never been back, he had business dealings with Korean Airlines out of Los Angeles. He could not believe the level of fluency, sophistication, affluent business behavior, and growth of South Korea. He remarked there would be no more honey buckets or honey carts.



Alex Saenz

Enlistment and Basic Training

Alex Saenz recalls having graduated from high school and working as a spray painter when the Korean War broke out. He recounts quitting his job and enlisting in the Navy. He describes his basic training in San Diego and shares that it was an experience as he had never been away from home.



Ship Repairs

Alex Saenz provides a few examples of the conditions of ships returning from Korea in need of repair. He details working in the dry docks where repairs from shelling would be made as well as sandblasting and painting following the repairs. He recalls a ship needing repair after running over a whale and shares a more personal story regarding the Boxer CV-21, an aircraft carrier that suffered a plane's crash landing.



Little Danger

Alex Saenz shares his thoughts on serving in Japan rather than in Korea closer to danger. He states that all servicemen were assigned work, and they simply did it. He shares that, in the military, he did the best for his country. He comments on meeting soldiers who had served in Korea and hearing their stories.



Alford Rodriguez Rivera

Poud To Have Served the Flag

Alford Rodriguez Rivera shares that he is proud to have served the flag of the United States. To younger generations, he offers encouragement for joining the Army. He emphasizes his pride again regarding his service in Korea.



Alfred Curtis

Headed to Korea and First Impression

Alfred Curtis described how he felt when he learned he would be serving in Korea. He shared that hardly anyone knew anything about Korea and that he had honestly never even heard of Korea. He added that he and other young soldiers thought they would go over and take care of business within a few months and be home. He recalled his journey to South Korea, landing in Pusan, and the suffering of the South Korean people.



Thoughts on Service, Memories, and the Korean War Legacy

Alfred Curtis offered his thoughts on service and memories of his brother who served in Korea. He shared his brother was at Incheon and the Chosin Reservoir and that he died from wounds he sustained in battle. He commented on the legacy of the Korean War, sharing what the country of South Korea has done for itself since the war is unbelievable.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Message to students / Mensaje Para Los Estudiantes

Alfredo Forero Parra shares his thoughts on war and its many consequences. His message to future generations is that war should be avoided as it is cruel and inhumane. He adds that it is important for future generations to remember the valor and stoicism of Colombian troops.

Alfredo Forero Parra comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y sus múltiples consecuencias. Su mensaje a las generaciones futuras es que se debe evitar la guerra, ya que es cruel e inhumana. El termina su mensaje pidiéndole a las generaciones futuras que recuerden el valor y el estoicismo de las tropas colombianas.



Congratulatory Message / Mensaje de Felicitación

Alfredo Forero Parra reads the congratulatory note from the commander of the Batallón Colombia to all those that fought in the Battle of Old Baldy. Within this letter, the commander describes Colombian troops not only as martyrs and heroes, but as the quintessential symbol of the virtues of a soldier. This letter captures the soul and valor of those that were lost and those that survived the Battle of Old Baldy.

Alfredo Forero Parra lee la nota de felicitación del comandante del Batallón Colombia a todos los que lucharon en la batalla de Old Baldy. En esta carta, el comandante describe a las tropas colombianas no solo como mártires y héroes, sino como el símbolo por excelencia de las virtudes del soldado. Esta nota fue escrita para que el mundo recuerde el alma y el valor de los que fallecieron y de los que sobrevivieron a la Batalla de Old Baldy.



Ali Saglik

The Hard Job

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He recounts laying mines in the front and having dogs defending their flanks. He recalls how grisly the battles were and fighting it out with bayonets. He remembers the heaviness of losing soldiers under his command.



Gendarmerie Status Denied

Ali Saglik recalls volunteering to be a gendarmerie, a Turkish National Defender, but was refused due to his short stature. He explains how he enlisted in the infantry instead and was sent to Korea to fight in the Korean War. He describes himself as cold-blooded and not afraid of death.



Alice Allen

College, Letters, and Love

Alice Allen talks about going to college while her husband, Jack Allen, served in the military. She recalls earning her degree in education and becoming a teacher which helped pass the time while he was away. She shares how great it felt for him to return home and how they were anxious to begin their life together.



Wounds from the War

Alice Allen recalls knowing of her husband's wounds but having to wait for him to make it home. She remembers being thankful that his dominant side was uninjured. She shares how they quickly married.



Alice Rosemary Christensen

Family Military History, Message to Students, and Feelings on Women in Combat

Alice Christensen reflects on the many benefits serving in the military provided her--personally, professionally, and financially. She admits she would have liked to have remained in the military and made it a career. She expresses that she doesn’t think women should serve in combat, but that there are many jobs available for women in the military. She shares that her family have been serving since the Revolutionary War. She shares that she even tried to convince her daughter to join, but without success. .



Receiving a Commendation for a Special Patient Case

Alice Christensen recalls a special patient she cared for during her time in Portsmouth. She shares how the patient had viral encephalitis and survived the condition, which was extraordinary for the time. She describes the treatment this patient underwent, especially the use of an iron lung. She adds she received a special commendation from Washington, D.C., for her role in the care of this patient. She shares that she even had a picture of her and the other medical staff in the newspaper



Alistair S. Rae

Mission in Korea

Alistair S. Rae shares his squadron's mission during his time in Korea, mainly focusing on dropping bombs on target while flying the Mustang. He recalls frequently crossing the North Korean border during these missions. Over the course of his deployment, he notes he proudly flew 75 sorties, and upon returning to fly jets, he increased his sortie total to 128.



Flying the Sabre

Detailing the main missions of the Sabres, Alistair S. Rae mentions interdiction and target bombing, along with the directive to shoot down any enemy aircraft encountered. While serving in Korea, he faced various dangers. Despite very few close encounters with enemy aircraft, he vividly recalls the encounters with "Bed Check Charlie."



Allen Affolter

Korea's Meaning

Allen Affolter describes South Korea as an amazing country. He recounts the progress made since the war after returning to Korea with a Korean War Veterans Revisit Program and comments on its differences compared to North Korea. He shares that he was greeted warmly by the citizens of South Korea and left the trip proud of the contributions he and his colleagues had made to the success of their nation.



Message to Younger Generations

Allen Affolter offers a message to younger generations. He states that they should appreciate what they have and should take full advantage of the opportunities available to them. He shares that sacrifices must be made in order to obtain something and that they should limit their distractions in order to obtain what they want. He adds that they should practice being respectful of their elders, doing what they are told, and being punctual.



Allen Clark

Star for the Chosin Few at Koto-ri

As an Assistant Artillery Liaison Officer of the 7th Marine Regiment, Allen Clark told the story of the Frozen Chosin, who survived the 42 degrees below zero temperatures for several days while attempting to secure a place in the mountains that gave them an advantage point that overlooked a bridge. He described the conditions at Koto-ri were so bad, the scarf he described was the only thing that kept him from further hypothermia damage. Anxious and ready to go as the weather began to improve, Colonel "Chester" Pulley on a clear night had pointed to the star that was in the sky and said, "We are going in the morning," and that rallying point for the Marines when they needed it the most.



The Most Difficult Events in the Korean War

Allen Clark had difficulty choosing which event was the most difficult, but he settles on the events going into and out of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. General Smith told his fellow leaders that the Marines were now going to blow up their supplies and sneak out of the Chosin. Instead, he said that they would bring their wounded, dead, and supplies first and then head out as Marines, so everyone looked up to General Smith.



Korean Marines and Korean Civilians

Allen Clark recalls the Korean Marines as formidable, accepting only those who could keep up. They were always prepared for battle, exemplifying the highest standards of military readiness.
During his second tour in Korea, he shares befriending several South Korean civilians. Through these newly forged relationships he witnessed traditional burials and dined on octopus with the locals. In the final days of the Korean War in July 1953, Clark remembers relying on civilian assistance at the DMZ to locate the enemy during the ceasefire.



Allen E. Torgerson

Feelings Towards Being Drafted

Allen Torgerson describes his feelings towards being drafted. He shares that he felt he should do his duty and believes that everyone should serve in some form or fashion such as through armed service, community service, and/or programs similar to the Peace Corps. Allen Torgerson adds that while he would prefer not to fight again, he would not trade money for his previous experience. He expresses his thankfulness that he survived.



Duties as First Sergeant

Allen Torgerson describes there being short of officers during his time in South Korea. He shares that the shortage of commanding offers led to the handing down of duties to those below the usual rankings. He recounts that these duties pertained to morning wakeup calls and sorting the sick and injured.



Knowing What You Are Fighting For

Allen Torgerson describes fighting alongside KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and ROK (Republic of Korea) soldiers. He explains that while there was a language barrier, the KATUSA and ROK soldiers knew enough English among themselves to communicate with Americans. He emphasizes that both groups showed pride in their country and knew what they were fighting for during the war. He adds that South Koreans show appreciation for what America did for them.



Alves James “AJ” Key

The United States Staying in Korea

Alves James "AJ" Key gives his opinion on why it was important for the United States to stay in Korea after the war. He explains why it has been helpful for the Korean economy. He also states that the presence of the United States has been positively influential in China's political relationship with the world.



Alvin A. Gould

Songs from Korea

Alvin Gould, a professional accordion player, plays songs that he played for troops during the Korean War while on tour with the 10th Special Services Company.



Alvin Jurrens

The Legacy is Freedom

Alvin Jurrens expresses that freedom is a Korean War legacy. He shares it is an honor to have served, and it is worth the pain he endured. He states that it is simply something you do for somebody.



Amare Worku

Italian Occupation of Ethiopia

Amare Worku recalls the failed Italian occupation of Ethiopia just prior to the Korean War. He explains how Italy tried for six years to occupy the country but could not so they finally withdrew. He remembers the feelings associated with being occupied.



Amitava Banerjee

Biography of His Father

Amitava Banerjee shares about his father Asoke's background and experience. His father was a footballer and was selected to play on the Indian team for the 1948 Olympics; however, he declined to go since it was his last year in medical school. After finishing school, he was commissioned in 1948. He joined the 60th Para Field Ambulance Unit as a Lieutenant in 1949. He served in Korea from November 1950 to June 1953. He was awarded many medals and later became a pathologist. He had 38 years of service and passed away at age 92 in 2018.



Photos and Awards

Amitava Banerjee shows a picture of him and his father, Asoke, while they served in the Indian Army together. They served together for three years. He speaks of his father's awards and shares a citation. He discusses the status of his father's pictures.



Andrew Greenwell

Meeting Marilyn Monroe

Andrew Greenwell describes meeting Marilyn Monroe at a USO (United Service Organizations) show while in Korea. He recounts making his way up towards the stage for the performance and positioning himself to obtain her autograph. He recalls persuading her to sign his book not once but twice.



Andrew Lanza

Police Action or War?

Andrew Lanza engages in a debate about President Truman's characterization of the Korean War as a police action, considering how American foreign policy of containment granted Truman leverage to engage in this conflict. He shares his strong belief that it should be classified as a war. As he was still serving in Korea when the armistice was reached, he recalls having mixed feelings about the event.



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Revisiting South Korea

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair shares his experience revisiting South Korea in 2009. He emphasizes that he never thought South Korea could pull itself up by its bootstraps in such as short time frame. He recounts how appreciative the South Koreans were during his revisit.



Angad Singh

Modern Korea

Angad Singh reflects on his recent trip back to Korea along with the Korean Veterans Association. He shares how he was well-received by the Korean people and recalls his amazement of the Incheon airport. He remembers seeing a sixteen-lane highway, which was impressive to him considering there were few functioning roads there after the war. He reflects on the improvement and progress made in Korea.



Mandeep Singh, Grandson of Angad Singh

Mandeep Singh, the grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Angad Singh, joins the interview. He was born on February 11, 1992. He shares his reflections on his grandfather's service in Korea and explains that he was able to join his grandfather on a return to Korea trip in 2009. He recalls attending the United Nations Peace Camp run by the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs of the Republic of Korea.



Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez

Obligatory Service / Servicio Obligatorio

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on the mandatory service of Puerto Ricans. He adds that he was one of four Puerto Ricans assigned to his company and they were soon joined by a demoted sergeant. He explains that this sergeant murdered his wife and committed suicide upon returning to Puerto Rico.

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez comparte sus pensamientos sobre el servicio militar obligatorio de los puertorriqueños. Cuenta que fue uno de los cuatro puertorriqueños asignados a su compañía y pronto se les unió un sargento degradado. Explica que este sargento asesinó a su esposa y se suicidó al regresar a Puerto Rico.



Anil Malhotra

Background on Brigadier Talk Raj Malhotra

Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra was born on February 26, 1925, in what is now part of Pakistan. After his early schooling, he moved to India to continue his education. The Brigadier's father was also in the Indian military, so it was a natural path for him to go as well. He was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the army in December 1946. He served in Korea from 1953 to 1954 and later moved his family to Australia in 1956.



The Stories His Father Told Him

Anil Malhotra reflects on the stories his father, Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra, told him about his experience in Korea. On November 19, 1950, the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit of India moved in to Korea. It was the time when the Chinese army put in a massive counter-attack. His unit was ordered to evacuate because of the Chinese attack. The unit became known as the Bucket Brigade because they carried buckets of water from the nearby river to a steam engine to get it working once again. The steam engine hauled all medical equipment away from the conflict zone and was not lost to the war. The steam engine carried all of the medical equipment to Seoul, across the Han river, just in time because the communists blew up the bridge right after. He expands on other stories about the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit. The goal of the unit was to save as many lives as possible.



This Father's Experience in the Custodian Force

Anil Malhotra talks about his father's (Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra) experience in the Custodian Force from 1953 to 1954. This was when Syngman Rhee was the Republic of Korea (ROK) President. The five infantry battalions that made up the Custodian Force were called the CFI, the Custodian Force of India. He reflects on how much South Korea has improved since the war.



What Would You Say To Your Father?

Anil Malhotra thanks his father, Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra. He is grateful for his father sharing all about his experience in Korea. He is hopeful that the knowledge will be passed along to future generations.



Aragaw Mselu

Ethiopians in Battle

Aragaw Mselu describes fighting conditions. Chinese spies were a constant threat. For example, they would disguise themselves with leaves and move slowly. Also, when attacking a battle the soldiers affixed bayonets for close combat fighting. Enemies were not spared. The Ethiopians were unable to take one hill. However, they were not overrun.



Military Training and a Fight

Aragaw Mselu describes the military training. For example, there were many trainings for the soldiers, attack, defense, hunting spies, and searching for mines. In addition, soldiers were to respect other soldiers. However, Aragaw Mselu describes how he fought with other soldier. Subsequently, this caused him to end up in military prison for ninety days.



Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Remembering a Hero

Arden Rowley shared how difficult the cold was during the war, causing many to freeze to death. He shares an account of an American soldier who came across a frozen soldier. Arden Rowley shares this story as a way to remember and honor the 36,000 soldiers that passed away.



Homecoming for a Prisoner of War

Arden Rowley remembers the difficulty in signing an armistice. He describes his repatriation and his return to Arizona after being a POW for 33 months in the Korean War. He also shares what it was like to adjust to life back in the United States.



Aristides Simoes

Warfare Technology in Modern Applications

Aristides Simoes describes how the electronics he managed during the war had a lasting effect on South Korea's economy today. U.S. Military introduced wireless radar, microwave radar, and other systems. These have formed the base for many strong South Korean technological wireless companies such as Samsung and LG.



Aristofanis Androulakis

Greek Pride

Aristofanis Androulakis proudly discusses the contributions of Greek soldiers in the Korean War. He vividly recalls his experiences during a hill battle and reflects on the loss of comrades during the conflict.



From Ruins

Aristofanis Androulakis remembers the ruins and destruction he saw in Korea during the 1950s. Returning to Korea in 2007 filled him with pride as he shares the dramatic transformation he witnessed. The country's development amazed him, making it hard to believe it was the same place he had seen decades earlier.



Helping the Children

Aristofanis Androulakis discusses the tragedies of war, focusing on how he tried to help children as much as possible. Many struggled for food and would beg, a situation he found heartbreaking. He shares the pride he felt as a result of his efforts to assist the children.



Arthur Alsop

Basic Training at Waiouru

Arthur Alsop describes his basic training experience in Waiouru, New Zealand. He remembers that basic training was for six weeks and being sent to core training for twelve weeks. He shares how it was during this time that he learned about driving trucks and auto mechanics.



Arthur Gentry

"Little" Battle at Pusan Perimeter

Arthur Gentry recalls participating in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter, where North Korean forces had seized control. Ordered to dig in amid heavy mortar fire, his commander was injured during the intense engagement. For two days, they reinforced the front line, aiding the army's efforts to stabilize the situation. This swift involvement upon their arrival in Korea exemplifies the immediate and intense nature of combat for some troops.



War Torn: 1950 Heungnam Evacuation

Arthur Gentry describes an emotional experience during the evacuation from Hamheung, where he and his fellow Marines joined 100,000 North Korean refugees. As the reality of war sank in, the sight of ships in the harbor brought relief to both the troops and the refugees. Gentry vividly recalls the orderly lines of his company amidst the numerous ships, and the Marines singing hymns as they marched forward.



Legacy of the Korean War

Arthur Gentry credits the Marines for securing victory at the Chosin Reservoir, believing their efforts were pivotal. The battle resulted in high casualties, with 3,600 U.S. soldiers killed in action and another 6,000 suffering from frostbite. Reflecting on the Korean War, often referred to as the "Forgotten War," Gentry asserts it was the last conflict where the U.S. achieved significant accomplishments. He emphasizes that the Marines' steadfast defense and the U.S.'s subsequent support for South Korea were crucial in fostering its economic and democratic growth.



Arthur H. Hazeldine

Impressions of the Korean People

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes his encounters with Korean people while aboard the New Zealand Frigate HMNZS Taupo. Further, he shares his admiration for the youth who fought for their country. He recalls one occasion of rescuing fishermen and returning them to their village.



Arthur Hernandez

By Ship to Japan

Arthur Hernandez reflects on the moment he first laid eyes on the ship in San Francisco that was to transport his unit to Yokohama, Japan. He remembers three days of bad weather at sea, which caused most of the passengers to fall ill. Upon arriving at a base in Japan, he recalls how he and just one other soldier were called out of line among three thousand men. He shares how an officer asked them if they could type, and since he could, he was selected. He mentions encountering extremely cold weather for the first time during that period.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

Makes You Appreciate What You Have

Arthur Sorgatz felt his experience in Korean made him appreciate what he has. He believed Koreans appreciate Korean and US soldiers more than citizens of the United States. He felt his time in Korea was a great experience. He wished the draft was back to require young adults to experience discipline because he feels that it has been lost.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Engaging the Chinese

Asefa Werku Kassa describes an engagement with the Chinese that left a deep scar on his forearm. He was stationed along the frontlines and frequent encounters with Chinese infantry. On one occasion a Chinese soldier gave him a deep gash before another Ethiopian soldier came to his aid. Asefa Werku Kassa eventually shot and killed the Chinese soldier. Also, Ethiopian soldiers never surrendered due to instructions. This was for fear of what the Ethiopian military would do to their families.



Korea, like my Baby

Asefa Werku Kassa describes how Korea is like his baby. He sacrificed his blood for the freedom of South Korea. He describes how he would still fight for South Korea. Asefa Werku Kassa wants to revisit to see what his sacrifices look like seventy years later.



Battle Experience

Asefa Werku Kassa describes his service in Korea. He cannot remember the exact locations of service due to moving around. The mountains and terrain stick out more than anything. Also, he shares an image of his scar from the Chinese military encounter. He also describes how he was in charge of a unit. He would constantly move them from danger, much to the chagrin of his commanders.



Asfaw Teklemariam Habteyes

Inspiration for Serving

Asfaw Habteyes describes his three motivations for serving in the armed forces. Number one, he wished to serve as his father had. He was also very impressed by the returning Korean veterans and the reception they received. Lastly, he felt for the plight of Koreans as he grew up knowing what it was like to live under occupation.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Danger in Korea

Assefa Demissie Belete described the danger of Korea. For instance, he described going on patrol at night and facing the Chinese. But, he explained the soldiers did not have fear. Ethiopian soldiers were following orders. He detailed one incident of a fellow soldier being hit by a heavy bomb. The other soldiers never found his body.



Bravery through Difficulties

Assefa Demissie Belete described working with the 7th Division of the US military in the Korean War. Difficulties that the soldiers encountered was the snow and cold. Also, there were many snakes that were always following them. Overall, all of the troops fighting in Korea were very brave. When the troops came home to Ethiopia people received them nicely.



Never Forget

Assefa Demissie Belete described his excitement for the transformation of Korea. His son even moved to Korea and works there. He felt Korea and Ethiopia are brothers. Ethiopia helped Korea, now Korea helps Ethiopia. He wanted Korea to continue to help Ethiopia. He believed Korea would not forget Ethiopian sacrifices.



Augusto S. Flores

Augusto Flores Is Proud of His Service in Korea

Augusto Flores is proud to have fought the enemies of South Korea to preserve democracy. He is amazed at the economic boom South Korea has achieved. He was especially proud when the South Korean president came to the Philippines to thank the Filipinos for their service, knowing his service contributed in a small way to Korean success.



Augusto Flores Appreciates South Korea's Assistance to the Philippines

Augusto Flores appreciates South Korean aid to the Philippines. For example, South Korea donated two ships to the Philippines. He realizes South Korea is grateful and continues to acknowledge the sacrifices others have made to preserve their freedom. He believes there will be a lost lasting relationship between the two countries.



Austin Timmins

Korea: Yesterday to Today

Austin Timmins compared his observations from visiting Korea in 1998 to what he witnessed during the Korean War. He also explained how impressed he was with Korea's development. He had knowledge of South Korea's development, but what he witnessed far exceeded his expectations.



Ayhan Karabulut

Some Nights It Comes in My Dreams

Ayhan Karabulut explained how he cannot forget the memories of the men he served with who lost their lives. He recalled "some nights it comes in my dreams." He also described how he feared the sound of planes overhead after returning home. He is impressed with the development of South Korea. He did have a special message for the Republic of Korea, "May Allah give them long life" and hoped both Koreas will reunite.



Basilio MaCalino

Joining the Marine Corps

Basilio MaCalino didn't graduate high school and due to his bad choices, he had to join the military.
He enlisted Feb. 12, 1953 for the Marine Corps and was sent to San Diego, CA for his bootcamp training. Right after training, he was sent to Korea. His specialty was a supplier for the military.



Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros

Legacy of the War and Korean Progress

Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros describes the legacy of the Korean War in Ethiopia. The war, comparable to many nations is underrepresented. He attributes this to the greater context of the war on communism. Also, Korea was destroyed for many years following the war and could not raise awareness for the war.



Belay Bekele

Protecting a Country Under Attack

Belay Bekele recounts the reasoning behind Ethiopian forces going to Korea. He recalls the promise Emperor Haile Selassie made to the United Nations to protect nations being attacked. He describes the suffering of the people and how they would eat food scraps from the soldiers.



Belisario Flores

Awards Received

Belisario Flores discusses his Bronze Star Medal and other awards. He explains each briefly and showcases them.



Economy in Korea Today and Closing Thoughts

Belisario Flores says the time he spent in the war and the tremendous success of Korea today gives him great satisfaction. He feels he played a "little bitty" part in the recovery of South Korea. He is very proud and wants young people to know that freedom is not free. He emphasizes one has to fight and stand up for what he/she believes in.



Ben Schrader Jr.

We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembers before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembers while cooking C-rations they would eat the raw onions and potatoes uncooked to add flavor. He notes the Koreans would have double rations of two handfuls of rice with fish. He explains the Koreans were so thankful for the war assistance they would offer to share their rations with American soldiers.



Closure to Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believes that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the with bombs. He supports reunification between North and South Korea because he went back to Korea for a revisit and saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benjamin Allen

Surviving Winter in Korea

Benjamin Allen recounts the most difficult part of the entire war, the winter. He speaks about the gear he and other soldier had been issued which proved completely incompatible with the severe weather conditions. He jokingly recalls the extreme measure he might have been willing to go to in order to get his hands on a coat. He describes the severity of the frostbite he developed that impacted his health well beyond his time in Korea.



Korea was War, Not a Police Action

Benjamin Allen remembers returning back to the United States and attempting to join a local VFW only to be told the Korean War was a police action, not a war. He shares how this official terminology kept him out of the VFW, but how he quickly became a member of the American Legion. He later speaks of an encounter with a Vietnam Veteran whom he had to educate about the Korean War.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

Classified as a 4A

Benjamin Arriola describes his reasoning for not joining the military. He shares that he was the only survivor in his family helping his mother at the time, and the registrant classified him as a 4A, officially a deferment, because of the lack of men in his family. He added that due to this, he did not have to report unless needed.



Medals after MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes the medals his brother, Fernando Arriola, received after being declared MIA and Presumed Dead in the Korean War. He shares that his brother received the Purple Heart, Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. He displays several certificates sent by officials in South Korea as well.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Bernard Brownstein

Ingenuity of the Korean People

Bernard Brownstein shares his memories of Seoul and its disheveled state. He marvels at the ingenuity of the South Korean people as he recounts how they constructed their homes and carried out everyday tasks. He adds that the automatic internal ingenuity of the Korean people led them from where they were to where they are now.



Bernard Hoganson

Telling Stories and the Bronze Star

Bernard Hoganson remarks he rarely shares stories from his service in Korea with his grandchildren. He explains that the memories are quite personal and sometimes difficult to recount. Despite the challenges these memories bring, he does recall the circumstances that led to him earning the Bronze Star.



Fire Direction Center and Night Attack

Bernard Hoganson explains his duties and delves into the functions and significance of the Fire Direction Center in the war effort. He vividly recounts his involvement in repelling an enemy attack on a military base, highlighting the intensity of the combat situation and the strategic importance of his role.



Bernard Smith

What Adjective Would You Chose to Describe Korea during the war?

Bernard Smith described Korea as if the conditions and people during the war went "back in time." He said he could equate what he saw to living the harsh life in rural America where people had next to nothing, but were still happy. He described children would pull empty Hershey boxes with a string as if it was a toy truck and were so content.



Witnessing Seoul

Bernard Smith's encounter with Seoul when they arrived was a devastated and torn apart city. An example is a governmental business that had its windows blown out and walls collapsed, but what parts were still standing and areas safe enough to work, the government continued to work there. The area where Bernard Smith was stationed appeared to be untouched.



Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago

Unprepared for War / Sin Preparación Para la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explains why he was unprepared for combat. He states that as a member of the reserves, he was sent to Korea without basic training. He remembers how his captain, a West Point graduate, requested he not be a forward observer as he was not trained as a soldier.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explica por qué no estaba preparado para el combate. Afirma que, como miembro de las reservas, fue enviado a Corea sin el entrenamiento básico. Recuerda que su capitán, un graduado de West Point, pidió que no fuera un observador avanzado ya que no fue entrenado como soldado.



Bernhard Paus

Return to Korea

Lucie Paus Falck gives her unique perspective of Korea having worked a year as an intern of sorts with her father in Seoul in 1958 and then returning on three occasions in 2001, 2008, and 2010. In 1958, she describes the country as war-torn and remembers shacks assembled from all kinds of building materials. She marvels upon her return in 2001 about the evolution of Seoul and comments on the growth of traffic! She is particularly proud of Norwegians for their work with Korea including the adoption of over 6000 Korean orphans.



Betty Jane Beck

Joining the Navy

Betty Beck explains she wanted a career related to aviation and saw the U.S. Navy’s Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, or WAVES, as an opportunity to live her dream. She recalls everything happening quickly as she joined the Navy on a Wednesday and was shipped out by that Friday. She speaks about the entrance requirements for women for the WAVES, all of which she found easy. She recalls how the entire process only took a couple of days and how she was assigned to aviation. She remembers how, at that time, women were very limited in the jobs they could do, but the limitations eventually changed.



Women in the Service

Betty Beck reflects on women in the service and remembers civilians did not understand the role women played. She explains that her family was supportive of her service, including a brother-in-law in the U.S. Navy and another in the Maritime service. She shares her father had to sign for her to join the U.S. Navy as she was not yet twenty years old. She admits that her brother-in-laws talked him into signing the form. She explains how he father wanted her to remain in the military when she decided to leave because he felt she was living a good life.



Beverly Lawrence Dunjill

Training at Tuskegee

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill discusses the advanced aviation training he received at Tuskegee. He fondly remembers his training and the excitement of flying a more powerful aircraft than he had previously experienced. He recollects how, as the training progressed, pilots were given the opportunity to fly combat planes such as the P-40 and the B-25.



Reenlistment and Training

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill discusses his experience rejoining the military after integration in 1949. He explains the details of his advanced flight training at Williams Air Force Base in Arizona. He describes how he received training in T-33 jets before moving on to flying solo in the F-80.



A Typical Combat Mission in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill recounts a typical day on a combat mission in Korea. He offers an overview of a pilot's morning routine. He illustrates how the flight leader is responsible for guiding and coordinating the flight while the wingman supports and protects the leader. He emphasizes the importance of communication and teamwork in ensuring the success of the mission and the safety of all team members.



Witnessing a MIG Shot Down in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill shares he witnessed the shooting down of his first MIG while flying over the northern region of the Yalu River. He recounts how the pattern on the nose of the MIG indicated the skill level of the pilot. He recalls that the first plane he saw being shot down was a "Blue Nose," which referred to a less experienced enemy pilot.



One Hundredth Combat Mission in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill discusses his one hundredth combat mission in Korea. He explains how, during the mission, he worked as a radio relay operator between planes flying in North Korea and the bases in the South. He explains his primary objective was to fly over Choto Island. He remembers how, at the end of the mission, he found an enemy truck and fired at it. He recalls how he narrowly missed parts of the exploding truck.



Tuskegee Airmen Receiving the Congressional Gold Medal

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill expresses his pride in seeing the Tuskegee Airmen receive the Congressional Gold Medal despite the passing of sixty years. He highlights the pivotal role he and his fellow Tuskegee Airmen played in breaking down barriers for integration in the military and desegregation in the United States. He shares his thoughts on the country's progress over the years.



Bezuneh Mengestu

What Makes Ethiopian Soldiers Different?

Bezuneh Mengestu describes what he believes make an Ethiopian soldier unlike others who fought in Korea. He discusses the respect and reverence they had for their emperor who sent them with the command to "kill or be killed". They were taught to never surrender and never leave any man behind.



Bill Hall

Pilot Shortage in Early Days

Bill Hall recalls being stationed at El Toro, California, when the North Koreans invaded the South. He explains the pilot shortage the Marine Corps had aboard his aircraft carrier and how this challenge was met by making use of Aviation Pilots (APs), many of whom had served during World War II. He remembers how the first member of his squadron who was killed during the war had borrowed part of his equipment and his flight charts.



Aviation Combat

Bill Hall speaks about "getting" an enemy platoon with a napalm bomb from his aircraft. He explains the aircraft setup of weapons and fuel that the carrier aircraft used against the enemy. He recalls the story of one of the captains of his unit who shot down and later rescued.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



Billy J. Scott

The Friendship of Two Strangers

Billy Scott describes his friendship with a KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) named Pyon during his time in Korea. He recounts the opportunity Pyon was given to pay a visit to his family he had not seen in roughly a year's time. He shares that American soldiers gathered food, clothing, blankets, and money and gifted them to Pyon to secure his family's safety. He adds that he will never forget him.



Bjorn Lind

Return to Korea 60 Years Later

Bjorn Lind returned to Korea in 2014 after 60 years away having left service in 1954. He was surprised and impressed upon his return to Seoul. When he left in 1954, he remembers not being sure if South Korea would ever survive. He recounts how used X-rays would become windows in homes. Bjorn Lind is proud of how South Korea grew from a poor agricultural nation. He is impressed with their improvements and also respects how they treat veterans like him to this day.



Better than the Swedes

Bjorn Lind describes how patients moved from the aid stations at the front lines, to his NORMASH unit, and then to evacuation hospitals further south to recover. He discusses death rates at the front lines being at around 4% compared to his unit's 1% rate. Bjorn Lind talks about a group of Swedes who visited from their hospital located in Busan. With pride, he pokes fun at how his unit's accomplishments compared to those of Norway's national rival Sweden.



Bob Couch

Recollections of Korea and the War's Legacy

Bob Couch mentions his wound again and shares he was sent back to the States due to it not healing properly. He recalls arriving home on a Friday and returning to work on Monday. He offers his account of the war's legacy and states that he views all Korean veterans as heroes. He explains that he was fortunate compared to other Korean War soldiers and admits that he still has a hard time believing all he and others went through during the war.



Bob Courtmache

Russian Submarine Off the Coast of Maine

Bob Courtmache reflects on his time at the ​​Cartwright Long Range Radar Site. While stationed in Canada, he notes the work at Cartwright was important for protecting our country. He recalls the radar station spotted a Russian submarine off the coast of Maine in 1957. He shares how the Russian submarine left the region without any incident and that they closely monitored the movement of the submarine.



Life at Cartwright Long Range Radar Site

Bob Courtmache recalls his time at the Cartwright Long Range Radar Site in Labrador, Canada favorably. He notes he enjoyed the work and shares some of the recreational activities that he enjoyed. He expresses pride in their work to protect the United States.



Bob Imose

But the Korean People Never Forgot

Bob Mitsuo Imose, following two return trips to South Korea, marvels at what the country has become. He shares his amazement at how the South Korean industry blossomed in such a short time. Although the Korean War is often called the "Forgotten War", he remembers an encounter with a little girl on his return trip in 2018 that showed that the Korean people never forgot.



Bob Near

You're In It For Life

Bob Near describes the role of Canadian forces during the Korean War. He explains that Second Battalions went overseas to assist in the war efforts. He expounds that once a Canadian is in the military, he/she is always considered a member through honor.



Hill 187 Competition

Bob Near describes the yearly competition in Canada commemorating the capture of Hill 187. Royal Canadian soldiers compete against each other in their platoons. The event celebrates the capture of a Chinese Burp Gun.



Our Guys Did A Great Job

Bob Near describes the importance of Canada's contribution to the Korean War. He describes the time period including the Berlin Wall and the march of Communism. He explains that Canadians were willing to give their lives for the defense of freedom and democracy.



Bob Wickman

You Do Things for Other People

Bob Wichman offers his own advice to the young people of today. He believes that one needs to do things for others. He reflects on how after the Korean War and at the start of the Vietnam War the world experienced a generation of takers. He expresses hope that the new generations have become givers again.



Bradley J. Strait

Reasons for Enlisting

Bradley Strait discusses reasons why he enlisted. He explains he was a young boy when the attack on Pearl Harbor took place and that he was very impressionable at the time. He shares he was too young to participate in the war, but he was not too young to be impressed by it and would later enlist to serve during the Korean War. He recounts everyone contributing to the war effort during WWII but shares that there was a different mindset during the Korean War on the home front.



Destroyers during the War

Bradley Strait explains the difference between a battleship and destroyer. He discusses being stationed on the USS Joseph P. Kennedy Destroyer and shares that one of its chief functions was anti submarine warfare. He states that destroyers were used for shore bombardment at Wonsan Harbor and Incheon during the war.



Animosity towards the North Korean Leadership

Bradley Strait shares the level of animosity he feels towards the leadership in North Korea. He weighs in on the benefits of reunification and suggests that South Korea is a good model of democracy. He highlights the economic gains South Korean has made as well.



Advice for a Different Era

Bradley Strait offers some advice on military service based on his experience. He promotes the Navy as he feels it prepared him in many ways from life lessons centering on teamwork to offering him benefits after service. He shares that he feels he received a better net return having gone the route he did compared to others he knew.



Brian Kanof

Operation Full Eagle

Brian Kanof qualified as a Green Beret in November 1985. He notes his second deployment to Korea was to train Korean Special Operations Forces in a mountainous area south of Seoul. In addition to details on this training opportunity, he shares how his unit, largely from the South Texas area, was able to show the Koreans they could handle the hot and spicy food that came their way.



Bruce Ackerman

The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



North Korean Infiltration

The North Koreans infiltrated the Marine Corps by scouting out artillery positions. Bruce Ackerman noted that the artillery was a very important tool used during the Korean War. There was more artillery fired in the Korean War than in WWII.



Bruce R. Woodward

Wonsan Airbase

Bruce Woodward speaks about the missions pilots flew out of Wonsan Air Base in support of the United Nations ground forces. He proudly recalls having never lost a pilot from his base. He describes the cold winter and how he was tasked with keeping the F4U Corsairs warm at night so they would be ready to fly their missions come morning.



Bruce W. Diggle

Picture Time

Bruce Diggle shares photos he took while in Korea. He shows photos of his travels from Pusan to Seoul through the countryside. His photos show the low level of development of Pusan and the destruction of bridges along with the city of Seoul itself.



Hill 355 and the "Apostles"

Bruce Diggle shows the famous Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. The British Commonwealth forces fought for possession of Hill 355 during the series of battles that corresponded to the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge to the east. The North Koreans were positioned on three smaller hills that the Kiwis nicknamed the Apostles - Matthew, Luke, and John. He took pictures of the North Korean positions during a truce.



Departure and Revisit

Bruce Diggle left Korea in 1954 by ship and went to London. In London, he met up with his soon-to-be wife who left for London when he left for Korea. They were married upon his arrival in London. He returned to Korea with a revisit program offered to New Zealand veterans. He is very appreciative of South Korea's efforts to bring veterans back and is impressed by the development of South Korea since the war.



Burnie S. Jarvis

Impact of the Korean War

Burnie Jarvis shares he received the South Korean Peace Ambassador Meal from the South Korean government and recalls not considering himself much of a hero despite what the Korean government said. He believes that it was important for the United States to be involved in the war as a matter of protecting the South Korean people from being overrun by the North and to preserve freedom. He describes how he proudly served his country and shares that his military service taught him many things including an appreciation for his own country. He add that following the war he took advantage of the GI Bill and trained to become an aviation mechanic, the field which he worked in the remainder of his career.



Burt Cazden

G.I. Bill

Burt Cazden describes using the G.I. Bill to continue his education at the University of California. He provides a detailed breakdown of expenses during that time frame and comments on his path to becoming an optometrist. He shares that he was given the G.I. Bill for four years on the condition that he maintain a certain number of course units.



Thoughts on Modern Korea

Burt Cazden shares that he supported US intervention in Korea and agreed with President Truman on the matter. He states that the war was won due to South Korea obtaining its freedom. He offers his thoughts on the accomplishments of modern Korea and describes it as a marvelous country.



Calvin Karram

The Army taught me about Life

Because his unity constantly on the front lines, Calvin Karram explains that there was often no place to sleep even during the winter. Often they would sleep under trees or in foxholes and only sometimes were able to carry their sleeping bags with them. Despite this, he says he had no regrets about joining the army as it taught him a trade and about life.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Enlistment and Basic Training

Carl Jacobsen describes his path into service. He shares how he felt the need to do something constructive and decided to enlist in the U.S. Army. He details his basic training and recounts volunteering to represent his regiment as a mile runner, winning many of his meets. He recounts his decision to go airborne and attend jump school following basic.



Legacy of the Korean War

Carl Jacobsen shares his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War. He elaborates on his fascination of the progress South Korea has made since the war. He comments on the appreciation Koreans have towards the United States and other countries which provided aid.



Carl W. House

Destruction of Civilian Homes

After Carl House's unit left the Incheon landing site, they headed to Seoul. He said the first time he witnessed the capital, it was gone due to total destruction. When American tanks arrived, they would level the buildings to keep the North Koreans from using them. Carl House said they warned civilians to leave their homes before the soldiers destroyed them. However, recently, Carl House was was surprised at a doctor's office when he came across a magazine in the waiting room describing South Korea's accomplishments since the war.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As he was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke his arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When he made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the thirty-degree-below-zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen

Military Service Makes You a Man or Destroys You

Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen describes his belief that military service either makes a person a man or destroys him. He adds that it is up to him to decide. He shares that a soldier must obey, do what he is told, and do his best. He feels his service in the United States Army made him into a man.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Mora Zea shares his views on the legacy of the Korean War. He believes that all troops in the allied forces conserved liberty and demonstrated the ideals for all nations. He explains that while wars have negative consequences, Korea would not have the economy, peace, and stability it enjoys without the efforts of all that fought.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea comparte sus opiniones sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Él cree que todas las tropas de las fuerzas aliadas conservaron la libertad y demostraron los ideales para todas las naciones. Explica que, si bien las guerras tienen consecuencias negativas, Corea no tendría la economía, la paz y la estabilidad que disfruta sin los esfuerzos de todos los que lucharon.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Generaciones Futuras

Carlos Rivera-Rivera urges younger generations to defend the values of democracy. He states that even though war can be difficult, there is much to be learned from it. He concludes by stating that evil individuals who do not follow the rule of law need to be dealt with.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera les ruega a las generaciones más jóvenes que defiendan a los valores de la democracia. Afirma que, aunque la guerra puede ser difícil, hay mucho que aprender de ella. Concluye afirmando que es necesario lidiar con los lideres que no hacen bien en el mundo.



Carroll F. Reusch

The Job of a Medic

Carroll F. Reusch remembers his division getting hit pretty hard on July 16, 1953. He explains how men were evacuated by chopper and the items he carried in his aid bag. He notes that he received the Bronze Star for reasons he does not know since he felt he was simply doing his job.



Amazed by Progress

Carroll F. Reusch shares he took part in a revisit program in 2010 along with other Korean War veterans from the United States, Greece, Australia, Canada, and Ethiopia. He recollects Seoul, at that time, being the most beautiful city he had ever seen. He describes the city and notes that he had no idea things would shape up so quickly when he left Korea in 1954.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker describes the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during an especially cold winter. He describes poor housing because so many refugees were crammed in the Busan Perimeter. He explains how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Operating Room Conditions

Cecelia Sulkowski describes protocols and procedures used in the operating rooms in the MASH hospitals. She recalls how they would treat the patients in the hospital, and then the patients would be evacuated to Japan. She discusses the superiority of Army medical technique compared to civilian medical life. She notes how Army nurses could perform many more procedures than civilian nurses could at this time, as well as write orders and prescribe some types of medication.



Cevdet Sidal

Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal described conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One master sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. The only defense from aircraft attacks was to turn sideways to make your body a smaller target. He turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face while shaving.



Charles Blum

Kinda Disappointed with My Own People

Charles Blum explains what the Korean War meant to him. He describes the pain from his wounds with every step he takes. He also elaborates on his thoughts towards South Korea appreciating their freedom while he feels that America may take it for granted.



You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Thoughts of an Airman: Get the Hell Out Of There!

Charles Buckley's initial thoughts when he reflects on his experience during the war was to "get the hell out of there." He remembers his contribution to the country by helping various people, specifically the orphaned children. Charles Buckley would order from the Sears and Roebuck catalog and he would look forward to seeing the smiles on the children's faces. He also recalled the living conditions of all of the children and the civilians were able to obtain supplies they needed to rebuild their own country.



The Korean People Are Different Than Other People Around the World

Charles Buckley traveled all over the world and he said the people of Korea are so different in such a positive way. He feels their conduct, willingness to help themselves, and loyal to their country is what sets them apart from other countries. Charles Buckley also said the Koreans were so loyal to the US soldiers and respectful to those who died for their cause during the Korean War. They are the only people that continue to thank US soldiers.



Charles Bull

Training Can Be a Huge Pain in the Neck!

Charles Bull was shocked when he joined the Navy. It was difficult to take care of himself by washing, ironing, cooking, and caring for other men. He also had to learn all seamanship training for tools and ships. During a training, he almost was hit in the head with a 14 point lead pipe.



The Hardest Time in My Life While Active in the Navy

Charles Bull was stationed on the HMS Kenya when he was given the most difficult job he's ever had in the Navy. He had to work in the pay office to hand write all the ledgers for 6 months writing all hours of the night. When he went into Portsmouth to refuel, Charles Bull and two other men caught up all the paperwork to be handed over to the sailors at that port.



HMS Kenya's Involvement in the Start of the Korean War: June 28, 1950

As one of the first British Naval ships to be docked in Sasebo, Japan, his ship was used as a jump-off ship that took Marines and Army troops into Korea right after the war began on June 28, 1950. Charles Bull was working on pay ledgers for every pay accounts for every sailor in his section for every payday. His job was to document pay and then make sure that the sailors had money in their pocket when they went ashore in Korea. The whole process of getting paid was very formal and Charles Bull gave a detailed description of the process of getting their well-earned money.



Fighting Along Side and Burying Allied Forces During the Korean War

While aboard the HMS Kenya, Charles Bull worked along side multiple naval allies including the Austrians, Canadians, Dutch, and Belgians. Sadly, bodies of soldiers would be found at sea, so his ship would take the deceased aboard until they were ready to provide a proper burial at sea. Charles Bull remembers the moving ceremonies that the British gave for fallen American soldiers during the sea burial.



Charles Carl Smith

The Greatest Respect

Charles Smith talks about his experience with ROK Army and KATUSA soldiers. The only Koreans he encountered during his deployment, he describes his feelings about their service and fortitude.



Charles Crow Flies High

13 Bravo

Charles Crow Flies High was section chief on a cannon crew. There were ten crew members in each crew, and they included a driver, chief, section chief, gunner, assistant gunner, loader, ammo track crew, and ammo team chief. He recalls one of the cannons having the ability to reach up to thirty miles away.



Entering Korea in 1993

Charles Crow Flies High was sent to Korea for his first deployment in November 1993. He flew into Kimpo Air Force Base, and then he was sent to Seoul to get finished setting up to protect South Korea. He recounts that they were "locked and stocked" at all times from that point forward. His job was to watch for Kim Jong Il and his North Korean troops to make sure that they did not take over Seoul.



Knowledge of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High did not know much about Korea before his deployment, except for the details about the Korean War. Since many of his relatives were in the military, he knew about the Korean War, and it made him really proud to protect the peninsula just like they did. For both deployments, Charles Crow Flies High stayed for fifteen months protecting a variety of areas along the DMZ.



United States and Republic of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High talks about why the relationship between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a good thing for both countries. He believes that Kim Jung Un is influenced by his father, but there is a lot of camaraderie between US troops and Korean civilians. The Korean culture has spread around the United States, and he feels that this is a very positive interaction.



Charles E. Gebhardt

"We Won that War"

Charles Gebhardt gives his thoughts about the legacy of the Korean War. He talks about his pride in the transformation of South Korea. He discusses that although he hasn't returned to Korea, he has kept up on the country's successes since the war.



Charles Earnest Berry

Integration in the US Army

Charles Earnest Berry discusses his first experience with integration. He recalls the Sergeant instructing the men in his unit to pick their bunks in an integrated fashion. He noticed that Black soldiers selected bunks on one side of the room, while the White soldiers chose bunks on the opposite side. He remembers the Sergeant then forcing the unit to integrate by instructing Black and White soldiers to certain bunks near each other.



Lessons Learned from the Korean War

Charles Earnest Berry offers an overview of how the Korean war affected his beliefs on mortality, on people, and on coming back to the United States. He recalls the challenges he faced upon returning home, despite having fought for his country. He shares how being denied the ability to sit where he wanted back home made him question the purpose of his service.



Charles Falugo, Jr.

What were living conditions like in South Korea?

After a twenty-two day trip from Seattle, Washington, Charles Falugo recalls being relieved that they finally landed in Pusan, South Korea. He recalls the poor living conditions he witnessed--all Korean houses were made of clay, the people used oxen to help them transport water, and they picked roots for food. He also recalls South Korean children taking his unit's leftovers home to feed their families. He felt very lucky relative to the South Koreans he encountered and feels immense pride for the advancements South Korea has made today.



Charles Fowler

South Korean Effort

Charles Fowler briefly describes how the South Koreans were basically fighting for their lives, freedom, and country. He emphasizes that South Korean soldiers fought just as hard as the United Nations soldiers and served on the front lines as well. He recalls verbal communication being a barrier at times due to a difference in languages but adds that soldiers found other means to communicate.



Life After Korea

Charles Fowler reflects on life after Korea, his time in the war, and the change it brought to his way of thinking. He shares he is more appreciative of life and is thankful to be an American. He states that history has proven democracy works and points to South Korea today as a perfect example, sharing that its success would have never happened under a communist type of government.



Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Charles Fowler emphasizes that Korean War veterans should be honored has other veterans have been. He shares that the Korean War should be characterized as an event that proves Communism does not work as it enslaves people and their freedom to act. He also adds that it will take a strong leader to bring both Koreas together in the future.



Charles Francis Jacks

Ready for More

Charles Jacks describes his enlistment in the United States Navy and basic training location. He shares that he was trained as a Hospital Corpsman and was assigned to St. Albans Veterans Hospital in Long Island, New York. He recalls growing tired of his duties there and explains that he asked to serve elsewhere. He remembers being told there were no ships open for a Corpsmen, but, alternatively, he was offered a position with the Fleet Marines. He accepted the offer, was sent to Camp Pendleton, and was later shipped to Korea aboard the USS Serpent.



Returning Home with POWs

Charles Jacks recalls his return home on the USS General Walker with the first group of released POWs. He shares how after the Armistice was signed in 1953 both sides exchanged Prisoners of War (POWs). He details the voyage back to the United States and arriving in California to fanfare and TV cameras ready to greet and capture footage of the POWs returning.



Charles Gaush

Psychological Warfare with Propaganda

Charles Gaush talks about his time in the US Army's physchological warfare unit. He describes creating, designing, photographing, and printing propaganda leaflets during the Korean War. The leaflets were printed in Russian, Korean, and Chinese to promote democratic values.



Charles Gregory Caldwell

From Peace Corps to Honorary Counsel

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares he served in the Peace Corps in Korea. He remembers the impact that the Peace Corps had on his life. He recalls how after serving three years in the Peace Corps in Korea, he was appointed and confirmed by both the U.S. government and the Korean government as Honorary Counsel for the Republic of Korea in Northern Oregon. He explains the duties of this position.



Life of a Peace Corps Teacher

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares he taught English to Korean boys at the Jeongeub Boys' Middle School in Jeongeub, Jeollabukdo. He details what a typical school day was like for him and how he went about instructing his students in English. He recalls, at one point, wondering exactly why he was teaching them English as he feared they would never use it again except for acceptance into high school.



Charles Hoak

Just Trying to Forget It

Charles Hoak describes his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War and the hope of North and South Korea reunification. He notes the significance of the Korean War as the United Nations stopped the advance of Communism on the Korean Peninsula. He discusses how some servicemen are hesitant to talk about their experiences because they just want to move on with life.



Charles Rangel

Korean Resilience

Charles Rangel identified the determination of the Korean people in the aftermath of the Korean war. The resilience and kindness of the Korean people is something that he will never forget. He even has pictures of his time in Korea inside of his office as a United States Representative.



The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Segregation in the Armed Forces

Although the military was desegregated in 1948, Charles Rangel still experienced segregation during his military career. The only thing that was integrated, were two units. Even when he returned to the United States after the war, Charles Rangel had segregated barracks back on the military base.



Charles Weeks

Opportunity

Charles Weeks describes how he is grateful he had the opportunity to serve in the United States military. Before this, he had a hard time finding work. Serving, gave him experience and allowed him not to be on welfare.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

"Outgunned and Outflanked"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the beginning of the Korean War. Stationed in Japan, he describes hearing the news of the North Korean invasion of South Korea and his unit's quick deployment to the war. He talks about being "outgunned and outflanked" by North Korean forces at Masan because of substandard equipment and supplies.



"The Fire Brigade"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the 25th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Fire Brigade." He describes his regiments makeup and how the unit was used during the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter.



Chester Coker

What Was the Point of War?

Chester Coker talks about how senseless he originally thought the war was. He reports being confused about his purpose and why the U.S. Army was there. He shares how he later understood the great value the war provided South Korea. He mentions stopping the spread of communism and shares he has returned to South Korea five times.



Chuck Lusardi

Learning of the Korean War Outbreak

Chuck Lusardi, on his way to basic training in Ft. Knox, KY, recalls reading the headlines in a newspaper stating the Korean War had started. He notes that at that point people did not really have a sense of the war just yet, but he could see the concern on his mother's face. He shares his time scheduled for twelve weeks at Ft. Knox was ultimately cut to eight weeks upon his arrival.



Training as Heavy Equipment Operators

Chuck Lusardi shares both he and his brother George were sent Ft. Belvoir, Virginia's Engineering Training Center and Engineering Research Center near Washington, D.C., following basic training. He explains he and his brother had an engineering background because of their time in the Michigan National Guard. He notes they had several options for training, but both chose heavy equipment operator.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clarence Jerke

Help from South Korean Soldiers and Civilians

Clarence Jerke recalls his experiences with KATUSA soldiers and South Korean civilians. He describes one particular South Korean soldier who was especially adept at laying communication lines. He talks about civilian boys who washed military uniforms for food or money.



Claude Charland

Share the Wealth

Claude Charland describes how the troops would share with everyone any goods/letters that were sent as part of a care package. He describes it as a party. He speaks about the camaraderie this experience created. He says this helped everyone feel less lonely.



Hockey During Reserve

Claude Charland remembers how he and other Canadian troops played ice hockey on the frozen Imjin River during January. He shares how the games were organized around teams from different regiments and were set up as a round-robin tournament. He shares how playing the national sport of his homeland allowed him to escape the reality of war for a little while.



Claudio De Felici

The Legacy of the Korean War and Italian Field Hospital #68

Claudio De Felici, author of the book La Guerra di Korea, 60 anti dopo, offers his opinion of the legacies of both the Korean War and the Italian Field Hospital #68. His thoughts are based on the countless interviews he did with Italian veterans, Italians who worked in the field hospital and over fifteen years of research on the topic of Italy's contribution to the war.

Note: The interviewee responds in Italian. English Translation begin 39:14.



Clayborne Lyles

Jubiliation at Sea

Clayborne Lyles participated in the Navy's ocean search and rescue efforts when there were US pilots that were shot down over the Pacific Ocean. He felt jubilation to be part of 22 pilot rescue missions, but he was sad when none of these missions were discussed in the newspapers. One mission that made him laugh, but it was still serious event was when a pilot was shot down and he was shot in the butt. Clayborne Lyles remembered how the sailors would give each other grief to lighten the mood of war.



Joining the Navy, Basic Training, and Traveling to Show Power

Clayborne Lyles joined the Navy as a 17 year old in order to move away from poverty in Arkansas in 1947. After attending 11 weeks of basic training and Machinist Maintenance (engineer) training, he was sent way on the USS Toledo to travel to a variety of ports across the world to demonstrate the US Navy's strength during the Cold War. He spent all of his time on the ship maintaining boiler operations while working on steam turbines, generators, pumps, air conditioning and refrigeration.



The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Friend or Foe?

Clayborne Lyles was part of General Quarters, "All arms, man your battle stations." The USS Toledo didn't realize that the incoming planes were US planes, so everyone was told to get ready to fight in the middle of the night. Thankfully, sailors used the Identifying Friend or Foe (IFF) gear before any shots were fired from the USS Toledo.



Clayton Burkholder

Knowledge of Korea

Clayton Burkholder was going to junior college and worked at a grocery store in 1951 when the Korean War stared. He read about the war in newspapers and heard it on the television. After volunteering, he didn't know anything about Korea, but he did know about Japan. He knew that there was a conflict that needed to be taken care of in Asia, but that was it.



The Forgotten War and Korea Today

Clayton Burkholder felt that people call the Korean War the "Forgotten War" because people didn't know what to do with a communist country. He thought that great things came out of the Korean War because of the fortitude of its civilians. United States veterans are proud for their service in the war which led to South Korea's freedom today. Clayton Burkholder is surprised to see the change from dirt and huts to paved roads when he looks at Google Maps.



Letter Writing to Family and Fighting Men of Michigan

Clayton Burkholder wrote letters home to his wife twice a week. In the letters, he wrote about the different propaganda posters that he made. He also made releases for US newspapers using sketches of pilots that he drew. These releases were used to publicize the war in the pilots' hometown.



Pilots

Clayton Burkholder slept in metal huts and buildings with a cafeteria to eat. Since he was in headquarter staff, he was in that office most of the day. Clayton Burkholder made charts as an illustrator technician. He proudly shared pictures that he took while in Korea.
Some pilots that were stationed in Suwon with Clayton Burkhodler later became well-known such as John Glenn and Captain McConnell.



Cletus S. Pollak

Useless Waste of Men

Cletus S. Pollak describes his feelings towards the Vietnam War after having served in the Korean War. He explains his feelings of ambivalence towards the war itself. He also includes his feelings that the war was a waste of men and resources.



Clifford Allen

Inside the Supply Ship

Clifford Allen describes his life aboard a supply ship as surprisingly very pleasant. He shares that quarters were quite clean, and the bunks were 4 beds high with roughly 80 men to a compartment. He adds that he had no complaints about the food aboard ship.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Clifford Allen shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is referred to as the forgotten war. He explains that he felt the United States had a duty to go and put up a defense against communist ideas. He also describes the legacy of the Korean War and the people who will never forget it.



Clifford L. Wilcox

I Was Not Near as Happy as I Thought I'd Be

Clifford Wilcox talks about feeling bittersweet leaving Korea in 1953. He enjoyed the purpose of his service as well as his fellow soldiers. It was hard for him to say goodbye to the soldiers he served with, waving farewell to them.



One of The Greatest Experiences

Clifford Wilcox talks about the remarkable contrast between the Korea he saw during the war and the Korea he saw and experienced while revisiting in 2010. When he first arrived, he saw extreme poverty and destruction. In 2010, his experience was first class, seeing South Korea's progress.



Clifford Townsend

Radar Operator Description

Clifford Townsend details the duties of a radar operator. He comments on the challenges of using old equipment and shares that the radar team sat as close to the front lines as possible. He shares that his full color vision worked to his advantage as a radar operator.



Living Conditions Near the Front Lines

Clifford Townsend recounts spending thirteen months on the front lines near the Imjingang River and the Iron Triangle. He describes the sleeping conditions, stating that he and other soldiers slept in tents during the summer and bunkers during the winter. He recalls eating in shifts and comments on the food offered.



Return Home and Forgotten War

Clifford Townsend recounts his return home following his service in the Korean War. He shares that soldiers were not warmly welcomed back. He vocalizes his opinion on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Clyde D. McKenrick

Half-Brothers, Meeting for the First Time in Korea

Clyde McKenrick tells the remarkable story of reconciliation of two soldiers in his unit. The two men were half-brothers that had never met until assigned to the same barracks in Korea. He talks about how their relationship went from an uneasy beginning and evolved to a close friendship.



Clyde Fruth

What it was Worth

Clyde Fruth talks about the gratitude of the Korean people that he experienced during his revisit in 2010. Every person he met in South Korea bowed down to him to thank him for his service. It was a very emotional experience for him.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



Radio Operators in the Korean War

Colin Carley shares that he worked alongside an Australian brigade when he patrolled near Panmunjeom in late 1950 through early 1951. As a radio operator for his New Zealand Battery Brigade, he recalls being scared of all the tracer bullets that would whiz by him. He remembers how he would feel sick when battles began because he never knew if he would be able to return home again.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Colin J. Hallett

Conditions of the Ship

Colin Hallett describes the living conditions on the ship. Crewman could not leave things around and would have to pay to retrieve possessions left out. He explains that crewmen were limited, worked during the day during one of the four watches and slept in hammocks.



Invitation onboard a Republic of Korean Ship

Colin Hallett describes pride in his Naval service. He attended a ceremony where he was able to go onto a contemporary Republic of Korea ship due to his military service. The Republic of Korea Navy Captain was a generous host and showed Colin Hallett around the ship, which made him feel proud of his Naval service.



Curtis Lewis

Basic Training and MOS Training in California

Curtis Lewis graduated high school in 1952 and jointed the Air Force right away. He attended basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. After earning high scores in the technology industry, he was sent to California to learn his military operational specialty. While in California, he was able to see many of his Army friends leave for Korea, but not all returned.



Travis Air Force Base During the Korean War

Curtis Lewis was not sent to the Korean War during his time in the military. He heard that the US Army didn't have enough guns and ammunition while fighting against the North Koreans. Many of the US regiments were run over by the North Koreans due to lack of weapons. He was stationed at Travis Air Force Base in California to perform maintenance and was paid 200 dollars a month and he earned his way up to Staff Sergeant.



Curtis Pilgrim

Teach Korea

Curtis Pilgrim makes his point as to why teaching the Korean War is so valuable to the next generation and that somehow it had been lost between the Second World War and Vietnam. He recalls coming home in uniform and the cab driver being unaware of the Korean War, though his fellow Americans were living and dying there. He stresses the fact that it was so much more than a police action and that it should never be forgotten.



Orphans, Mama-sans, and Katusa!

Curtis Pilgrim talks about the Korean people and how he came to care for them. From the shoe shine boys to the mama-sans, he remembers how he and fellow soldiers would sometimes give their last dime to help buy them necessities, especially the orphans. He recalls having great respect for the KATUSA that served alongside him.



Cyril Kubista

Active in Local Veteran Chapter

Cyril Kubista explains how Korean War veterans often felt when returning home from service. He describes being expected to "go home, shut up, and go to work" and they were not welcomed by World War II veterans. Because of these experiences, he discusses how some veterans formed their own local chapter so they could talk about the past and have a good time.



Dadi Wako

Revisiting Korea

Dadi Wako discusses revisiting South Korea in 2018. He describes his amazement at the many changes he saw. He recalls feeling especially proud of how veterans were treated.



Dale Koestler

Uneventful Most Days

Dale Koestler describes his days in the Navy as mostly uneventful, having remained stateside throughout the Korean War. He recalls one search and rescue in particular in which he participated where a crew was lost in a training accident. He reflects that he would have served his country wherever and in whatever capacity he was needed.



Dale Schlichting

Enlisting as a 17 Year Old

Dale Schlichting chose to join the Navy the day after he turned 17 years old. He prepared and studied for the Eddie Test for electronics with help from his favorite high school teacher. Dlae Schlichting chose the Navy since everyone in his neighborhood was active in this branch and he also wanted to follow after his relatives in the Navy.



Training, Training, and More Training!

Dale Schlichting didn't know that he could get a guarantee to go to ET (Electrical Training) School so that he could get into aviation by spending 8 weeks there. Then he went to mess cooking for 5 school. After that, he went 29 weeks Aviation Electrician Technician School and he wanted to be a tailgunner, but that job was closed.



Squadron 35

After 16 months of training, Dale Schlichting was sent to Florida to join Attack Squadron 35. The only propeller aircraft that was still being used in the Korean and Vietnam War was worked on by Dale and this made his so proud. He was supposed to be dismissed from the military two months early, but he wanted to stay with his squadron to travel the world. If was left behind with 13 of this squad mates because Squadron 35 wouldn't be back to their base by the time Dale Schlichting would have to leave.



Role of an Electronics Technician During Korean War

Dale Schlichting was an electronics technician during the Korean War with Attack Squadron 35. The AD (carried 22,000 pounds of supplies), Corsair, and P52 Army aircraft were his favorite planes to work on for the Army and Air Force. He had to crawl under the planes to work on and inside, and he loved it since it was very hot in the Florida heat on the tarmac.



Daniel J. Rickert

"It Was a Miracle"

Daniel Rickert revisited South Korea in 1998. He compares and contrasts his Korean experiences that were 50 years apart. He describes the rebuilding and modernization as "a miracle."



Regimental Combat Team

Daniel Rickert gives a description of a regimental combat team. He talks specifically about the 5th RCT. This was his battalion he was attached to.



Daniel Kawaiaea

I Had a Duty to Perform

Daniel Kawaiaea shares some of the lessons he learned as a Korean War soldier. He details the duties and expectations that were placed upon many of those who served. He notes that although he is experiencing some memory loss he will be compensated for the struggles that come his way as a result of serving and being injured in Korea.



Daniel M. Lopez

Strung to a Barbed Wire Fence

Daniel M. Lopez shares a memory of an American sergeant being captured by North Koreans. He recalls the sergeant being hit and strung to barbed wire. He remembers a captain calling in a Marine plane to destroy the body and remembers watching the scene unfold. He adds that memories like that stay with a person, but he expresses that he is not sorry he joined and is proud to have served.



Bridge Over Barbed Wire

Daniel M. Lopez details capturing an enemy soldier. He explains that the North Koreans would make a man-bridge over the barbed wire separating American and enemy troops in an effort to attack. He recounts capturing an enemy soldier scratched up from the barbed wire and requesting an interpreter to translate. He shares that the enemy soldier escaped and ran towards the South. He also adds that the interpreter ended up joining the U.S. Marine Corps.



David Carpenter

The Green Berets

David Carpenter participated in extreme exercises while in commando training. He recalls how if a trainee did not pass the test, he would be thrown out of the Marines. Training included cliff climbing, nine mile speed marches, a thirty mile trek with a seventy pound backpack, and crossing rivers on ropes. After surviving this training, they were awarded the Green Berets which signified that they had passed the All Arms Commando Course.



David Carsten Randby

Electrician for NORMASH

David Randby served as an electrician for NORMASH. Electricity was important for a field hospital. The electrical equipment was very rudimentary and required skill to keep running. He kept the generators running in times of great need.



Military Life

David Randby described conditions in Dongducheon. He provided details about helping with surgery at one point due to the many actions at the front. He described going on a trip from Dongducheon to Seoul and having to watch a video over how to act when out on leave.



Medals and President Moon Jae-in

David Randby described the medals he earned for his service in the Korean War. He had personally met with President Moon Jae-in. President Moon Jae-in spoke with the veterans and reminded them that the North Korean leader is a dictator and South Korea is a democracy because of their actions.



David Lopez

Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but he tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge and First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. He was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Nevarez

Impressions of the Korean People

David Nevarez describes his interactions and impressions of Korea. He expounds upon his appreciation of the food as well as the people. He draws comparisons between the Hispanic community and the South Korean people.



David Valley

Protecting General MacArthur

David Valley describes being part of a unit charged with protecting General MacArthur. He talks about how he was chosen and his duties in Japan where General MacArthur stayed.



Delcio Rivera Rosario

Injured at the Battle of Jackson Hill

Delcio Rivera Rosario received the Purple Heart for injury suffered during the Battle of Jackson Heights. He recalls the enemy throwing hand grenades in his vicinity which resulted in his injury. He describes despite being wounded in his heel running downhill to escape the enemy advance. He notes that while he still suffers pain from this injury, he does not regret his service.



Demetrios Arvanitis

Marching into Busan

Demetrios Arvanitis describes arriving in Korea in 1953 with the Greek Expeditionary Forces and his first impressions of the country. While marching into Busan, he recalls an interaction with an American colonel who reached out to the Greek Army Battalion Headquarters to praise his unit. He shares his appreciation for the perseverance the people of Korea exhibited and feels lucky to have participated in the campaign for their freedom.



The Fog Dissolved

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of the Chinese army, just days before the armistice, attempting to penetrate through the center of the UN lines. He recalls the fog creating more issues for the Chinese than anticipated. As the fog lifted, he comments on the heroism of his men, which led to the capture of fourteen Chinese soldiers and their commanding officer.



He Would Have Surrendered in 1950

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of an altercation he had while the Chinese soldiers were surrendering. He describes a wounded Chinese soldier turning an automatic rifle on him and his quick actions that led to disarming the soldier. Because of his interaction with the prisoner of war, he shares how the prisoner of war tried to give him a service medal and sent a letter to President Eisenhower praising Demetrios Arvanitis.



Dennis E. Hultgren

Concrete Outcomes of the Korean War

Dennis E. Hultgren speaks highly of Korea and of his respect for the country. He expresses that the Korean War should not be forgotten and that it was a successful war as opposed to others. He agrees that no other war since the Korean War has produced such concrete outcomes.



Most Difficult Aspect of Graveyard Service

Dennis E. Hultgren expresses that taking care of the dead was the most difficult aspect of his service during the war. He previously shares that his duty was to transport bodies, search them, collect their belongings, and document the findings for them to then be mailed home to the deceased soldiers' families. He recounts several deceased soldiers' wounds and one disrespectful incident carried out by a soldier underneath him.



Dennis Grogan

Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Dennis Kinney

One Hundred Percent Disabled

Dennis Kinney describes the list of disabilities he accrued while serving in the military. He explains that his first disabilities came from malaria and jungle rot in Guam. He then explains his accidents in cars and planes crashing while on missions.



Shaking Hands with the KGB

Dennis Kinney describes serving as support for the Secret Service for President Eisenhower in France. He explains that he was chosen due to his extensive knowledge of Paris. He describes shaking hands with Khrushchev and the KGB agents.



A Typical Day

Dennis Kinney describes a typical day as a general's aid. He shares that they would perform air base and unit inspections. He recalls flying all over the Pacific with Major General Fay R. Upthegrove.



Diego Dantone

A Nice World without War

Diego Dantone lost his father, Sabino Dantone, at age nineteen. He remembers his father crying when Sabino first heard the news of the 1991 Gulf War, and he shares his father's sentiments that war is a shame. Sabino Dantone had joined the first Italian Red Cross team that served in the Korean War. The elder Dantone did not speak of the war to his young son, but Diego Dantone remembers his father and mother being proud of the friendship between the Korean and Italian people.



No More War

Diego Dantone remembers his mother and father as happy people. He feels Sabino Dantone would have wished peace and happiness to the Korean people. He agrees to allow his documentary for use in educating Italian school children about the Korean War.



Interviewing School Children in the 68th Hospital

The Italian Red Cross operated in the 68th Hospital located in a Korean school. Diego Dantone visited the school when he filmed his documentary, A Forgotten War. The atmosphere of the place was still powerful even though the school had been damaged by fire and rebuilt. As the interview ends, Diego Dantone sends his father a message that he misses him and loves him, wishing they had shared more before Sabino Dantone died.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

Well-Deserved Recognition

Dimitrios Matsoukas shows a photo of the former UN General Secretary Ban Ki-moon during a visit to Athens. During the visit, Greek heroes, who fought in the Korean War, were recognized by the UN General Secretary and their families given a medal to recognize their sacrifice.



Homecoming of Heroes

Dimitrios Matsoukas shares a newspaper article that shows his father and eldest sister standing over the repatriated coffin of their brother, George Matsoukas. On March 5, 1955, the coffins of 186 Greek heroes who fell in the Korean War were returned to Greece.



Dirk J. Louw

If You Can't Look Out For Yourself...

Dirk J. Louw shows a picture of his father, Johannes J. E. Louw who was born November 6, 1926. The youngest of 7 children Johannes J. E. Louw grew up on a farm and in 1942 enrolled in the South African Air Force. He served as a logician and was responsible for the welfare of other soldiers.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

The Relationship between American and KATUSA Soldiers

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls her husband's feelings towards KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and the Korean people. She expresses that her husband was truly impressed with the gentleness of the Korean people. She describes the Korean people as being grateful for the sacrifices Americans made.



Don McCarty

Go to Jail or Go to the Marines

Don McCarty joined the US Marine Corps when he was 17 years old because if he didn't, he would have ended up in jail. With is mom's permission, he was sent away to Parris Island, SC for boot camp. After growing up in Chicago, Illinois and Kentucky, he said that he received the positive push in life that he needed once entering boot camp.



Big Muscles were Needed for Machine Gunners

Don McCarty's specialty during the Korean War was a heavy machine gun operator. The tripod was 54 pounds and the gun with water was 40 pounds. He left for Korea in March 1953 and landed in Inchoeon. Once he arrived in Seoul, it was devastated and there were children begging for candy and cigarettes.



Fear on the Front Lines That Led to PTSD

Don McCarty was afraid every minute that he was in Korea. Even after the Korean War ended, North Koreans continued to surrender to the Marines by crossing the 38th parallel. Don McCarty feels that he has a better understanding of life once he fought in the Korean War because there were so many Marines that lost their lives. Every night at 2 am, he wakes up with nightmares from his time at war. PTSD is a disease that Don McCarty is still living with 60 years after the Korean War ended.



Don R. Childers

Going From the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves to Active Duty

Don R. Childers enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserves in Oklahoma City when he was eighteen years old. He recalls the policy of President Harry S. Truman's administration, in 1948, that anyone who enlisted in the U.S. Reserves would not be drafted. During his time in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves, he trained periodically at Camp Pendleton. After spending two years in the Reserves, he received advanced combat training when the Korean War started in 1950 and reported for active duty.



Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Honor Flight

Don R. Childers explains how he was selected for an Honor Flight to Washington D.C. He becomes emotional while describing the standing applause he and the other Honor Flight veterans received as they walked through the airport in Washington D.C. He shares how serving in the United States Marine Corps taught him the importance of being dependable.



Donald Arthur Summers

Desire to Learn

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his desire to pursue further education while serving in the United States Navy. He recalls an instance where an instructor at a training school in Norman, Oklahoma, gave him a second chance to study and pass the qualifying examination which he eventually did. He shares that, as a result of his hard work, he was able to attend an aviation structure and hydraulic school in Millington, Tennessee. He notes how after completing his enlistment, he was forced to spend some time in the hospital due to radiation exposure from Operation Castle.



Pride in Serving

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his gratitude for having served in the United States Armed Forces. He encourages young people to consider enlisting as he believes it can lead to a fulfilling career and personal growth. He explains how, during his time in the U.S. Navy, he completed aviation structure and hydraulic school which gave him the skills to have a successful career with American Airlines. He shares how being a veteran improved his self-esteem, furthered his education, and fulfilled his patriotic duty.



Donald D. Lanternier

Life as a Radio Operator

Donald Lanternier describes what it was like to be a Radio Operator. He explains that they were often on top of a mountain trying to intercept communication, but also relaying messages. He never experienced combat, but this was still an important role to play.



Revisiting Korea

Donald Lanternier shares he has revisited Korea three times since his service in the Army. He describes how different the modern country is compared to what it was like during the war. He makes notes of the cleanliness, the number of parks, and the new bridges across the Han River. He is amazed at the progress that has been made.



Donald Dempster

Legacies of Korean War

Donald Dempster feels that it is important to remember the accomplishments of the Korean War. He assisted in keeping democracy in South Korea instead of communism. He is very proud that South Korea has succeeded from emulating the government of the United States.



Why the Forgotten War?

Donald Dempster believes that since the Korean War was after WWII, the American public had enough of war. He further feels that the Korean War has been forgotten by the public because it was not reported by US media as much as other wars. He acknowledges that recruitment was not as large during the Korean War as it was during WWII.



Donald Duquette

A Famous Photograph

Donald Duquette discusses taking a photograph of John Allen (35th Infantry Division) going up a hill. This photograph, Donald Duquette's most famous, was published nationwide back in the United States. He shares the photo with the interviewer.



Donald Haller

Revisiting Korea

Donald Haller recalls revisiting Korea, along with his family, in the 1980s. He shares how vastly different Korea was from how he remembered it in the 1950s. He remembers how poor Korea was in the 1950s, lacking basic infrastructure such as proper roadways and bridges. He remembers the Koreans as both honest and hardworking. He comments he is not surprised that the Korean economy is now booming.



Donald J. Zoeller

Edge of MLR

Donald Zoeller describes the battalion which was located close to the MLR. One time they were even in the 'no man's land' zone. They had to build bunkers on their own by cutting down trees designed to hold up under artillery.



Defending Seoul

Part of Donald Zoeller's platoon was sent to Seoul when the Chinese tried to retake the city. He describes how his colleague "fell apart" and he was asked to take over leadership. He describes living in a foxhole constantly hearing shrapnel and was called upon at times to open fire.



Revisiting Korea

Donald Zoeller states "No people anywhere are as grateful to the American troops as the South Koreans". He is incredulous that the South Korean government pays for veterans to visit. He says the legacy is that they saved the country from being under the grip of a terrible dictator, and now the country is one of the leading industrial nations. "I benefitted greatly by contributing to that war," he says.



Donald L. Buske

Lessons Learned through Service

Donald Buske describes the lessons he learned from being in the military- lessons he says he still applies every day to his life. He learned to have respect for others and not just himself. He believes that every youth that graduates high school should have to spend a month at boot camp to learn the same lessons before heading out into the real world.



Donald L. Mason

Revisiting Korea

Donald Mason discusses revisiting Korea in 2019 with his wife. He compares his visit then to what he remembered from his time in 1950. He remembers Seoul being destroyed during the war, with all the tall buildings gone. There were some huts still standing. But in 2019, he remembers seeing large skyscrapers from his hotel room. He was amazed at how the city was rebuilt to such an impressive scale.



A Wife's Perspective

Donald Mason's wife, Sheri, recalls what he told her about the Korean War. She says he does not like to share much about Korea because it makes him emotional. She reflects on her visit to Korea, when she and her her husband visited. She shares that the trip was wonderful, and she notes how appreciative the Korean people are. They both enjoyed the food and say they were treated like royalty. Sheri recalls that their hotel bed had a large sign on it saying "Our Hero". One of the most memorable events for her was visiting the DMZ.



Donald Lassere

Conquering Communism and Personal Fear

Donald Lassere shares his personal fear in going to war for a country and a people he did not know. He describes the pride he felt while helping to halt the spread of communism for these very people.



Donald Loudner

American Indian Tradition

Donald Loudner talks about what he calls an "American Indian tradition" to serve in times of need. He describes how many of his cousins and other members of the Hunkpati Sioux tribe served in the Korean War.



A Top Secret Job

Donald Loudner talks about what he did in the US Army. Not allowed to serve in Korea, he describes working in a top secret communications section where he was a code encryption instructor.



Donald Lynch

Legacy of the Korean War

Donald Lynch recalls not learning much about Korea in school. He thinks the Korean War was one of the greatest efforts put forth by the United States as it was an effort to stem the growth of world Communism. He believes the war's effects continue to resonate today. He speaks about many of the atrocities that the Koreans have had to face, including the invasions by Japan. He shares how impressed he is by the successes of Korea today.



Korea Then and Now

Donald Lynch recalls thinking Korea would not thrive after what he witnessed. He remembers the terrible smells coming from all major cities due to the open and combined sewer systems. He notes Korea now has skyscrapers and is one of the tenth largest economies in the world.



Donald Stemper

Mobile Topography Units

During the Korean War, the US military had mobile TOPO (an acronym like M.A.S.H) units in trucks that were like a caravan vehicle. They included cameras, printing presses, plate making, survey and drafting equipment, as well as ink and paper just behind the lines because that's where the information was coming from. All these tools were needed to create the maps at any time and diligence was crucial. He is very proud of the work he did and in his mapping instruction.



Process of Making the Maps for the Soldiers

Don Stemper explains in detail the process of how the US military photograph images from both sides of the plane. Using stereo-projectors and drafting tables with special magnifying eye wear, mappers drew the contour of hills so troops knew the exact height of each hill directly from a flat photograph. The details were then added to the map and copied onto plastic with specific colors to identify certain landmarks.



Doris B. Porpiglia

Ladies Don't Do Such A Thing

Doris Porpiglia was asked how her family felt about her being in the military. Although her parents and immediate family were proud of her, her rich aunt told her that "Ladies don't do such a thing." Doris Porpiglia replied, "I am more of a lady than you'll ever be, and what I wear isn't going to determine the person I am going to be."



Women's Wartime Jobs

During the Korean War, women worked as switchboard operators and they drove jeeps for officers. Doris Porgiglia was given an aptitude test and she was qualified for over 150 types of jobs. She decided to go to Indianapolis to obtain the training for the Post Office.



Training For The Future

Doris Porpiglia explained that many women had standard jobs that most women had during that time period. This included telephone operator and secretary. She said the main thing women wanted from their experiences during the war, was skills they needed that they could use when the war ended.



The Women Just Sat There and Wouldn't Shoot

During her time in basic training, the women GIs were given the opportunity to practice shooting weapons. They were actually given a choice in the event that at any given time they were told they had to shoot their weapon, they should be ready. Doris Porpiglia said she wanted to be prepared, but most women just sat there and didn't attempt to try shooting at all, but Doris Porpiglia didn't understand their reasoning.



Big Surprise

Doris Porpiglia tells a story that the most surprising thing about her job was some of the men that didn't know how to read or write, so they would quietly ask her to read the letters they received. The male GIs since didn't want others to know that they were uneducated. Doris Porpiglia felt sorry for them and she said that most of the men who had difficulty reading were from the south, but race didn't matter. She believes that it inspired her to become a teaching assistant when the war was over.



Dorothy Stanosek

Letter from the President of South Korea

Dorothy Stanosek shares a framed letter from the President of South Korea in September of 2011. She comments on how very proud she was to receive the letter and is to be a Korean War Era veteran. She mentions her brother, Donald Sharp, served in the Korean War as a bombardier.



Douglas C. Fargo

A Leaders View of Leadership

Douglas C. Fargo shares his happiest moment while serving. He also decribes his personal view of leadership.



Douglas Koch

US Marine Life Before the War

Douglas Koch describes his duties aboard the USS Saint Paul prior to the war. He recalls traveling to many ports in the Pacific before returning to Camp Pendleton while "The Sands of Iwo Jima" was being filmed. He explains that he and other US Marines were used as extras in the background during filming and were able to meet John Wayne, who was very kind.



Doyle W. Dykes

Life Back at Home

Doyle W. Dykes remembers what it was like to arrive back home from Korea. There was disconnect from civilian to military life. Community members wanted him to speak, but he wanted to simply move on with his regular life.



Duane Baxter

The Role of a Forward Observer

Duane Baxter described how stateside personnel, such as himself, contributed greatly to the war effort through training personnel who were participating in wartime airstrikes.



A Military Family

Duane Baxter came from a long line of military members. He explained he joined the marines because his father was a marine in World War I and oldest brother had served during World War II. He stated that while his own children were not in the military, he has several nieces and nephews that are, including some that are officers. He described the significant role of the Marines in World War II, especially at Iwo Jima.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Knowledge of Korea and Arriving in Korea

Earl House shares he knew little about Korea prior to arriving as a soldier. He recalls the first time learning anything about Korea was in the Naval Reserves. He mentions he was excited to travel to Korea and fight in the war as he had never traveled outside the U.S. except for visiting Canada.



Ed Donahue

On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed O’Toole

Becoming a Marine

Ed O'Toole shares his journey to fight in Korea. He joined the United States Marine Corps in November of 1951. He does not remember learning anything about Korea before he went to the war. After seeing a neighbor in the Marine Corps uniform, he recalls wanting to join. He attended boot camp in Parris Island, South Carolina. He remembers getting in trouble for accidentally kicking a bucket of water down some stairs.



Ed Wuermser

Proud of Korea

Ed Wuermser shares he deliberately wears his Korean veteran's hat so people will ask him about the war. He shares he enjoys explaining to others how well Korea has done since the war. He acknowledges how the country changed from a feudal society to an advanced country in the past two hundred years.



Eddie Reyes Piña

Impressions of Korea and the Korean People

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls always being in danger while serving in Korea. He recounts how, prior to returning home in 1954, he assisted in building Camp Casey and protecting the DMZ. He reflects favorably on the country of Korea and the Korean people themselves.



Edgar Tufts

"What Do You Think of Our Country Now?"

Edgar Tufts describes a conversation, while revisiting Korea in 2008, when he was asked what he thought about Korea today.



Appreciation of The Korean People

Edgar Tufts describes the appreciation shown by Koreans, young and old, for the service of the United States in the Korean War.



Edmund Reel

The Making of Foot Booties in Camp

Edmund Reel shares how he made thirty-two pairs of foot booties for fellow prisoners while a POW. He details the materials used to make the booties and offers an account of how he assembled them. He provides an example of the booties he made.



Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Edmund Ruos

Post War

Edmund Ruos shares his post war thoughts on the state of Korea and its people. He describes his service and its impact on his life while acknowledging Korea's advancements since the war. He shares that he took advantage of the G.I. Bill and that he is proud to be a Korean War veteran.



Edmund W. Parkinson

Proud of Korea

Edmund Parkinson is joined by his wife to discuss modern Korea. They jointly recall their visit to modern Korea and speak highly of the Korean people and their fighting spirit for having rebuilt their country in such a short time frame. Edmund Parkinson shares that the loss of his leg was worth what Korea has become today.



Message to Students

Edmund Parkinson describes Korea as a marvelous piece of history and shares how proud he is to have served during the war. He offers a message to students stating that the war was not lovely, but it was necessary and worthwhile for the result. He is joined by his wife who shares that the Korea she knows now is fantastic due to its transformation in such a short time.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

Most Honorable Mission / Misión más Honorable

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro was asked to participate in what he recalls as the most honorable mission, which, was the rescue of two deceased Colombian soldiers. They were all dressed in while camouflage as Korea was blanketed by eighty centimeters of snow. They crawled for hours in the middle of the night and utilized hand signals and mine detectors to remain undetected by enemy forces. The mission took the majority of the night, and they successfully returned to their base by five in the morning.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro participo en lo que recuerda como la misión más honrosa, que fue el rescate de dos cuerpos de soldados colombianos. Todos estaban vestidos con ropa de camuflaje blanca porque Corea estaba cubierta con ochenta centímetros de nieve. Se arrastraron horas durante el medio de la noche y utilizaron señales manuales y detectores de minas para no ser detectados por las fuerzas enemigas. La misión tomó la mayor parte de la noche y regresaron con éxito a su base a las cinco de la mañana.



Volunteering for Korea / Ofrecerse Para Pelear en Corea

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro knew about the war in Korea because of his military training, but he was unaware of where the country was located. The sentiment in Colombia was that the conflict was foreign and had nothing to do with Colombians. However, this changed when the United Nations, as the defenders of peace around the world, asked Colombia for a battalion. He understood the importance of combating communism and proudly volunteered to fight in Korea when asked. He describes the moment in which more than ninety nine point nine percent of those asked volunteered to fight.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro sabía lo que estaba pasando en la guerra de Corea por su entrenamiento militar, pero no sabía ni dónde estaba ubicado el país. El sentimiento en Colombia sobre la guerra era que el conflicto era extranjero y no tenía nada que ver con los colombianos. Sin embargo, esto cambió cuando Las Naciones Unidas, como defensores de la paz en el mundo, le pidió a Colombia un batallón. El entendió la importancia de combatir el comunismo y orgullosamente se ofreció como voluntario para luchar en Corea cuando el comandante pregunto quien lo acompañaría a Corea. Describe el momento en el que más del noventa y nueve punto nueve por ciento del batallón se ofrecieron como voluntarios para luchar.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Black Bean Soup

Eduardo Sanchez is describing his interactions with soldiers from some of the 22 nations that participated in the Korean War. As a navy repairman, he repaired ships for other nations. He provides specific details about one occurrence with the Colombian Navy where they shared black beans, something that was a rarity in the United States at the time. When repairing ships, he shared food and really enjoyed getting to know other cultures.



My Happiest Moments

Eduardo Sanchez remembers his happiest moments in the war came from meeting the other men who were from his home town. They called their little reunion the Mexican Village. However, it was a sad moment when they realized who would no longer be returning to the village due to the war ending. Veterans returning home found it hard to find occupations.



Edward A. Gallant

Military Service, a Family Affair

Edward Gallant followed the military tradition in his family. Some of his brothers fought in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. One of his brothers was a POW that was killed in action during the Korean War and is buried in Hawaii.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Truckin': The Relative Freedom of Army Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced relative freedom as an Army transport truck driver. On one trip, his truck separated from the convoy to take a shortcut recently built by the Americans. Another memory involves the excitement of transporting rowdy Welsh soldiers to the front lines at night.



Edward B. Heimann

Thanks and Appreciation

Edward Heimann explains the reason why he agreed to be interviewed. He recalls that one day, while playing golf, a young South Korean man joined his group of three. He describes the man as being incredibly grateful for what he did for South Korea and being quite taken aback by the young man's gratitude.



Edward F. Foley, Sr.

War Reflections and Impressions of Modern Korea

Edward Foley shares that he does not have bad dreams or resentment towards the war or even the North Koreans, stating that they were only doing what they were told to do. He comments on his revisit to Korea and the improvements made since he was there during the war. He describes Seoul as a Westernized city and compares it to New York City.



Korean War Legacy

Edward Foley comments on the grateful attitudes South Koreans have towards the U.S. He shares that the legacy of the Korean War, despite it being called a police action and the Forgotten War, is being kept alive by the veterans associations and the Korean people themselves. He adds his thoughts on how young people should serve their country in some form or fashion for a few years.



Edward Greer

Arrival to World War II in Europe

After about a year of training, Edward Greer was shipped to Europe during World War II. After being in England for about two weeks, he and his comrades, all part of an artillery unit, boarded LSTs and landed in France. By this time, the combat had moved ahead, but his unit would be catching up to the war. Edward saw his first bit of combat in Belgium. In this clip, he further explains the support that his unit provided during World War II.



Moving Ranks and Combat in Korea

Edward shares the trajectory of his military service by describing moving up in rank and describes some of the officer training he received. After finishing a basic course, in January of 1950, he was sent to Japan with a field artillery unit and was there when the war in Korea began in June of 1950. In December of 1950, he was promoted to an officer position, and he wrapped up that portion of his tour in December of 1951. Edward also describes the supply system during the Korean War and compares it to that of World War II.



Casualties and Injuries in Korea

Edward Greer recounts a time in Korea where his unit was involved in an infantry attack during their time in Korea. As a result of this action, he was awarded the Silver Star. He describes witnessing people being wounded and killed, and he himself had narrowly missed being shot, but also received minor injuries from fragments of mortars.



Becoming a Major General

Edward Greer describes the aftermath of taking an advanced course, which upon completion, he and was sent to Washington, DC, where he spent three years working in the Department of Personnel. He describes where he served at his different ranks, one of which includes Vietnam as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1970. He returned stateside, and eventually reached the rank of Major General. Edward retired at that rank in December of 1976.



Edward Langevin

DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



The Ever Continuous Battle

Edward Langevin is a Korean Defense Veteran since he was in South Korea to protect it from North Korea. He said that these veterans contributed to the "ever continuous battle" He believes that the tense feeling between these two regions will continue until we stop China from helping North Korea.



Edward Mastronardi

The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



"Let's Go You Bastards, You Can't Live Forever!"

Within 100+ yards of their objective to attack the Chinese at Hilltop 187 near Samich'on River, Edward Mastronardi described how close the shells were from the tops of their heads, but it didn't stop their advancements since the shrapnel flew forward not putting them in any immediate danger. Edward Mastronardi held his 9 mm gun in his hand and waived it in the air shouting to his men, "Let's go you bastards, you can't live forever!" Bravely charging ahead, breaking the Chinese hold without losing a single man, Edward Mastronardi fought the Chinese at Hill 187.



"Canada boy, tonight you die!"

Before the Battle of Song-gok Spur, a Chinese Company Commander walked straight up to the front line and leaned over and said, "Canada boy, tonight you die!" To which Edward Mastronardi replied, "Come and get us you SOB!" which was documented in the Canadian documentary 28 Heroes. They located the company Commander in Beijing after the war to interview about this event. The battle resulted in only 6 Canadian deaths.



It's Fantastic to See What Has Happened to Korea Now!

The Interviewer asked Edward Mastronardi how he feels about Korea today in the 21st century, knowing he has a clear picture of Korea during the Korean War. He said, "Fantastic! It shows the true strength, diversity, flexibility of what can be done. There is always a way to do it if you are willing to work for it." Edward Mastronardi is very proud to have been apart of saving South Korea.



Edward Parmenter

A Response to Perceived Fiction

Edmond Parmenter explains that the publication of David Halberstam's book, The Coldest Winter, prompted him to write his own book about the Korean War, The Korean War: Fiction vs. Fact. He provides examples of what he feels is fictitious content in Halberstam's book and offers countering information based on his own experience. He further supports his claims by stating that he referenced Korean War archives.



Edward R. Valle

Finding Camaraderie

Edward Valle describes the genesis of the Minnesota Korean War Veterans Association. He shares the meetings evolved from a few veterans getting together to tell war stories to a well-organized association. He adds that the Association takes part in community activities and provides an honor guard for Korean War Veteran funerals.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



The Battle at Pyongyang

During the Battle at Pyongyang, Edward Redmond, his battalion had their first casualties. Everyone became very determined to fight. He believed that the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) and the Americans were not well-trained.



Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edward Rowny

Inchon Landing

Edward Rowny describes the planning of the Inchon landing in detail. He remembers how his team had to convince the Joint Chiefs of Staff to move forward with the plan, and this ultimately saved the Marine Corps. He remembers explaining some of the logistics of the landing and General MacArther's reaction when the landing was successful. He describes how moving the troops forward across the Han River was a controversial decision.



Revisiting Korea to Oversee the DMZ

Edward Rowny shares he has revisited Korea about six or seven times. He explains how he went back a generation later and commanded the first combined U.S.-Korean corps at the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). He states that over the years, the Koreans went from not being very organized to creating a very effective and efficient military.



Rowny's Book About the War

Edward Rowny shares he has written books and provides information about his experiences with the Teachers and Veteran's Youth Corps Convention in 2015. He comments on how his book, An American Soldier's Saga in the Korean War, received a lot of coverage and was translated into Korean. He encourages students to pay attention to what they learn in class to prevent events like the Korean War from happening again. He summarizes his book as it retells his experiences and accomplishments in the War.



Dropping the Bridge in Chosin Reservoir

Edward Rowny reveals that he is the Corps Engineer who designed and later famously dropped the bridge from the air into the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. This was one of the most important parts of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir Battle. He shares how the Chinese were firing at them while they were building it. He recounts how this project was successful in stopping the Chinese long enough to evacuate the troops, without which there would have been tremendous casualties.



Evacuation from North Korea

Edward Rowny shares was put in charge of the evacuation of the 600,000 tons of supplies, 100,000 troops, and 100,000 refugees at the port at Heungnam, North Korea. He recounts his job also included blowing up the port so that the Chinese could not use it. He recalls he was scheduled to be on the last ship to leave, but that ship was blown up. He recounts how the commander thought he had gone down with the boat, but, instead, he was stranded on the beach with his radio operator and jeep driver. He describes how they were finally rescued by an American plane and made it home by Christmas, despite being shot at.



Edward Wong

Image of Korea

When Edward Wong first arrived in Korea he remembers seeing small villages, non-modern homes, and no big buildings. Edward Wong went back to visit Korea in 2009 where he saw big buildings that were modern. He noticed how everything had changed so much. He was so happy and honored to get to return back to Korea.



Edwin Durán González

Unexpected Reunion / Reunión Inesperada

Edwin Durán González explains that although both he and his brother were in the army at the same time, they were not allowed to be deployed together and thus flipped a coin to decide who would be sent to war. He further explains how Puerto Ricans were subdivided into different companies once they arrived. He adds that it was through sheer luck that he found his bother three months later as he too was eventually deployed to Korea.

Edwin Durán González explica que, aunque tanto él como su hermano estaban en el ejército al mismo tiempo, no se les permitió desplegarse juntos y así tiraron una moneda al aire para decidir quién sería enviado a la guerra. Él explica cómo los puertorriqueños fueron asignados a diferentes compañías una vez que llegaron a Corea. Termina contando que fue por pura suerte que se encontró a su hermano tres meses después, ya que finalmente él también fue enviado a Corea.



Edwin R. Hanson

I Jumped In Front of a Torpedo Bomber to Mail My Postcard

Edwin Hanson reminisces about one occasion at Kor-'o-ri when a torpedo bomber (plane) came through to pick up wounded soldiers. He had a postcard that he wanted to deliver to his mother. He remembers the bomber sitting at the end of the runway, preparing to take off, and running down the middle of the runway blocking his takeoff and waving his letter. This postcard was among the many sent home to his mother, but he notes that most dealt almost exclusively with the weather.



Edwin Vargas

Fighting for a KATUSA

Edwin Vargas shares that while he was company commander, he took it upon himself to advocate for his KATUSA when the KATUSA accidentally hit a South Korean soldier with a vehicle. He explains that the soldier was not hurt, but the KATUSA was on the brink of being arrested until he spoke to the commanding officer for the South Korean Regiment. He shares that after the incident, he became very good friends with this commanding officer.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

Why Norwegians in Korea?

Eilif Jorgen Ness explained why thousands of Norwegians applied to serve in Korea. He believed that some, like him, were adventurous while some did it to improve their resumes. He thought that the majority, however, were idealists who fought for the principles that Korean freedom represented.



MASH Got It Right!

Eilif Jorgen Ness explained how the television program, MASH, accurately displayed life in a MASH unit. He was amazed at how if faithfully depicted the camp set-up and living conditions. His one complaint was the show overstated the use of helicopters which only became a major part of delivering the wounded toward the end of the war. He also demonstrated pride at the speed his unit was able to get the wounded to the operating table.



Legacy of the Korean War

Eilif Jorgen Ness believed that the Korean War was not a forgotten war and was instead the last war that returning men were seen as heroes. The war stopped communism. It was the first time the West put their foot down hard!



Elbert H. Collins

What Happened to Injured Civilians and Soldiers?

Elbert Collins recalls what sticks out most in his mind- tons of civilians, including women and children- walking down the sides of the road. He describes a time that these civilians almost killed a man. As a medic, he often questioned what happened to the people that he treated, but Elbert Collins did get a letter from one Marine he treated.



Eleanor Newton

Decision to Override a Doctor

Eleanor Newton shares memories of an encounter with a doctor. She recounts a situation where a doctor insisted that she accept a patient on her aircraft. Despite orders, she refused to do so due to the patient's health status and was able to override the doctor.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Modern Korea

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis states he left Korea in July/August 1951. After returning to Korea twice, in 2008 and 2013, he was amazed by the significant advancements the country had made. He remarked that Korea's progress was a century ahead of Greece.



Elliott Landall

Forgotten War

Elliott Landall is satisfied with his service in the Korean War. He really liked helping the people of South Korea and feels he had a lasting impact. He explains that the Korean War is a Forgotten War because it was after the "Big Wars," World War I and World War II.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Lessons from War

Ellis Ezra Allen shares what he learned from the war. He dismisses PTSD, saying that a man is a man and is supposed to stand up in whatever he gets into. He adds that he acquired good decision making skills and demanded respect from others around him.



Erich Reuter

Siemens Involvement

Erich Reuter recounts Siemens involvement with the Red Cross in Korea. He shares that he was one of three Siemens engineers selected for the assignment. He explains how Siemens supported the Red Cross.



Engineering Role in Korea

Erich Reuter recalls his role as a Siemens engineer in Korea. He shares that he was a "doctor" for the Siemens medical equipment provided which included x-ray, electromedicine, and dental equipment. He comments on Koreans working with them while there.



Thankful Koreans

Erich Reuter comments on his experience in the hospital. He shares that the Siemens medical equipment brought in was handed over to the Koreans when upon his departure. He adds that the Koreans were very thankful for the offer.



Ernest Brant

Deciding to Join the Military

Ernest Brant recalls when a paratrooper came back from the military. After seeing that man, he and his two friends decided that they also went to be paratroopers. After Christmas, they went down to the recruiters office.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discusses the most difficult moments of the war and the fear he felt during dangerous missions. He details the Battle of the El Chamizo Hill in which they were under fire for over twenty-four hours and slowly advanced to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops. Furthermore, he remembers the dangers he faced during night patrols and advanced observation missions.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discute los momentos más difíciles de la guerra y el miedo que sintió durante las misiones más peligrosas. Detalla la Batalla del Cerro El Chamizo en la que estuvieron bajo fuego durante más de veinticuatro horas y eventualmente avanzaron para reconquistar el cerro de las tropas chinas. Además, recuerda los peligros que enfrentó durante las patrullas nocturnas y las misiones de observación avanzada.



The Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recalls feeling a sense of adventure as he left for Korea in 1951. He explains that the voyage lasted about a month with a one-day respite in Hawaii. He shares his memories of the devastation he encountered in Korea as he arrived after Busan had been attacked. Additionally, he remembers the poverty of the civilian population and the way in which civilians helped soldiers with everyday tasks.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recuerda la sensación de aventura que tuvo cuando partió hacia Corea en 1951. Explica que el viaje duró aproximadamente un mes con un respiro de un día en Hawaii. Comparte sus recuerdos de la devastación que encontró en Corea cuando llegó que fue después que Busan había sido atacado. Además, él recuerda la pobreza de la población civil y la forma en que los coreanos ayudaban a los soldados en las tareas cotidianas.



Volunteering for War

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recounts his motivations for volunteering to fight in Korea with the Batallón Colombia. He explains that he joined the armed forces and was in the reserves which was called into action three times in his nation before heading to Korea. His remembers that his main motivations were a sense of adventure, and his hope that he would be able to live in Hawaii or the United States after he served in the war.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez relata sus motivos para ofrecerse como voluntario para luchar en Corea con el Batallón Colombia. Explica que se unió a las fuerzas armadas y estuvo en las reservas y fue llamado tres veces luchando en su nación antes de irse a Corea. Sus principales motivaciones eran el sentido de la aventura y su esperanza en poder vivir en Hawái o en los Estados Unidos después de la guerra.



Ethel Julia Archibald

Role in the Korean War Effort and Taking Care of Patients

Ethel Archibald describes requesting a logistics role while stationed in Japan as a way of helping in the war effort. She expresses that her job was filling orders for supplies needed in Korea which included materials from toilet paper to engines for ships. She explains how materials such as weapons and ammo were loaded on a barge to be taken to a ship that would eventually deliver the needed materials to the soldiers in Korea. After working during the day, she recalls helping in the hospital as injured soldiers were arriving from Korea. She remembers how the hospital was full of injured soldiers. She shares her job was to triage their care, identifying soldiers who could be saved if they had immediate help.



Joining the Women's Auxiliary Army Corp

Ethel Archibald describes joining the Women's Auxiliary Army Corp during World War II as well as where she served during World War II and the Korean War. She explains her desire to serve just like two of her brothers who had volunteered for service. She recalls how her first days of service made her feel like she was doing something worthwhile.



Eugene Evers

"Well, Welcome Back!"

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses the details of how he was released after 14 months as a prisoner of war.



Why It Was Worth It

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about why the Korean War was worth the sacrifice.



I Hope We Did The Right Thing

Eugene "Gene" Evers reflects on his experience in the Korean War. He describes his hope that his contributions to the war effort were the right thing to do. He explains that he hopes that the United States involvement in the war was positive.



Eugene Ferris

Important to Learn About Sacrifices

Eugene Ferris believes that any war and the sacrifices people make are important for our future generations to learn. He shares his concern for people wanting power and the hope that people will learn from previous experiences. He elaborates on the legacy of the Korean War and the pride Americans have in our support of South Korea.



Lessons from Previous Generations

Eugene Ferris expresses his concern about younger generations not fully appreciating the experiences and sacrifices earlier generations endured. To elaborate on this, he reflects on lessons he learned during his youth from a World War II veteran. He reveals how he has expanded his own understanding of Korea’s history through the Tell America Program. He describes South Korea’s transformation as unbelievable and how the United States will continue to support their progress.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Everett G. Dewitt

The Advances of Korea

Everett G. Dewitt describes the Korea he saw and what he knew about Korea before the war and what it has become. He explains that the Korean people he encounters in the United States are always incredibly gracious and thankful. He goes on to explain his pride in his services in Korea and that he would probably do it again if need be.



Ezra Franklin Williams

"The Older I Get, The Prouder I Am"

Ezra Frank Williams is very proud of his contribution during the Korean War to fight off the North Koreans and Chinese. He has admiration for Korean immigrants that came to the United States after the war. South Koreans really show that they appreciate everything the UN did to protect their country.



All Marines Were Headed to Korea

Ezra Frank Williams stated that he should have put his duty station as Korea because that's where the US military was sending all their Marines. Everyone laughed at him when he asked where the enemy was while in basic training in 1951. They told him that he'll really get a good look at them while he's in Korea.



Federico S. Sinagose

A Nostalgic Revisit

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, provides details of their return trip to Korea. She remembers him being amazed by how much the country has progressed. The trip was nostalgic for her grandfather, who often shared with her as a child his fears of not knowing if he would see the next sunrise. Charlene adds that her grandfather feels that what he and the other soldiers did for the Korean people was ultimately worthwhile.



Duty to Defend People in Need

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, remarks on the stark contrast between the Korea of the 1950s, as described by her grandfather, and the country they experienced during their revisit. She recalls him speaking about his longing for home but also his determination to serve his country and assist the Korean people. Tearfully, she expresses her immense pride in her grandfather's service.



Fekede Belachew

Very Happy for Korea

Fekede Belachew describes the amazing transformation that South Korea has taken after the war. His service contributed to the security of South Korea. He describes how he would still defend Korea if called upon.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Reflections on the War / Pensamientos Sobre la Guerra

Felipe Aponte-Colon shares his reflections on the war. He discusses the immense pride that he has having defended his country as a Puerto Rican. Additionally, he shares his ideas on Korean reunification. Lastly, he discusses the suffering which he continues to have.

Felipe Aponte-Colón comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra. El habla del inmenso orgullo que tiene de haber defendido a su país como puertorriqueño. También, comparte sus ideas sobre la reunificación coreana. Por último, habla del sufrimiento que sigue teniendo hasta este día.



Felipe Cruz

Revisiting Korea

Felipe Cruz recounts his experience of supplying the infantry at the front lines during the Korean War. He proudly lists the medals he received for his service, one of which was the Ambassador for Peace Medal that he was presented with during his return to South Korea in 1998 through the Republic of Korea's "Revisit Program." He shares the highlights of his and his wife's trip to South Korea which included a visit to the location of the armistice agreement. He expresses he was initially reluctant to return to South Korea due to the devastation he witnessed during the war, but he acknowledges the positive impact the experience had on him.



Induction into the U.S. Marine Corps

Felipe Cruz reminisces about his enlistment into the United States military in 1951. He recalls a sergeant from the United States Marine Corps advising him to relax and enjoy some coffee and cookies as he waited for his induction into the U.S. Naval Service which he initially believed meant joining the U.S. Navy. He recounts how, later, when he returned to the waiting area and helped himself to more cookies, he was reprimanded by the same Marine Corps sergeant who exclaimed, "From now on you don't move unless you're told." He highlights the strong bond among U.S. Marines and how he attends reunions for the amphibian tractor battalion he served in.



Concluding Service Stateside

Felipe Cruz describes his experience of returning to the United States after the armistice agreement in Korea. He shares that during that time, he was suffering from an ulcer, which he was treated for at a naval hospital in Oakland, California. He notes that following a three-month stay at the hospital, he was to report to Del Mar near Camp Pendleton. He recalls how an officer gave him the option of reporting to Del Mar or working as a truck driver for the Department of the Pacific in San Francisco. He expresses his gratitude for getting the opportunity to conclude his service by driving trucks near his childhood home.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares his thoughts on the legacy of the war. He remembers that even though Koreans were very different, he made friends and learned some of the language. This skill was useful when a group of Koreans burned by napalm were asking for water.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte sus pensamientos sobre el legado de la guerra. Recuerda que, aunque los coreanos eran muy diferentes, se hizo amigos y aprendió algo del idioma. Esta habilidad fue útil cuando un grupo de coreanos quemados por napalm les pedían agua.



Frances Louise Donovan

Experience at Basic Training

Frances Donovan describes her basic training in San Antonio,Texas. She admits she had never traveled outside of the area she grew up and basic training was a big change of pace. She shares how she learned how to do things in the U.S. Army way as well as how to accept everything and everyone. She remembers, with pride, how she left basic training with a commission as second lieutenant.



Working in a Stateside Tuberculosis Hospital

Frances Donovan recalls her first assignment at a Stateside tuberculosis hospital. She remembers all of her patients were soldiers returning from Korea with tuberculosis or other respiratory issues. She explains how the treatment for tuberculosis was to collapse the lung and then bed rest until the lungs healed. She recounts one difficulty centered on soldiers not following these orders which delayed their recovery as well as made her job more difficult.



Frances M. Liberty

Basic Training and Women in the Military

Frances Liberty discusses her experience at basic training. She recalls that Ft. Dix was not prepared for women. She recounts the experiences of learning to pitch tents, climb walls, and being shot at as she crawled under barbed wire. She reflects that the experience was rewarding and opened up a big world. She compares how nurses were seen during World War I to her experiences in the military.



Off to Japan and Korea and the Hospital Trains

Frances Liberty recalls traveling to Japan and then Korea after being recalled by the military following her World War II service. She recounts she was stationed on the hospital trains. She explains these trains transported patients from the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M.A.S.H.) units to hospital ships. She shares that once she dropped the patients off on the hospital ships, she was able to get clean clothes and take a hot shower. She admits that she often would take medical supplies from the M.A.S.H. units for use on the trains.



Remembering an Incident on the Train

Frances Liberty recalls an incident where the fireman and stoker on the train ran away when they saw Chinese Soldiers on a nearby hill. She admits she thought she was going to die, but a soldier was able to drive the train back to Pusan. She discusses another experience that occurred while serving in a medical facility. She remembers everyone pulling out overnight and being left behind with a young captain. She recounts they were discovered by U.S. Marines that helped them evacuate.



Treating Soldiers Across Three Wars

Frances Liberty discusses the use of triage, which was a new concept. She recalls it was very difficult for nurses to adapt to, but that the triage process ended up saving a lot of lives. She reflects on the patients that she treated and how she used to sit with dying soldiers, offering them comfort. She remembers a specific patient who was very close to death, but he ended up surviving. She discovered years later that his first granddaughter was named after her.



Francis Beidle

To Free You People From the Commies!

Francis Beidle explains what a difficult time he had while in Korea. He recalls being drafted into the military in 1951 and not understanding the reasons and motivations behind the war other than "to free you people from the Commies!" Even all these years later, he still questions U.S. involvement and how the war concluded.



Francis John Ezzo

Korea Then and Now

Francis Ezzo describes walking through the countryside. He recalls seeing rice paddies and giving kids some food. He shares that even though he has never been back, he is thankful that Koreans appreciate the sacrifices American soldiers made for their country.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

Difficult Moments during War - Momentos difíciles durante la guerra

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the first battle he encountered and the trench warfare in which his battalion supported American troops. He remembers patrolling the hills and thinking about how little experience he and his fellow Colombian soldiers had prior to arriving in the north. In order to engage the enemy into battle, they had to cross a narrow ridge as there were landmines surrounding the area and dead Chinese soldiers on the barbed wire. He describes the mortar attacks which were near his platoon they endured and the heroism of his fellow soldiers as they endured a day long battle. He recalls one of his soldiers, while bleeding heavily, asking the rest of his company to leave, but they refused.

Francisco Caicedo Montua describe la primera batalla que enfrentó y la guerra de trincheras en la que su batallón apoyó a las tropas estadounidenses. Recuerda que tenían que patrullar los cerros y en esos momentos Francisco pensaba en la poca experiencia que él y sus compañeros colombianos tenían antes de llegar al norte. Para enfrentar al enemigo en la batalla, tuvieron que cruzar una cresta en la cual habían minas por toda la área y soldados chinos muertos en el alambre de púas. Describe los ataques de mortero que cayeron cerca de su pelotón y el heroísmo de sus compañeros mientras pelearon una batalla que duró un día. Uno de sus soldados, mientras sangraba mucho, le pidió al resto de su compañía que se fueran, pero ellos no estaban dispuestos a dejarlo solo.



Recognition of the Importance of the Colombian Troops - Reconocimiento de la importancia de las tropas Colombianas

Francisco Caicedo Montua recalls many important targets were captured by the Colombian troops while advancing to Kumsong. He describes the fighting which took place alongside the platoon led by Lieutenant Agustin Angarita Niño, and he discusses the important targets captured on the way to the Trans-Siberian railway. Resulting from this mission, the Commander of the 8th Army, General James Van Fleet, made a public recognition which was published in the newspapers. As Commander of the United Nations in Korea he stated: “I congratulate the Battalion Colombia for its outstanding action during the battle. It is interesting to underline that it was the first and sole allied from South America in Korea. It was also the first element of the United Nations in reaching the vital target of Kumsong. This fact is itself enough to put the Battalion Colombia as a unit of the highest importance to restrain the communist aggression in Korea. General James Van Fleet.”

Mientras avanzaba el Batallón Colombia hacia Kumsong, las tropas colombianas capturaron muchos objetivos importantes. Francisco Caicedo Montua describe los combates junto al pelotón liderado por el teniente Agustín Angarita Niño y comenta sobre los objetivos importantes que capturaron en el camino hacia el ferrocarril Transiberiano. Como resultado de esta misión, el Comandante del 8º Ejército, general James Van Fleet, hizo un reconocimiento público, que fue publicado en muchos periódicos. Como Comandante de las Naciones Unidas en Corea el dijo : “felicito al Batallón Colombia por su sobresaliente actuación en combate, es interesante en subrayar que fue el primero y único aliado de Sudamérica en Corea y fue también el primer elemento de las Naciones Unidas en alcanzar el objetivo vital de Kumsong, este hecho basta por sí solo para colocar al Batallón Colombia como unidad de la más alta importancia de nuestro esfuerzo para contener la agresión comunista en Corea. General James Van Fleet."



Trench Warfare and Faith - Guerra de trincheras y la Fe de los Soldados

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the stories that war writes for each individual soldier. He describes how he survived machine gun fire and mortar attacks by Chinese troops during a fierce battle. He offers a first hand account of a battle in which a Chinese bunker was taken over after intense fighting in which his platoon advanced into enemy lines. He credits this victory, and the fact that none of his men died in the conflict, to the Virgin Mary. The portrait that he carried to battle hangs over his bed to this day.

Francisco Caicedo Montua habla de las historias que la guerra escribe para cada soldado. Durante una feroz batalla, describe cómo sobrevivió al fuego de una ametralladora y a los ataques de mortero de las tropas chinas. Él ofrece un relato de primera mano de una batalla en la que un búnker chino fue tomado después de intensos combates en los que su pelotón avanzó hacia la posición de los enemigos. Él atribuye esta victoria y el hecho de que ninguno de sus hombres murieron en la batalla a la Virgen María. El retrato que él llevó a la guerra todavía cuelga sobre su cama hasta el día de hoy.



Return to Korea and Korea Today - Regreso a Corea y Corea hoy en dia

Francisco Caicedo Montua was an honorary member of the first group of Korean War Veterans invited by General Park to visit Korea. He was the sole representative for Colombia and traveled to Korea with two Americans, two Canadians, and one person from New Zealand. He describes that through this honor, he decided to give the president a copy of the book he wrote: Bansay, Diary in the Korean Trenches. He credits the rapid development and revival of South Korea with Park’s policies. On reflecting about South Korea today and the technological progress and strong economy, he believes it is resultant from the Korean virtues including the love of the country the people have for their homeland, the bravery of its people, and the honesty in the administration and command of the nation.

Francisco Caicedo Montua fue un miembro honorario del primer grupo de veteranos de la guerra de Corea invitados por General Park a visitar Corea. Fue el único representante de Colombia y viajó a Corea con dos estadounidenses, dos canadienses y un veterano de Nueva Zelanda. Cuenta que a través de este honor, decidió darle al presidente una copia del libro que escribió: Bansay, Diary in the Korean Trenches. Él atribuye el rápido desarrollo y el renacimiento de Corea del Sur a las acciones de Park. Pensando sobre Corea del Sur hoy, y el progreso tecnológico y su economía, él cree que es el resultado de las virtudes coreanas, incluido el amor al país de la gente por su patria, la valentía de su gente, y la honestidad en la administración y el comando de la nación.



Frank E. Butler

Joining the RSA

Frank E. Butler shares that upon his return to Palmerston North, he tried to join the Returned Services Association at the suggestion of relatives. He recalls the man at the RSA offices tried to kick him out because he was just a kid. He shares that he persevered with the help of two brothers-in-law, and adds that at sixteen years of age, he was not allowed to drink alcohol at the club.



"I Love Them!"

Frank E. Butler sends his heartfelt love to the Korean people. He is proud of the medals bestowed upon him by the Korean government, but he wishes the government of New Zealand would honor him as well. He feels the North Korean people did not fully intend the conflict that has split Korea, but he asserts that the world owes the South Koreans a debt of gratitude for standing firm.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

Returning to Korea

Frank Cohee has been back to Korea at least three times. He remarks about how many surprises there were- skyscrapers, women drivers, bridges. He ends with how important it is to remember the veterans.



Frank Lewis

Impact of Service

Frank Lewis describes how his life changed for the better because he was in the Navy. Having to meet new people, follow orders, and be independent for the first time, Frank Lewis said that the service helped "make a man out of him." Among the biggest lessons were to follow orders and practice discipline.



Message to Young People

Frank Lewis argues that the military is a positive experience for young people. He believes it will teach them to stand on their own because they are no longer with their parents. He also states that it will be beneficial for youth to learn to follow orders.



Frank Montolio

Legacy of Korean War

Frank Montolio talks about the American presence in Korea as being so crucial for the development of the country. He describes how we abated the growth of Communism and allowed the country to flourish. He believes it was the right thing to do at the time.



Reaction to Being Drafted

Frank Montolio explains his reaction to being drafted in 1952. He remembers as a young person that he felt immortal so he didn't have a major fear or concern. However, he was also proud because he knew it was his honorable duty as a citizen to not resist the draft and do his best.



Frank Zielinski

Making Sure It Is Not Forgotten

Frank Zielinski explains how Korean War Veterans stick together. He explains his ongoing attempts to make sure the war is not forgotten, including as part of school visits in the "Tell America Program" and through sharing his experience in the Korean War with his own grandchildren. He is shares with pride his service in Korea, particularly his interaction with Korean youth during R and R (Rest and Recuperation). He reflects on how soldiers would play "Father of the Day", adopting up to ten boys at a time to ensure they received something to eat, if only for that day.



Franklin Searfoss

My Duty to Serve

Franklin Searfoss shares details about his enlistment in the United States Army in October 1954 and his wish to train in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps. Days before completing basic training at Camp Chafee, Arkansas, he describes finding out about the Veterinary Corps being dissolved. Consequently, he highlights the options he was given and his choice to train as a medical specialist at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Driven by the desire to serve his country, he acknowledges, for the most part, not caring where he completed this service. Above all, he feels it is important to serve one's nation.



Fred Barnett

Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Fred Barnett says that his experiences during the war were good. He believes that that what the US accomplished for the Koreans was good and that we should continue to support them. While he has not gone back to Korea, he would like to, and was interested in the program of Korean Government helping veterans to visit.



Fred J. Ito

Advice for Japan and Korea

As a Japanese-American who fought in Korea, Fred Ito has unique advice for the Japanese and Koreans. After he gives a brief history of the Japanese occupation of Korea, he advises everyone to move beyond their history and get along with one another. After providing some examples of differences in today's society, he says that there are "good people" everywhere.



Fred Liberman

Positive Personal Outcomes of the War

While the war itself was not a positive experience, Fred Liberman explains how some positive outcomes did come out of his time in Korea. He gained an appreciation for the outdoors. More importantly, he realized that relationships and good friends are much more important than material things.



"A Shocking Experience"

Fred Liberman describes a "shocking experience" that he had while in Korea. He recalls having to raid a village and forcefully remove civilians, including the elderly and children. He explains how he wrote a letter home to his brother about it. This is an experience that still bothers him today.



Fred Liddell

Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korea Revisit Program in 1986: The Evolution of Korea

Fred Liddell could not believe that evolution of South Korea in 1986 when he revisited through the Korea Revisit Program. He remembered Seoul train station completely in ruins along with all the buildings, but when he saw it rebuilt, it was a miracle. When he visited the Suan cultural center, Fred Liddell was able to share all of the changes that he saw from 1951 to 1986 including straw huts to homes and women plowing fields to mechanization. Fred Liddell was invited to visit the hut where the peace treaty was signed, but he felt extremely nervous because it was so close to North Korea.



POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Fred Ragusa

"I'll Tell You What You Can Do with Those Poles"

Fred Ragusa recalls an incident when his troop was under intensive fire, coming from both sides. When they lost communication, one of his peers grabbed a spool of wire and ran up a hill to reconnect communication, risking his life. While this sergeant survived, he was reprimanded for disrespect until the superiors realized how important his act was.



Frederick Marso

Sacrifice for the Future

Frederick Marso reflects on his pride towards his service and efforts in the Korean War. He elaborates on how well South Korea has done for itself. He reflects on the sacrifices close friends made during their time in Korea together.



Frederick Schram

KMAG's Critical Role

Frederick Schram describes his time with KMAG working on the reconstruction of the railroad near Busan. He discusses the critical role the KMAG played in the rebuilding of South Korea after the war. Since his MOS was a transportation specialist, he describes his role working on rebuilding the transportation corridor for the Korean railroad.



Fredrick Still

"There Was No Fanfare"

Fredrick Still states that there wasn’t any real fanfare upon his return to the United States. The only fanfare was near the Golden Gate Bridge because he was on the first shipload back. He remembers that they did get a really good meal, including steak, when they arrived home.



"I did what I was told to do"

On a freezing, snowy night, Fredrick Still was told guard a dozer because it quit on the Punch Bowl pass. The other man that was assigned to the task with him took the opportunity to go back when a Jeep rode by, but Fredrick Still stayed all night because that is what he was told to do. He attributes his promotion to staff sergeant to this decision because it followed shortly after.



Lifelong Friendships

When Fredrick Still was first drafted, he met four men and they bonded quickly. He explains how they went through training together. While the group went their separate ways, they got back together after the war and made a tradition of meeting up. Fredrick Stlil is proud that they have remained friends for all of these years.



Gene C. Richards

Satisfaction for the Sacrifice

Gene C. Richards describes how much South Korea has changed since he served there. Much of the places where he served no longer exist. He describes how he was amazed at the success of South Korea today. Gene C. Richards expresses how he is proud of his service and seeing South Korea's implementation of democracy has provided soldiers closure for their sacrifices.



Gene Spicer

Revisit

Gene Spicer describes his two revisits to Korea. His first trip reminded him why he fought, to create the country he was now visiting. On his second trip, he retraced his steps from 1951. The contrast between the North and South from the DMZ and from the air moved him.



Gene Stone

It was My Obligation

Gene Stone shares his early experiences in the military following his graduation from Tennessee Tech as part of the ROTC program. He recalls his mother suggesting he continue his schooling to avoid serving in Korea, but he felt it was his obligation as an American to serve wherever he was sent. He explains the requirements of those who sought to become part of the Counterintelligence Corps.



Gene Welch

Air Force Radar Technician

Gene Welch describes some of his responsibilities while in Korea. He had to take care of the radar which was responsible for controlling the sight on the plane. He recounts how when they arrived in Korea, many of the planes did not work, but they were able to get the equipment and fix all of the planes before leaving.



George A. Edwards

The Process of Taking Reconnaissance Pictures

George Edwards explains that he would fly solo missions to take photos. He states that the quality of the photos were rather good. He remembers that they would process the film upon returning back to base and would them disseminate it to whoever needed it.



The Most Gratifying Mission

George Edwards remembers his most gratifying moments which included giving candy and other items to the Korean children. When his crew would take a plane to Japan for repair, they would spend all of their money on things that they could give out when they returned. George Edwards states that the Korean people were living in such destitute conditions, with only the clothes on their back and no standing buildings.



Like a Thousand Years of Progress

George Edwards says that when he returned to Korea it was like they made over a “thousand years of progress.” He feels that this progress is gratifying. He said whenever he would walk around, the Korean people would thank him for his service.



Korean Progress

When asked what Korea means to him, George Edwards says that he is proud that in some small way, he is proud that Americans contributed to the progress and freedom in Korea. He believes that those acts helped to provide the freedom necessary to progress like the country has.



Enduring Korean Friendships

George Edwards explains how he has developed strong friendships and affinity for the Korean people. He says that the internet has made these connections possible. He hopes that the new generations in Korea can be aware of what their father and grandfathers did to establish such a vibrant, progressive country.



George Covel

Enlistment and Leaving Loved Ones Behind

George Covel describes his enlistment and leaving behind his wife who was 6 months pregnant at the time. He details his role as a bandsman and placement in the Honor Guard and recounts serving as a ceremonial bandsman during the war, about 11 miles away from the front lines. He expresses that he was fortunate enough to avoid firing weapons on most occasions.



Armistice Signing

George Covel shares his memories of the day the Armistice was signed. He recalls making bets with fellow soldiers who did not believe it would occur when he predicted, and he recounts their surprise when it actually took place. He also describes the "big switch, little switch" and the release of prisoners following the Armistice.



A Rewarding Life, Legacy, and Message

George Covel discusses some of the challenges he faced regarding the GI Bill and choosing a differing career pathway when he returned to the States following the war. He emphasizes that the Army and his service made him a better man, and he offers his thoughts on the importance of the Korean War and the legacy of Korean War veterans. He stresses the importance of not forgetting history and encourages future generations to listen and learn from veterans so that they avoid the mistakes made in the past.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George Geno

Working Hard to Stay Afloat During the Great Depression

It would be unfathomable for student in high school today to know how hard kids during the Depression had to work to earn money. George Geno said that most farmers couldn't pay you, but they wanted to give you food. He helped farmers, trapped musk rats, and raised calves. In 8-10 months, he sold the bull and that's the money he lived on and saved to buy his first car. George Geno was also given a nanny goat and a kid which he used to start his own goat farm while attending high school.



Stringing Popcorn on Christmas During the Depression

Because George Geno lived in the country, he avoided seeing a lot of the soup lines and problems in the cities, but the farms had a share of their own poverty. People would work in the field or paint your barn just to get food. They didn't have anything, but they didn't know any better. They would string popcorn to decorate the Christmas tree. To keep watermelon and their soda pop cool, families would put them in the draining ditch to act as a refrigerator. You couldn't buy tire outright, but you could buy the boots to use inside the tire. Toys weren't available, so they handmade everything including their bow and arrows for hunting pheasants, squirrel, and duck.



We Fished In the Basement Of Our House During the Depression

The house George Geno had growing up had a dirt basement and it would fill with water in the spring. His dad would take them to Reese's to buy nets and they would catch fish. Not many people can say that they went fishing in their own basement during the Great Depression!



The Korean War Draft

George Geno received his draft card in November of 1950 during some cold weather, so he worked hard to get the car running for his family before he left. He first took a train to Fort Wayne, Detroit for basic training and then he found out that his hometown dentist had been drafted too as he went in for his military checkup. After basic training, he was trained as a combat construction engineer specialist. He was also chosen for Officer Candidate Training School even though he didn't really want to go.



George Geno: One Happy and Safe Soldier!

George Geno was chosen for Officer CandidateTraining School and he had a Lieutenant that wanted to be well-known, so he really worked his men. George Geno was called heavy, so he had to run 2 miles extra every night and when he was discharged July 2, 1952, he was asked to re-enlist. He decided to re-enlist the next day and they were all given their next assignments; to George Geno's surprise, he was assigned to stay at Fort Bliss in the US. He cried with excitement and eventually became the Lieutenant in charge of training the US soldiers how to shoot accurately from the trenches.



George H. Campbell

Korean "Support" Veterans

George H. Campbell is known as a Korean Defense Veteran. He explains how the veterans are there for support. He addresses what he sees the role of continued U.S. military support in South Korea means, and why he sees it more as support instead of defense.



Journey to Korea

George H. Campbell describes his military training. He shares his role as a medical equipment repairman. He explains how his job led him to live in Korea in the early 1970s.



George J. Bruzgis

I'd Seen A lot of John Wayne Films

George Bruzgis admitted that he'd never heard, seen, or knew anything about Korea before being shipped there. He remembered watching John Wayne films and the idea of going somewhere else in the world seemed like an exciting adventure. In actuality, he was really scared.



Befriending The KATUSA

Short on men within his own division, the KATUSA pictured with George Bruzgis is Corporal Yu daek yoo. He described him as a great man and he was considered a part of the division. George Bruzgis mentioned how little the KATUSA was paid, so the men in his division pitched in 5 dollars each, so that they could paying him over 20 dollars a month. This was a lot of money in 1953.



Signed To Cease Fire; Look What We Hit!

George Bruzgis vividly recalled on July 26, 1953, a Major approached them with a document they (both US and ROK) had to sign agreeing that at 10 p.m. on July 27, 1953, they had to stop firing their weapons. Shortly afterwards, a two-ton truck arrived taking most of their ammunition away, so they wouldn't shoot. However, at 6 a.m on July 27, 1953, they got a phone call that they were given coordinates to fire 5 rounds on what they thought maybe a cave or a bunker. He later learned in 2000 when he received a battalion pamphlet, his story of that morning was located within it saying his division destroyed a Chinese Observation Post.



Strong Appreciation for the Korean People

After his revisits to Korea and and a banquet in honor of soldiers who fought in recent years, George Bruzgis shared his sincere appreciation and gratitude for the people of Korea. The Korean population continues to show their love for the United States Military Forces. George Bruzgis was honored to go back and visit the country he had fought for all those years.



George Koustoklenis

I was Left Open-Mouthed

George Koustoklenis has revisited Korea three times since his service in the country. When he departed Korea, he recalls, everything was flat and devastated. Maps showed where villages once stood, were then marked only by signs bearing their names. During his return trips, the country's progress left him open-mouthed. He proudly reflects on the role he and other members of the Greek Expeditionary Forces played in Korea's transformation.



George P. Wolf

Air Force's Job in the Korean War

George Wolf remembered how many of the US troops would say, "Thank goodness for the Air Force!" US pilots worked with Australian, South African, New Zealanders, and British pilots during the war. George Wolf easily recognized the British by their accent and he loved the Australians' sayings during combat.



George Padar

Desert Storm

George Padar tells of his work in the Civil Affairs Unit. His job was to work to win the hearts and mind of the local population as it related to the refugees. He also assisted with government and non government agencies to assist refugees who were suffering in war torn areas.



Joining the Military

George Padar explains that he went into the active duty military service in 1963 rather than moving with his parents. He remembers that he went to Fort Knox before being sent to Germany as an officer. Prior to this, he had gone through ROTC at Cornell University where he studied wildlife management.



George Parsons

Returning Veterans

George Parsons shares that the Korean War is hard to describe as it was a war we could have won but simply did not finish the job. He describes how it felt to come back from Korea and not be given the same recognition that he had witnessed being given to returning WWII veterans and discusses why he feels the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War. He elaborates on how proud he is that the DMZ is still a boundary between North and South Korea at the 38th Parallel, protecting the people he fought for during the war.



Enduring Fondness for Korea and Koreans

George Parsons explains that the Korean War and veterans of the Korean War should be remembered as honorable and should be valued for helping render a free country. He comments on the enduring fondness he feels for the people and government of Korea due to their appreciation for the Korean War veterans and their efforts. He offers an example of the gratitude he was shown while in line at a donut shop.



Legacy of the Korean War and Korean War Veteran

George Parsons speaks on the legacy of the Korean War and Korean War veteran. He feels that veterans saved a country and a people worth saving willingly. He believes the United States did the right thing by fighting, saving, and then handing the country of South Korea back into the hands of its citizens. He feels strongly about the reunification fo the Korean Peninsula and offers supporting reasons.



George Tzouvalas

The Will of the Korean People

George Tzouvalas recalls his visits to Korea following the war. Following the war, he credits the success and progress made in the country to the will of the Korean people. He describes their love of education and pursuit of knowledge. He remembers how strongly they loved their homeland.



George Warfield

Experiences Working With the Turkish Troops

George Warfield worked with the Turkish Army and they were tough. The Turkish Army even practiced hand-to-hand combat with their own troops to stay battle-ready. George Warfield said that he would fight with them against an enemy at any time.



George Zimmerman

Mess Halls and Lawn Mowers

George Zimmerman recounts how he and a fellow soldier "Downey" built a lawnmower for cutting brush in the compound. Their creation earned them an article in the military magazine "Stars and Stripes." He shares another welding job which included building a mess hall. George Zimmerman greatly respects everyone involved in the war, particularly the hardworking Korean people. He credits his military service for helping him grow up and giving him valuable experiences.



Well Worth It

George Zimmerman describes the landscape of Korea as "something else." Winters were especially cold near the DMZ and the Chosin Reservoir. At one point, he had permission to take R and R in Japan, but he felt too committed to his work in Korea and turned it down. He recounts his return trip to the states following his service in Korea. George Zimmerman reminds students of today that Korea was important, with terrible loss of life for an important cause.



Gerald “Gerry” Sheperd

The Oldest Veteran

Gerald Sheperd describes how he is very proud of his military service and also comments on how well he is still doing for his age. He shares that on a previous trip to Korea, he was not only the oldest veteran to attend, but the only one that had also fought in World War II. He shares that he is also an active member of the Coast Guard of Australia and a champion lawn bowler at the age of ninety-two.



Joining the Navy at Age Seventeen

Gerald Sheperd shares that he joined the Navy at the age of seventeen because that was the only branch that would take him so young. He explains that the military had quotas by state, so he had to wait thirteen months before joining. He states that if he had been from a less populated state, he would have gone in on the day he signed up to join.



Gerald Edward Ballow

General MacArthur was a "God"

Gerald Ballow believed that General Douglas MacArthur was a "God to America" and he was benevolent to everyone. He remembers when he first saw General MacArthur and spoke to him without knowing that wasn't protocol. Japan would stop, bow, and honor him just like all of the American soldiers during the Korean War while being stationed in Tokyo, Japan.



The Training Changed Completely

Gerald Ballow knew at the beginning of July 1950 that US troops were going to enter Korea after North Koreans invaded South Korea, so training started to change. Even though he volunteered to go, Gerald Ballow was asked to stay behind at GHQ to assist. He shares how it felt to find out that his friend was killed in combat.



Jubilation after Inchon Landing

Gerald Ballow remembered the jubilation that took place after the successful Inchon Landing took place. He also felt that General MacArthur was doing a fantastic job during the Korean War and that it was Generals George Marshal and Omar Bradley's jealousy that flushed General MacArthur out of the Korean War.



Gerald Land

Forgotten War

Gerald Land was disgraced by the term police action instead of calling the Korean War, a war. He was also upset that people, particularly educators, didn't know anything about the war when he came home. With so many people who risked their lives for the people of South Korea and to label it the way people have, is just awful.



Don't Take Life For Granted

Gerald Land left the interview with advice for the listeners. Don't take life for granted, buckle down, get out to get a job, and earn what you get. Don't expect handouts and work your way to the top. He also said the technology that kids have today isn't completely necessary to live a good life. Working hard is the way to go!



Gerald Spandorf

Friend or Foe?

Gerald Spandorf's ship traveled the world including 16 countries while in the Navy. One time during a bad storm, he was allowed to de-board in England to protect himself. When his ship went to the Netherlands, Gerald Spandorf's ship was left in port because the native people didn't like Americans due to the bombing that they did during WWII.



Traveling with the Navy

Gerald Spandorf loved when his ship was in port because the sailors were able to walk around different countries. In Germany, the Germans asked him his name and they loved him because he had a strong German name. Gerald Spandorf told them that the Germans didn't like his family because his parents and grandparents are jews.



Concerns About North Korea Today

Gerald Spandorf felt mad at North Korea because they are test bombing different areas around Korea. He's afraid that their bombing will start another war and he doesn't want anything bad to happen to the Korean people. Since he's been out of the Navy, Gerald Spandorf has been learning more about the Korean people and they have all been so sweet to him.



Geraldene Felton

Influence of the Military on Her Life

Geraldene Felton recalls the immense impact of the U.S. Army on her life. She expresses she is especially grateful for the support of the G.I. Bill and how it allowed her to practice nursing and develop her career. She shares that the rules in the military were something she enjoyed, as well as the structure the military provided.



Serving as a Nurse in Korea

Geraldene Felton describes military nursing in Korea and the living conditions while there. She recalls feeling very protected by the men in Korea. At the time of her service in Korea, she says she was a regular nurse and was there when there was active conflict. She describes how the MASH units worked and how they would move depending on where the fighting was located. She notes her tour of duty in Korea was thirteen months.



Setting up MASH Units and Feelings on Respect for Women in Korea

Geraldene Felton reflects on the treatment of women in Korea and feels that she was highly respected by her superior. She shares she felt very protected by the men serving there. She describes the process of moving the MASH units as well as her living conditions within Korea.



Later Career and Message to Students

Geraldene Felton describes her gratitude for the military. She feels her long career in military nursing prepared her for her later career as a nurse anesthetist and later a nursing educator. She recommends people work hard and take advantage of opportunities when they arise. She expresses her gratitude for the opportunities she received as a member of the U.S. Army Nursing Corps.



Geri Knoebel

Amazed By the Record-Keeping

Geri Kneobel admits that she learns a lot about her father’s service during the reunions. She highlights her father's role during an evacuation. She emphasize how she is amazed by the level of record keeping the U.S. military maintained during the chaos of evacuations and battles.



Experiencing the Brotherhood and Connections

Geri Knoebel describes her experience attending the Korean War Veteran Reunion with her father. She shares that the reunions do include discussion between the veterans about their experiences during the war. During these interactions, she explains that the brotherhood and the connects they have are just amazing and something she will never experience. It is astonishing to her how they have maintained connections and garnered so much respect. She explains that It is amazing to see all the children of the veterans and the pride they share.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Proud Grandsons Planning a Trip to Korea

When asked about his desire to travel to Korea, Germaye Tesfaye affirms that he wants to see a peaceful Korea before he dies. His grandsons also want to visit. They are proud of their grandfather's service. Germaye Tesfaye is thankful for the relationship between Korea and Ethiopia.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

A Daughter’s Perspective

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama’s daughter, Gisella, shares what she has learned about the Korean War from her father. She adds that he only started speaking about what happened during the war in the last three years, and she wishes that he would have been treated for his PTSD earlier in life. She argues that the Korean War’s impact on world history should be taught in schools more deeply, as it was a significant event for Puerto Rico and the world.

La hija de Gilberto Rodríguez Orama, Gisella, comparte lo que aprendió de su padre sobre la Guerra de Corea. Agrega que él recién comenzó a hablar sobre lo que sucedió durante la guerra en los últimos tres años, y ella desearía que hubiera recibido tratamiento por su trastorno de estrés postraumático cuando era joven. Sostiene que el impacto de la Guerra de Corea en la historia mundial debería enseñarse más profundamente en las escuelas, ya que fue un evento muy importante para Puerto Rico y el mundo.



Message to Viewers / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama reflects on a time when community and family values were more important. His message to viewers is that core moral values should be followed as opposed to solely pursuing material wealth. He worries that greedy leaders from around the world who wish to hoard the riches of their nations, will cause more disastrous wars. He emphasizes the importance of community cooperation, respect, and having the will to progress.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama refleja sobre una época en la cual los valores de la comunidad y la familia eran lo más importante. Su mensaje a los espectadores es que se deben seguir los valores del trabajo y el progreso de la comunidad en vez de perseguir únicamente riquezas. Le preocupa que hay líderes ambiciosos en el mundo que desean acaparar las riquezas de sus naciones y sus acciones van a provocar más guerras desastrosas. El recalca la importancia de la cooperación comunitaria, el respeto y la voluntad de progresar.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes serving as a Medical Assistant during the Korean War. He observes that Ethiopian soldiers were not assigned a doctor. Instead, there were six medical assistants designated for every shambles, which consisted of two hundred fifty men. He confesses to still having nightmares about many of the wounded he helped treat.



Not Heroic

Girma Mola Endeshaw discusses the challenges Ethiopia faced after the Korean War. In 1974, Communists took control of Ethiopia, leading to the government confiscating the possessions of Korean War veterans. This action was taken because these veterans fought in a war against communism. Interestingly, even now, it is South Korea, not Ethiopia, that continues to provide assistance to these veterans.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw recounts his time during the Korean War, where men resided in bunkers without access to hot meals and suffered from sleep deprivation due to frequent attacks. The constant barrage of mortar shells would shake the ground at any given moment. Additionally, soldiers were only allowed to shower every ten days under orders from the Americans. Despite these hardships, he still considers his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Giuseppe Ercoletti

Leave a Legacy

Giuseppe Ercoletti discusses his father’s decision to volunteer with the Italian Red Cross to service in Korea. He describes his father’s strong connection to his family and particularly his attachment to his wife. As a young boy, he remembers his father’s passion for adventure and his desire to leave a legacy.



My Father Carrying a Korean Baby

Giuseppe Ercoletti marvels at the transformation of South Korea. He recalls stories from his father about minefields and a picture of his father caring for a young child. After his experience in Korea, he feels as if Korea is more modern than Italy. He highlights how modern Korea is an example of intelligent people raising themselves up.



A Beautiful Country

Giuseppe Ercoletti and his wife, Maria, elaborate on Cesar’s stories about working with women and children in Korea. Maria discusses her interactions with Giuseppe’s father before and after his service with the Italian Red Cross. She recalls him discussing how the women and children needed his help. Based on her trip with Giuseppe to Korea, she marvels at what the people have accomplished and the beauty of the country. Giuseppe interjects his impressions of Korea and identifies the best weapon of the Korean people is their strength and intelligence.



Glenn Paige

If It Hadn't Been for the War

Glenn Paige speaks about his life after the war. He shares how his experience was linked to his academic work. He even had the opportunity to interview President Truman.



Gordon Evans

Children of War

Gordon Evans describes how he felt children of war suffered the most. He tells of a young boy he came across who was alone in the cold with no coat and how he took that boy in as his own houseboy. He points out that this was not uncommon due to the orphanages being overrun.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Contemporary Issues

Gordon McIntyre discusses PTSD and and the effects of the Korean War on returning soldiers. During a return trip to Korea in 2008, he visited the DMZ and viewed Hill 355. Reminiscing on the death of a friend just before the cease fire, he reiterates that many men died in the last days before the cease fire. He considers the peace talks a big mistake. He feels that efforts at reunification are hampered by contemporary North Koreans' "skillful" ability to do nothing, and he doubts Donald Trump will be able to break that trend. He reminds students of the Korean War's lasting message: "Freedom is not free."



Grace Ackerman

PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Graham L. Hughes

Stress and Relief for the Radio Operators

Graham Hughes was a radio operator and worked in four-hour, two-man shifts. Radio operators had to find time to sleep, wash, and rest in four hours. This exhaustion caused him to get shingles. There was a constant, intense pressure for his military specialty throughout the Korean War. He even went fishing with hand grenades in the East Sea during the few hours that he had off.



Loss of Sailors and Shingles

Graham Hughes lost three sailors while he was stationed in the East Sea. None of the sailors died in combat, but all their lives clearly had an impact on him. He discovered one of the sailors who hanged himself. After getting shingles, he was sent to an island in Japan for Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



The HMNZS Pukaki During the Korean War

Graham Hughes experienced an intensive nine-month basic training as a radio operator. The training included typing and touch typing. The HMNZS Pukaki, his ship, was armed with a variety of weapons to aid in the Korean War.



Inferiority of the North Korean Navy

Graham Hughes believed that the North Korean Navy was inferior to those in the United Nations (UN). An example of this occurred when his ship fired on a specific target at the 38th Parallel. North Koreans fired in retaliation, but they missed. The great thing about being part of the UN was the cooperation of lots of countries patrolling the West Sea, including Argentina.



Gregorio Evangelista

Very Proud

Gregorio Evangelista explains he considers the Republic of Korea and its citizens to be good friends. He expresses his love for Korea, appreciating their generous treatment of Korean War veterans. He takes great pride in his service in Korea.



Guidberto Barona Silva

Impact of Experience / Impacto de la Experiencia

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva discusses the importance of the experience for the Colombian Marine Forces. He provides an account on the tensest moments of the war. He concludes that what they learned in Japan and through the war helped him professionally and allowed the marine forces to evolve. The war changed the Colombian Marines as they were able to grow and understand the logistics of warfare.

El Almirante Guidberto Barona Silva habla sobre la importancia de la experiencia para los marinos de Colombia. Discutió los momentos más tensos de la guerra. Concluye que lo que aprendieron en Japón y durante la guerra lo ayudó profesionalmente y permitió que las fuerzas marinas se desarrollaron. La experiencia cambió a los infantes de marina, porque pudieron entender la logística de la guerra.



Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva feels it is unfortunate that the Korean War has become a “forgotten war.” In his opinion, the success of South Korea is an example to other nations as it has become a significant economic power and a beacon of democracy. He believes that it can serve as a model for nations which are still developing as South Korea is a symbol of the advancements of the human spirit.

El almirante Guidberto Barona Silva siente que es lamentable que la Guerra de Corea es una “guerra olvidada”. En su opinión, el éxito de Corea del Sur es un ejemplo para otras naciones, porque el país se ha desarrollado mucho y tiene una económica robusta y una democracia fuerte. Él cree que puede servir como ejemplo para las naciones que aún se están desarrollando, porque Corea del Sur es un símbolo de los avances del espíritu humano.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Earning the Bronze Star / Como se Gano la Estrella de Bronce

Guillermo Frau Rullan discusses one of the worst battles he experienced while in Korea. He explains that he was conducting a patrol in the area near Panmunjeom with brand new soldiers the day before he was to leave the war. He remembers that he did not want to go on the mission because he did not want to be killed a day before the end of his tour. He details the battle which ensued and resulted in his earning a Bronze Star for bravery.

Guillermo Frau Rullan habla de una de las peores batallas que vivió mientras presto su servicio en Corea. Explica que estaba realizando una patrulla en la zona cercana a Panmunjeom con soldados nuevos el día antes de irse de la guerra. Recuerda que no quería ir a esa misión porque no quería que lo mataran un día antes de irse. Él describe la batalla y lo que hizo el para que le dieran la Estrella de Bronce por su valentía.



Feelings About the Draft / Sentimientos Sobre el Servicio Obligatorio

Guillermo Frau Rullan shares his pride in being an American soldier and his beliefs about mandatory military service. He notes that he was an idealist when he was young and truly believed in the United Nations and its stance that an attack on one was an attack on all. In addition, he admits that he would have felt weak if he had failed the physical exam.

Guillermo Frau Rullán comparte su orgullo por ser un soldado estadounidense y sus creencias sobre el servicio militar obligatorio. Él indica que era un idealista cuando era joven y verdaderamente creía en las Naciones Unidas y su postura de que un ataque contra uno era un ataque contra todos. Además, admite que se habría sentido débil si no hubiera aprobado el examen físico.



H. Douglas Barclay

Public Opinion

H. Douglas Barclay explains how the American public perception of the Korea was very different than during Vietnam. The country was happy, doing well, and glad to have the war over with. The people on the street were all very positive. He explains that they were stopping Communism, a mission everyone agreed upon.



Talking about the War in the Curriculum

H. Douglas Barclay talks about the importance of education regarding the important effects of military operations. He discusses his belief that information about the war in Korea and subsequent US conflicts should be in the school curriculum. He argues that the Korean War is just as significant as other wars that have been fought.



Korean Miracle

H. Douglas Barclay argues that Korea places a major role in the history of the United States. He explains that if you saw Korea today, it is a "miracle." He remembers taking a bus through Korea and seeing how built up it was compared to North Korea, recalling that North Korea then looked like South Korea in 1955.



Halil Tasci

Not "Forgotten"

Halil Tasci describes the activities of the Karsiyaka Association. The Karsiyaka works hard to provide services daily. He and his wife provide meals for the veterans five days a week. The association helps veterans with receiving benefits and salary. They also help with funerals for the soldiers when they pass. The association values the history and the sacrifices of the Korean War veterans.



Heroism of the Turkish Soldiers

Halil Tasci describes the heroism of the Turkish soldiers. He feels pride and respect for the veterans. The veterans represent the history of the Turkish soldier. Turkish soldiers have always proven to be brave. Turkish Korean War veterans make the citizen of Turkey proud because of their heroism and sacrifices.



Sacrifices of War

Halil Tasci describes the Korean War as an experience. Soldiers died before their time. He wants to share the experiences to help prevent future wars. Halil Tasci leaves with a message from the Great Leader Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, wars could be murder if for no reason or forgotten.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Growing Up in Greece

Haralambos Theodorakis was born into a farming family with 5 brothers and 3 sisters on Crete, Greece. While attending only a few years of school, he was not taught about Korea. He didn't even know about Japan or China, so his schooling was very narrow based on his home country.



Volunteering for the Greek Army and Bravery in his Heart

Haralambos Theodorakis entered the military in 1948 as an infantry soldier after 23 months of training. He found out about the breakout of the Korean War through the Army and he wanted to go there to fight without any fear. Even knowing that he could die didn't stop Haralambos Theodorakis from wanting to go over to Korea.



Modern Korea

Haralambos Theodorakis knew that he was fighting communists during the war. Now, Korea is the 10th strongest nation in the world and he feels that it was a destroyed country in 1950. Now, he's excited to see the progress that has been made in Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Message to the Korean People

Haralambos Theodorakis never experienced PTSD since the Korean War. He thanked the Korean people for allowing him to fight for them and he would do it again if needed. If he was able to speak to both North and South Korea, he would say that there were a lot of loss of life and these two countries should not reunite.



Harlan Nielsen

Afterthoughts of War

Harlan Nielsen explains his thoughts on his service in the Korean War. He explains that serving in war can be necessary to a person's life and that American service during the war went to a good cause. He also describes how knowing the bad helps one recognize the good.



Harold Don

The U.S. Marine Corps Reserves

Harold Don, during WWII, joined the United States Marine Corps Reserves while still in high school. He explains that students living in poor situations wanted to join the Reserves because of the small monthly pay and issued uniforms. He shares how he, initially, aspired to be an aviator, but his small stature and vision impairment prevented him from becoming a pilot. He recalls being called to service in June of 1950 and sent to basic training at Camp Pendleton when the conflict in Korea broke out.



Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Harold Heckman

Earning his Bronze Star

Harold Heckman talks about the mission that ended up earning him a Bronze Star. The assignment was to seek-and-capture a North Korean soldier for intelligence. He recalls how he led a mission team through the dark to captured and bring back a North Korean soldier from the North Korean front line - an effort that almost rewarded him with a Russian war-time trophy.



Harry Hawksworth

British Troopship to the Korean War

Harry Hawksworth recalls being summonsed to serve in Korean War. He recounts enduring a six to seven-week training program where he practiced trench warfare prior to departing for Korea on a troopship. He remembers the ship stopping at many locations on the seven-week journey to gather additional supplies.



Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River on Hill 144

Harry Hawksworth shares how he and the rest of his company were forced to retreat back to a village near Choksong along the Imjin River in late 1950 due to the Chinese entering the war. After digging into trenches, performing reconnaissance trips, and guarding Allied trenches, he was startled by a possible Chinese invasion of Hill 144.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment, fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. He shares how most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below due to the quick retreat. He describes how he used six crates of two-inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, he recalls that Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth recalls knowing that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. He shares how this helped him fatten up after being held captive since May 1951 and weighing only ninety-five pounds. He explains that once the Armistice was signed in July 1953, he and other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. He recalls that it was there where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Heath

The Chosin Few

Harry Heath describes the organization he belongs to which includes American soldiers who found in the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War. He shares the struggles that both he and his fellow Chosin Few members faced such as frostbite wounds and PTSD. He shares how he feels fighting in Korea made him a better person.



Harry McNeilly

Korea then Versus Korea now

Harry McNeilly recalls the Korea he saw during the war to the Korea he saw revisiting over forty years later. During the war he remembers a Korea had been made barren by being stripped of all its trees. Upon revisiting he was astounded by the development Korea had achieved in such a short time. Even more astounding was the respectful reception he received as a Korean War veteran.



The Power of a Map

Harry McNeilly's speciality during the war was Motor Transport. For the majority of the war, his job was to escort correspondent's from various countries to the front-lines. Harry McNeilly jokes about his ability to take people where they needed to go without ever studying Korean geography.



Harry Olson

Best War Our Country Was In

Harry Olson recalls the feeling of nervous trepidation, in fear of the memories that would return if he returned to Korea. He describes his final decision to make the trip back to Korea and the overwhelming appreciation the Korean people showed him for his service. He compares this experience to his experience returning home from the war and his service not being acknowledged.



Henk Bos

We Were Going There to Help

Henk Bos, a volunteer in the Dutch Infantry who was attached to the 3rd US Army, recalls his enlistment and training. He remembers the journey to Korea taking a few weeks to travel by American transport boat and the sea sickness that many experienced. He notes that it was very cold when they arrived which many felt since most were still in their summer uniforms. He shares the mixed feelings he felt as his unit was transported to the Kumhwa area.



The Best Period of My Life

Henk Bos recalls the early days following his arrival in Korea. He shares he served as an infantryman attached to the 38th Regiment of the 2nd Division of the 3rd U.S. Army. He remembers being a soldier as the best period of his life. He shares with pride how he and his fellow soldiers maybe helped save a whole nation. He recalls the challenges of living in bunkers along an ever-changing front and the death of one of his Korean buddies.



A Wonderful Feeling

Henk Bos shares he has returned to Korea twice since his service ended there in 1954. Each time it was to create documentaries based on the Korean War experience. He reminisces about his final trip in the 1980s when he saw a thriving country. He notes that at the time there was still a nighttime curfew with troops still walking the streets but that despite this he had a wonderful feeling knowing he had helped Korea continue to grow.



Henri Socquet

A Small Contribution

Henri Socquet shares the pride he takes in his contribution to the Korean War. He believes it was crucial to halt the spread of communism in East Asia, especially when Belgium itself had a communist movement. Although he hasn't returned to Korea, he mentions that the Korean Embassy regularly invites the veterans to dinner as a gesture of gratitude for their service.



Henry Martinez

Joining the Military at 16

Henry Martinez explains how he was able to get into the military at the age of 16, after deciding that he wasn’t learning anything in school and was struggling with his peers. He gives a basic overview of his basic training. He also explains why his parents allowed him to go.



Choosing to go to Korea

Henry Martinez had already completed his tour of duty when the Korean War broke out. He remembers when he first heard that the war started while he was in Japan. He also explains why he chose to go to Korea when he had the option to go home.



Unable to Deliver to the Chosin Few

Henry Martinez remembers what it was like delivering supplies during the war. He describes one particular event when he was going to deliver supplies and a Thanksgiving meal to the Chosin Few. However, he and the men had to turn around because not only were the mountains frozen, but the Chinese were quickly approaching.



Herbert Currier

Legacy of the War

Herbert Currier describes an appreciation for the efforts made by the United States to help the Koreans in their time of need. He also shares his thoughts on how the Korean War was handled by the United Nations. He shares his pride in the Koreans' successful development of their infrastructure and economy.



Herbert Schreiner

Loss of a Brother in Korea

Herbert Schreiner details his brother's death while serving in the infantry in Korea. He recounts that his brother was killed by a landmine and recalls his body being delivered back to America in a bag. He shares that the news of his brother's fate was hard to deal with at the time and that it still weighs on him to this day as he and his brother were very close.



Reflection on Korean War Experience

Herbert Schreiner describes his role with Tell America and states that the number one question he receives from students centers on whether or not he was afraid while serving in Korea. He shares that he was and that fear was present amid the troops in combat areas. He also reflects on his experience and his gratefulness for the opportunity to serve in Korea as he feels it made him a better person.



Message to Younger Generations

Herbert Schreiner offers a message to younger generations in both the United States and Korea. He admits there is a great deal of sacrifice involved when it comes to war but asks younger generations to reflect on what would have happened throughout history to the countries involved had those wars not been fought. He further explains how the service can be of value to anyone's life and emphasizes the importance of honoring our servicemen.



​Herbert Spiese

The Dungaree Navy

Herbert Spiese describes the living conditions aboard their small ship, the USS Alameda County that offered no services in contrast to an aircraft carrier. He explains how there was no pay master, no barbers, and no small stores. Herbert Spiese remembers how crewmen were forced to repair their clothes when worn out and this led to the crew being called the “Dungaree Navy.” One crewman even had to paint his worn-out, threadbare shirt to keep it from ripping even more.



“It Was Like a Palace”

Herbert Spiese describes the conditions on the ship. He explains how the ship was so small that they didn’t have great mattresses, no store, and only one cook. He states that when he was on an aircraft carrier it felt like a palace in comparison. Herbert Spiese's ship was more fit for the NATO Navy insignia, not the United States.



Proud of Our Teamwork

Herbert Spiese is very proud of his Navy service, including the camaraderie and support of his fellow crewmen. He describes of how his fellow crewmen had to work together to build a bridge to support the Marines in an amphibious mission. The bridge was quite an undertaking and many did not feel the bridge could be built, however the bridge was built.



Herbert Taylor

Thoughts on Modern Korea

Herbert Taylor reflects on what he knows about modern Korea. He shares the appreciation felt by the Korean government for the efforts made by American soldiers. He describes his understanding and pride in the economic and physical growth in Korea in such a short time.



Herbert Werner

Korea Is My Second Home

After returning home from his service in Korea, it wasn't long before Herbert Werner was back in Korea as a professional boxing referee. He described after spending 3 full years of his life there, he was amazed at the resilience of the people despite the terror of war, how much the country of South Korea has improved, their patriotism, and the respect the civilians had for the soldiers who fought for South Korea. He felt like he was treated with so much respect and built an unconditional friendship.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



Herbert Yuttal

Doing My Duty

Herbert Yuttal speaks about what he had to do in Korea and his pride in doing his duty because of the results. He explains that you have to display maturity and accept the situations as they come. He explains that while he wished he hadn't had to do it, his responsibilites included killing a lot of people. However, the progress of Korea speaks to why he had to do that.



Herman Gilliam

Celebrating Important Dates in Japan & Korea

Herman Gilliam remembers being in Korea and Japan for several milestones and holidays. He celebrated his 21st birthday and first anniversary in Japan with his wife thousands of miles away. He remembers landing in Korea on New Year’s Day and having to enjoy his turkey dinner with a pocket knife.



Legacy of the Korea War

Herbert Gilliam responds to a question regarding what he believes is the legacy of the Korean War. He explains that it should be remembered, not forgotten, as a war in which they helped fix a nation economically and stopped Communists from taking over. He believes that there are plenty of men who sacrificed a lot and that history will be kind to them.



Herman H. Holtkamp

Capturing a Chinese Soldier

Herman Holtkamp tells how he captured a Chinese soldier. He had to throw a hand grenade into the trench and then carry the prisoner out to officers that were waiting. He received an award for capturing this prisoner.



Tough as Nails

Herman Holtkamp explains how being a tough farm boy helped him do well in Korea. He tells a story of when they were on the front lines and tried to capture a Russian tank. According to Herman Holtkamp, experiences like this weren’t things that you thought about- they were just things that you did. He states that his crew was “tough as nails.”



Homer Garrett

First Glimpse of the Korean People

Homer Garrett described the Korean people when he first arrived in Korea as hungry and begging for food/supplies. It was the worst the worst catastrophic area that he had ever seen and Korea really needed a lot of help to rebuild. Korea was still in ruins 12 years after the Korean War ended.



Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Transportation Transformation

When Homer Garrett first arrived in Korea, the only means of transportation were ox-drawn carts for the wealthy, buses, and small taxis ("red birds"). The roads were only dirt roads that the Military Police shared with the civilians to transport goods and supplies. When Homer Garrett revisited Korea in 2007, (his wife visits often since she is from Korea- met and married her there and brought her back to Texas) he recalled the highway system in Seoul rivals that of our highway system in the United States, and that there are more cars on the road there, than there are in Dallas or Houston, Texas!



Homer W. Mundy

Returning Home

Homer Mundy talks about returning home and being tasked by the Army to train new recruits who were being sent to Korea. He also talks about his rapid advancement in rank due to his combat experience. Lastly, he recounts an episode at a VFW with WWII veterans upon discharge.



Hong Berm Hur

Recognition Not Going Unnoticed

Hong Berm Hur mentioned the gratitude the Republic of Korea has for the soldiers that sacrificed so much by honoring them with the Distinguished Ambassador for Peace Medal. He went on to share that during World War II, no countries ever thanked the US soldiers for extending their efforts to help rid the world of dictators. Hong Berm Hur believes that recognition and the sacrifice of soldiers should be done around the world.



Success in South Korea

Hong Berm Hur is very proud of the relationship between the US military and the South Korean government. The US soldiers and sailors worked very hard during the Korean War to protect South Korea. The alliance between the US and South Korea has led to the success in South Korea.



Howard A. Gooden

Testing Classified Weapons and Vehicles

Howard A. Gooden discusses being assigned to a testing unit after basic training where he tested new weapons and vehicles before sending them out to the troops. He recalls testing trucks and jeeps but admits that he enjoyed operating tanks the best. He explains that security was extremely tight due to the classified nature of the equipment being tested. He recalls being housed in a large barracks with the Military Police stationed between his unit and the Women's Army Corp on the opposite side.



Howard Ballard

Training ROK Officers and Korean Culture in the Late 1940s

Howard Ballard recalls training officers for the Republic of Korea (ROK) before the start of the Korean War. He remembers how the ROK hated the Japanese because they had taken everything of value back to Japan during the Japanese occupation of Korea. He recalls training the South Koreans to become officers, shoot Howitzers, and become leaders before the Korean War began (1948). He describes aspects of Korean culture, noting the attention to respect and the practice of purchasing wives through the use of pigs.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Lee

Bridge Construction Assignments

Howard Lee shares that once their equipment and materials arrived in Incheon, they were given construction assignments. He recalls being assigned to construct bridges at various points and on certain dates. He states that platoons were required to camp out in the area once the bridge was complete until they received another assignment and mission. He comments on food availability and his platoon's mail schedule while in Korea.



Water Velocity Readings

Howard Lee details his duties as a member of the 55th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company. He recounts having to take readings of the water velocity six times a day and make records for the related reports. He recalls that the readings had to be taken every four hours and describes the process.



Message to Younger Generations

Howard Lee offers a message to younger generations. He expands upon the importance of supporting one's government and remaining loyal to one's country. He adds that one must work to make changes in government if one is unhappy rather than becoming disloyal. He states that together we stand, but divided, we fall.



Howard Street

Korea Today and Legacy

Howard Street shares that he is proud of his service in Korea and has no regrets. He offers his thoughts on the firing of MacArthur by Truman. He mentions that it was a big mistake and feels that they would have been better off had he stayed in command.



Howard W. Bradshaw

English and the Mormon Church

Howard Bradshaw spoke of a professor from Cornell University and the soldiers who came to Korea during the war. They helped to organize English courses for the Korean civilians and they spoke about the Latter Day Saints. A Mormon temple is now located in Korea and it's estimated that over 125,000 Koreans are Mormons.



Service To My Country

Howard Bradshaw felt so proud to be in a country where one can serve to protect the very freedoms we enjoy. He also believed that the ability to choose and honor is the greatest gift he received serving for his country. He's so proud to be able to wave the American flag.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Laverne Bradshaw's Perspective After Visiting Korea

Letters Howard Bradshaw wrote home described in such detail what is was like in Korea. Laverne Bradshaw was well-informed about his surroundings while away. When she had the chance to see modern Korea for the first time, they described the large amount of buildings from Seoul to Pusan and they thought it was gorgeous.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

Letters from the Home Front / Cartas de la Familia

Hugo Monroy Moscoso shares the story of a mass card which was given to him by his mother. After more than sixty years, the writing is faded, but he shares that it said, “May God protect you and bring you back.” He explains that it was that card and his faith which allowed him to survive the war.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso comparte la historia de una imagen de Cristo que le mando su madre. Después de más de sesenta años, lo que estaba escrito se borró, pero el recuerda que decía “Que Dios lo proteja y te traiga.” Explica que da las gracias a esa carta y su fe en Dios que sobrevivió a la guerra.



Hussen Mohammed Omar

Atonement for Father's Killing

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes why he joined the military. Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians during the 1930's. His father imprisoned and later killed for causing problems. He wanted to help protect other families from his experience.



Money for an Orphanage

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes the condition of the people in Korea. People were in bad shape. He describes how the Ethiopian soldiers donated money to help build an orphanage. Once the orphanage was built, soldiers continued to donate money to keep it running.



Relations Between Korea and Veterans

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes how the relationship between the Korean government and the veterans is strong. The Korean government pays soldiers a salary. They also help build schools in Ethiopia and provide a scholarship.



Ian Crawford

The Difference Between Westernization and Modernization

Ian Crawford cleverly describes the difference between westernization and modernization in Korea. He explains the beauty and brilliance of the Korean people in being able to maintain their culture and history in the midst of modernization. He discusses the success of democratization and how South Korea thrives today.



Ian J. Nathan

Platoons within Ten Company

Ian Nathan arrived at Pusan in September of 1951. After three weeks organizing the vehicles and men of Ten New Zealand Transport Company, his workshop platoon moved north to merge with other platoons. There was a lot of equipment needed to maintain military vehicles, but the jobs were shared among the skilled company of about fifty men.



From Teacher Training to K Force

Ian Nathan entered teacher training college as a twenty-three-year-old, but he left to join K Force. He trained at Burnham Military Camp, and then he transferred to Darwin. In Darwin, he joined the rescued soldiers from the ship Wahine that had run aground on a reef outside Darwin. They flew to Japan and then to Pusan.



Winter Quarters: Engineering a Tent and Shower

Ian Nathan and the Workshop Unit designed warmer quarters with petrol tanks for the troops. They pieced together a building for relatively warm showers in the frigid Korean winters. Many of their projects involved re-purposed military equipment to make new supplies the soldiers needed.



Small Boys, Heavy Loads, and Weather

Ian Nathan shows pictures of his time in Korea. One photo has a small Korean boy carrying a load supported by an A-frame pack. Other photos represent living conditions such as a tent covered in winter snow and a swollen creek blocking access to the latrines in the rainy season.



Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Gulek

Down Time

Ibrahim Gulek described what soldiers did when the Armistice was signed. Many Turkish soldiers could not read or write. He was one of the few who could and taught other soldiers basic literacy. He also participated in theater style plays. Finally, he described a tug-or-war competition with American soldiers which they won despite being smaller than the Americans.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Sorrow for Friends Lost

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes returning to Korea in 2005. He went to a Korean War Memorial and looked for his friends' names, which many were missing. He wishes there was no war. Many people lost their lives and he wishes for "healthy days, days without war."



Iluminado Santiago

Rice and Beans

Iluminado Santiago elaborates on the living conditions for the United States Army’s 65th Regiment while in Korea. Since the regiment was primarily made up of Puerto Rican soldiers, he notes how the U.S. Army provided rice and beans, which reminded him of traditional Puerto Rican food. Yet when he was not attached to his regiment, he explains having to adapt to American food. Even though his platoon often slept in tents and with sleeping bags, he remembers battling the extreme cold. He clarifies how he is lucky to have served his country and help Korea fight for democracy.



Pride and Best Wishes to the Korean People

Iluminado Santiago reflects on the advancements in modern South Korea and the legacy of his service. He is proud to have served in Korea to stop the advancement of North Korea. He wishes the best for the Korean people and hopes the service of the Puerto Ricans in the 65th regiment will continue to be remembered.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Agony of the Wounded

Inga-Britt Jagland vividly recounts the emotional distress experienced by wounded soldiers, particularly those who had lost limbs and grappled with uncertainty about their futures. She emphasizes that beyond the physical care, a nurse's crucial role is to provide emotional comfort and support to those in need.



Rules for Nurses

Inga-Britt Jagland recounts the strict regulations imposed by the US military on nurses during her service. She explains nurses were strictly prohibited from bringing men into their quarters, with severe consequences such as being barred from entering the United States for those who violated this rule. Additionally, she notes members of the Swedish Red Cross received compensation from the US military.



Nurse Work

Inga-Britt Jagland recounts her nursing duties during her time in Korea. Initially assigned to the tuberculosis ward, her responsibilities expanded when the Red Cross began receiving UN soldiers engaged in North Korea. These soldiers would stay for brief periods, usually just two or three days, before being evacuated to Japan. As a nurse, Inga-Britt recalls working long hours from 6 am to 10 pm, tending to soldiers with severe injuries. She notes some of these men experienced panic episodes, requiring assistance from fellow Marines to provide restraint.



Irene Casper

Everyone Serves in Some Capacity

Irene Casper, wife of Korean War Era Veteran Joe Casper, reflects on the idea of the "Forgotten War". She believes things have begun to change. She shares her thoughts on the Korean War Memorial in Auburn, NY, and the men and women who went to war to serve their country.



Ishwar Chandra Narang

Visiting Korea

Naresh Paul recalls the trip in which he accompanied his father-in-law to Korea in June of 2013. He remembers the amount of press that was there upon their arrival. All of the war veterans were interviewed and then taken to a lunch inside the National Assembly. The President of Korea invited the veterans to inaugurate a new memorial.



Madhu Patel's Reflections of her Father and Korea

Madhu Patel reflects on the stories of her father. She visited Korea in 2010 with her father for the 60th anniversary of the beginning of the Korean War. She remembers him telling her about the war and was excited to join him on the anniversary trip. She remembers visiting all of the war memorials around the country. She speaks about how down-to-earth and appreciative the Korean people are.



Is Korea Popular in India?

Ranjana and Naresh Paul discuss the popularity of Korean goods in India. They mention that Indians love Korean-made electronics and cars and that the products are of high quality. They highlight the multiple associations for Koreans in India, both for war veterans and civilians. At the time of this interview, there were only two Indian veterans from the Korean War still living. The Korean War Legacy Foundation has interviewed both of them.



What Would Your Father Say about Korea?

Ranjana and Naresh Paul and Madhu Patel reflect on what their father would have said if he were still alive today. They share he would say he was proud of the country Korea has become. He would say it has improved in many ways since the Korean War and that the Koreans are doing amazing things today. He would note that the war veterans are treated so well that they feel a part of Korea just as they do in India and that Koreans are so warm toward the war veterans. They share that he was very emotional and sentimental about his relationship with the Korean people and how he expressed he would never forget them.



Ismael Heredia Torres

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Ismael Heredia Torres offers his views on the war and the toll it had on civilians. He states that he believes that civilians suffered the most as they faced hunger, poverty, and attacks. He is proud that the allied forces stopped the spread of communism and helped save the people of South Korea.

Ismael Heredia Torres ofrece sus opiniones sobre la guerra y lo difícil que fue para la población civil. Afirma que cree que los civiles fueron los que más sufrieron al enfrentar el hambre, la pobreza y los ataques. Él está orgulloso de que las fuerzas aliadas detuvieron la expansión del comunismo y ayudaran a salvar al pueblo de Corea del Sur.



Ismail Pasoglu

Valiant Turkish Soldiers

Ismail Pasoglu describes the Turkish soldier. He describes the opinion that the United States wanted to pull out of the war. However, the Turkish soldiers arrived and changed this attitude. The Turkish soldiers advanced after the Chinese counter-offensive. Therefore, this advancement help the US stay in the war. Koreans are proud of Turkish support in the Korean War.



Revisiting Korea with President Abdullah Gül

Ismail Pasoglu describes how he has re-visited Korea on two occasions. Korea has really transformed in the years since the war. He and his fellow veterans could not recognize any locations. On one trip to Korea, he attended with President of Turkey Abdullah Gül. Korea has rapidly developed since the Korean War.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Reflection of Service

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on his service during the Korean War and why the United States went to help South Korea. He expresses his fondness for the Korean people and culture. He shares his pride regarding the progress South Korea has made economically since the war.



Ivan Holshausen

Learning to Fly

Ivan Holshausen left South Africa as a Second Lieutenant. He recalls the South African government learning about the upcoming conversion to jets just before his departure for Korea. Additionally, he details the variety of aircraft he trained on in South Africa and later at K55 in Korea. Moreover, he explains that the South African government was responsible for paying for any lost aircraft.



Missions

Ivan Holshausen provides details of typical missions during his time in Korea, where his squadron worked closely to support ground troops in distress. Often, these planes carried napalm bombs as well. Notably, he proudly mentions being the last pilot in a Sabre to drop napalm in Korea.



J. Robert Lunney

The Heros of the Ship of Miracles

J. Robert Lunney shares his opinion of the true heroes of Huengnam evacuation and the Korean War. Furthermore, he acknowledges the sacrifices and contributions of the refugees and their descendants to the development of South Korea. Nevertheless, he expresses his appreciation to the Korean people for the gratitude shown to those who served in Korea.



Jack Allen

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Cooper

An Honor to Serve and Returning Home

Jack Cooper shares that he has no regrets from his time in the service. He emphasizes that the military was good to him as he drew some disability, bought his first house, and used the GI Bill to go to attend university. He states, frankly, that it was an honor to serve and recounts his return home in 1952.



Pride and Korea Today

Jack Cooper shares that he is proud to say that Korea is what it is today thanks to the efforts of the American military and the partnership created in Korea between both entities to stop Communism. He states that the Korean people are very grateful as they often thank him for his service. He also comments on Korea's economic status, the legacy of the Korean War, and offers a message to younger generations.



Jack Droneburg

Modern Korea

Jack Droneburg explains that though he has not returned to Korea, after reading "Korea Reborn" he feels great pride for the country and his efforts as a veteran. He goes on to describe his pride for South Korea who has succeeded in rebuilding a strong infrastructure and economy. He states his distrust for North Korea.



Jack Goodwin

Crossing the Bridge of No Return

Jack Goodwin shares memories of crossing the Bridge of No Return in 1953 after having lived as a POW since 1950. He recalls men tossing their clothes off along the road and feeling emotional upon seeing the American flag. He briefly speaks of losing his faith during his time as a POW.



Jack Howell

The Rise of South Korea

Jack Howell offers his thoughts on Korea when he left in 1951 and then returning in 2000 for the 50th Anniversary. He recalls thinking that Korea would recover but not to the degree it has in such a short time frame. He expresses that it was amazing to see the country in 2000 and how the country has evolved as a world power.



Jack Keep

Returning Home from the Korean War

Jack Keep described how the Korean War was "forgotten." He remembers the Korean War was in the headlines in 1950, the beginning of the war, but quickly was shifted to the back of the newspapers. Jack Keep recalls how when Korean War veterans returned home, civilians were not interested in their war stories or had failed to realize that they had even gone away.



Jack Kronenberger

Signal Core

Jack Kronenberger explains that due to his good letters of recommendation from being a clerk typist, he was offered the job of supply clerk for the Signal Core, which was in charge of dispensing batteries and radios. He says this was a very good position as it was like a regular job. Also, it allowed him to barter for things like extra clothing and good food.



Importance of Military Service

Jack Kronenberger describes the poverty he saw in Seoul. He describes people living in shacks, making him realize how fortunate he was. He explains how this is a completely different way of life than he had experienced. He says the experiences were so important for a young man, and believes re-instating mandatory military service would be very helpful for the youth of our country, although he doubts it will happen.



Korean

Although he has not returned to Korea, his daughter has visited, and he explains how amazing and different it is now. He and the interviewer discusses potential reunification with North Korea, and their hopes that this will happen. They discuss the need to support this in any way, and how this Foundation is geared toward preserving memories and educating young people.



Jack Pettipas

Making Sure Korean War Veterans are Never Forgotten

Jack Pettipas believes the four years he spent in the U.S. Air Force were the most important of his life. He recalls the experience offering him a foundation which helped him find his direction. He shares how, since returning from Korea, he has worked very hard to make sure Korean War Veterans are not forgotten through the raising funds for memorials and working with the government of Massachusetts to have a portion of Route 6 on Cape Cod named in their honor.



Jack Sherts

Engagement and Letters Home

Jack Sherts became engaged to his wife, Jane, just before he left for Korea. However, they kept it secret until after her birthday while he was in Korea. He would write letters to her about once a week and send her pictures that he had drawn. He also would send her money he earned. He is proud of his service and what South Korea has become after his tour was over. After he returned home, Jack and Jane got married and raised three children.



Jack Spahr

Honoring the Soldiers Who Served

Jack Spahr expresses his interest in returning to South Korea to see the changes since the Korean War. He shares that Korean people were very thankful that U.S. soldiers were there to aid. He adds that South Koreans are dedicated to honoring the U.S. soldiers who fought for them.



Jack Whelan

His Decision to Go

Jack Whelan discusses his inability to adjust to Princeton University and the decision during his junior year to test himself by joining the United States Army. He expresses that the resources provided by the GI Bill were a contributing factor in his decision to take a break from Princeton. Growing up during World War II, he shares how soldiers were his heroes, and he was not fearful of losing his life in Korea.



Boosting Morale on the Trip

Jack Whelan describes the rough ride to Korea. As a way to avoid cleaning detail, he admits he volunteered to read the news to the troops. He explains how the chaplain on board felt that sharing the news report provided a connection to home for the troops and was important for morale. Since they were traveling around Christmas, he recalls the chaplain focusing on providing more morale boosting activities and asked him to help put on a stage show. After some review and editing of his jokes by the chaplain, he comments on how he successfully performed his comedy routine for the stage show.



Write About the People

Jack Whelan notes the first day of advanced training was an exercise of being terrified and luckily he was asked during this training to be a correspondent. He explains how the American government wanted family members to feel connected and know what was going on in Korea. Because of this, he recounts how his focus was on the people and not the ugly parts of war. He elaborates on the inspiring stories he wrote about Father Waldie.



Worthy of Applause

Jack Whelan admires the transformation of South Korea. He marvels at the human capacity of Korea to make lemonade out of lemons. He suspects modern Korea has taken on some of the negative attributes of the American experience, but the average life in Korea is now so much better. He emphasizes how this success is worthy of applause.



Jake Feaster Jr.

Education and Integration

Jake Feaster Jr. was given a position as a Battalion Troop and Information Officer. His main duty was to run a school that offered the one hundred or so members of his seven-hundred-man battalion that did not have at least an 8th-grade education additional learning opportunities. He notes that at the time, the units had become integrated and that many of those without such education were African-American soldiers. Eventually, he was given a teaching assignment running a NCO training schools which prepared sergeants with advance training requirements.



Jake O’Rourke

No Regrets and Pride

Jake O'Rourke shares that he has no regrets and compares the experience to a baseball game in that one plays the game the best he can, sometimes winning and sometimes losing. He feels he played his best and had a good time while doing so. He describes being proud of his service and adds that while he has not revisited Korea since the war, he keeps up with its progress.



James “Jim” Cawyer

A Dedication of Honor

James "Jim" Cawyer recalls performing with the Air Force Band at a United Nations Cemetery dedication at Busan on Memorial Day, 1951. He describes seeing the large burial trench for approximately three thousand bodies, and how emotional it was to see so many men in body bags. He recalls the terrible stench of the area, which was due to the long period of time it took for the soldiers to have a proper burial during the Korean War.



James A. Newman

Sneak Attack on the Yalu River

James Newman was stationed on the frigate HMNZS Hawea up the Yalu River. He participated in a daring attack along the border between China and Korea. Fighting as a gunner, his ship attacked enemy positions along the Yalu River and took the enemy by complete surprise.



Nobody Argues with Padres

James Newman was sent ashore in 1951. Rare for a Navy man, he was able to see a devastated Seoul and fight on the frontlines. He had rare access due to accompanying an Anglican clergyman.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



Return to Korea

James Newman has participated in five trips back to Korea since 2002. He is very impressed with the modern nation. He feels pride in the accomplishments of the Korean people and his part in freeing South Korea from North Korean rule.



New Zealand to Texas Connection

James Newman speaks to fellow veteran Larry Kinard. They talk about their efforts with veteran organizations and share some laughs. He never expected the phone call to take place!



James Butcher

Joining the Army During the Korean War

James Butcher joined the Army as a 17 year-old after he tried to join at the age of 16, but he was too young because he felt that it was his duty to help the US after the Korean War began. This took place in 1951 and he went to basic training in Pennsylvania in order to train on their hills to prepare for the hills of Korea. After that, he went to jump school since he joined the Army Airborne. James Butcher could have stayed in the US training paratroopers, but he wanted to go to Korea so bad that he contacted his senator to help get into Korea.



James C. Humphreys

Husband's Service in Korea

Lisa Lee discusses her husband's service during the Korean War. She shares he was twenty-one when he joined the US Army and served in a combat unit in Korea. She recalls him remembering how cold it was in Korea and adds that, despite the extreme temperatures, he enjoyed Korea.



James E. Fant

The Korean War - The "Forgotten War"

James E. Fant discusses the Korean War as a police action as part of the reason it is considered the "Forgotten War." He describes his sense of duty to serve when he was drafted and draws a comparison between his own feelings and those of some individuals during the Vietnam War. He emphasizes how the nature of war has changed considerably since his time serving in Korea.



James Elmer Bishop

Joining the United States Army National Guard

James Elmer Bishop discusses enlisting in the United States Army National Guard at the age of thirteen. He remembers driving a jeep and handling supplies, and how he was considered the Sergeant's favorite and would always go above and beyond what was asked of him. He shares that he missed three National Guard meetings and ended up being drafted at the age of sixteen. He describes waiting for them to call him out on his age, but they never did.



Learning to Drive a Tank

James Elmer Bishop discusses being trained as a light truck driver and learning to drive a tank at Fort Bliss in Texas. He admits that driving a tank was difficult for him due to his height. He describes the process of starting a tank in second gear as the first gear was only meant for pulling things. He demonstrates how he would shift a M47 tank and explains how to speed shift a tank. He recalls being left out in the field and told to bring the tank back, forcing him to figure out how to drive it.



James Ferris

Troopships and Preparation for Deployment into the Korean War

James Ferris describes being put on an American troopship with five thousand Marines. He recalls traveling twenty-nine days to reach Japan. He shares that once in Japan, his division was so large the soldiers were split and sent to multiple locations around the country to wait for deployment to Korea.



Keeping the Memory of the Korean War Veterans Alive

James Ferris shares about his daily work to keep the memory of the Korean War alive, honor the fallen soldiers, and celebrate all the accomplishments of South Korea. He explains as State and then National Korean War Veteran Association President, he strives to reach out to all the Korean War defense veterans (soldiers after 1954) who have served at the DMZ. He expresses that the longevity of the Korean War legacy is with the next generation.



The Difficult Job as a US Marine

James Ferris shares that his assignment did not allow him to stay in Korea for a long time. He explains that his job had him flying in and out of the entire country. He shares he earned good money for the 1950s as a corporal and recalls how he sent most of it home to his family. He adds that once he arrived back home, he went on his first date with a girl he wrote to for over a year while serving in the war.



James Friedel

"A Most Rewarding Christmas"

James Friedel tells the story of when he volunteered to host a Japanese orphan for Christmas festivities on the USS Hector in Sasebo, Japan, in 1950. He recalls how it was his first Christmas away from home and how homesick he was at the time. He shares he and other volunteers spent the day with the orphans, watching movies, opening presents, and enjoying a Christmas meal together. He adds that it was a rewarding experience and shares that it was emotional to see the orphans leave.



Repairing Damaged Ships at Sea

James Friedel speaks generally about the process of repairing ships off the coast of Korea while deployed on the USS Hector, an auxiliary repair ship. He discusses how divers would conduct underwater welding to repair damaged ships. He adds he did not participate in this specific duty.



James Jolly

Pure Destruction: Seoul

James Jolly describes the recapturing of Seoul in 1950 and the destruction that was endured. He explains that the majority of the city's buildings were destroyed in order to get rid of the enemy who were inside of them. He goes on to describe his pride for the strength and will of the Korean people to rebuild.



James L. Owen

Most Difficult Thing

James L. Owen explains that the most difficult thing of his service was knowing it had to be done. He shares it was hard to accept the fact that one must "kill or be killed." He describes how so many officers were killed, that job responsibilities constantly changed, and that one had to persevere.



James L. Stone

Refusing to Give Up

James L. Stone recounts a night attack made by roughly eight hundred Chinese. He describes how he was shot in the leg and neck and remembers another soldier placing a small cloth on his neck to stop the bleeding. He recalls being surrounded by Chinese soldiers but shares that he and his men refused to give up despite the circumstance.



A Survival Miracle

James L. Stone says that it was a miracle he survived his wounds. He attributes his survival partially to being an officer, reasoning that the Chinese were eager for information. He shares that another soldier helped him stay alive and recalls being captured by the Chinese where he was carried up to Yalu River to a prison camp. He remembers receiving little medical treatment for his wounds but states that he was given some food and was treated a little better than others due to being an officer.



Medal of Honor

James L. Stone states that he was unaware he had been awarded the Medal of Honor. He shares that he was recognized for a few things that he did while serving and lists several that may have contributed to him being awarded the Medal of Honor. He specifically recounts keeping his men together as no one surrendered despited the one hundred percent casualty rate.



POW Stories

James L. Stone shares a few memories regarding his time in the POW camp with other soldiers from various countries. He recounts stealing corn in a North Korean field with a Turkish officer and being reprimanded. He recalls British officers being overly concerned with their handlebar mustaches and comments on their laziness. He admits that it was fairly easy to escape the POW camps; however, one realized the farther he was away from camp, the farther away he was from food.



James Low

Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



James M. Cross

If Given a Chance to Meet the Chinese Today

James Cross states that if he met a Chinese soldier from the war today, he would shake his hand. He shares that he was thinking one thing while the Chinese soldiers were thinking another. He comments on the Chinese having little by way of uniforms and shares how proud he was to be an American soldier. He discusses the last night of his tour where he killed nine Chinese soldiers who had advanced all the way into the American trenches.



Proud to Be a Veteran

James Cross comments on his pride as a veteran. He shares that even though he was drafted, he would not like to see his children or others drafted. He commends South Korea for its developments since the war.



James Parker

Letters Home

James Parker recalls writing letters home to his sister. He produces a folder containing a letter he had written and offers the viewing of a magazine he was sent from the States pertaining to Heartbreak Ridge. He utilizes the map to show the routes he and other soldiers took during the campaign.



James Purcell

Retracing my Steps

James Purcell describes the devastation after the war that he witnessed around Seoul. He arrived after the war had ended to an almost devasted airport that has now been transformed into the largest airport in the world. He was so impressed with the Korean people and their industrious nature.



James Sharp

African American Marines

James Sharp recounts his basic training and speaks highly of his placement. He shares that he was the only African American in his Marine platoon at the time but adds that once in Korea, he was joined by four other African Americans for a total of five in his company. He laments that two of them were killed while there.



Integration in the Marine Corps

James Sharp describes the official integration of African American soldiers in the Marine Corps prior to the Korean War. He adds that the Korean War was the first war where African Americans could participate in combat both as a unit and as an individual assigned to units. He also offers an account of African American contributions in previous wars.



Machine Gunner Expertise

James Sharp details an ambush scenario a unit found itself amid one night while out on patrol. He recalls Chinese machine gunners furtively stationed on a dike in the rice patties, waiting on half of the patrol to cross before attacking. He describes his own firing expertise and his ability to take out the gunners on the dike to secure the location.



Reflections and View of Korea Today

James Sharp reflects on the the Korean War and discusses the positive outcome. He expresses that his revisit to Korea was a life-lifting experience as he was able to witness the development that has occurred since the war. He shares that soldiers often carry bad memories of war, wondering if their service was of worth, but he expresses that after seeing Korea's development during his revisit, he is certain his service was of worth.



James Shipton

The Experience Influenced Him to Join

James Shipton reminisces about the influences of the British Broadcast Corporation, BBC, programs during WWII. He shares memories of a radio program about the adventures of the Royal Canadian Air Force which influenced his decision to join the Canadian Air Cadets in 1943. Additionally, he highlights the experiences at Mountain View Cadet Flying Training Center in Prince Edward, Ontario, with the Air Cadets, solidifying his decision to join the Royal Canadian Air Force.



Flights to Japan

James Shipton provides an overview of the various locations he was assigned during his career with the Royal Canadian Air Force. Among these assignments, he recalls completing twelve trips into Japan from Washington state as a radioman. He discusses the activity in 1950 of the Military Air Transport System at McChord Air Force Base and the flight plans to Japan.



James T. Gill

Revisiting Korea

James Gill recounts the high rises and highways of modern Korea he saw during his revisit. He describes seeing the hills covered with trees and speaks of Korea's reforestation project. He also details the consequences for cutting down a tree without permission from the government.



James T. Markley

My Job as a Minesweeper

James Markley describes all of the jobs that he had on the navy ship, the USS Sagacity. He was a senior life saving yeoman, and he did administrative duties as well. His ship had 4 officers and 37 crew members.



Message to the Younger Generation

James Markley gives students a message on the achievements of the Korean people. After the devastation of World War II and the Korean war, the Korean people have set a great example for the entire world. They have become a resilient nation of people.



James Vance Scott

Post-War Reflections

James Vance Scott describes his reflections on how servicemen are treated by the American public. He shares that the Korean War was not considered a victory because of the way it ended, which contributed to it being called "the forgotten war". He reflects on the shrinking size of his chapter of the Korean War Veterans Association because of continually losing veterans.



Janice Feagin Britton

First Nurse to Fly Over the 38th Parallel

Janice Briton recalls being featured in a newspaper article as the first nurse to fly over the 38th parallel. She admits she did nothing different than other nurses, and it was just by chance she was assigned to be on this particular flight. She did not regard her job as dangerous and reflects on knowing the U.S. Marines had secured the area before her flight. She shows pride in knowing she played a role in taking injured soldiers from a bad situation to a better one. She shares she knew her job was to go as close to the front lines as safely possible to evacuate wounded soldiers.



Making Sure Hungry Patients Had Food

Janice Briton remembers learning wounded soldiers had not eaten for a log time while waiting to evacuate wounded soldiers to Japan. She recalls going to the mess hall and telling them she needed food for her hungry patients. She remembers the mess hall did not have mess kits and how wounded soldiers used celery, with one soldier even using his toothbrush holder to eat. She recalls telling a soldier she was glad the meal was not a steak dinner since there were no knives. She recalls the soldier responding the meal was better than a steak dinner since he was so hungry.



Jean Clement

Dangerous Moment

Jean Clements recalls a dangerous moment he experienced while serving in Korea. He shares that the night patrols were especially dangerous and recounts one in particular where he and fellow soldiers were assigned to check a particular post near the Imgingang River in no man's land due to an issue with the communication lines. He recounts having to maneuver through rice fields and securing one side with his machine gun as they made their way to the post.



Imjingang River Attack

Jean Clement shares an account of soldiers on patrol being attacked by the Chinese. He describes the camp where he was assigned, sandwiched between the Imjingang River and a mountain, and recalls that it was not located in the best position for defense against an attack. He shares that Luxembourg soldiers were conducting a patrol across a nearby floating bridge on the Imjingang River, and they were attacked by the Chinese. He recalls helping a soldier out of the river after he had jumped in to protect himself from the Chinese fire. He recounts destroying the equipment they could not carry with them prior to leaving so that it would not fall in Chinese hands and describes how the Belgium soldiers carved a path through the mountain to safety.



Reflecting on the Good

Jean Clement reflects on the good he experienced while serving in Korea. He speaks of camaraderie and being there for each other when it mattered most. He adds that he enjoyed time in the rest camps away from the front lines where they could wash their clothes and engage with American soldiers.



Jean Paul White

The Greatest Reward: Korean Progress

Jean Paul White describes how he felt rewarded after the war. He expliains the change in Seoul from then to know. He describes a place of ashes with little remaining and to see the huge city now so modernized is a reward. He was proud of the South Korean people. He explains feeling has done so much with the freedom that he fought for.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

Concerns About Recognition KDSVA

Jeff Brodeur wishes that the US Government could replicate the Korean Service Veterans Memorial that is in Seoul here in Washington DC. There isn't any monuments in the US represents the Korean Service Veterans. He believes that veterans won't want to join or become members if they're not being recognized.



We were there during the Cold War

Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner received word that the North Koreans wanted to participate in the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, so they were heavily guarding the 38th parallel. They were doing this to ensure that the Olympics would remain safe. The 38th parallel is the dividing line between North and South Korea that we created during the signing of the armistice on July 29, 1953.



Korean War Veterans Response to KDVA Accomplishments

Al Jenner responds that if the veterans could see the impact that was made by their efforts to deter against communism, they would see a country that is now the 11th largest economy in the world. They would also see that it's the first nation to go from a debtor nation to a creditor nation while enjoying the freedoms they have there. Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner are very proud of the progress and success in South Korea.



Jeremiah Johnson

Finding North Korean Shooters

Jeremiah Johnson describes the poor attitude of many soldiers who did not want to be there and comments on how they would complain. He remembers how he was bored calling artillery locations, so he asked his Lieutenant if he could figure out his own shots. He describes how he came up with a system to refine the process of locating North Korean guns.



Jerome Jerry Clement Olinger

The Good and Bad of the Ship

Jerome Olinger describes his nineteen days on the ship over to Japan. He remembers the ship hitting a storm, resulting in a large dent. Despite this scary event, there were good times too including showing movies on the projector.



Jerry Bowen

Personal Impact of the War

Jerry Bowen the 'horrors of war' always being in the back of his mind. He will only talk about it with others that have been through it. He says he is puzzled at how the Korean War is often forgotten, saying his family never has.



Jerry Kaspen

Photo pride for Olympic hopeful

Jerry Kaspen describes with pride his photograph that was published by a military news group. Soldiers would visit different units to spread around current events and boost moral. The subject of the photo was a solider who was trying to break into the Olympic Team.



How the War Changed His Life

Jerry Kaspen discusses how his experience as a photographer carried him through the rest of his life. As a student, he used his photography skills to supplement his college costs that were not covered by the GI Bill. He even used the skills after retiring from teaching.



Jesse Sanchez Berain

Re-Enlisting in the U.S. Army at the Onset of the Korean War

Jesse Sanchez Berain reflects on his decision to join the United States Air Force immediately after graduating from high school in 1946. He explains how his experience with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in high school allowed him to skip basic training and become a drill and physical training instructor at Lackland Air Force Base. He describes how he re-enlisted in the military with the U.S. Army in 1950 when the Korean War began.



Self-Discipline

Jesse Sanchez Berain shares the life lessons he learned while serving in the military. He discusses how self-discipline helped him to attain the rank of Master Sergeant in just two years. He explains how he has used his self-discipline later in life to help others, such as by supporting the Farm Workers Movement in Twin Falls, Idaho.



Jesús María Cabra Vargas

The Armistice / El Armisticio

Jesús María Cabra Vargas shares the joy and relief troops felt when they heard about the signing of the Armistice. He explains that troops were required to conduct skirmishes at night. He reminisces how there are no words to explain the joy they felt knowing that their lives were no longer on the line.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas comparte la alegría y el alivio que sintieron al enterarse de la firma del Armisticio. Explica que se requerían tropas para realizar escaramuzas por la noche. Recuerda que no hay palabras para explicar la alegría que sintieron al saber que no iban a perder sus vidas.



The Progress of South Korea / El Progreso de Corea del Sur

Jesús María Cabra Vargas speaks about his views on modern Korea. He states he is incredibly proud of their advancements and believes the changes are marvelous. He attributes the progress to the fact that Korea had to start over and decided to industrialize every aspect of its economy.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas habla sobre la transformación de Corea del Sur. Afirma que está muy orgulloso de los avances del país y cree que los cambios son maravillosos. Él atribuye el progreso al hecho de que Corea tuvo que empezar de nuevo y decidió industrializar todos los aspectos de su economía.



Legacy of the War / EL Legado de la Guerra

Jesús María Cabra Vargas discusses what he believes is the legacy of the war. He explains that it was important for the free world to fight against communism. He implores future generations to protect God and democracy as there continue to be communist leaders that wish to brain wash their people.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas habla de lo que él cree que es el legado de la guerra. Él explica que fue importante que el mundo libre lucho contra el comunismo. En su mensaje para las generaciones futuras les pide que protejan a Dios y la democracia ya que sigue habiendo líderes comunistas que desean lavarle el cerebro a su gente.



Jesus Rodriguez

75 Demerits in a Week

Jesus Roriguez describes his strategy for getting out of Leadership Camp while training for Korea. He talks about the demerit system and how he manipulated it. However, he then turned it around when he realizes he had to pass no matter what. (Explicit language)



"There was a lot of them, and just one of me"

Jesus Rodriguez remembers the battle in which he won him a Silver Star for his bravery. He fought against the North Koreans for 5 hours after his company abandoned him in the middle of the night. Jesus Rodriguez reflects on the translator's role that night and the potential for him to have been a spy.



Korea over the years

Jesus Rodriguez talks about his return to Korea. He tells about how he was invited to go to Korea after talking with the major of Seoul at a Veterans Day function in his city, Lahabra, which happens to be the sister city to Seoul. He discusses the changes he saw in Korea during his visit and describes the hospitality and gratefulness of the Korean people during his visit.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Farmers vs City Boys in a POW Camp

The soldiers who had once been farmers and ranchers back at home knew which vegetation to eat on that ground while many of the city boys lacked any of this knowledge. Georgia and Linda Montoya said that before the war, Jimmie Montoya would ride out to the ranch, shine shoes, work on the farm, or do whatever it takes to help make ends meet. Whatever amount he was paid during the war, he sent home to his mother and the kids.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



An Outpost Harry Survivor

Jimmy A. Garcia shares his experience of patrolling for Chinese activity at night. He recalls a time when he was ordered to patrol alone, which was a perilous and nerve-racking task. He provides an overview of the sieges of Outpost Harry that took place in June 1953. He speaks of the casualties his company suffered as they defended the hill and expresses pride in being called a survivor of Outpost Harry.



The Last Days of Service

Jimmy A. Garcia pays tribute to two of his closest comrades who lost their lives during the Korean War. He acknowledges they all experienced moments of fear but did their best to conceal their emotions. He narrates two incidents where some soldiers he knew had trouble coping with the uncertainty and horror of war. He shares how he found solace and happiness by joining the regimental choir during his last days of service in Korea which brought joy to those who heard the performances.



Joan A. Clark

Job Duties as Protocol Officer and Receiving a New Job in Europe

Joan Clark discusses how she came into her job as Protocol Officer in the pilot training program. She summarizes her responsibilities and recalls that when she left that position, they replaced her with three people. She recounts how she was sent to Paris, traveling with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and notes that she became Protocol Officer for USAFE (United States Air Forces in Europe), helping to oversee all of the airbases in Europe.



Deciding to Join the United States Air Force

Joan Clark recalls the circumstances that led to her deciding to join the Air Force. She shares how she was unsure of the medical field despite the fact it was the field she was majoring in in college. She recalls taking an aptitude test which told her that she was a "jack of all trades." She recounts deciding to join the Air Force because she saw it as something that would provide an education, pay her, and allow her to see the world.



Joan Taylor

The Importance of Care Packages

Joan Taylor describes what it was like to be a young bride of a Korean War soldier. She recalls living with her parents while her first husband was away at war. She describes the care packages she made for her husband that included warm clothes because winter military clothes had yet been provided.



Personal Understanding of the Korean War

Joan Taylor emphasizes the importance of the work of the Korean War Legacy Foundation because she believes the program will create a personal understanding of the Korean War through interviews of veterans. She recalls taking a trip to South Korea with her second husband and how the visit enabled her to better understand what he went through during the war. She describes the generous hospitality of the Korean people.



Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor shares her first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. She explains his father passed away, and his mother was left to run a business and needed help. She communicates that her first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting; however, he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe C. Tarver

Keeping the Aircraft Going

Joe C. Tarver details the responsibilities he was given after receiving basic training in San Diego, California. As an aircraft captain assigned to a squadron aboard the USS Boxer, he was to conduct maintenance inspections on incoming aircraft. He explains how important proper coordination efforts were on deck, so that the incoming aircraft could land safely aboard the aircraft carrier.



Joe Henmuller

Life Lessons

Joe Henmuller expresses that he learned a lot from the military. He describes the skills he learned which included how to follow orders and teamwork. He shares how he thinks it would be a good idea for every person to serve one or two years in the military.



Joe Larkin

"Battle of the Hook" at Panmunjeom

An outcrop of land between two main lines resembled a hook.
Joe Larkin's Marine Division was sent to Panmunjom to hold the line of resistance against the Chinese. His unit helped with reinforcements by bringing in timber that they would move at night so the enemy could not detect their movement. The outpost was attacked and both sides suffered casualties, but with the help of his division, the UN troops took over the area.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Love Your Country

When asked what lesson he learned from his experience, Joe Lopez replied emotionally to love your country. He has seen a lot and if you go to another country, you would discover how lucky you are to be living in America and people should be thankful to those who served in the US military. Joe Lopez said that It is your duty to learn about your country and become educated so that you know the decisions that were made on behalf of the US. Many soldiers who are injured or don't return, did it for their country.



Joining the Military: A Family Affair

Joe Lopez joined the Army as a 17 year old boy because he wanted to be like his brothers. On his birthday, his dad signed the papers that allowed Joe Lopez to join and go to jump school. Joe Lopez continued to reenlist every 3 to 4 years until he was in the military for 32 years and worked his way up to the top!



Joe O. Apodaca

Boot Camp at Great Lakes

Joe O. Apodaca, in 1951, went through his U.S. Navy recruit training at Great Lakes. He shares how, as a new recruit, he received the traditional short “induction” haircut. He recalls how, during his time at bootcamp, he and his fellow recruits were given medical shots that made many of them feel ill, including himself. He explains how swimming tests were also conducted, and since he was a strong swimmer who had lettered in the sport in high school, he did well. However, he remembers those who struggled with swimming received tougher treatment from the officers.



Stationed on an APA Attack Transport

Joe O. Apodaca shares he was transferred to the USS Henrico, an APA 45 attack transport in San Diego, California, after completing boot camp. He remembers when he arrived in San Diego, he learned the ship had sailed to Bremerton, Washington, for repairs. He recalls how he traveled by train to Bremerton and boarded the USS Henrico the next day. He fondly remembers being awestruck by the magnificent ocean when he first saw it in San Diego.



John A. Ciburk

The One Good Thing about General MacArthur

John A. Ciburk describes where he was based in Japan. He shares that he generally disliked General MacArthur but describes the one thing he really appreciated about the him. He recalls General MacArthur's disdain for wearing ties in the summer, and due to this, no one had to do so.



John Bierman

Deceptive Amphibious Assaults

The ship that John Bierman was stationed on made deceptive amphibious assaults 3 different times on the coast of Korea during the war. This was a way to draw opposing troops away from the front line. North Korean troops were tricked, so John Bierman received incoming fire and was awarded the Combat Action Ribbon in 1951.



Military College: Preparing For Military LIfe

John Bierman grew up during WWII and joined the Boy Scouts of America so that he could collect aluminum along with bacon fat. During the Great Depression, he would eat one piece of bread with warm milk poured over with as dinner. After graduating high school, he graduated with a pre-engineering degree at a military college in 1947.



John Blankenship

Targets of Opportunity

John Blankenship participated in night time bombing raids to go after "targets of opportunity." There are differences in capability between the A26 which was piloted by John Blankenship, and the Soviet-built MIGS that were being used by the North Korean pilots. John Blankenship's A26 flew only at night because the Korean MIGS didn't fly at night, so it kept his A26 safe.



Night Missions with Napalm

John Blankenship knew that he was always in danger and a few of his friends were shot down. He flew every night and ended up flying 87 missions in about 1 year. The A26 held 14 gun, 4-6 bombs, and napalm. When enemy convoys stopped and were trapped, John Blankenship dropped napalm on North Korean troops.



Typical Day as a Pilot

John Blankenship remembers spending lots of time sleeping when he wasn't flying missions. He was provided food from Japan that was made my cooks in the Air Force and he was given one hot meal a day. The pilots often ate WWII C-Rations to supplement meals. An important mission that John Blankenship was part of included the bombing of Pyungyang and a town near the Yalu River.



John Boyd

Traveling to Korea in 1952

John Boyd details his travels to Korea. He was sent by ship and many trains to meet up with his brigade at the 1st Commonwealth Division Headquarters north of Uijeongbu. As he had never traveled so far from home, he recalls the excitement of seeing dolphins, flying fish, and much more. He explains the various places they stopped on the way to Korea.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd recalls the devastating Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. He notes that they were always getting messages in regarding how had been wounded or killed. He remembers that artillery fire often went over their location. John Boyd details his duties during his final days in Korea.



John C. Delagrange

Identifying Targets During Korean War

John Delagrange shares he was trained as a photo interpreter and had difficulty identifying targets in North Korea. Using reconnaissance photos of battles throughout the mountains and hills, the United States Army Aerial Photo Interpretation Company (API) Air Intelligence Section pieced together maps in order to create a massive map of Korea. Every ravine, elevation, mountain, and hill was labeled by this photo analysis company.



North Korean Defector - Kenneth Rowe

John Delagrange remembers the day No Kum Sok landed his MiG 15 fighter at Kimpo Air Base defecting to South Korea in 1953. No Kum Sok (Kenneth Rowe) wrote a book, and he heard about the incident first-hand during their phone conversations later in life. No Kum Sok was a North Korean pilot during the Korean War, but he stole a MiG-15 and flew over the DMZ to Kimpo Air Base to earn his freedom.



John Cantrall

Returning to Modern Korea

Mr. and Mrs. John Cantrall described their trip to Korea in 2005. Although they did not get the opportunity to visit Pusan, they were impressed by how modern and industrialized everything was that they saw. They felt appreciated by the Korean citizens because of John Cantrall's service right after the Korean War ended through 1955.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

John Candrall was very sad when he went to Korea at the end of the Korean War in 1953 because he saw what true poverty looked like even compared to the US during the Great Depression. The advancement that took place from 1955 until he went back for his revisit was huge and John Candrall included the advancements in transportation in addition to housing. He was very proud of his service in the military and the help that he was able to provide for Korea between 1953 and 1955.



John Cole

The Legacy of the Handmade South Korean Flag

John Cole recounts how a South Korean soldier wanted to trade his handmade South Korean Flag for his U.S. flag in order to protect himself so that people did not think he was Chinese. He shares how he agreed to trade the flag. He describes how he held that flag until he presented it to a Korean War Veterans Organization.



John E. Gragg

Executive Order 9981

John Gragg discusses the impact of Executive Order 9981 in 1948 which called for integration of troops throughout all of the U.S. Armed Forces. He reflects on how the major units in Korea did not follow the order, and other than White officers and later one White soldier, his unit remained all-Black. He recalls his happiest moment in Korea was when he left in July of 1951. He explains how he was able to leave based on points earned due to combat and training. He remembers being asked to stay an extra month because his commander needed top-trained people like him. He admits that staying the extra month also came with a promotion.



John Fischetti

Specialty: 3D Aerial Photography

John Fischetti details the responsibilities of his job as a photography air camera technician. He recalls what equipment he had to install on the jets that were sent to take aerial photographs over the Korean Peninsula. He recounts how when the film arrived back huge layered prints of it were used to produce three-dimensional images.



Brother's Experience in Korea

John Fischetti describes his brother's (Peter Fischetti) service experience in Korea. He recounts his brother being badly wounded after stepping on a mine. He details visiting his brother, recalling how his leg was amputated and his body filled with shrapnel metal. He shares how immensely proud of his brother's service he is.



John Funk

Fear, Pride, and Additional Thoughts on the War

John Funk describes his mixed emotions about going into war. He shares that anxiety, fear, patriotism, and pride radiated through his mind as he entered into the Korean War. He states that he was able to overcome his apprehensions about the war because he knew he was doing something good for the world, and he briefly shares his thoughts on the attitude towards the war on the home front.



First Impressions of Korea

John Funk shares how he saw sadness the first time he laid eyes on Korea and the Korean people. He recalls people being hungry, sad, and poor, and he offers an account of their impoverished living conditions at the time. His adds that his time in Korea made him and other soldiers realize that they needed to help the Korean people.



MASH Description

John Funk offers an account of the 8076 Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH). He describes the facility and the nearby area. He recalls soldiers being admitted with their uniforms still on as well as sometimes still in their sleeping bags and details the triage system utilized to determine who was tended to first. He additionally speaks of the role women played as nurses.



Painful Memories

John Funk shares how he saw more devastation and pain than the average soldier because he was with the medical unit. He recounts the stories of three patients which have remained with him through the many years since his service. He recalls one centering on a Korean solider he transported in the middle of the night, another regarding an American soldier that had attempted suicide and was airlifted to his team, and finally, the image of a Korean child who lost both parents.



John Hartup, Jr.

Comparing Korea: Before, During, and After the War

John Hartup, Jr., compares the Korea he witnessed in 1946-1947 to the Korea he experienced in 1951. He recalls seeing many refugees going south in 1951. He remembers the city of Incheon as a bustling metropolis in 1947, and in 1951, it was completely leveled and destroyed. He remembers the same about Seoul. He recounts how there was no farming or agriculture taking place in 1951. He shares that he revisited Korea three times after the war and emphasizes that he was very impressed by modern Korea. He notes that it is difficult to compare modern Korea to the devastation he witnessed during the war.



John Howard Coble

Congressman Coble's Message to America's Youth

Veteran and Congressman John Coble provides a message to the younger generations of America on freedom.



John I. Reidy

Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

No Longer Embarrassed

John J. Baker offers a passionate reply when asked about what Korea means to him. He explains feeling embarrassed about the war and ashamed to come home. He recalls feeling concerned about what his family would think about him. However, he shares he is proud today of what Korea has accomplished.



John Jefferies

G.I. Bill Benefits

John Jefferies shares that he used his G.I. Bill benefits to receive a Master's degree in hospital administration at the University of Minnesota. He recounts the route he took to landing successful employment over the years. He is thankful for the G.I. Bill and comments on how his time in the military and serving during the war helped prepare him for his career.



John K. Barton

Pride in Service

John K. Barton describes how he feels about his service and mission in Korea. He explains that America had to contribute to better the country and people of Korea. He explains that he is proud that he served his country.



John McWaters

Korea, Then and Now

John McWaters compares his memories of Korea in the 1950s and Korea today. When he left Korea after the war, there were only three buildings still standing in Seoul. When he returned in 2016, he witnessed a very modern and highly developed city. He shares how continuously impressed he is by the changes Korea is undergoing.



Why Should We Study the Korean War?

John McWaters speaks about why he believes students need to learn about Korea and why it has become known as the forgotten war. He reflects on his experiences talking to high school students about the Korean War. He wants to correct the public perception of the forgotten war and frame it as an important victory, as we saved a fine country and enabled it to become the impressive nation is it today. He recollects the brilliant reception he received from South Koreans on his Revisit Korea trip.



While in the Combat Engineer Battalion

John McWaters shares that while near Heungnam, he provided jackhammers and an air compressor truck to some Marines who needed help breaking up large rocks. He reported to General Oliver Prince Smith and assisted him with running the equipment. He recalls the general looking up and thanking God for his help.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



Can I Please Join the Australian Navy?

John Moller recalls joining the Australian Navy when he was seventeen with his parents' permission. He describes working in the supply branch aboard the HMS Sydney, which was an aircraft carrier with three flight squadrons. He shares that he on the aircraft carrier along with multiple Spitfire planes.



Life on an Aircraft Carrier

John Moller describes being shipped out for two weeks while stationed aboard the HMS Sydney during the Korean War. He recalls how he would provide supplies for the sailors on the ship while Spitfires bombed the Korean mainland. He adds that he was able to enjoy a hot shower daily and clean hammocks every two weeks.



John Munro

When the Nation Calls, You Answer

John Munro shares how he was called to service for the Australian National Army in 1952 and was going to be stationed on the home front. Since he wanted to fight in the Korean War, he describes joining the Regular Army in 1953. He recalls being sent to Korean as a nineteen year old in 1954 after the ceasefire to patrol the demilitarized zone (DMZ).



Guarding the 38th Parallel

John Munro recalls that his mission was to patrol the DMZ at Panmunjeom to make sure the border was safe. He recounts serving in a variety of battalions depending on where he was stationed in Korea. He shares that while serving on the DMZ, he also added mines along the line to keep away North Koreans who might have snuck over the 38th parallel.



Watching Over the Enemy

John Munro recounts how he tried to go home and work at his parents' cafe and service station. He shares that he decided to go back into the military as an Australian Army Reservist. He recalls being stationed with the 38th Battalion, F Unit, and being sent to the DMZ to patrol right across from the North Koreans. He shares that it was rough protecting South Korea through the freezing winters and steamy summers.



John Naastad

Then and Now

John Naalstad describes the state of Korea during this time. He recounts a local Sunday school service he attended and the rough state of the church. Later, he contrasts that image with his pride in what Korea has become today.



John P. Baker

Legacy of Service

John P. Baker discusses the legacy he is leaving behind as a Korean War veteran. He explains the significance of America helping to halt the spread of communism and the importance of the strong alliance between South Korea and the United States. He recalls what it was like to come home from the Korean War, hardly recognized for his service and how that has changed today.



John Parker

Life of a Pilot

John Parker explains what it was like as a pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force. He remembers that they were briefed and told where to fly, including areas like Hamheung and Pyungyang, where they often covered for the Sabre planes. He remembers a time when the RAAF shot down three Russian MiGs.



No Longer Bitter

John Parker explains that when he left Korea he hated it because his friends had been killed. However, he shares how his feelings have changed since he has revisited Korea twice. He believes that his friends died for the betterment for the country. He comments on on his amazement of Seoul and adds that the mountains had trees on them again.



John Pritchard

Christmas in Korea

John Pritchard spent Christmas off for 24 hours due to his commander speaking up for his men. To show that he cared for the commander, John Pritchard and a few lads went to Seoul to buy a Christmas present for him, 400 cigarettes, and this made him cry.



R&R in Tokyo

John Pritchard took a 5-day R&R in Tokyo which was his first 5 days off after an entire year in Korea. Armed with a lot of cash, he and his mates were ready for a break. From the food to the stiff bedsheets, readjusting to normal life and conditions was odd for the men.



John Shea

War in Seoul

John Shea describes the conditions in Seoul, saying everything was wiped out. It was what he expected, he says, knowing what war was all about through his brother's stories of WWII and from watching war movies. He shares he knows why he was there, to do his job to free the Korean people.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



Memories of South Korea, 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes his experience getting to South Korea in 1957. He recalls seeing meats hanging in the market, honey buckets, and the smell of kimchi. He describes his impression of Korean people and his appreciation for their warm sentiment toward Korean War Veterans.



We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Tobia

Leaving Korea and Remembering a Reemerging Seoul

John Tobia recalls being given his discharge papers and being sent home in 1953. He talks about the weapons he collected from the Russian and Chinese soldiers. His commanding officer told him he could not take any weapons for souvenirs; otherwise, he would end up in prison for some time. He also recalls how the South Koreans quickly began rebuilding Seoul as he was leaving.



Memories of Korean Friends from the War

John Tobia gets very emotional regarding a memory he had of a young boy his company encountered while clearing buildings. He shares that the boy lived with his company for about a month. He also recalls a young Korean interpreter that worked with his company who became as close to him as a brother would be. He recalls giving cigarettes to the interpreter so he could trade them for food for his family.



Johnney Lee

Stationed at Panmunjeom

Johnney Lee recalls leaving technical school to join the United States 8th Army. He shares that he was stationed at Panmunjeom and offers an account of his duties while there. He describes his role as quartermaster and recounts sorting supplies.



Working for the United States 8th Army

Johnney Lee recalls being paid for his work with the United States 8th Army. He describes the living conditions at the time and states that he was assigned to at tent with US soldiers. He remembers traveling back and forth each day between camps for negotiations, leaving in the morning for Panmunjeom and returning in the evening to base camp.



Reflecting on Experiences

Johnney Lee reflects on his experiences while working with the United States 8th Army at Panmunjeom. He recalls that in his younger years when asked about his time serving, he would simply say that he was working and trying to survive. He shares that he now speaks of how good the experience was for him as he understands the difference between Communism and Democracy.



Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro

Moments of Peace and Danger / Momentos de Paz y Peligro

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro juxtaposes the best and worst moments of his time in Korea. He discusses the worst battles he experienced and those experienced by the Batallón Colombia. He then describes the happiest day he had which occurred when he was promoted and became the youngest sergeant within the Colombian troops.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro habla sobre los mejores y peores momentos de su tiempo en Corea. Habla de las peores batallas que vivió el y aquellas que el Batallón Colombia sufrió las más bajas. Luego describe el mejor día que tuvo que fue el día que lo ascendieron y lo nombraron el sargento más joven de las tropas colombianas.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Message to future generations / Mensaje a las Futura Generaciones

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna shares his ideas regarding the effects and causes of war. He explains that he fought in Korea with pride and valor but would not want others to experience war. He concludes by stating that without the veterans that fought, there would be no South Korea.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna comparte sus ideas sobre los efectos y las causas de la guerra. Explica que luchó en Corea con orgullo y valor, pero que no querría que otros tengan que sufrir con la guerra. Concluye afirmando que sin los veteranos que lucharon, no existiría Corea del Sur.



Jose E. Colon

From Driving to Typing

Jose E. Colon remembers his duty as a driver for the company commander after six months of service. He discusses attending night school during his eight months driving the officer to learn typing and shorthand. He recalls the time when the commander complimented his driving and offered assistance. He recounts how he immediately informed the commander about his typing and shorthand skills which led to his new assignment as a clerk at headquarters in San Juan, Puerto Rico.



Recruiting Efforts

Jose E. Colon reflects on his three years of service in the United States Army Reserves. He shares his main duty was to reenlist WWII veterans who had recently returned home. He notes that when the Korean War broke out in 1950, he called fourteen hundred U.S. Army Reservists to report to duty in the 65th Infantry Regiment 43rd Battalion. He adds he continued his recruiting efforts in Puerto Rico while the 65th Regiment was in Korea. He discusses the lack of replacements for the 65th Regiment and his reassignment to the 7th Regiment upon his arrival in Korea.



The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his encounters with troops from other allied nations. He shares a story about a Korean man they called Oscar whom they spoke Spanish with and shared stories about Colombia. He remembers that many soldiers, including Americans, inquired about the ongoing political violence in Colombia.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz habla de sus discusiones con tropas extranjeras. Comparte una historia sobre un hombre coreano que lo llamaban Oscar con quien hablaban español y compartían historias sobre Colombia. Recuerda que muchos soldados, incluidos estadounidenses, querían saber más sobre la violencia política que sucedía en Colombia.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Memories and Lessons Learned / Recuerdos y Lecciones Aprendidas

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflects on his feelings about leaving Korea at the end of his tour. He explains that he learned what it meant to be a soldier and could have only done so through his experience during the war. Additionally, he laments what the people of Korea experienced during the century of conquests which culminated in the war.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflexiona sobre sus sentimientos cuando se fue de Corea. Explica que aprendió lo que significa ser un soldado y solo pudo haberlo hecho a través de su experiencia en la guerra. Además, lamenta lo que vivió el pueblo de Corea durante un siglo de conquistas que termino con la guerra entre el Norte y el Sur.



Legacy for Colombia / El Legado para Colombia

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez offers his opinion on what the legacy of the war means for Colombian veterans. He explains that the war revolutionized the Colombian military and left it changed for the better. In fact, the Batallón Colombia adopted an American military style and abandoned its use of German training.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez ofrece su opinión sobre el legado de la guerra para los veteranos colombianos. Explica que la guerra revolucionó a las fuerzas armadas colombianas y las dejó cambiadas para mejor. De hecho, el Batallón Colombia adoptó un estilo militar estadounidense y abandonó el uso del entrenamiento alemán.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

Forgotten Soldiers / Soldados Olvidados

José María Gómez Parra reflects on the negative impact the war had on most Colombian veterans. He explains that veterans were not commended upon their return and they did not receive the welcome they expected. He is saddened that he and his fellow soldiers put Colombia on the map and were treated incredibly poorly upon their return.

José María Gómez Parra refleja sobre el impacto negativo que tuvo la guerra en la mayoría de los veteranos colombianos. Explica que los veteranos no fueron celebrados cuando regresaron y no recibieron la bienvenida que esperaban. Le entristece que él y sus compañeros soldados pusieron a Colombia en el mapa y fueron tratados increíblemente mal a su regreso al país.



Wounded at Old Baldy / Herido en Old Baldy

José María Gómez Parra explains how he was wounded during the Battle of Old Baldy. Blinded and wounded from a grenade, he shares how he managed to crawl into a latrine for safety. As day broke, he recalls hearing Americans enter the battlefield. Although planes heavily bombed the area in an attempt to retake the hill from the Chinese, he surmises that some allied forces were killed during the bombing as there were between thirty and forty Colombians missing in action.

José María Gómez Parra explica cómo fue herido durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Cegado y herido en la pierna, se arrastró hasta una letrina para esconderse. Al amanecer, escuchó a los estadounidenses entrar al campo de batalla. Los aviones bombardearon intensamente el área en un intento de recuperar la colina que estaba a manos de los chinos. El supone que algunos soldados aliados murieron durante el bombardeo ya que hubo entre treinta y cuarenta colombianos desaparecidos en esa batalla.



Jose Ramon Chisica Torres

The Legacy of the Korean War / El Legado de La Guerra de Corea

José Ramón Chisica Torres provides his analysis of the legacy of the war and that of the veterans who participated in it. He marvels at the economic transformation of the country and discusses the role that the United Nations played in helping Korea after the War. He mentions that all the Korean veterans can leave to the next generation are their memories.

José Ramón Chisica Torres analiza el legado de la Guerra de Corea y el de los veteranos de la guerra. Se maravilla de la transformación económica del país coreano, y habla sobre la ayuda que Las Naciones Unidas le dio a Corea después de la guerra. Finalmente, menciona que todo lo que los veteranos de la guerra pueden dejarle a la próxima generación son sus recuerdos.



José Vidal Beltrán Molano

Forever Changed / Cambiado Para Siempre

José Vidal Beltrán Molano explains that the war had a huge impact on his life and left him forever changed. He marvels at how well he was treated upon returning to South Korea. He shares there were parades by the military, high schools, and elementary schools in their honor. In sum, he is thankful to all whom have recognized their sacrifices.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano explica que la guerra tuvo un gran impacto en su vida y lo dejo marcado de por vida. Se maravilla de lo bien que lo trataron al regresar a Corea del Sur. Él comparte que hubo desfiles de militares, escuelas secundarias y escuelas primarias en su honor. En suma, está agradecido a todos los que han reconocido sus sacrificios.



Joseph C. Giordano

War Declaration and Draft Choice

Joseph Giordano shares that he knew nothing about Korea until the day war was declared. He remembers reading about it in a newspaper at his father's barber shop. He recalls the significance of being drafted on January 12, 1951, and a choice that landed him in the Korean War. He comments on the value of his Korean War experience.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Korean Service Corps

Joseph Giordano describes the Korean Service Corps. He shares that the members were mainly older Koreans who were too old to fight. He recalls Korean Service Corpsmen being assigned to each platoon to help do various activities, and he speaks of the friendship that he developed with one such worker named Kim.



The Forgotten War

Joseph Giordano discusses why he thinks the Korean War has come to be known as the Forgotten War. He describes how he was treated when he returned home from Korea, sharing that there were no bands or recognition of his service. He speaks of how public sentiment regarding the war has evolved though.



Joseph Calabria

Korean Then and Now

Joseph Calabria discusses his war memories of Korea. He juxtaposes his memories of Korea with what he saw on a recent return visit. He shares the growth of the industry in South Korea. He expresses his pride in seeing South Korea going from destruction to a place of growth and infrastructure in such a short time. He shares how the South Koreans are very appreciative of the veterans for what they did for their country.



Joseph Horton

Revisiting Korea

Joseph Horton recalls the two occasions he revisited Korea. He shares how he revisited in 1998 and then again in 2000. He expresses that South Korea was breathtaking and applauds the Korean people and government for the transformation.



Joseph Lissberger

Korea is a Good Friend

Joseph Lissberger describes his feelings about Korea and likens the country to a good friend. He talks about how he thinks it is one of the finest countries in the world and how it is dependable.



Lessons from a Life in the Army

Joseph Lissberger reflects about the lessons he learned during his 23-year Army career. He talks about learning discipline, work ethic, and giving back to others.



Joseph M. Picanzi

The Greatest Gift

Joseph Picanzi describes marching through Seoul as part of the Armed Forces parade on May 15, 1954. During his time in Korea, he remembers three KATUSA soldiers working with his platoon. Among the three soldiers, he shares memories about one KATUSA soldier who was in his fifties and still in the Korean Army. Because he was fond of the man, he shares how he brought back a harmonica while on Rest and Relaxation (R and R) to replace the soldier’s broken harmonica.



Joseph P. Ferris

Orphanage at Yeongdeungpo

In this clip, Joseph P. Ferris shares his thoughts about the performance of the U.S. Air Force during the Korean War and shares a treasured memory he has of the children from an orphanage.



South Korea Rebuilt

In this clip, Joseph P. Ferris compares the rebuilding of South Korea to that of Europe after World War II.



Joseph Quinn

Memories of a Medic

As a medic, Joseph Quinn saw a lot of injuries. He describes one of the worst injuries he saw, but is thankful that the man survived. It was his treatment that helped the soldier make it to MASH and get the proper care.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Revisiting Korea

Joseph T. Monscvitz describes when he went back to Korea approximately 15 years ago. When he first landed in South Korea, he was extremely impressed with how modern everything was. He recalls not only how nice the country was, but also how welcoming the people were.



Joseph T. Wagener

Luxembourg Joins the War

Joseph Wagener shares the history of Luxembourg joining United Nations forces in Korea. After hearing about the invasion of South Korea, he recalls feeling compelled to volunteer and determined to help the people of South Korea. After a short ceremony, he remembers the volunteers leaving Luxembourg and integrating into the Belgian Army. He chronicles the intense training they received and their arrival at the UN reception center near Busan in January of 1951.



Josephine D. Abreu

Working for the Pentagon and the Korean War

Josephine describes receiving orders for shipment to Japan, which she was happy about. She shares that her commander, however, decided to send her to the Pentagon to work for the Director of Intelligence as a typist. She recalls typing up intelligence reports as well as the papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. She discusses typing up histories of the war which, in turn, meant she had detailed knowledge of what was taking place.



The Pentagon During the Korean War

Josephine Abreu discusses the environment at the Pentagon during the Korean War. She describes her role in meetings of the "Watch Committee" which was a predecessor to the National Security Council. She explains how she would hand out agendas, pencils, and type the minutes after meetings. She admits that the meetings were always exciting. She notes her role required her to have a very high clearance level, and she recalls being told she could not discuss what she did there for ten years.



Josephine Krowinski

They Took Care of Us

Josephine Krowinski described how well-protected she was by the Military Doctors she worked with. She always had G.I.'s looking after her. As a woman, Josephine Krowinski felt she was treated with respect and dignity.



Josh Morimoto

Modernization of South Korea

Joshua T. Morimoto further explains how modern South Korea was in the 1970s compared to North Korea. He explains how this was similar to the differences between East and West Germany. He states that traveling throughout the world can really be eye-opening.



Business in the Military

Joshua T. Morimoto attended college and found that his time there studying business proved to be very helpful when he went to Korea as an officer. His background successfully helped him manage people and an automated system in a 32-club system. His expertise even led to an award for a quick conversion of the systems.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

Returning to Korea / El Regreso a Corea

Josue Orlando Bernal García marvels at the transformation of South Korea following the war. He describes both of his return visits to the country and includes details about how they were treated. He sees the Korean people as his brothers, and after the welcome he received on his return, he believes that Koreans reciprocate the feeling. He states that they were treated like kings and their wives like queens when they too were invited to visit South Korea.

Josue Orlando Bernal García se maravilla ante la transformación de Corea del Sur después de la guerra. Describe sus dos viajes al país e incluye detalles sobre como lo trataron. Considera al pueblo coreano como a sus hermanos y, tras la acogida que recibió a su regreso, cree que los coreanos sienten lo mismo. Afirma que fueron tratados como reyes y sus esposas como reinas cuando ellos también fueron invitados a visitar Corea del Sur.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado

A Thankful People / Un Pueblo Agradecido

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado explains that while he has not revisited Korea, he is aware of their economic and political development. He shares that the Korean people have been extremely thankful for his service and have recognized him more than the recognition he received from his own country. He is proud of the work that his battalion did in Korea.

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado explica que, aunque no ha vuelto a Corea, está al tanto de su desarrollo económico y político. Comparte que él y los veteranos de la guerra han recibido más reconocimiento por el gobierno coreano que por el gobierno de su propio país. Está orgulloso del trabajo que hizo su batallón en Corea.



Juan Jose Lopez De Victoria

No Soldier Left Behind / Ningún Soldado Olvidado

Juan José López de Victoria shares the story of how the remains of fallen Marines were never left behind. He recalls that six of his friends were killed following a helicopter ration drop as they were spotted by the enemy. While the remains were not immediately sent back to the United States, the Pentagon never gave up hope in returning them to their families. Decades after the war, the Pentagon contacted him to inquire about the incident, and the remains were finally sent to their loved ones.

Juan José López de Victoria comparte la historia de cómo los restos de los soldados caídos nunca se abandonaban. Él recuerda como seis de sus amigos murieron después de que un helicóptero tiro las raciones y fueron vistos por el enemigo. Aunque los cuerpos no fueron devueltos de inmediato a los Estados Unidos, el Pentágono nunca perdió la esperanza de devolverlos a sus familias. Décadas después de la guerra, el Pentágono lo contactó para preguntarle sobre el incidente y los restos finalmente fueron enviados a sus seres queridos.



Personal Impact / Impacto Personal

Juan José López de Victoria describes the impact the war had on his psyche. He explains that he suffered from nightmares in which he found himself in Korea after returning and into his old age. However, he considers himself luckier than many of his friends who found it more difficult to adjust to civilian life.

Juan José López de Victoria describe el impacto que tuvo la guerra en su psique. Explica que sufrió pesadillas en las que se encontraba en Corea después de regresar y hasta su vejez. Sin embargo, se considera más afortunado que muchos de sus amigos que no pudieron adaptarse a la vida civil.



Diversity in the Armed Forces

Juan José López de Victoria describes his interactions with soldiers from other countries. He explains that because Puerto Rico is a diverse country, he was accepting of all soldiers and got along well with everyone. He admits that some American officers were tough on all of them.

Juan José López de Victoria describe sus interacciones con soldados extranjeros. Explica que debido a que Puerto Rico es un país diverso, el aceptaba a todos los soldados y se llevaba bien con todos. Admite que algunos oficiales estadounidenses fueron duros con todos ellos.



Juan Manibusan

Thoughts on the War

Juan Manibusan shares a few of his thoughts on the 60th anniversary of the Korean War and emphasizes that he would like to see a permanent resolution take place. He counts himself as a supporter for the reunification of Korea. He also adds his thoughts on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Reasons he Enlisted / Razones Por las que se Alistó

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares memories of his older brother as he was the one that inspired him to join the military during the Second World War. He remembers being incredibly young and impressed with his brother’s uniform. While deployed, he served in the Alps to restrict troop movements by the Axis Powers.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte recuerdos de su hermano mayor ya que él fue quien lo inspiró a unirse al ejército durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Recuerda ser increíblemente joven y estar impresionado con el uniforme de su hermano. Mientras estaba prestando su servicio, estuvo en los Alpes y su misión era de restringir los movimientos de tropas de las alemanas.



His Brother's Legacy / El Legado de su Hermano

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares his message to future generations and explains the toll the war had on him and his family. He explains that soldiers must defend liberty, protect poor people, and serve with dignity and valor. Moreover, he speaks about his older brother, Luis Santini, who was a Major in the Army and served thirty years.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y explica el costo que la guerra tuvo para él y su familia. Explica que los soldados deben defender la libertad, proteger a los pobres y servir con dignidad y valor. Además, habla de su hermano mayor, Luis Santini, quien fue Mayor del Ejército y presto su servicio por treinta años en el ejercito.



The Purple Heart / El Corazón Púrpura

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains the impact that the war had on his life. He shares that he was awarded a Purple Heart and Bronze Star but never received the paperwork for these distinctions due to red tape within the military. He reflects on the most difficult moment which was when a friend died in his arms, as well as his battles with PTSD.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su vida. Él comparte que recibió el Corazón Púrpura y la Estrella de Bronce, pero nunca recibió la documentación para estas medallas debido a la burocracia dentro del ejército. Se acuerda del momento más difícil que fue cuando un amigo suyo murió en sus brazos y sus batallas contra el trastorno de estrés postraumático.



Julien De Backer

Traveling to Korea

Julien De Backer explains how he arrived in Korea- a journey that took almost fifteen days because they had stops in several countries. After going to Japan, he went to Korea where he was joined with the rest of this troops.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez shares his opinions on his participation in the war. He states that he thanked God that the United States got involved in the war because it was better to fight communism in Korea than allow it to enter the United States or Puerto Rico. He believes it was a just war because it saved Korea.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez comparte sus opiniones sobre su participación en la guerra. Afirma que agradeció a Dios que Estados Unidos se involucró en la guerra porque fue mejor combatir el comunismo en Corea que dejarlo entrar a Estados Unidos o a Puerto Rico. Él cree que fue una guerra justa porque salvó a Corea.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

Living in Peace with Others

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares his hope for all war and discrimination in the world to end. He emphasizes the importance of living in peace with others. He encourages everyone to treat others kindly.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Volunteering to Return

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses his decision to return to active duty in the United States Army in 1948 after serving in the Reserves at the end of World War II. He did so because he learned that his wife was pregnant and he wanted to provide for his growing family. He elaborates on an opportunity to volunteer and compete with other Reserve officers to become a regular U. S. Army officer.



Returning to the Hospital

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses being wounded right before the Chinese attacked. He shares how he knew that he would not be able to return home for Christmas if the Chinese were involved. He explains how, after returning back to his unit, he was given command of a company since most of the officers in his battalion had been killed during the Chinese advance. He comments that he received two Purple Heart Medals, a Silver Star, and the Combat Infantry Badge for his services.



Returning Home and Graduation

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. describes what it was like when he returned to the United States. He shares how soldiers were generally treated and his own experience of being forced to do degrading work due to his battalion being all Black. He recounts attending officer training after his return to the United States and graduating as a commissioned officer in the United States Army.



Jutta I. Andersson

Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Called to Action / Llamado Para Ir a la Guerra

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas discusses how he received the news of being drafted into the war. He explains that he wished to pursue a military career and understood that he had to serve in Korea to advance. Even though his brother returned from Korea before he left, he states that they did not discuss the war and thus he was unaware what awaited him in the front lines.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas cuenta cómo recibió la noticia de ser reclutado para la guerra. Él explica que deseaba seguir una carrera militar y entendía que tenía que prestar su servicio en la guerra si quería avanzar. Aunque su hermano regresó de Corea antes de que él se fuera, afirma que no hablaron de la guerra y, por lo tanto, no sabía lo que le esperaba en el frente.



Kaku Akagi

Experiencing Discrimination

Kaku Akagi shares he was ten years old when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. He remembers listening to President Franklin D. Roosevelt address the nation on the radio. He recalls going through town on his way to school the following morning and seeing a sign hanging from a storefront that said, “No Japs Allowed.” He speaks about a time when someone on the sidelines during a basketball game intentionally tripped him as he ran down the court. He describes the next four years as “tough” but says the experience helped him empathize with others from diverse backgrounds.



Karl Hauser

Why I Joined

Upon hearing about the opportunity from a friend, Karl Hauser decided to join the Red Cross. Unfazed by any fears, he noted that the war had ended, and many others were also signing up to help the Korean people.



First Impressions of Korea

Upon arriving in Korea, Karl Hauser recalls being struck by the openness of the landscape, dotted with destroyed buildings. Initially lodging in small dwellings, he shares his team later relocated to an empty school. He remembers the Koreans' perception of Germans as highly skilled, believing they could fix anything.



Moments in Korea

During his time in Korea, Karl Hauser remarks that he there were many contrasting memories. He found it challenging to witness those afflicted with leprosy who required isolation. On a brighter note, he cherishes the memory of having their private beach. Additionally, he recalls fondly driving on Sundays to explore the area.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Korean Transformation

Kebede Teferi Desta describes the worst and best parts of his Korean War experience. He has since revisited Korea. Korea has undergone a complete transformation. He describes the large train stations and road network. Overall, he is happy about the transformation.



Keith Gunn

The Forgotten War

Keith Gunn shares that the Korean War, also known as the Forgotten War, received little attention during the effort as well as today despite the positive outcome. He adds that the Korean War was the first major United Nations effort and therefore should receive more attention. He also offers his opinion on political correctness and the role he feels it is playing today regarding content being taught in schools.



Keith H. Fannon

Returning Home from the Forgotten War

Keith H. Fannon describes how the mail worked during the war and how his family received information about the Korean war. He also talks about coming home to friends that were unaware of the war and the impact the war has had on his life since.



Keith Nutter

Meaningless?

Keith Nutter elaborates on how he does not believe he did anything special during his service. He is proud but he feels he should not be honored because he simply did his duty. He recalls reuniting with his family upon his return and facing this.



Ken Thamert

Reimagining the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert recalls traveling to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers, learning not to take the bottom bunk due to all of the vomiting. Upon arriving in Incheon, he describes the overwhelming feeling when imagining what other soldiers experienced during the infamous Incheon Landing at the start of the war. He remembers seeing devastation all around.



Military Duty and Patrols on the DMZ

Ken Thamert describes his duty of rationing the breakdown of food for an entire regminent. He recalls being stationed on the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and seeing the enemy while on patrols. He notes this was despite the fact the Armistice had been signed.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Ken Thamert recalls being given a book about Korea from the United States military once he received his orders for Korea. He remembers the book containing information about Korean culture and the games Korean children played. He adds the book also included etiquette and protocols for the country.



Kenneth D. Cox

Rewarding Experiences with Children

Kenneth Cox recalls one of the most rewarding times during his service. He recounts offering food to child laborers and remembers a musical experience. He shares that the children would sing songs learned from missionaries while working, and he states that he would join in with them for particular songs he knew.



Korea Past and Present

Kenneth Cox shares memories of Korea past and present. He comments on the major changes made in South Korea since the time of the war he noticed while on his revisit and recounts a story centering on firewood. He adds that he is proud of the outcome.



A Unique Meeting in Hawaii

Kenneth Cox shares a story of meeting a Korean waitress in Hawaii years after his service in Korea. He recounts that she lived near the hospital the 44th Engineer Battalion built near Teagu. He recalls exchanging a few memories and catching up on its present state.



The Broken Hearts Helped Rebuild Korea

Kenneth Cox elaborates on how the 44th Engineering outfit got its Broken Heart name. He recounts how a newspaper article title encouraged the outfit to mark all of their equipment and construction endeavors with a black broken heart. He shares how his engineering outfit helped rebuild Korea.



Kenneth F. Dawson

"I Want to Go Back."

Kenneth F. Dawson speaks of wanting to go back to Korea. Friends have told him that the economy is amazing, and he wants to see the shopping malls. He is proud to have served in the Korean War and would love to return for a visit, though he mentions that Korea was too cold for an island boy when he was there during the war.



Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth Gordon

Playing for the President

Kenneth Gordon shares he was invited to play for South Korean President Syngman Rhee and his wife at the palace in Seoul. He recalls how General James Van Fleet suggested him as a performer. He explains that since the president's wife was Viennese, tunes were carefully selected for her enjoyment. He shares his belief that Syngman Rhee was president at the right time.



Kenneth Newton

Chinese-American vs. Chinese Soldiers

Kenneth Newton describes Chinese soldiers, sharing memories of them freezing to death due to the harsh weather conditions. He offers a story of an American officer with them who was Chinese and could speak Chinese fluently. He recounts the soldier's bravery and his ability to confuse the enemy by countering orders due to understanding the language.



A Message to America's Youth

Kenneth Newton offers a message to the younger generations. He shares that American youth could learn a lesson from the South Korean people regarding gratefulness. He encourages younger generations to find a love for their country if they do not already and to become stewards of good citizenship.



Kenneth S. Shankland

A Peaceful Solution for a Divided Country

Kenneth Shankland recalls how he knew nothing about Korea until he was sent to the East Sea to patrol the Korean coast. He shares that since his service in Korea, he has closely studied the developments of the Korean War, from the actual fighting to the Armistice that has not resolved the war. He adds that he would like for Korea to find a peaceful solution between the North and South.



"When Can You Start?"

Kenneth Shankland recalls undertaking compulsory military training in high school. He shares how the army did not appeal to him, so he decided to train as a sea cadet. He recounts how learning to sail led to his love of the Royal New Zealand Navy. He describes enlisting in 1955. He shares that after training in Australia, he specialized in guidance technology such as weapons systems, communications, and tracking.



Retrofitted Ships and Bombed-Out Cities

Kenneth Shankland recalls how his ship, The HMNZS Royalist, had been modified for atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. He shares how the ship sailed all over the Pacific Ocean, eventually landing in Incheon and Pusan in 1957 to enforce the peace. He recounts how Korean civilians were living in terrible conditions among piles of rubble. He remembers naked and hungry children begging for food.



Kenneth Swanson

Pride in Volunteering

Kenneth M. Swanson describes how volunteering to enlist had brought him and his brother a lot of opportunities afterwards. He mentions how when he hears the national anthem, he stands a little taller. He goes on to describe what his service meant to him at his brother's funeral.



Kevin R. Dean

Return to Korea

Kevin Dean comments on his return visit to Korea. He recalls the physical destruction of Incheon during the war and compares it to the modern city into which it has blossomed. He describes Seoul and Busan's progression and shares that the transformation is mind boggling to him. He states that South Korea is one of the only countries in the world that thanks those who helped secure its freedom.



Kullabhol Fakfaipuag

A Dutiful Son

Kullabhol Fakfaipuag describes his pay allowance during the war and how he used it to purchase the land his father had sold. He recalls how he had the land put in his mother's name and that he was grateful to do so. He explains how his pay was a considerable sum at that time.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea participated in the Incheon Landing. He was part of "D+2." Lacy Bethea was a member of the 4th or 5th wave of troops that landed on Incheon. When the Marines landed that day, it was their first combat exposure since WWII.



Food Rations and Ammunition Delivered Daily

Lacy Bethea helped distribute food and ammunition to soldiers who landed at Incheon after the initial landing in 1950. Company trucks came up with their platoon guides and then Lacy Bethea would pass out only enough rations for that day. The suppliers would always be one day ahead, so that each soldier has 2-days worth of food. Ammunition was also rationed out to each regiment of soldiers.



Preparation for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea's job was to prepare for the Incheon landing by labeling, measuring, and counting vehicles, ammunition, and supplies. He also prepared vehicles to be secured on the Navy ships during transit. Lacy Bethea really trusted and looked up to his commander because he knew that wherever the commander went, he would be safe.



Final Preparations for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea worked with the embarkation captain by making diagrams for the placement of vehicles on the ship. Luckily, he was able to work with many high ranking officers while preparing the military supplies. Some officers also took Lacy Bethea to San Diego, California for drinks and finalizing preparations for the Incheon Landing.



Lakew Asfaw

No Ethiopian Soldiers Were Prisoners of War

Lakew Asfaw explains how Ethiopian soldiers refuse to give themselves over to the enemy. Unlike other nations, none of the Ethiopian soldiers were taken as prisoners of war. One experience he recalls involved a soldier being captured and he started shouting for his comrades to take his life. During this incident, he remembers another Ethiopian soldier firing into the dark and killing the North Korean who was taking the soldier. He clarifies that soldiers would take their own lives before becoming a prisoner of war.



Ethiopian People Were Proud of Their Service

Lakew Asfaw talks about returning home from Korea and the Ethiopian people being happy with their service. He continues to explain that Haile Selassie sent them to protect the freedom of any country against aggressors. He notes when the communists took power in 1974, they were not as happy about the involvement in the Korean War.



Larry Kinard

Revisiting Korea

Larry Kinard explains how he was able to return twice to see Korea after the war. He shares how he brought his son in 1997 and his whole family in 2009. He shares how he saw the 38th parallel. He shares how he was able to show his family where he was approximately located from the DMZ observation deck. He shares how he was proud to see all the progress that was helped by US soldiers who defended South Korea from Communism. He shares he was one of the finding members of his local Korean War Veterans Charter.



Lawrence Cole

Korean War Legacy

Lawrence Cole agrees that while it did take 30-35 years after the war before South Korea became democratic politically. He shares how he feels that Korea has transformed its economy into one of significance. He shares that industrialization has changed family relationships and old traditions in Korea. He shares how he thinks students going back and forth from South Korea to the US are an influence on modern South Korea. He explains how the United States is still trying to learn from the fighting in the far.



Lawrence Dumpit

Impact: Economic & Military Relations with Korea

Lawrence Dumpit described the economic impact Korea has had on the US and its boom in technology throughout the 1990s. He mentioned that even on base at Miramar in San Diego, soldiers had a lot of LG and Samsung products which were made in Korea. He observed that there are a lot of cars on the road today that were manufactured in Korea (Hyundai, Kia).



South Korean Soldiers Work With US Troops

Lawrence Dumpit worked with South Korean soldiers, but they were not professional soldiers because they were drafted into the military. Therefore, many of the soldiers were not as professional as the US troops. The Korean soldiers made rank, but the US soldiers felt that they didn't earn it, so this started some problems with the US troops.



Lawrence Elwell

The Marine Corps did a Great Deal for Me

Lawrence Elwell reflects on his gratitude for experiences in the Marine Corps while serving in the Korean War that helped shape him into being a productive adult. He recalls the influence of his superiors that helped impact his life beyond the Marine Corps. He names one of his superiors, Captain Milton Arthur Hull, as an individual who was an inspiration to his men.



Tonight Marine, You Die!

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamri. Among his revelations, he speaks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that, ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured in the United States which resulted in high casualties among American troops.



Lessons from The Korean War

Lawrence Elwell speaks about lessons he learned from the Korean War. He emphasizes one of those lessons included the human capacity to overcome. He recalls the importance of the close bond he shared with his commander and members of Dog Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Regiment, 1st Marine Division.



The GI Bill and the 52/20 Program

Lawrence Elwell discusses the GI Bill 52/20 Program. He explains that the program paid veterans twenty dollars per week if they attended college fifty-two weeks in a given year. He shares he used the program to attain a Bachelor's Degree, Master's Degree, and Ph.D. in Communications.



Lawrence Hafen

Airirang and Other Memories

Lawrence Hafen recalls three KATUSA soldiers that were attached to his unit. He mentions their names and talks about his interactions with them. He remembers a song that "Willie," one of the Korean soldiers taught him, "Arirang." In this clip, he sings the song from memory.



"I Did the Honorable Thing"

Lawrence Hafen reflects about his Korean War service. He talks about being proud to have served both the US and Korea.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Daily Reminders

Lawrence Paul Murray describes how he encounters daily reminders of his service in Korea, from the prominence of Korean products to seeing the success of South Korea today. He discusses his pride for his service and how it allows him to participate in an interview with a South Korean today. He goes on to explain how the Korean War was an important step in the effort to neutralize the spread of Communism.



Leland Wallis

Reflecting on Korea

Leland Wallis discusses his feelings about Korea's progress since the war. Leland discusses how great the country of Korea has become since what he saw in the war. The only big city he saw was Seoul and part of Incheon. Leland Wallis discusses his pride in serving the country in Korea.



Leo C. Jackey

Frozen to Death

Leo C. Jackey shares a moving memory. He remembers seeing lines of Korean civilians, including children, frozen to death with their hands up one morning while in the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir area. He speaks with pride of the small role he played in helping Korea pick itself up and rebuild itself into a leading economic power in the world.



Leonard R. Stanek

Wounded

Leonard Stanek describes how the Chinese attacked on July 26th, 1953, the day before the Armistice took effect. Leonard Stanek was in a trench and hunkered down, when one of the last artillery shells exploded with a piece of shrapnel piercing his helmet. He medivacked to the Hospital Ship Haven to recover and earned a Purple Heart.



Leslie Fuhrman

Felt Fortunate to Serve

Leslie Fuhrman comments on feeling fortunate to serve his country from a safe and secure location. He compares his experience with the experiences of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. He identifies the challenging part of his service was marking the time.



Leslie Peate

Modern Korea and Appreciation for Service

Leslie Peate recalls the differences between South Korea in 1951 and the South Korea he saw later on during his revisit experiences. He states that the South Korean government as never failed to recognize or appreciate the efforts they contributed to helping secure a free South Korea. He comments on the industrial powerhouse South Korea has become and refers to the country as a place where his friends live.



Lewis Ebert

The Ebert Boys Heard the Calling to Arms

In June 1949, Lewis Ebert enlisted in the US Air Force a few weeks out of high school. He took his basic training in Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and then he was trained at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado for military supply training. While in Colorado, the Korean War broke out, but Lewis Ebert already had a lot of prior knowledge about Korea since his brothers all fought in WWII with one stationed in Korea.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



Lisa Humphreys Hwaja Lee

Husband's Service in Korea

Lisa Lee discusses her husband's service during the Korean War. She shares he was twenty-one when he joined the US Army and served in a combat unit in Korea. She recalls him remembering how cold it was in Korea and adds that, despite the extreme temperatures, he enjoyed Korea.



Monument Fundraising and Erection

Lisa Humphreys recalls her efforts to raise funds to erect a Korean War monument in Texas. She shares how she traveled to Korea to procure donations from a company there. She details how she secured an artist in Korea to design the monument and describes the monument's journey to Texas where it was erected in a prime location thanks to the city's land donation.



Lloyd Hellman

Guiding Planes

Lloyd Hellman describes working in four hour shifts as an air traffic controller. He worked to help guide the planes back to the King Three airport after they flew up to the 38th parallel. This took place after the ceasefire.



Lloyd Pitman

Enlisting in the U S Army

Lloyd Pitman had three brothers serve in World War II.  One of his brothers was killed in action so his parents did not want him to serve at the age of 17 when he wanted to enlist. Therefore he waited and enlisted in the Korean War at the age of 18.



North Koreans leaving the war

Lloyd Pitman describes how his platoon walked right into a North Korean position after landing at Iwon, North Korea. Many soldiers ran away to avoid being captured. Some North Korean soldiers began waving the white peace flag and over a period of two days, the American soldiers took in 85 North Korean soldiers who wanted out of the war.



Lloyd Thompson

Dropping Bombs and Flares by Hand

Not having bombing racks at the back of his C-47, Lloyd Thompson had to throw bombs and fifteen pound flares (high illumination) by hand out of the plane at over 10,000 feet in the air. He did this to help fighters and bombers see their target. He flew seventy-six missions and accumulated over 390+ hours. He noted when the enemy would shoot at us we would know where to bomb. Trains would try to take cover in mountain tunnels so we would bomb the entrances to seal them off but they would be back in operation by the next day.



Loannis Farazakis

Korea Then and Now

Loannis Farazakis explains his amazement with South Korea's growth in such a short time. He was impressed by the economic growth. Along with this, he shares his pride in being part of the war and seeing the South Korean people become democratic.



Lorenzo R Loya

Joining the Military

Lorenzo Loya explains that he joined the Army because he wasn’t doing very well in school. He served for three years, having been stationed at Fort Bliss and Washington D.C. He believes that his time in the military was a very good experience for him.



Responsibilities as a Guard

Lorenzo Loya describes his duties while in Washington, D.C. He often was on guard duty with 6 or 7 other people. He states that he did very well in the service.



Louis Joseph Bourgeois

The 426 RCAF Squadron

Louis Bourgeois played an important role in the 426 RCAF Squadron during the Korean War. On return trips to his military base, the aircraft brought back wounded soldiers. Their route to Asia typically started in Washington State before going to Alaska, and then onto Japan.



Becoming a Pilot

Louis Bourgeois always wanted to be a pilot because he knew he wanted to fly. On at least 2 occasions, the Royal Canadian Air Force cited his poor vision as a reason to not let him enlist. Because Louis Bourgeois went to University and he was persistent, eventually, he became a pilot.



The Importance of Pilots During the Korean War

Louis Bourgeois also had 6 North Star Aircraft that went into Korea while others went to Japan. After the war, the planes were brought back to Canada to continue their airlift duties. He is so proud to be the president of the 426 Squadron to support fellow veterans who fought during the Korean War.



Louis Prats

Meeting New People

When asked about his legacy, Louis Prats talks about his favorite part of the war, meeting new people. He especially enjoyed meeting Koreans, along with the travel.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Luis Arcenio Sánchez shares his opinions regarding a possible reunification and the success of South Korea. He explains that communism should never be accepted by the South. He adds that he is proud of his service and encourages the next generation to represent Colombia as well as his generation did.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez comparte su opinion sobre la reunificación entre las dos Coreas y el éxito de la economía de Corea del Sur. Explica que el comunismo nunca debe ser aceptado por el sur. Agrega que está orgulloso de su servicio y le pide a la próxima generación a representar a Colombia tan bien como lo hizo su generación.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

Personal Effect / Efecto Personal

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández explains the toll the war took on him and laments the loss of life caused by the war. Although he was not wounded, he was troubled with thoughts about what happened to him and others once he returned home. He composed a song as a tribute to Colombian soldiers and Korea. His original song highlights the valor of the Colombian soldier and is an homage to the people of Korea.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández explica el precio que le costó la guerra y lamenta la pérdida de vidas causada por la guerra. Aunque no fue herido, se vio obligado a tratar de dejar de pensar en lo que le sucedió a él y a los demás durante la guerra. Compuso una canción en homenaje a los soldados colombianos y a Corea. Su canción original ejemplifica el valor del soldado colombiano y es una oda para el pueblo de Corea.



Volunteering for a Dangerous War / Voluntariado Para una Guerra Peligrosa

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández offers his views on why he decided to volunteer for the war even after seeing friends return to Korea with amputations. He explains that they embarked with courage and discussed their futures on the voyage to Korea. The reality of the war instilled fear within him upon arriving and he was unsure he would return as he heard his friends die over the radio.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández ofrece sus recuerdos de por qué decidió presentarse como voluntario para la guerra incluso después de ver a sus amigos regresar de Corea con amputaciones. Explica que se embarcaron el barco con coraje y discutían su futuro en el viaje a Corea. La realidad de la guerra lo lleno de miedo al llegar y no estaba seguro de si regresaría cuando escuchó a sus amigos morir por la radio.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

Legacy of Batallón Colombia / Legado del Batallón Colombia

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describes the most dangerous battles of the war. He provides an account of his participation in the Battle of Old Baldy and Hill 180 including a moment of heroism in which he charged up a hill to save his friend’s life. He believes that the battle of Old Baldy was a great triumph for Colombia as they the fought with so much valor.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describe las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Brinda un relato de su participación en la Batalla de Old Baldy y la colina 180 y cuenta sobre su momento de heroísmo en el que subió una colina para salvar la vida de su amigo. Él cree que la batalla de Old Baldy fue un gran triunfo para Colombia porque lucharon con mucho valor y el legado del batallón.



The Armistice / El Armisticio

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explains how the news of the armistice was received by Colombian troops. He details the day of the signing of the armistice and the joy he felt at the thought that he would be returning home. He credits South Korea’s peace with the service of all the individuals that fought during the war.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explica cómo fue recibida la noticia del armisticio por las tropas colombianas. Detalla el día de la firma del armisticio y la alegría que sintió al pensar que volvería a su país. Él atribuye la paz de Corea del Sur al servicio de todos los que lucharon durante la guerra.



Luis M. Juarbe

Printing Puerto Rican News in Korea

Luis Juarbe describes the many different roles he fulfilled for his regiment ranging from radioman to newsman. He describes his responsibilities for creating and distributing a daily newspaper, La Cruz de Malta, that lifted the morale of many Puerto Rican troops throughout his unit. He explains how he helped oversee roughly nine months of consecutive news coverage.



Most Rewarding Moment

Luis Juarbe shares how he was given one of the largest honors during Puerto Rico's involvement in the war. He explains how he was tasked with carrying the newly created Commonwealth flag (adopted by Puerto Rico in 1952) to the front line. He shares how it was an honor as a Puerto Rican but also as an American citizen.



Luis Maria Jimenez Jimenez

Volunteering for War / Voluntariado Para la Guerra

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez volunteered to join the military when the recruiter came to his town. He gives an account of the locations of the training and what it entailed. He shares that when they asked for volunteers, he volunteered to go to Korea after being promoted to Second Corporal.

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez se ofreció como voluntario para unirse a las fuerzas armadas cuando el reclutador fue a su pueblo. Cuenta donde fue entrenado y lo que le enseñaron. Él comparte que cuando pidieron voluntarios, él se ofreció para ir a Corea después de ser ascendido a cabo segundo.



Korea after the Armistice / Corea después del Armisticio

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez shares his feelings about heading to Korea after finding out that the Armistice had been signed. He remembers being prepared to fight because he knew the peace agreement was fragile. When he arrived in Korea, he saw terrible devastation and hunger.

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez comparte sus sentimientos acerca de viajar a Corea después de enterarse de que se había firmado el Armisticio. Recuerda estar preparado para luchar porque sabía que el acuerdo de paz era frágil. Cuando llegó a Corea, la devastación y hambre lo impresionó.



Luis Perez Alvarez

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Futuras Generaciones

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his hopes that the valor and sacrifices of Puerto Rican soldiers be remembered by future generations. He laments that Puerto Rican troops have been all but forgotten even after having fought alongside American troops in the last four major wars. He adds an anecdote about how beloved Puerto Rican soldiers were in Korea.

Luis A. Pérez Alvarez comparte su esperanza de que el valor y los sacrificios de los soldados puertorriqueños sean recordados por las generaciones futuras. Lamenta que las tropas puertorriqueñas fueron olvidadas después de haber luchado junto a las tropas estadounidenses en las últimas cuatro guerras. Añade una anécdota sobre lo queridos que eran los soldados puertorriqueños en Corea.



Luis Rosado Padua

The Draft / El Reclutamiento

Luis Rosado Padua discusses his feelings on being drafted and joining the war effort. He was immediately struck by the cold weather as he had never experienced freezing temperatures. He describes his feelings about the Korean people.

Luis Rosado Padua habla sobre sus sentimientos al ser reclutado y unirse al esfuerzo de la guerra. Él explica que lo más impactante al llegar fue el clima frío, ya que nunca había salido de Puerto Rico. Describe sus sentimientos sobre el pueblo coreano.



Puerto Rican Pride / Orgullo Puertorriqueño

Luis Rosado Padua shares his pride of being an American citizen and a Puerto Rican. He recalls that Puerto Rican soldiers were given the worst missions because they displayed much valor and were the best soldiers in his opinion. For instance, he explains, it was Puerto Ricans that were sent to capture Kelly Hill.

Luis Rosado Padua comparte su orgullo de ser ciudadano estadounidense y puertorriqueño. Recuerda que a los soldados puertorriqueños les daban las peores misiones porque tenían mucho valor y eran los mejores soldados en su opinión. Explica el, que fueron los puertorriqueños los que fueron enviados a capturar a Kelly Hill.



Lynwood Ingham

Lynwood Ingham Entered the Marine Corps

Lynwood Ingham went into the reserves as a 17 year old in high school while attending reserve meetings. From 1954-1956, he went into active duty and then again for 3 months over the summer. When on active duty, he was at Cherry Point, North Carolina and Atlanta.



Korean War Veteran Even Though He Never Went to Korea

Lynwood Ingham was not aware that he is considered a Korean War veteran even though he never went to Korea. Since he was on active duty from 1954 through 1956, the US government considers Lynwood Ingham and all active military a Korean War veteran. He was very pleased to hear this.



Modern Korea

Lynwood Ingham appreciates all the soldiers today who are trying to end communism on the Korean peninsula. Like many other countries around the world, the US wants to help the people by getting rid of communism. The US and South Korea have a strong friendship and trade-relationship because of the Korean War.



Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez

Viva Puerto Rico, not for long...

Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez recalls an incident that occurred after a victory. He explains that his unit put up the Puerto Rican flag only for it to quickly be shot down. He elaborates on how at that time, Puerto Rico had just become a commonwealth of the United States. He connects how this affected the mindset of the Puerto Rican soldiers.



Manuel A. Bustamente

Rescued Baby

Manuel Bustamante said that a little white baby was found in a Korean Orphanage. The baby was kept in the sickbay on the ship and it kept the moral high for months. Sailors all took turns caring for the baby. The doctor and his wife adopted the baby once he arrived in America. They named him Daniel Keenan and he went to many of the Korean War reunions in order to see his rescuers.



Enlisting and Basic Training

Manuel Bustamante knew about Korea when the war broke out because his brother was in the United States Navy on an aircraft carrier. Luckily, Manuel Bustamante and his brother were assigned the same ship, the USS Point Cruz. The brothers were surprised that they were allowed to be on the same ship because usually the United States military tries to separate the family members so that they would not get injured at the same time.



Manuel Antonio Gaitan Briceño

Korea Then and Now / Corea Antes y Ahora

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describes the changes he witnessed in Korea between the time he was stationed there and when he returned in 2010. Compared to the sadness, hunger, and destruction of Korea when he served in 1954, he marvels at what Korea has become. Indeed, he expresses being amazed at the cleanliness, infrastructure, and even the underground stores near the subway system that exist in modern Seoul. He credits the intelligence of South Koreans for their advances.

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describe los cambios que vio en Corea entre el tiempo que sirvió en el Batallón Colombia y cuando regresó en 2010. En comparación con la tristeza, el hambre y la destrucción de Corea cuando sirvió en 1954 se maravilla como Corea se ha cambiado. De hecho, expresa estar asombrado por la limpieza, la infraestructura e incluso los almacenes subterráneas cerca del sistema subterráneo que existen en la Seúl hoy en día. Le da crédito a la inteligencia de los surcoreanos por sus avances económicos y políticos.



Manuel Gonzalez Del Pilar

Be One of the Nation

Manuel Gonzalez del Pilar gives advice to younger generations of Americans and Puerto Rican’s, advocating they join the US Armed Forces. He urges youth to be one of the nation. He also urges them to be proud of their service.



Maples and Metcalf

Refueling of a DC-4 Airplane

DC-4's range was 4,000 for its fuel length from Vancuver, Canada to Cold Bay, Alaska. They would fly 2,000 miles and then turn around near Shemya Island. Shemya Island was a WWII small refueling station. There was a very small air strip to land.



Cold Bay, Alaska

Cold Bay, Alaska was the first stop and then the veterans went to refuel in Shemya Island. Cold Bay was the beginning of the islands around Alaska. These islands are on the way down to the Aleutian Islands which became another stop for the planes to refuel.



Shemya Island

Shemya Island has lights out on the runway on the right side, so pilots had to make sure that they didn't miss the small runway. This runway was near the Bering Sea, so it was very dangerous for the pilots. The runway was only 4 x5 miles long.



Marc Villanueva

Message for younger generations

Marc Villanueva advises the younger generation to be themselves, be heroes and show their love for their country; this is a free nation. He explains that as an immigrant, he was very fortunate to have been able to take advantage of the opportunity this country has to offer. He expresses gratitude and pride in the opportunities he was able to provide for his four children who have all gone to college, one of whom is now a doctor. He says everybody should go after an education.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

Choosing War over Colombian Violence / Elegir La Guerra Sobre la Violencia Colombiana

Mario Nel Bernal Avella explains his motivations for volunteering to fight in Korea. While he was in the military academy, Colombia erupted into the worst violence the country had seen in over 200 years. He felt that going to war was better than remaining in the unrest that existed in Colombia where he did not know where his enemy was. He states that if he were reborn, he would not change his military career as he is incredibly proud of his accomplishments.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella explica sus motivaciones para ofrecerse como voluntario para pelear en Corea. Mientras estaba en la academia militar, Colombia reinicio la violencia que el país no había visto en más de 200 años. Sentía que ir a la guerra era mejor que quedarse en Colombia donde no sabía dónde estaba su enemigo. Afirma que, si volviera a nacer, no cambiaría su carrera militar ya que está increíblemente orgulloso de sus logros.



Worst Battle / La Batalla Más Dura

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recounts his experience at the Battle of Hill 400. He explains the ground operation which resulted in his platoon piercing into enemy lines and capturing a number of prisoners of war, documents, and bloody cash. He details the way in which American airpower covered the platoon with the use of machine guns and napalm. He led his platoon on this mission without ever firing his gun as he was forced to fight with his bayonet in hand-to-hand combat. He described the battle as hell on earth and went in with the mindset that he had to win or die.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata su experiencia en la Batalla de la Colina 400. Explica la misión que resulto en su pelotón atravesara las líneas enemigas y capturar a varios prisioneros de guerra, documentos y dinero. Relata la forma en que el aviones estadounidense cubrieron el pelotón con el uso de ametralladoras y napalm. El dirigió su pelotón en esta misión sin disparar su arma, pero estuvo obligado a luchar con su bayoneta en un combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Describió la batalla como el infierno en la tierra y entró con la mentalidad de que tenía que vencer o morir.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post-War Readjustment

Marion Burdette recounts walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed U.S. Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he recalls being able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. He describes how the impact of war on his life led him to feel that he needed to traveled the U.S. to release his stress. He recounts how he decided to reenlist in the Army for three years. He adds it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Enlisting in the United States Army

Marion Burdette's job in the U.S. Army was a Battle Commander's Traveler. He recalls being sent to Yokohama, Japan, in early June to prepare for the invasion of Korea. He recounts entering Korea from an L3T and then storming the beaches on June 27, 1950. He shares he did not know much about Korea at the time.



Marjorie Elizabeth Cavanaugh

Knowledge, Firing, and Perception of the Korean War

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the extent of her knowledge of what was occurring in Korea and reflects on the slow communication during that time. She remembers her reaction to General MacArthur's firing. She comments on the American public's opinion of the role the United States played in the war and the difference in opinion compared to World War II.



Mark C. Sison

U.S.S. Iowa Battleship

Mark C. Sison discusses being stationed on the U.S.S. Iowa battleship during the Korean War. He shares how their mission was to shell enemy locations on command. He explains how the crew operated the rifles and maneuvered the ship during these operations.



Shelling in Korea

Mark C. Sison provides an account of the U.S.S. Iowa's shelling in various locations in Korea, including Wonsan and Busan. He explains how the ship used smoke screens to conceal the transport of United States Marines. He remembers how, at Busan Harbor, the U.S.S. Iowa bombarded the North Korean's railroad construction to disrupt their supply line. He recounts how he became a member of the Intertribal Warrior Society which performs honor guard duties for veteran burials.



Boxing and Cooking

Mark C. Sison remembers his time as a member of the U.S.S. Iowa’s boxing team where he won the runner-up position in the Battleship Cruiser competition. He recalls the unique experience of serving TDY (temporary duty travel) while the crew resided on an Army base and worked on the ship while it was docked. He mentions being assigned to cook breakfast for the ship’s captain and reveals that on one occasion, they had the honor of preparing dinner for the king of Norway.



Marshall E. Davis

Awesome Doesn't Describe What Korea is Like Today!

Marshall informed veterans who plan to revisit Korea that the word Awesome can't begin to describe the amazing changes that have occurred since its reconstruction over the years. (Marshall returned in 1996 for business reasons and the company took him back to where he was originally located). He said Daegu has completely transformed as a high rise city with over 3 million people compared to the several thousand that lived there when he was there and when he arrived at Kimpo Airport he could see the bridges suspended over the Han River.



Martin Rothenberg

First Impressions of Korea

The train ride from Pusan to Seoul was incredible. Martin Rothenberg saw so much beauty on the trip, particularly with the rice crops. While the rice crops were in their stages of growing, the vistas of patterns within the fields was beautiful. Poverty was all around, especially at Seoraksan Peak where people were living in cardboard straw-thatched-roofed homes. The villages always smelled because the sewage laid in a trench that ran through the middle of the street.



Civilians' Lives in Poverty-Stricken Villages

Martin Rothenberg was stationed at the base of a mountain during the winter of 1954 near a village that was poverty-stricken. This village had a wood-burning flute that ran under the houses to keep the floors warm and the villagers slept on the floor. He also saw a round stone based where the villagers had planted colored flowers. Martin Rothenberg thought that it was nice the way South Koreans took the time to make their homes special.



Mission Impossible: Speaking a Foreign Language

Martin Rothenbert was proud that the US Army had provided soldiers with a book containing Korean instructions and he used it to ask simple questions to the Korean people he met. He recalled a time while in the village at the base of the hill, an older Korean man wasn't friendly to anyone and never spoke. Therefore, Martin Rothenberg took the time to learn some basic questions to get to know the older Korean man and his attitude totally changed. This made all the difference to build a bond between soldiers and civilians.



Literacy Would Prevail

Martin Rothenberg noted that there was a little girl he befriended who's mother worked in the wash tent and she would talk to him because she wanted to learn English. When Martin Rothenberg left Korea in 1955, he knew there would be a massive economic boom in South Korea because the majority of the people were literate. Plus, South Koreans had a desire to be educated and work toward the reconstruction of their country after the Korean War.



Marvin Denton

We Didn't Know We Were Poor

Marvin Denton described how much candy, movies, and cigarettes cost, along with getting no time off from school no matter how much snow, how hot, or how much rain fell. He described the manager patting him on the head and telling him "Marvin you've done a good job so we are paying you $1.25 this week," and that's how they paid you. He remembered there was a cashier who earned $15 a week and he thought if he ever made that much, he'd be a millionaire. He was moved to a cashier but never made over $12.50 a week and it all went towards helping the family. Marvin Denton commented, "We didn't know we were poor; there was always food on the table."



Marvin Ummel

Impressions of South Korea, Then and Now

Marvin Ummel revisited South Korea in 2017. He reports that the opportunity to travel back with Revisit Korea was incredible. He recalls the development in Seoul being impressive, as there were no undamaged buildings present when he was there in 1952. Now, the buildings, houses, and roadways are numerous and well-constructed. He rode the bullet train from Seoul to Pusan and was impressed that it went over one hundred and eighty miles an hour! He also remembers just how thankful the South Koreans were to Americans for their help during the war.



Why is the Korea War the Forgotten War?

Given the wonderful transformation South Korea has seen between the 1950s and today and the deep gratitude Koreans have for American Veterans, the Korean War is still known as the Forgotten War. Marvin Ummel recalls people not knowing much about Korea, even after he returned from the war. Many people were still thinking about World War II.



Mary L. Hester

Revisiting Korea

Mary Hester reflects on her revisit to Korea in 1997, alongside her husband, Kenneth, who was also a Korean War veteran. She marvels at the progress South Korea has made and discusses how meaningful the trip was. She expresses how meaningful the gratitude from the South Korean people was to her and her husband.



Mary Reid

Volunteering for Korea

Mary Reid discusses why she volunteered to go and serve as a nurse in Korea during the war. She shares that she had lived a sheltered life prior to her service, and serving opened the doors of a larger life to her. She recalls feeling that she owed the United States Army and country for its willingness to invest in her.



Back to Busan

Mary Reid describes going to Busan by train. She provides an account of what her job entailed at the Army hospital compound in Busan. She recalls patients at the hospital being tended to and then sent back to the line.



Patients at the Hospital

Mary Reid describes the types of patients that she saw in the hospital. She recounts many soldiers having worms and treating them with medications. She elaborates on what happened to those too badly wounded to stay at the Army hospital compound.



Matthew D. Rennie

Legacy of a Forgotten War

Matthew Rennie shares that he never expected South Korea to transform itself from a war torn land to a major world economic player. He offers his thoughts on why the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War despite its rich legacy, stating that it occurred on the heels of World War II and was overshadowed by the Vietnam War which was shown nightly on the news. He recounts that the Korean War was overlooked and described as a police action rather than a war, adding that veterans were not even allowed to join the Return Service League due to the labeling and lack of recognition as war veterans.



Maurice B. Pears

Korea Revisit: A Time to Remember the War

Maurice Pears shares how he traveled back to Korea in the early 1990's as a guest of the Korean government. He describes remembering how Seoul was in rubble and there was poverty everywhere while traveling around the nation. He shares how impressed by the evolution of the shops, modern businesses, and transportation he was upon his return.



The Forgotten War Being Remembered in Australia

Maurice Pears states that the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because it came right after WWII and that was a time when the world was tired of war. He shares how he worked with many organizations to gather donations for a monument in Australia to help people remember the Korean War. He recalls how after thirteen months, he was able to reveal the beautiful Korean War memorial.



Protecting the Hills after the Battle of Kapyong

Maurice Pears shares how he was trained as an infantryman in 1950. He recounts his arrival at Kimpo Airbase and how he went to the front lines at Kapyong to dig in. He shares that he participated in some patrols across the river in enemy territory. He adds that as a commander of twenty-six men, they had to prepare for the assault on the Chinese.



Life as a Korean War Soldier and Operation Minden

Maurice Pear recalls living in foxholes during his year in Korea from 1951-1952. He remembers patrolling through small Korean villages that were filled with only women and children. He recounts that during Operation Minden, his troops fought the Chinese for Hill 355, 317, and 227 while enduring many casualties.



Life of a Korean War Soldier

Maurice Pears shares how he was on the front line for one month without a chance to shower or eat a hot meal and recalls dealing with a water shortage. He remembers how each soldier had his own foxhole where he endured snow and heat. He shares that the soldiers were able to travel up and down the Korean hills with the help of Korean civilians.



Maurice L. Adams

Experiences in the Integrated U.S. Army

Maurice L. Adams describes his experience in training and being one of only two Black officers in his battalion. He notes that his unit was decimated after the battle for Hill 421. He remembers how after the war, officers were not being replaced, and this caused issues since there were many more enlisted men than officers.



Going Home Early

Maurice L. Adams shares how he managed to return home a few months earlier than expected. He explains that the date of his arrival in September would determine when he could leave. He recalls after understanding the situation and being asked when he arrived, he agreed to the earlier date and was able to return back with his division.



Returning to the United States

Maurice L. Adams describes his transportation back to the United States. He recounts how after dropping off Colombian troops in Colombia, his ship then crossed the Panama Canal. Upon arriving in New Orleans, he attended a parade thrown for the returning soldiers where a civilian made a comment about his shoes needing a shine. He recalls finding out he was being sent to Fort Lewis in Washington and keeping his cold weather gear from Korea since he knew Washington was close to Alaska and that he would be cold.



Maurice Morby

Unbelievable

Maurice Morby talks about his revisit to Korea. He describes the his amazement at the transformation of the country and his appreciation for the courtesy shown to veterans by the people of Korea.



Mehmet Aksoy

Pride for Service

Mehmet Aksoy describes his return to Korea. Above all, he is amazed how the people of Korea are thankful for the Turkish sacrifices during the Korean War. He wishes people in Turkey would be so grateful and considerate as the Korean people. Consequently, Ahmet Aksoy considers the people of Korea his brothers and sisters. He could never imagine the change of Korea. He is proud of his service during the War.



Mehmet Arif Boran

We Shed Our Blood for Korea

Mehmet Arif Boran describes his revisit to Korea. He is very proud of Korea's accomplishments. He calls Korea, Super Korea due to the buildings and accomplishments. Mehmet Arif Boran would stay in Korea if asked.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recounts the Battle of Kunu-ri, a notable engagement for Turkish soldiers. He remembers the battle as intensely fierce, but the Turkish forces managed to repel a larger Chinese force. Yasar describes how the Chinese attacked at night, resulting in significant casualties among the Turkish fighters during the Battle of Kunu-ri.



Melesse Tesemma

Fear and Commitment in Battle

Melesse Tesemma admits to feeling afraid when he first joined the Korean War, but he insists that soldiers cannot let fear interfere with their mission. Upon arriving in Kumhwa, he fought the Chinese on Hill 358, where he sustained a leg injury from mortar shrapnel. For his bravery and service, he received numerous awards, including the United States Bronze Star, as well as honors from Korea and Ethiopia.



Origins of Ethiopia's Involvement in the Korean War

Melesse Tesemma recounts Ethiopia's involvement in the Korean War, tracing its origins to the Italian invasion and occupation of Ethiopia. He explains that Emperor Haile Selassie's grievances were presented to the League of Nations, which ultimately ignored his appeal. This experience, Tesemma notes, motivated Selassie's decision to commit troops to the Korean War effort.



Melvin Colberg

One-Room Schoolhouse Education

Melvin Colberg recounts his educational experience in a one-room schoolhouse growing up in Illinois. He shares that learning and even teaching on some days were cooperative efforts between students and the teacher. He expresses that the experience allowed students exposure to an environment conducive to learning how to get along with others and learning how to adapt in preparation for the real-world setting beyond the classroom.



Impressions of Korea in the 1960s

Melvin Colberg recalls his impressions of Korea in the 1960s during his service, a perspective which centers on the years between the war-ravaged Korea of the 1950s and today's modern Korea. He recounts that infrastructure was still in the development stage as there were many dirt roads at the time and few factories present. No large farming equipment as water buffalo were mainly used in the agricultural setting along with a few rototillers here and there. Most people were still poor, living in one-room houses heated through the floor, and many civilians still wore traditional Korean clothing.



American Weaponry and Transfer of Knowledge Contributions

Melvin Colberg offers an account of his life as part of the 83rd Ordinance Battalion in Gimpo, South Korea, which was responsible for special ammunition and served as the northernmost depot. He summarizes the weaponry at the time and Melvin Colberg assisted in the testing and maintenance of the weaponry. There was a transfer of knowledge from American soldiers to the South Korean civilians in many forms and he agrees that these contributions should be highlighted.



South Korea: A Success Story

Melvin Colberg shares his views on the relationship between Korean War veterans and defense veterans along with the legacy of the Korean War. The outcome of the Korean War is a success story for both the South Koreans as well as the Americans. South Korea has changed so much, for the better, since he left, and he acknowledges that it is a shame that this success story is not taught in schools today.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Homecoming

Nancy Lubbers describes the homecoming of her husband, Melvin D. Lubbers from service in Korea in August 1953. She was very overwhelmed and very excited to see him. She explains that she didn’t know what was going on in Korea and why she believes the war has been forgotten.



Merl Smith

Revisiting Korea

Merl Smith discusses his impressions of Korea during a visit in 2007. He recalls not believing the recovery of Seoul. He was amazed at the prosperous and happy people, which was in complete contrast to what he witnessed in 1950. He believes the Korean people are resilient people and have a positive outlook on life.



The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

The Troubles with Traveling by a Truck

Merle Degler's job was to work on military trucks at the front lines in North Korea in early 1953. After being told that he had to move out, Merle Degler drove a truck up into the mountains with his regiment until the engine blew. Because he was not able to fix the truck on the side of the mountain, he was towed down the hill and back to a ROK camp where he had to stay until meeting up with additional soldiers willing to lead him back to his regiment.



Michael Corona

Sheer Strength

Mike Corona honors the strength of both the US soldiers and the Koreans loading 1-ton jets onto the Landing Ship Tank (LST). South Korean soldiers harnessed wooden boards to their shoulders and connected chains to the jets. Together, four South Korean soldiers sang a song while they dragged the 1-ton jet onto the LST.



Korea: A Huge Empty Lot

When Mike Corona first arrived in Korea, he said it was just a huge empty lot without big buildings, sidewalks, and streets.
Now, Korea looks like Las Vegas, NV because of the beautiful streets, landscapes, and multi-story buildings. After going back for the third revisit, Mike Corona experienced the Korean government's reenactment of the Inchon Landing.



Michael Daly

Bedtime Prayer

Michael Daly's earliest political recollection of the Korean War was when he was 5 years old. He and his dad knelt by the side of the bed to say their prayers and he remembers his dad praying, "We thank God tonight for the armistice in the war in Korea." Since Michael Daly was born right before the Korean War, he was too young to remember the draft and other small nuances of the war.



Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Korea Today

Michael Daly recognized the economic and political impact Korea has had both on themselves and countries around the world. Aside from the technological advancements and automobile, the political landscape has exploded since 1987. The events of that period that further progressed democratization in South Korea too.



Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce

Prior Knowledge of the War / Conocimiento Sobre de la Guerra

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce remembers when he first heard about the war. He shares that he was aware about what was happening in Korea but never imagined he would be drafted. He recalls the way in which his family wept upon hearing of his deployment.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce recuerda cuando escuchó por primera vez que había una guerra en Corea. Él comparte que estaba al tanto de lo que estaba sucediendo en Corea, pero nunca se imaginó que sería reclutado. Recuerda la forma en que su familia lloraba al enterarse de su despliegue.



Miguel M. Villamor

Impressed with Korea's Progress

Miguel M. Villamor recalls traveling between Seoul and Pusan during his time in Korea. He describes a desolate land with no buildings. He expresses admiration for the industry and resilience of the Korean people in rebuilding their nation into the success it has become.



Mike Muller

The Cheetah Squadron

Mike Muller reflects on his air unit's role in Korea. As a Second Lieutenant in the 2 Cheetah Squadron, renowned for its accomplishments in North Africa and Italy during World War II, he and his fellow airmen stepped into the shoes of many of these World War II heroes, shaping the new Cheetah Squadron composed of youthful aviators in Korea.



Mike Scarano

"There were no draft dodgers"

Mike Scarano describes good relations with the Korean people. He comments that not many people know about WWII or the Korean War, but many know about the issues surrounding the draft in Vietnam. He states that there were no draft dodgers in Korea.



Mildred Marian Thomason

Decision to Join the Military

Mildred Thomason reflects on her decision to join the United States Air Force after completing her initial nursing training. She recalls seeing many advertisements urging nurses to consider enlisting and shares she decided to join because she was bored living in her hometown. She remembers how she was able to ride on military airplanes without cost, which helped her see many places.



Nursing at Her First Air Force Base

Mildred Thomason describes her first assignment at Reese Air Force Base. She explains she never received any basic training, having enlisted during a short window of time when nurses were not given any basic training. She admits she would walk across the street from other officers because she was not taught how to salute. She recalls a time, during her first assignment, when a new commanding officer thought everyone should do an obstetrics rotation. She discusses being on a rotation with an Orthopedic surgeon as the blind leading the blind. She recalls how this rotation made her want to go into obstetrics and shares she used the GI Bill after her service to pursue a B.A.



Serving at a Small Hospital in Korea

Mildred Thomason recalls serving at a small hospital in Korea where she was stationed with fighter jet pilots. She shares how, while there, she treated minor illnesses like pneumonia. She recounts seeing Marilyn Monroe perform and even meeting her. She describes Marilyn Monroe as courteous and friendly and details how the troops were “hooping and hollering” when she came out to perform in her tight red dress. She admits it probably did raise the morale of the troops.



Milton E. Vega

The Legacy / El Legado

Milton Vega Rivera shares his message for future generations and discusses the legacy of the war. He states that he does not like war but believes it to be a necessary evil which can help countries, like Korea. He relays the importance of serving one’s country and deems it the highest duty of every citizen.

Milton Vega Rivera comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y discute el legado de la guerra. Afirma que no le gusta la guerra, pero cree que es un mal necesario que puede ayudar a países como Corea. Además, él testifica la importancia de servir a la patria y lo considera el deber más importante de todos los ciudadanos.



Monte Curry

Cruelty of the Turks

Monte Curry felt sorry for the Chinese (Chinks) who were being picked off so easily by the Turks and other UN soldiers that were shooting them. With three waves of Chinese soldiers, the first round, only 1 out of 10 carried a gun, so the second wave picked up the weapons on the ground. The 3rd wave had more weapons and fought using guerrilla tactics hiding behind bushes. Monte Curry described how the Turks carried leather satchels to bring back the ears they had cut off of the enemy.



Awarded for his Idea & Peeing in Whiskey Bottles

Monte Curry had developed a way to protect the communication cable and wiring that was internally damaged from the mortars on the front line, so when the word got back to a general, he decided to reward Monte Curry for his efforts. They brought a white truck (said it looked like a Red Cross truck) and unloaded reels of movies, a projector, and a generator to the front lines so the soldiers could watch John Wayne westerns. Monte Curry was considered a hero since it was such a special treat for the men and some soldiers would walk miles just to get the opportunity to watch the movies. They were told not to drink the whiskey on the front line since they found out people were peeing in the bottles and selling it making people sick. He said they thought it was people who may have gone down to the DMZ and picked up these bottles from the local stores.



Myron Bruessel

Atomic bomb testing

Myron Bruessel was assigned to the 9677 Technical Service Unit (TSU), a branch of the military that worked on atomic and nuclear bomb testing in the United States to bomb anywhere in the world. He was assigned to a TSU unit in Hawaii because the island had large antennas necessary for the program. This testing was based on earth movement (electromagnetic force) and it used all the radio antennas to monitor radio waves.



Nuclear Fallout and Test Pigs

Myron Bruessel recognized all the United States soldiers who were "guinea pigs" during the nuclear fallout. In 1953, nuclear tests were from the air and balloon to see if buildings could withstand nuclear bombs. Pigs and cows were placed in testing areas and that scientists would subsequently examine their organs to measure the amount of radiation that was present after a nuclear test.



Operation Upshot-Knothole

In 1953, Myron Brussel constructed 4 different antennae systems in Puerto Rico with different frequencies with a mile-long antenna. A portable rhombic antenna was used because it was very accurate to determine if they could find radio waves associated with atomic bombs. These tests were part of a group of nuclear tests and detection called Operation Upshot-Knothole.



Myron Vaughn

Stationed in Korea After the Korean War

Myron Vaughn was stationed in Seoul, South Korea after the Korean War. He had fun in Seoul as part of the 8th Army.



Different Jobs to Support the Military

Myron Vaughn earned the rank of Corporal for the 8th Army. He worked on rifles and small arms so that soldiers had working weapons to protect South Korea.



Nam Young Park

Changes in Korea

Nam Young Park shares how he visits Korea at least once per year. He explains what has changed, including the beautification and modernization of Korea over the past fifty years. He details how after studying in the United States, he became a scientist and was asked to go back to work in his home country by President Park, who he believes as a great leader.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor recalls having never given communism a second thought when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He remembers feeling a call to duty and wanting to do the right thing for his country. He describes how far behind the times Korea was when it came to living conditions.



Living Conditions at K-9 Near Pusan

Neal Taylor describes living conditions on the base as being tolerable considering the situation. He recalls having issues with rats as they would try to sleep at night as well as struggling with the cold temperatures during the winter. He remembers the West Coast Strike impacting their food supply and having to eat stew for thirty-five days straight.



Closure

Neal Taylor discusses the absence of closure from the war until he revisited Korea. He describes how seeing all of the progress and feeling the love and appreciation from the Korean people helped reinforce what he did was worthwhile. He describes the impact of reforestation and how green the country looked as well as the tall buildings that now stood in a country that was once decimated by war.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Fear Cannot Be Explained

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes in detail what a soldier goes through in battle. Firstly, he describes that everything gets quiet. Further, you start to see your wife or parents. Meanwhile, you hear the machine gun. Subsequently, people who have grave wounds "give up the ghost."



Nelson S. Ladd

Operation X-Ray- The Libby Bridge Construction

Nelson Ladd was the surveyor for the bridge constructed over Imjin River known as the Libby Bridge. The high level, steel and concrete bridge that is still intact and in use today was named after Sergeant George C. Libby of the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his self-sacrifice at Taejon, Korea. Nelson Ladd was there during the dedication by Army General Maxwell Taylor on July 4, 1953.



Advancements in Korea: Then vs Today

After having visited Korea in 2013, Nelson Ladd is still amazed by the advancements Korea has made and how ambitious the people have been throughout the years. He had seen images of what Korea looked like before his revisit, however he had feared that Korea would have become like many East Asian countries, disparaged and unable to recover. Nelson Ladd described the Taft-Katusa Agreement (1905) between the US and Japan that led occupation of Korea and the Philippines that created the oppression upon the peoples of those countries.



Military Allowances during Korean War

When Nelson Ladd was drafted into the war, he was paid $88.50 a month. By the time he came home as a Corporal, he earned $135 plus 50$ in overseas pay. Nelson Ladd said he earned enough to buy his first car for $1,600 and he gave money to his family.



Nick Mararac

The Forgotten Armistice and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission

Nick Mararac describes the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), and its role in the armistice/DMZ area. It was created during the armistice with North Korea. The NNSC is used during talks between North and South Korea ever since 1953.



Naval Training

Nick Mararac discusses how he became a commissioned officer after graduating from college. He also discusses his basic training starting at the Naval Academy. During his explanation, pride can be heard in the tone of his voice.



Impmressions of Korea and Living Conditions

Nick Mararac recalls seeing Korea for the first time prior to serving there. He found the language intimidating and had difficulty with it. After moving to Korea he remembers being able to get around quite easily. He remembers living on the 26th floor on a high rise in a comfortable apartment.



Nickolaos Tzantas

Panhellenic Association of Air Force Veterans Presents Book on the 13th Transport Squadron of the Greek Air Force

Nickolas Tzantas, the treasurer of the Panhellenic Association of Air Force Veterans, presents Dr. Han with a copy of their book about the 13th Transport Squadron of the Greek Air Force. He notes the book contains interviews with veterans who participated in the Korean War from 1950-1953 until 1955 when it was an expeditionary force in Greece. He continues that the publication of this book was an initiative of General Georgios Plionis, the organization's former president.



Niconas Nanez

Returning Soldiers Not Appreciated

Niconas Nanez says when he returned home, many people did not even know where he had been. He remembers that people did not know much about the war, some did not even know there was a war in Korea. He says they were not welcomed or recognized, so today he helps welcome home soldiers.



Nikolaos Filis

Graphic Memories

Nikolaos Filis identifies his wife who recounts a few of his observations while serving in Korea. She shares that he saw disaster and found ruins of houses, people massacred, babies crying on the bodies of their dead parents, and poverty. She adds that he did not think solely of protecting himself and that he had even made preparations to ensure he would not be captured alive by the Chinese.



Nils Sten Egelien

The Unsung Heroes of NORMASH

Nils Sten Egelien recalls his experiences at NORMASH as a guardsman. He remembers the high volume of patients coming in from the front lines for treatment and how frustrated he would get when the focus would be on what the doctors and nurses were accomplishing. He explains that along with the unrelenting service of the doctors and nurses, it was the daily grind of the drivers, guardsmen, priests, and cooks that kept NORMASH functioning despite being often overlooked.



Jikji predates the Gutenberg Bible

Nils Sten Egelien discusses one of his greatest discoveries about Korea, Jikji. He explains that Europeans had always considered the Gutenberg Bible as the oldest known printed book, however he finds that the Koreans had been printing some 200 years prior to that with a moveable metal print known as Jikji. He considers it one the most finest discoveries he made when learning about Korea.



Arirang (Traditional Korean Folksong)

Nils Sten Egelien sings Arirang, a traditional Korean folksong. He describes the many versions of the song throughout Korea and how it is endearing to the people. He mentions that it is sung every year at an annual Autumn meeting that he attends.



Noel G. Spence

In Retrospect

Noel G. Spence addresses why he fought in Korea. He discusses what fighting meant to him and how it saved South Korea. He expresses remorse about the shelling of the enemy. He recalls how on the night before the signing of the armistice, the Allies used up their shells as they did not want to be responsible for live artillery shells.



Noreen Jankowski

Yankee, Go Home

Noreen Jankowski recalls her husband sharing memories of Korean civilians telling him and other American soldiers to go home as they did not want them there. She points to pictures stating that the Koreans wanted unification or death. She remembers meeting a Korean American years later, and he expressed his thanks for the sacrifices American soldiers had made for South Korea.



Norma L. Holmes

Silence about the War

Norma Holmes shares what she heard from her husband about the Korean War. She tells a story of how her husband was ambushed at The Battle of the Hook. He told her mostly about the good times, including the fun that they had in Japan. She believes that this is because he was instructed not to share any details about his time in Korea.



Visiting Korea

Norma Holmes shares that she had the opportunity to visit Korea with her husband in 1989. She recalls having a wonderful time as a wife of a Korean War veteran. She recounts that they were treated like royalty while they were there by the Korean people, including Korean children.



Ollie Thompson

Prior Knowledge of Korea

Ollie Thompson recalls not having any real prior knowledge of Korea until the Korean War broke out. He remembers hearing about the break out on the radio and wanting to join the military because his brother had served during the Second World War. He describes his feelings of wanting to make a difference by helping the people of Korea gain their freedom.



Basic Training

Ollie Thompson recalls having received his basic training at Fort Polk, Louisiana. He describes field training and learning hand-to-hand combat. He remembers furthering his training in artillery once he arrived in Japan, before moving on to Korea.



Destruction of Korea

Ollie Thompson recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon and traveling onward to Seoul by train, which was riddled with bullet holes. He remembers scenes of destruction all along the route. He describes settling in the Chorwon Valley and the sound of his first experience in combat, though it was their own artillery.



Orville Jones

Legacy of the Korean War

Orville Jones recalls his sadness when General Douglas MacArthur was fired. He shares how he felt as if the legacy of the war would be a lot different if he had been able to continue as the U.S. general in Korea. He speculates that maybe the Koreas would be unified but that nuclear weapons might have been used.



Orville Oster

Daily Routine on board a Navy Ship

Orville Oster describes the daily routine on board the navy ship that he lived on. He tells of his job responsibilities on the team of the flight deck crew. Although he was not in combat, his occupation on the ship was very important and extremely dangerous.



Osman Yasar Eken

Description of War

Osman Eken describes war. He did not feel danger or think about death. The Vegas Battles left many Chinese dead. Osman Eken provides one of the most vivid accounts of the battle. Turkey lost one hundred and forty-seven soldiers in twenty-six hours.



Othal Cooper

Night Raids

Othal Cooper explains the night raid missions of the B-29 planes on which he worked. He details how the night flyers would drop tinfoil from their planes to deter enemy radar, referring to it as radar jamming. He explains that by doing this it was more difficult for the enemy to shoot the planes down and recalls no planes receiving a direct hit while he was there.



Civil War

Othal Cooper reflects on how the Korean War relates to the U.S. Civil War. He makes many parallels on what life would be like today in the U.S. if we had never ended our conflict. He explains what situations many Koreans must endure today due to lack of peace negotiations.



Otto G. Logan

Reflections on Kindness

Otto G. Logan reflects on how his military service affected his life. He shares that his service taught him to love his neighbor as he would anyone else. He also commends the Korean people for job well done restoring the country following the war.



Ovid Odean Solberg

Feelings of Service

Ovid O. Solberg discusses his sense of accomplishment in Korea. He mentions how other countries need to look to them for examples.



Pablo Delgado Medina

The 65th Infantry / El 65 de Infantería

Pablo Delgado Medina shares his thoughts about the 65th Infantry. He remembers the language barrier was a problem for Puerto Rican troops because Americans used slang during combat which they found difficult to understand. He states his belief that the 65th Infantry was the toughest combat brigade as it was assigned to the toughest missions including the Battle of Kelly Hill and Pork Chop Hill.

Pablo Delgado Medina comparte su opinión sobre el 65 de Infantería. Recuerda que a veces tenían problemas con el idioma porque los estadounidenses usaban una jerga durante el combate que les resultaba difícil de entender a los puertorriqueños. Afirma su creencia de que la 65.ª Infantería fue la brigada de combate más dura, y por eso fue enviada a las misiones más difíciles, incluyendo la Batalla de Kelly Hill y Pork Chop Hill.



Pascual Feliciano

Training / Entrenamiento

Pascual Rosa Feliciano shares his thoughts on how well basic training prepared him for combat. He admits that while it was not enough time to prepare them as they were young, he was incredibly proud to be a member of the U.S. Army. The training he recalls was tough, shaped their character, and forced them to mature.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano comparte sus pensamientos sobre qué tan bien lo preparó el entrenamiento básico para el combate. Admite que si bien no fue suficiente tiempo para prepararlos cuando eran tan jóvenes, el entrenamiento logro a dejarlo increíblemente orgulloso de ser miembro del Ejército de los EE. UU. El recuerda que el entrenamiento fue duro, moldeó su carácter y los obligó a madurar.



Reconnaissance Mission / Misión de Reconocimiento

Pascual Rosa Feliciano shares an incident in which two squads were on patrol and were attacked by the enemy. As intelligence and reconnaissance members, they were continuously seeking the position of the enemy, and on this occasion, he describes how their sergeant was wounded during battle. Even though they were under fire, he shares the story of how their sergeant was saved by the squad.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano comparte la historia de un incidente en el que dos escuadrones estaban de patrulla y fueron atacados por el enemigo. Como estaban a cargo de inteligencia y reconocimiento, siempre estaban buscando la posición del enemigo, y en esta ocasión él describe cómo su sargento fue herido durante la batalla. A pesar de que estaban bajo fuego, comparte la historia de cómo la escuadra rescato a su sargento.



Pasquale G. “Bob” Morga

A Patriotic Father

Bob Morga explains that his father was “so patriotic” and he never wanted to disappoint him, especially since so many of his brothers also served. He remembers his father telling him not to disgrace his name. He says that he believes that his father was proud of him after he received a citation for his service on the Don Dunphy show at Madison Square Garden.



Paul Frederick Steen

Reason for Volunteering

Paul Steen explains his reasoning for volunteering for the draft. He shares that he felt he was no better than anyone else and that he had a fondness for the military as a child. He admits that he questioned his decision as soon as he entered the service but adds that he was glad he made the choice to do so.



Revisiting Korea

Paul Steen recounts his revisit Korea experience. He describes the contrast between the Korea he saw years ago and modern Korea. He comments on the warmth and thankfulness of the Korean people.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



The Most Difficult Experience in Korea

Paul Cunningham identified the lack of solid support from the US government as the most difficult experience in Korea because all of the troops were ready to follow MacArthur all the way to the Yalu River. He shares that he was a part of the Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 502 Tactical Control Group during his time in Korea. He adds that his squadron performed air surveillance for three hundred miles in all directions using radar machines that were used during WWII.



Paul Hockla

Letter from Perry Edgar

Paul Hockla reads a letter from Perry Edgar, whose life he saved in combat while they were in Korea.



Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Paul Hockla discusses what he sees as the legacy of the Korean War Veterans.



Paul Hummel

Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Ohlsen

Photos around the Swedish Red Cross Hospital

Paul Ohlsen provides pictures of the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He describes living conditions at the hospital and how free time was spent. He provides photos depicting life around the hospital in Busan. His photos also share glimpses of the civilians he treated, offering rare insight into what life looked like following the Armistice.



Paul Rodriguez

Paul Rodriguez Formed the Wyoming State Korean War Veteran State Chapter and Dedicated a Memorial

Paul Rodriguez attempted to form a local Korean War Veterans chapter but could not find the required twelve veterans. He joined the national chapter instead. He later created a state chapter and raised funds to build a memorial to create the Wyoming Veteran Memorial Park in Cody, Wyoming. The memorial statue was designed by his son.



Paul Spohn

Conversion from Paper to Computers

Paul Spohn shares his first experience with computers known as IBM at the time. He recounts his daily duties of comparing records and using punch cards. He explains that his duties also involved converting old written records to the newer IBM records.



The Transformation of Korea

Paul Spohn offers his thoughts on Korea's transformation since the war. He shares that it embodies a lot of what is good about Western civilization. He adds that humankind's main emphasis should be that everyone experiences a good life.



Paul Welsh

"Korea is Special to Me"

Paul Welsh states that Korea is special to him because he shed his blood there. It is apparent that there are a lot of emotions intertwined in his memories. Like with many veterans, the time in Korea had a lasting impact on him.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Growing Up in Boot Camp

Paulino Lucino Jr. was taught responsibility by serving the in Army. In boot camp, he had a lot of hard times, but although it was rough, it helped him later in life to accomplish his goals. Perseverance was a major life lesson that Paulino Lucino Jr. learned while in boot camp.



Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)

Paulino Lucino Jr.'s job during the Korean War was a 81 millimeter mortar man. He still knows all of the details that he was taught during boot camp including the weight of the plate, barrels, and stakes he used. It was very hard to transport the 81 millimeter mortars on the Korean Peninsula's mountainous landscape.



PD Sharma

Revisiting Korea

Rajeev Sharma recalls his visits to Korea. His father, a Korean War Veteran, was able to accompany him on the first of his two trips. He remembers his father noticing the huge transformation Korea has made over the years. He compares Korea's rise to India's and believes Korea has surpassed India in development. He was very amazed at the infrastructure in Korea. He also mentions how hardworking the Korean people are.



Pedro Julio Jackson Morales

Impact of the War / Impacto de la Guerra

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales reflects on the impact the war had on his personal life. He admits that suffered from nightmares about what happened during the war until his old age. He surmises that he may have picked up a disease while in Korea and that might be the reason why he returned unwell.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales habla sobre el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su vida. Él cuenta que tuvo pesadillas sobre lo que sucedido durante la guerra hasta su vejez. Supone que puede haber contraído una enfermedad mientras estaba en Corea y esa podría ser la razón por la cual regresó mal.



Pell E. Johnson

Protecting the Front Lines at Old Baldy

Pell E. Johnson understood the importance of protecting the battle lines at Old Baldy. It was difficult to drive the Chinese out of the area. He won't ever forget changing the troops out and celebrating Thanksgiving on a cold night.



Welcome Home

Pell E. Johnson remembers all the details about returning home from his duties in Korea. When he got home, his outlook on life changed. United States civilians did not understand the lifestyle soldiers had lived. He also feared the uncertainty of the future to come.



Per Anton Sommernes

Morphine to Ease the Pain

Per Anton Sommernes describes being part of the Norwegian MASH (NorMASH) unit. Soldiers would come in wounded from the frontlines. NorMash would stabilize soldiers who lost limbs from combat. Men would receive morphine to ease the pain. Men would be stabilized in the field hospital and then transfer out after three to four days. Per Anton Sommernes also describes receiving supplies from the American military by helicopter.



No Experience or Training

Per Anton Sommernes describes his service as a male nurse for NorMASH during the Korean War. He had no formal training in Norway. His first instruction was giving penicillin shots to soldiers in Korea. The training was just telling him to push the needle in and inject. However, he did not kill anyone.



To Stay or To Evacuate

Per Anton Sommernes describes an incident where there was a possibility of being overrun by Chinese soldiers. Evacuating every wounded soldier was not an option. Some nurses and doctors would have to stay. Per Anton Sommernes grew up in China and knew the language and volunteered to stay back.



Pete Arias

Second Raiders

Pete Arias has vivid memories of being chosen as a Second Raider in the United States Marine Corps. He vividly recalls the excitement he felt when he became a part of the special outfit that was newly created. He shares the meaning behind the name Gung-ho Raiders, which translates to “work together.” He details his rigorous training as a Raider, which involved learning hand-to-hand combat and water rescues. However, he admits to feeling a sense of arrogance due to the fancy equipment and unique uniforms they received as Raiders.



Battle of Midway

Pete Arias, during WWII, was deployed to Midway. He recounts an incident where their ship encountered a Japanese submarine while en route to the island. He shares how, upon arriving at the island, their unit was ordered to dig holes to squat in. He remembers the morning when the Japanese forces invaded Midway. He recalls that it was during the Battle of Midway where he witnessed his first dead body.



Serving in Korea

Pete Arias shares his experiences of being discharged from the military in 1946 and later enlisting in the United States Reserves. He recounts how his brother was captured while serving in the U.S. Army overseas and spent thirty-four months in a prisoner of war camp. He remembers when the military planned to send him home, but he refused as he wanted to stay and fight for his captured brother. As a result, he was transferred to an outfit in Seoul, which he admits was the best living conditions he had experienced while serving in the military.



Pete Flores

Outfitting Planes with Cameras

Pete Flores describes installing cameras on the planes. He recalls that out of thirty or forty planes, three would be photo planes. He shares how these specific planes would take pictures as a means of gauging whether targets were being hit and missions were successful. He describes how all the gun turrets had little 16 mm movie cameras that were about the size of a pack of cigarettes and comments on how he would wait for the planes to come back and remove the film for analysis.



Attitude Toward Military and War

Pete Flores says he had two brothers who served in the military as well as a brother-in-law in World War II. He emphasizes that military service taught him discipline and determination which he applied in his successful business after his four years of service. He shares how he helps returning veterans when they leave service.



Pete J. Nadeau

From Rubble to Democratic Metropolis: The Rise of South Korea

This clip articulates the epiphany Pete J. Nadeau had while revisiting South Korea. He frequently contemplated the legacy and purpose of the war as well as the lives lost, including some of his good friends. He came face to face with that legacy when he revisited South Korea in 2000. He recalls being in awe of the roads, the cars, the children going to school, the growth in population, and the complete renewal of a country he left in 1951. When he left, the country lay in ruins.



Peter Elliott

Life as an Aircraftman

Peter Elliott shares his experiences working in airplane mechanics during the war as a leading Aircraftman. He explains what his responsibilities were as his specialty was repairing and maintaining the frames of airplanes. While they did not get paid much, he recalls how he was able to save money and buy a car when he returned to Australia.



Phanom Sukprasoet

Almost Going Crazy

Phanom Sukprasoet experienced many terrifying moments during his time in Korea. He recalls the constant bombing and the sound of cannons going off making him feel as if he were going crazy. The freezing weather added to the hardship, making it painful to touch any metal objects. Despite these challenges, he emphatically states that he has no regrets about serving in Korea.



Didn't Recognize Where He Was

Phanom Sukprasoet describes struck by how unrecognizable the landscape was as he traveled between Incheon and Seoul during his return trip to Korea for the 70th Anniversary commemoration. He marvels at the incredible development of Korea, particularly the cities, which he found to be bigger and more developed than Bangkok. He expresses immense pride in his role in the Korean War.



Philip Davis

A New South Korea

Philip Davis describes the commemoration events that he has attended for Korean War Veterans. He is grateful for how the veterans are treated and honored at celebrations throughout their community and nation, stating that it is different than how the Vietnam Veterans were treated. He is amazed at how well South Korea has continued to establish their economy and democracy.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



The Battle of Chosin Reservoir and Roadblocks

Philip S. Kelly describes thinking he would be home by Christmas 1950, but instead, he encountered a surprise attack by the Chinese in what became the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He recalls that the United States Army pulled out and left the U.S. Marines exposed to the Chinese attack. He explains how he fought as an infantryman and the difficulty experienced by the soldiers in trying to clear out Chinese road blocks.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Transitioning From Basic Training to Running Heavy Equipment

Phillip Olson enlisted in 1951 and attended a variety of training while in the United States as part of the United States Army. His specialty was heavy equipment such as bull dozers, cranes, caterpillars, and earth movers. One of the roles that he remembered fondly was building an air strip between the 36th and 38th parallel so that the US Air Force could drop bombs on North Korea.



Rafael Gomez Hernandez

Enlistment and Request to Serve in Korea

Rafael Gomez Hernandez recounts his enlistment into the US Army on June 20, 1950--merely five days before the Korean War broke out. He recalls traveling to Panama to receive his basic training and speaks of how he requested to serve in Korea rather than accept a hospital pharmacy position in Panama. He states that he was not afraid to fight as he was in his early twenties and was not really afraid of anything at the time.



Utilizing the G.I. Bill

Rafael Gomez Hernandez shares that after his return from Korea he remained in the US Army to complete his three year service. He describes utilizing the G.I. Bill to study economics at the University of Puerto Rico and states that he worked for the government for roughly twenty-three years. He adds that he retired as a lawyer working for himself.



Rafael Gómez Román

Legacy of the War / Legado de la guerra

Rafael Gómez Román explains the necessity of the war in his opinion as stopping the spread of communism was imperative. He shares the belief that his eleven months and twenty-one days were not in vain. While he is not against reunification, he notes that South Korea should never allow the politics of the North to infiltrate its government.

Rafael Gómez Román explica que, en su opinión, la guerra fue necesaria porque era imperativo detener la expansión del comunismo. Comparte la creencia de que sus once meses y veintiún días no fueron en vano. Aunque no está en contra de la reunificación de las Coreas, indica que Corea del Sur nunca debería permitir que la política del Norte se infiltre en su gobierno.



Rafael Rivera Méndez

Basic Training / Entrenamiento Básico

Rafael Rivera Méndez explains the impact of his basic training. He explains that the training he received was not enough to prepare them for war, but it served the purpose of motivating them to fight. This training, which lasted six weeks, further increased his pride of being an American citizen.

Rafael Rivera Méndez explica el impacto de su entrenamiento. Explica que el entrenamiento que recibió no fue suficiente para prepararlos para la guerra, pero sirvió para motivarlos a luchar. Este entrenamiento, que duró seis semanas, aumentó aún más su orgullo de ser ciudadano estadounidense.



Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Generaciones Futuras

Rafael Rivera Méndez shares his thoughts about the war and its legacy with future generations. He urges young people to serve their country because it is the highest calling in his opinion. He states that through war, the principles, honor, and values of a nation are magnified. Because of his belief in the importance of helping people who are being abused, he never regretted his decision to join the army.

Rafael Rivera Méndez comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y el legado de la guerra para las generaciones futuras. Él les pide a los jóvenes que sirvan a su país porque es la vocación más alta. Afirma que a través de la guerra se ven los principios, el honor y los valores de una nación y sus soldados. Debido a su creencia en la importancia de ayudar a las personas que sufren abusos, nunca se arrepintió de su decisión de unirse al ejército.



Rahim Gunay

Brothers and Relatives

Rahim Günay shares his amazement of the thirty to forty-story steel buildings he saw during his revisit to South Korea in 2008. He expressed appreciation of how Korean textbooks acknowledged Turkish involvement. Rahim Günay feels a strong connection with Koreans, considering them as relatives and brothers.



Rajindar Chatrath

Stories from His Father

Rajiv Chatrath shares stories of his father's experience in Korea. His father went to Toyko and Hiroshima, Japan for Rest and Relaxation. He also reads some of his father's notes about the war and postwar when he was able to revisit Korea in the 2000s. His father attended the Revisit Korea program and was able to meet the Korean Ambassador. He recalls his father mentioning how hard-working the Korean people are.



Ralph Blum

Not a Forgotten War in Korea

Ralph Blum revisited Korea in 2012 with his son. He shares how his view of Korea changed because of the advances he saw. He recounts wearing his Korean War cap and jacket while visiting the DMZ and Seoul. He shares how everyone thanked him for his service, including cab drivers and school children. He explains that his revisit answered his question about why he served in Korea. 



Ralph Howard

The U.S. President Wants You for the US Military!

Ralph Howard recalls being in Alaska when the Korean War started and listed as 1-A (available for military service). He mentions he was disappointed after being drafted because he was making good money. He recounts being sent to training as a paratrooper after having his hair cut, passing the aptitude test, and taking a physical.



U.S. Paratrooper Training

Ralph Howard discusses how he was trained to be a U.S. paratrooper in January 1952 after being drafted into the Army. He emphasizes that a great deal of physical training and practice using the parachute was needed. He recalls how his job was to drop into battles, cut off supply routes for the enemy, and support the U.S. Marines who had been fighting in the war since 1950.



Paratrooper Battles During Korean War

Ralph Howard recalls traveling all over Korea. He recounts how he performed airdrops into assorted battles including the Battle of Sukchon-Sunchon, the Battle of Triangle Hill, and the assault of Kot'o-ri. He described a mission where he was supposed to stop an enemy train carrying Allied POWs; however, the enemy had killed all but twenty-six POWs right outside the train.



Chute-Packing Races, C-Rations, and Poor Civilians

Ralph Howard discusses how he was scared until his parachute opened. He recalls not having to pack his own chute but adds that during training, they would compete to see who could pack his chute first. He remembers how General Westmoreland tried to ensure all men on the front lines received a hot meal once a day. He recalls enjoying beanie weenies, sausage, and hamburger from C-Rations. He notes that during his downtime, he would share some of his rations with Korean civilians as they were very poor.



Ralph M. Wilkerson

Ralph Wilkerson Worked to Build Korean War Memorial Park

Ralph Wilkerson worked with Paul Rodriguez to build the Korean War Memorial Park in Cody, Wyoming. He raised over $2 million for the construction of the park to honor all veterans killed in war. He gathered funds from a variety of sources, including the South Korean government. The project took eight years to complete.



Raul Segarra Alicea

Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Raúl Segarra Alicea explains what he knew about the war in Korea prior to enlisting. He remembers that his father explained that it was a familial war as the North and South Koreans were the same people. A justified war in his opinion, he defends the decision to go to war as it was better to fight communists abroad than at home.

Raúl Segarra Alicea explica lo que sabía sobre la guerra de Corea antes de prestar su servicio. Recuerda que su padre le explicó que era una guerra familiar ya que los norcoreanos y los surcoreanos eran de la misma familia. En su opinión, fue una guerra justificada, y defiende la decisión de ir a la guerra porque era mejor luchar contra los comunistas en el extranjero que en el país.



Raymond L. Ayon

Training as a Corpsman

Raymond L. Ayon shares he enlisted in the United States Air Force in 1948 after graduating from high school. He explains how while serving in Japan, he operated a rig to refuel large aircraft. He remembers how, one day, he was transferred to a medical laboratory technical school to train as a corpsman, providing aid to the wounded. Having excelled in biology in high school with straight A's, he believes this was a factor in his selection as a corpsman. He describes the challenging task of taking and giving blood samples with his fellow trainees. He confesses to being unaware of what this new specialty would entail.



Caring for Wounded Enemy POWs

Raymond L. Ayon shares how, during his time in Daegu, he was responsible for the care of wounded enemy POWs for a period of two years. He recalls the conditions of one particular POW who required an inoculation but was afraid of the syringe. As a corpsman, his duty was to provide the necessary treatment and release them once they were fit to go. He remembers a moment when General McArthur passed by in a motorcade while they were waiting to cross the Han River on a pontoon, which was an exciting experience for most of the men. He briefly discusses the numerous medals he was awarded due to his military service.



Raymond L. Fish

Returning Home

Raymond L. Fish recalls the moment his ship approached land, and he saw the lights of the Golden Gate Bridge when he returned home in 1951. He remembers going right to the Army mess hall, and receiving fresh milk for the first time in three years. He explains having to serve additional time in active duty at Walter Reed Hospital, and how he later became a veterinarian.



Raymond Scott

Treacherous Trips as a Navigator

Rayond Scott's job as a Navigator during the Korean War consisted of taking a trip to Japan about every three months to assist Pilots. He recalls that the most difficult flights were landing in and taking off from Shemya Air Force Base in Alaska. He recalls the encounters of difficulty due to the intense fog and high winds.



Rebecca Baker

Decision to Enter the Service and Basic Training

Rebecca Baker shares her decision to join the Navy. She explains how she originally wanted to be a stewardess, and at that time, they were required to have a nursing degree. She shares she grew too tall to be a stewardess and joined the Navy after graduating with her degree in nursing. She recalls waiting for basic training to start and later discovered from neighbors that she was being investigated by the FBI so she could obtain proper security clearance.



Why the Navy, Boot Camp and How Nursing Changes a Person

Rebecca Baker explains that she decided to join the Navy since she lived in Cairo, Illinois, and was always near and in water. She describes boot camp and her U.S. Marine Instructor saying all of the nurses had two left feet since they struggled at marching. She explains when she visited home, she saw mostly family. She conveys how the life and death nature of being a nurse led her to outgrow her old friends.



Reed F. Hawke

Part of the 7th Fleet's Task Force 77

Reed F. Hawke shares he served as part of the U.S. Navy's 7th Fleet's Task Force 77 as a 3rd Class Fire Control Technician. He recalls his duties included working with a lot of the electronics onboard the ship as well as helping fire and maintain the 5-inch 38 guns on the top deck as well as the 40mm guns on the perimeter of the ship. He counts himself fortunate to serve aboard ship which resulted in a better quality of life than was faced by many members of the U.S. Army and Marines on the ground in Korea.



Reginald Clifton Grier

Experiencing Racism When on Day Pass

Reginald Clifton Grier reminisces about an incident that occurred during his basic training. He narrates how he was asked to vacate his seat on a trolley car while on a day pass in Louisiana. He recalls refusing to do so, stating he was from New York and not accustomed to being treated in such a disrespectful manner.



Criminal Investigations in Korea

Reginald Clifton Grier discusses his experience of returning to the reserves and college after serving in World War II. He recalls being called back into service in 1952 and spending eight months in Korea. He describes his primary responsibility during deployment as investigating accidents and other crimes in the Busan area.



Back to Korea as a Signal Officer

Reginald Clifton Grier discusses his service as a communication officer during his second deployment to Korea in 1956. He describes how he ensured there was proper communication between companies up to the regimental headquarters as well as with the artillery and other divisions. He recalls performing this task using both radio and VHF modes of communication.



Experiences in a Desegregated Military

Reginald Clifton Grier explains how the desegregation of the military transformed the institution but not necessarily the people within it. He recalls how he received lower evaluations simply because his commanding officer could not give a Black and White soldier the same rating. He notes how during his evaluations of junior officers, he drew upon his own experiences and upheld the principles of impartial assessment to evaluate their leadership and skills with utmost fairness.



Third Return to Korea

Reginald Clifton Grier discusses returning to Korea for a third time in 1969. He remembers witnessing the handover of border guarding duties from the United States to South Korean forces. He recalls having the opportunity to volunteer with an orphanage in Korea and forming a close bond with a little girl who would follow him around. He shares that he adopted the little girl, and he now has four grandchildren.



Reginald V. Rawls

Life Leading into the Army

Reginald Rawls grew up living in a poor section of town and he had limited options to improve his quality of life. These circumstances served as the impetus for his enlistment in the Army. He rose up the military ranks because he was respectful to everyone and he went to a lot of training.



Returning Home

Reginald Rawls arrived back home after being gone for three years. He was stationed in Japan before being sent to fight in the Korean War. Most people did not know where he was, or what he had been doing since the media had not discussed the Korean War on the home front.



A Strong Love for Korean Civilians

Reginald Rawls believes that the Korean War should be recognized and remembered.
That's why many people call this war, the "Forgotten War." Any extra food, he gave to the Korean civilians because most were starving. During the war, Reginald Rawls had many interactions with Korean civilians, one man was even his driver.



Rene F. Cardenas

Going to Korea

Rene Cardenas recalls being excited to go to Korea, because he was looking for adventure. Having arrived towards the end of the war, he discusses what he knew about what was occurring in the war, including China's entrance into the war. He went from being assigned to a parachute regiment to a fighting infantry unit.



Arriving to Korea and Joining the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon

Rene Cardenas describes his arrival in Korea, and his conversation with an officer, who was looking men to join the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon. He recalls the job description that he was provided and initially was skeptical, because he wanted "more action", but the officer reassured him that he would see plenty with this unit. Upon that assurance, Rene joined the unit.



Bronze Star Actions

Rene Cardenas discusses the circumstances surrounding his receipt of the Bronze Star. While on a night patrol with a company that was not his own, he had to go behind Chinese lines and they came under heavy fire. It was discovered that the squad leader was missing, so Rene went to look for him. They were found on top of a hill, in an exchange with some Chinese soldiers, and Rene was able to cover for them to allow them to fall back and avoid being captured.



Rex L. McCall

PTSD and Maturity

Rex McCall believed he had a touch of PTSD but not as bad as others. He would have dreams that the enemy would overrun his position in the line. He believed the Korean War made him a more mature man and saw himself differently. He was proud to be a veteran but aside from World War II vets, the Australian population did not welcome him back. He feared the youth may not be strong enough to take a stand in future wars.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Fighting for His Father

Ricardo Torres Perez shares he wanted to represent and work hard for his father since his father served in the Korean War with the 65th Infantry Division from Puerto Rico. He recalls how his father hid under two dead bodies while the Chinese were looking for living soldiers to take as POWs.



Richard A. Houser

Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



Returning to the US After Serving in the US Army

Richard Houser returned to the US in the spring of 1934 and most of the people from his town didn't even know he was gone. Newspapers didn't publicize the Korean War since it was tired from WWII, so most of the veterans did not get a warm welcome home.



Korea Revisit

Richard Houser went back to Korea with his wife a few years before the interview was taped. The bright lights, huge buildings, and prosperity of the Korean people made him proud for fighting to free the Korean civilians.



Richard A. Simpson

War, What Is It Good For?

Richard Simpson describes war through religion. He questions what God thinks of war and ultimately what comes from war. He discusses the impact of the war on his life and how the war helped him enter the priesthood.



Richard Arthur Christopher Hilton

Missiles and the USSR

Richard Hilton recalls the threat posed by the USSR as a reason for the U.S. military focus on missiles. He explains that the Russian support for the North Koreans and their advancement in missile creation led to the U.S. proliferation in missile production. He goes on to explain that his proficient math background earned him a position in the missile department, mostly in Albuquerque and in White Sands, New Mexico.



Richard Bartlett

The Air Force's All-Korean Basketball Team Experience

Richard Bartlett played for the All-Korean Basketball Team while in the Air Force and stationed in Korea. He traveled to Seoul and played a variety of Korean teams. These experiences allowed him a chance to get to know some Korean civilians. The Korean teams were comprised of talented basketball players.



Legacy of the Korean Defense Veteran

Richard Bartlett believes that the defense veterans serve and fill the void after the Korean War ended. He feels defense veterans over the years have done a very good job keeping the North and South Koreans separated since the war. He wishes he had personally done more to help the Korean people while there.



Richard Botto

Amenities aboard the USS Salem

Richard Botto and other sailors had a variety of accommodations on the USS Salem. They had AC/Heat on the ship. They also had a cobbler shop, cigarette store, movies every night, and a readied helicopter. There were 1400 men aboard the ship and they had a crane that lifted the higher ranking officers' boats into the water.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Helping a Father See His Son

The most memorable moment in Korea was when a young soldier from Iowa ran up daily for mail call to get information about his new baby. Every time they got mail, the young soldier received many pictures of his son bathing in the tub (always naked), he was so proud. The young soldier asked Richard Brandt when he was going home and he replied that it was within two weeks, but after speaking to his commander, Richard Brandt allowed the young soldier to go home in his place to see his son.



Richard Carey – Part 1

From High School to the Marines

Richard Carey discusses what is V-5. He discusses his path to military service. He explains how he wanted to be a Marine Corps aviator. He shares how the V-5 program was discontinued and he had to go to ROTC or take discharge. He explains how he chose to discharge and enlisted in the Marines.



Letting Freedom Ring

Richard Carey explains his knowledge of Korea before he went. He explains his reason for fighting in the war. He explains how he wanted to help the allies of South Korea and why.



Richard Carey – Part 2

Legacy

Richard Carey discusses the legacy of the Korean War. He shares what he feels the veteran of the war represents. He shares how he believes that freedom is something worth fighting for everyone.



Richard Davey

Working with Americans While Stationed at HQ

Richard Davey recounts being stationed at the Royal Army's Headquarters (HQ) during the May 1953, 3rd Battle of the Hook. Due to bombing and busy telephone lines, he recalls having to hot loop (go around the regular telephone communication system) to communicate with other HQs. During that battle, over thirty-eight thousand shells were used during the fight.



A Bunker and a Radio, What Else Would You Need?

Richard Davey shares that his job in HQ was to man the radio to maintain and assist communication between the frontlines and HQRA. Therefore, he had to store many pieces of equipment to keep the radio running all day and night. He recalls being able to stay in a bunker inside of a trench and adds that he was even able to maintain a bookshelf with books to share with the American soldiers that he was stationed with at the time.



Arrival in Pusan in the Midst of 1952

Richard Davey recalls arriving in Pusan to a band playing in the background and small camps set up with Canadian troops waiting to be shipped out. After a train and truck ride, he was stationed with the Headquarters Royal Artillery (HQRA). While stationed there, he was provided food, summer clothes, and guns.



Richard Davis

Rare Experience

Richard Davis describes one of his rare experiences in Korea. He recalls walking down the railroad tracks and remembers a plane flying low over him. He recounts entering a village the next day and capturing two hundred fifty North Koreans.



Thoughts on War

Richard Davis shares his thoughts on war. He vocalizes that it does not really settle anything and that many lives are lost in the process, often at the hands of politicians. He comments on the need for a military force and offers his thoughts on how to stock US forces.



Richard Donatelli

POW Camp-Teaching of Capitalism

Richard Donatelli explains that they tried to teach them about the downfalls of capitalism in the POW Camp. They placed them in a circle sharing stories of the businessmen ruining the country on a daily basis, an argument for socialism and communism. In addition to this, they would have to sing a patriotic song daily while living in the horrible conditions of the camp.



Release from POW Camp

After the armistice agreement in July of '53, Richard Donatelli was released from Camp 5 (August 17, 1953). He explains how they moved the prisoners and started to treat them better. He recalls that after their arrival at Panmunjom, the former prisoners started taking off and tossing the prison uniforms over the edge of the truck in exchange for winter clothes. He was so thankful to see the bright colors and beautiful women when they arrived back in the states.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Drafted Into the U.S. Army

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experiences of being drafted by the United States Army at the age of twenty-one and undergoing his basic training. He explains how his boot camp training equipped him with the necessary skills to survive and serve during the war. He recalls the weapon training he received, which included the M1 rifle, bazooka, and mortar.



Life on the Front Lines

Richard Edward Watchempino reflects on his daily life while serving on the front lines. In his reflection, he shares his thoughts and memories about letter writing to his family members, personal hygiene, and food rations. He recalls reciting traditional native prayers for courage and strength and even speaks a few phrases of the prayers during the interview.



Richard Friedman

Adamant about Serving in Korea

Richard Friedman shares how his father used his political clout to pull strings in order to have him sent to Germany out of harm's way instead of Korea. Richard Friedman refused to leave his company despite his father's actions. To negate his current predicament, he specifically volunteered to serve in Korea against his father's wishes.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Richard Friedman coveys his views on the Korean War Legacy. He shares that no one was there to thank him for his service upon his return home. Richard Friedman states that the Korean War's Legacy needs to be built upon, and he acknowledges that measures are being taken by various individuals and groups to do so. He shares that he respects why he was there, what was achieved, and was proud to have served.



Richard Fuller

Military Service and Forgotten Wars

Richard Fuller explains his views of military service and Korea. He shares that he grew up in military service and feels he learned many lessons along the way. He communicates to younger generations that there is nothing wrong with entering military service if desired. He shares that he is satisfied with what has become of South Korea. He closes with his views on why the Korean War is considered the Forgotten War.



Richard H. Fastenau

I Did My Duty, Spent My Time, and I Feel Good about It

Richard H. Fastenau shares that he really does not think about the impact his service during the Korean War had on his life after his return. He claims he did his duty, and no one can argue that he did not. He notes that he rarely talks about his experience to others beyond those who have served in Korea.



Richard Higa

Astounded by Korean Progress

Richard Higa talks about his amazement at the progress of South Korea from the perspective of his 1970 revisit. He makes remarks about Seoul as well as the South Korean economy.



Richard Houser (Wife)

Why This Project is Important

Mrs. Houser describes why this project is important.



Richard J. Dominguez

Being Drafted and Training With Mules

Richard J. Dominguez shares how, after graduating high school in 1942, he wanted to join the United States Army Air Corps. He notes, however, he was unable to pass the physical exam due to a muscular imbalance in one eye. He recalls spending a year rehabilitating his eye and taking university courses. He describes how, in 1943, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and sent to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, for basic training. He explains how during his training, he was part of a special group that trained with mules to carry a 0.35 millimeter Howitzer. He remembers the discipline and physical fitness required to work with the animals and hike across hilly terrain.



U.S. Air Corps and Infantry Training

Richard J. Dominguez explains that the United States Air Corps was a division of the U.S. Army before the establishment of the U.S. Air Force. He shares how, in 1944, he was sent to Arizona State Teachers College to complete coursework in preparation for his duties in the U.S. Air Corps. He remembers how, at that time, women did not serve in the U.S. Air Corps. He recalls his experiences during his training at the college, which included ten hours of flying instruction. He recalls, however, before he could complete his Air Corps training, he was transferred to the Army Infantry, 13th Armored Division, where he received instruction on firing anti-tank weapons.



Preparing for the Korean War as a U.S. National Guard

Richard J. Dominguez shares he made the decision to join the United States National Guard while working as a police officer. He mentions that his choice to reenlist in the service was largely influenced by the payment of thirty dollars he received each month which helped to supplement his income from the police department. He remembers how, a few months after joining the National Guard, he was sent to Camp Cook, California, to train as a medic and mobilize for the Korean War. He describes how his training and departure affected his wife and young daughter who went to live with relatives.



Medic Training

Richard J. Dominguez expands on his explanation of basic training, specifically the training he underwent to become a medic. He details the medical training they received from a doctor, and the physical training to prepare them for their jobs in Korea.



Richard L. Boxwell, Jr.

No Purple Heart

Richard Boxwell did not earn a Purple Heart for his war-related injuries. Even though he was injured doing war-related work on an aircraft carrier during the Korean War, he was not eligible for a Purple Heart because he was not in direct combat. It was ironic that he went into the Navy to stay away from injury, but he still ended up injured.



Alcohol on a Naval Ship

Richard Boxwell describes attitudes about beer and alcohol. Beer was not considered alcohol, at that time. Certain on-board personnel were given beer as any flight could be their last flight.



Richard V. Gordon

Guarding the Seas Off South Korea

Richard V. Gordon describes patrolling the seas off Korea from the Communists. He describes blowing up a floating mine and provides a picture of the explosion. Richard Gordon describes not really engaging the enemy due to the North Koreans not really having a Navy.



Richard Whitford

The Korean Economy Today

Richard Whitford describes what he knows about the Korean economy today. He made a comparison to how Japan developed after World War II. He states that they went to Korea to help, not to take anything away.



Robert “B.J.” Boyd Johnson

"No Bootcamp Marines"

Robert Johnson describes his memories of President Truman's attitude toward the Marine Corps. He remembers when MacArthur called on the Marine Corps to provide back up in Korea. He discusses how little training he had before setting foot in war.



Robert Arend

Return to Korea

Robert Arend returned to Korea in 2010. He was surprised and totally amazed at the progress. He visited the prison, which has been partially restored. He says that although he believes war is senseless, this war gave the South Korean people some hope and allowed them to find the ambition to build up their country.



Robert Battdorff

33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert C. Jagger

Challenges and Rewards

Robert Jagger discusses his greatest challenge and biggest rewards while in Korea. Like many who served in Korea, he remembers the bitter cold. He shares his experience of being in Korea on Armistice Day and later reflects warmly on his relationships with other soldiers.



Robert D. Davidson

Feeding Hungry Civilians

Robert Davidson shares how sorry he felt for the Korean civilians while there. He speaks of how many had no food or proper clothing and of how GIs would give them candy or whatever they had to spare. He recalls an incident at the mess hall where GIs were collecting the food they were not eating to give to the Koreans. He recounts an angered lieutenant informing the mess sergeant that the GIs should be eating the food, not giving leftovers to civilians. He describes the mess sergeant standing his ground and stating that he was in charge of running his kitchen and would continue to do as he saw fit.



Minefields in Korea

Robert Davidson recounts how his company of engineers was frequently sent to work on projects that needed immediate completion. He speaks at length about having to work in minefields to either lay or demine them. He shares that it was a very slow process and adds that his company never lost a man to a mine during the process. He comments on how well the North Koreans were able to set booby traps.



Robert D. Edwards

Learning Korean and Japanese

Robert D. Edwards describes his experience of learning Korean and Japanese while stationed overseas. He remembers how the Korean people spoke much better English than he spoke Korean. He mentions that the Korean people were pleased when he spoke their language. He demonstrates how to say a morning greeting in Korean.



Robert Dahms

Punishment on a Naval Ship

Robert Dahms stated that if you didn't follow orders, you spent time in Brig 1 for misconduct. The brig was a steel stall that was very small with a hard bed with no mattress, and the room was the size of a large office. You had a place to sit and you ate out of your lap. They made sailors pay for whatever they did and a person could spend up to 2 days in the brig, depending on the severity. Luckily, Robert Dahms he never spent time in the brig.



Training and Protecting Pilots While Purifying Water

Robert Dahms continued to work on the home front to train and protect pilots while they were learning to become effective soldiers. While doing so, he also ran evaporators to purify salt water in order to turn it into drinking water. Both of these jobs were important for the soldiers during the Korean War.



Robert F. Towns

Family Reunited

Bob Towns remembers an exciting story of uniting a husband and wife on the phone. The wife was in Fairbanks, Alaska at the hospital getting ready to give birth and the husband was serving in Okinawa, Japan. With his job as a radio operator, he was able to reunite families in this manner and it always warmed his heart to do so.



Robert F. Wright

Bed Check Charlie

Robert Wright shares the story of being bombed by Bed Check Charlie, North Korean aircraft that could fly undetected by radar, in the middle of the night throughout his time in Korea. He describes his sleeping quarters, a Quonset Hut, as being covered with a canvas top and sand bags stacked six feet high. He notes how shrapnel would rip the top of their huts. He recalls how the United States Air Force quickly responded and put a stop to the night raids.



The Success of South Korea

Robert Wright describes how proud he is to see what Korea has become today. He shares they have seemingly taken over their part of the world due to the economic prosperity. He imagines how North Koreans must feel regarding the success of South Korea, considering how their living conditions have remained basically unchanged since the war.



Robert Fickbohm

Infantry Scout Dogs Saving Lives

Robert Fickbohm explains the role and duties of the scout dog in the Korean War. He shares multiple stories of scout dogs saving the lives of American soldiers. He recounts the importance of the scout dog during the war and elaborates on its ability to sense danger.



Friendships and Brotherhood among Dog Handlers

Robert Fickbohm explains that friendships were made within the 26th Infantry Scout Dog Division. He shares that a brotherhood has formed not only within his particular unit but among all dog handlers in the military, from World War II to present. He discloses that he continues to share his experiences with United States Army Special Operations teams.



Robert Fitts

Driving to the Front Lines

Robert Fitts was promoted to Motor Sergeant/Staff Sergeant and was in charge of assigning drivers to tasks among other duties. He shares the story of a driver's willingness to carry supplies to the front lines for another driver who returned with a vehicle maintenance issue. He details the outcome of the second attempt.



Most Difficult Part of Service

Robert Fitts vocalizes his opinion on the most difficult part during service. He expresses that learning to get along with others was difficult due to constant rearrangements of servicemen. He attributes his ability to think on his own to this reality.



Return Home with Veteran Pride

Robert Fitts shares his experience returning home to no reception. He states that no one, including his family members, questioned him about his service. Looking back, he shares he is proud to be a Korean War veteran and is proud of what South Korea has accomplished since the war.



Robert I. Winton

My Grandson Loves Korea

Robert Winton reflects on the marvelous recovery Korea has made since the time of war. He shares he discovered much through the eyes of his grandson who journeyed there many years later. He describes the many wonderful foods offered in Korea with a special preference to Kimchi.



Robert J. Auletti

It Wasn't In Vain

Robert Auletti describes his revisit to the country of South Korea in 2010. He explains that after seeing the recovery and comeback of South Korea, he feels that his sacrifice wasn't in vain. He describes young Koreans coming up to him to thank him for his service to the country.



Robert L. Wessa

First In, Last Out

Robert L. Wessa describes his time in Korea evacuating wounded soldiers from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. The battle wounded so many soldiers that during the time of the evacuation Robert Wessa never got the chance to leave the temporary airstrip.



Language Barrier bridged by Evershot Pen

Robert L. Wessa describes a particularly memorable evacuation involving a North Korean woman. He noticed the wounded woman was shivering so he handed her a blanket. The Korean woman was unable to communicate with the Americans due to language barriers but offered him an Evershot Pen as thanks, a token that Wessa still has to this day.



Robert Mitchell

Ambushing Force Gets Ambushed

Bob Mitchell recalls the events of the Battle of Hill 90 when the 5th Marines were ambushed by an overwhelming Chinese force. He details his unit's retreat from the region with the dead and wounded from the fighting. He notes the sacrifice of a few brave Marines who gave their lives engaging Chinese head on.



Robert S. Chessum

Battle of Kapyong

Robert Chessum described the Battle of Kapyong. The Chinese were on the offensive until Kapyong. He was part of the 16 New Zealand Field Regiment providing support to the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. He described being on a full offensive prior to the Battle of Kapyong and how his unit became really efficient as an artillery unit. He provided a complete description about the prelude to the battle and ultimate Battle of Kapyong.



Forgotten Men of the Unknown War

Robert Chessum described how the Korean War is "forgotten." He explained how there was nothing for the troops when they returned. He also described how changing the perception of the Korean War will be difficult; because teaching about war is unpopular.



Robert Steven Duffy

We Made a Difference

Robert Duffy revisited Korea and was awed by the change. He talks about how the United States' sacrifices in the Korean War made a difference in the Korea of today. He shares that Korea has made such a huge change in such a short period of time.



Rodney Ramsey

From Rubble to Riches!

Rodney Ramsey is the president of his Korean War regiment's organization and ever since 1989, they meet for a yearly reunion. The year of the interview was the 27th reunion and about 50 members attend. During his Korea revisit in 1991, Rodney Ramsey was shocked to see the improvement in living conditions. He took a picture when he was in Seoul, South Korea in 1952 and it only had an ox cart and a military jeep, but in 1991 during his revisit, it was filled with cars.



The Happiest Times Within the Bunkers

Rodney Ramsey experienced a few pleasant times during the Korean War. He loved that he had a hot meal every day because a chow bunker was hidden behind the hill where he was dug-in, so a jeep would bring the men fresh food. Another great time was when he was brought off the front line and had a delicious Thanksgiving meal.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Working His Way from Wyoming to Korea, What a Ride!

Rodney Ramsey studied petroleum jelly at the University of Wyoming. He graduated from there in June 1951 and was activated to right away because he was in the United State Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After receiving basic training at Fort Benning, GA and additional training in California, he received his orders for Korea in 1952, but Rodney Ramsey figured that he was being sent there because he had been tracking the war since 1950.



Roger Myers

Why I Joined the National Guard

Robert Myers describes his basic training in the National Guard. He said that he joined because it was “something different” than being on the farm in the summer; they went to camp for two weeks each summer. During that time he met a lot of people and learned a lot of things including how to shoot, march, and drive various vehicles.



Roger S. Stringham

Unique Letters Home

Roger Stringham recounts his parents' reaction when he was drafted into the war. He shares that it was very difficult for them, but to him, it was an adventure. He recalls writing letters home and details how he would include a sketch as a means of telling the story of his experience.



Post War: Career and Korea's Transformation

Roger Stringham offers an overview of his life post war. He recalls returning to school where he earned a degree in physical chemistry from UC Berkley, traveling the world and painting along the way for two years, and returning to Korea on multiple occasions to deliver lectures in academic arenas. He elaborates on Korea's transformation, describing it as unbelievable, and emphasizes how it shows what people have inside of them is magic.



Roland Dean Brown

Reflections on Korea

Roland Brown expresses that he wanted to be in Korea as it was his goal to fight for his country. He recalls his first vision of Pusan and compares it to modern Korea. He reflects upon how poor the Korean people were during the war and comments on the thriving conditions in Korea today.



Roland Fredh

Korean Soccer Club

Roland Fredh describes his leisure time in Korea. He played soccer with fellow Swedish members. The team traveled, located in Busan, traveled to Seoul and Daegu to play various teams. They beat an English team. But, they lost to a Korean team.



Ronald Bourgon

Modern Korea

Ronald Bourgon comments on the changes South Korea has made since the Korean War. He recalls scenes from his revisit experience and compares them to years past. He expands upon how genuinely nice the people are and expresses his gratitude for having played a small role in helping South Korea become what it is today.



Ronald C. Lovell

Most Difficult Time

Ronald C. Lovell remembers the bitterly cold weather as one of the toughest aspects of his time in Korea. He explains their lack of proper equipment for such harsh conditions throughout his deployment. Despite being a potential easy target as a machine gunner, he considers himself fortunate to have never been wounded during his service in Korea.



Ronald Rosser

No Longer an Enemy

When he was asked if he would shake hands with Chinese soldiers today, Ronald Rosser explains how he already has. He states that as a teacher, he taught about East Asian history and then went to visit Beijing. He explains how well he was treated by the Chinese and how he does not believe the hate should continue.



Medal of Honor

Ronald Rosser explains the Medal of Honor, the highest award an American can receive from Congress. He received the award from President Harry Truman. He shares that nineteen men in his division received the Medal of Honor though only four of them had lived.



Part of My Job

Ronald Rosser’s job was to protect the American soldiers while also killing the enemy. He served with other Americans as well as with Korean, Turkish, Dutch, and French soldiers. He explains that while he killed many people, it was part of his job and necessary for survival.



The Forgotten War

Ronald Rosser explains why he believes the Korean War is called the “Forgotten War”. He shares that Korea’s place between World War II and Vietnam contributes to it not being as recognized. He recalls how the soldiers came home after fighting and went right back to work.



Ross E. McInroy

A Chance to Go to Korea

While in Radio Operator school, Ross McInroy and his classmates were visited by a representative from the Army who was looking to recruit forward observers in Korea. Even though there were a few hundred members in the audience, no one volunteered. He attributes this to the Army representative saying that this position had one of the shortest life expectancies.



Responsibilities in the Air Force

Ross McInroy had a lot of various responsibilities during his time in the Air Force. He describes what he did as an Air Force operator which included bomb-dropping simulations. Because being a Radio Operator was only 1/3 of his job, he also had duties that included jamming radar sites as well as serving as a gunner.



Knowledge of Korea

Ross McInroy explains what he knew about Korea and the war during that time. He knew there was a chance that he could be sent there and that it was a “nasty war." He describes how it was a place he didn't desire to go. Finally, he explains what he knew about the weather and the plight of the people that were there.



Ross Pittman

Revisiting Korea and Reflections

Ross Pittman shares his thoughts on Korea after his post-war visit. He acknowledges that the developments made in South Korea since the war are incredible. He expresses his pride and good feelings for having contributed to the South Korean growth. He shares his thoughts on the scenery's beauty and explains that he did not realize the terrain was so mountainous. He reflects on the importance of everyone's job during the war, by land and by sea.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Enlisting and Understanding His Mission

Roy Orville Hawthorne recounts how he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1943 at the age of seventeen. He shares he initially wanted to enlist in the “Silent Service” (the submarine force of the United States Navy). He remembers his desire to serve on a submarine originated from reading the novel, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas by Jules Verne. However, he recalls how he was informed at the induction ceremony that all Navajo males were required to be inducted into the US Marine Corps during WWII, per federal legislation. He discusses going to the Navajo Communications School at Camp Pendleton where the mission for Navajo soldiers during WWII was made clear.



The Road to Recovery

Roy Orville Hawthorne describes the extent of his injuries from enemy fire. He remembers the lieutenant crying as he offered encouragement at the sight of his wounds. While at the MASH hospital, he recalls a nurse taking his hand and saying, “Chief, you’re going to make it.” He describes traveling by bus to a regular hospital in Korea where he underwent surgery. He remembers spending a year at the Walter Reed hospital in Washington, D.C., for treatment and therapy for his wounds, including the amputation of his right leg.



Education is Like a Ladder

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he utilized the benefits of the GI Bill to attend a Bible Seminary school where he earned a bachelor's and master's degree, followed by a Ph.D. He emphasizes the significance of education by citing Navajo Chief Manuelito's analogy of education being like a ladder which his people must climb to achieve opportunity and happiness. He acknowledges the positive influence of his military service in attaining his professional and personal aspirations.



Roy Painter

If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked A Cake

Roy Painter describes arriving in Korea to the American military band playing "If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked a Cake". He explains that due to his small stature, the British and Korean women joked with him. The Korean women in particular called him Baby-san.



Ruben Rains

A Brave Military Career

Ruben Rains gives an overview of his military service. He served in World War II. After WWII he remained in the Marine Corps reserves. When the Korean War broke out, he received orders to report and was reactivated. He arrived n Korea on February 10th, 1951. He serviced with the 11th Marines as an artilleryman.



The Marines Saved Korea

Ruben Rains arrived in Pusan before moving up through the middle of the country to Taegu. He served 10 months and remembers that that was a time of 2-3 major attacks by the Chinese Army. He believes that it was the Marines who saved Korea.



“Exciting” Times in Korea

Ruben Rains states that everything was hard during the war. If he had to choose something that was difficult, it was when they were retreating. He remembers how the engineers would blow up bridges and they always ended up on the other side. He said that this was always “exciting.”



Rudolph Valentine Archer

Integration of the U.S. Military

Rudolph Valentine Archer reflects on the segregation of the United States military in 1948. He recollects being a part of an all-Black unit before the integration of the armed forces. He remembers that the African American officers he served under after integration were highly skilled individuals and excellent mentors. He narrates his experience of arriving at his first job assignment and being informed that he was not allowed to supervise white troops, even though the military had been integrated.



Special Taskforce 3.14.1 and Nuclear Testing

Rudolph Valentine Archer discusses finding out that he and seven other soldiers were being left in the Marshall Islands archipelago. He explains that he was assigned to Special Task Force 3.14.1 which was responsible conducting nuclear testing. He describes working as one of two instrument specialists involved in the development of drones designed to fly through the atomic cloud after the detonation of a nuclear weapon. He shares that there was not much to do on the island other than working and reading.



Witnessing a Nuclear Test

Rudolph Valentine Archer discusses witnessing nuclear testing. He describes laying on the ground with special eye protection. He recalls that the explosion produced the most brilliant light he had ever seen, and it seemed to penetrate through his body. He recalls the ground shaking and feeling like the island was moving back and forth from the pressure of the blast. He mentions that they felt the effects of the explosion that occurred at 2:00 am until dawn.



Russell King

ROK Solders on the Ship

Russell A. King remembers a time when he and the men had to transport ROK officers. He recalls that they took all of the food with them, this included live animals. He describes how the ROK officers were amazed by forks, the water cooler, and other differences on the ship.



Sahlemariam Wmichaea

First Feelings

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes his feelings about going to war and what he though when first seeing Korea. He was not afraid ro fight and was instead eager to help due to the destruction and poverty he witnessed.



Salvatore Buonocore

Basic Training

Salvatore Buonocore recalls the basic training he received after joining the Navy. He remembers demonstrating his swimming ability and being assigned as the swimming instructor for his unit. He shares that many men did not know how to swim. He comments further on his other talents being noticed in training which led to his placement in a construction company.



The Breakout of the Korean War

Salvatore Buonocore shares that he knew immediately when the war broke out as he was in the Naval Reserves at the time. He states that he was teaching at the Naval Reserves Station and recalls being put on standby. He remembers some of the men he was teaching being put directly aboard ship as they had prior experience.



Air-sea Rescue

Salvatore Buonocore shares his thoughts on the Navy providing clean bunks and decent meals but mentions the dangers of drowning. He compares his naval experience to the experiences of those who served in Korea. He recalls high jump training to prepare servicemen for an emergency and comments on his time in the Air-sea Rescue, detailing his duties and one particular rescue he conducted.



Salvatore R. Conte

Propaganda Lectures from the Chinese

Salvatore Conte explains his struggles with his faith and beliefs. He and the other POWs had to listen to Chinese propaganda lectures stating that they were fools for believing in Wall Street and America. He explains that they were also told that they should sign a petition to be released, but they all refused. He shares he became a political activist for the soldiers which led to him being isolated from the rest of the POWs.



Liberation

Salvatore Conte recalls his transfer to another camp where he was placed with 21 other soldiers who were considered the most dangerous POWs. On May 1, 1953, he was transferred out of this section with the rest of the soldiers and he was given better food. On Aug. 27, 1953, he remembers he was released at Panmunjom where he told his story to newspaper reporters who published his story across America.



Salvatore Scarlato

"Joining Hands"

Salvatore Scarlato describes the story behind a drawing he was given. He shares that during a revisit to South Korea in 1999, a high school student promised him she would create a drawing depicting the relationship of the United States and South Korea. He recalls the drawing arriving in the mail several months later and states that her drawing shows how, after sixty years, the United States and South Korea are still united.



Possessions from Korea

Salvatore Scarlato presents a battle banner given to him by a Korean marine during the war and shares its significance. He presents a poncho he used while in Korea and elaborates on its many uses. He recalls a poncho being used as a stretcher to carry the wounded, covering to bury the dead, and as a tent.



Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr.

Decision to Join the Marine Corps

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., shares how his brother's war stories inspired him. He recalls a conversation with his father about joining the Marine Corps and how his dad almost fell off of his chair when he asked if he could join. He explains how he expressed his desire to go to Korea and felt he would end up safe.



Difficult and Rewarding Times

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., talks about being under enemy artillery fire. He recalls making it quickly into a foxhole. He discusses being scared and describes his most rewarding times in Korea and the special experience.



Biggest Memory

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., describes firing so much that the barrels of the guns were red hot. He recalls how they poured water on the guns to cool them off. He says they were firing seven rounds per minute which was almost double what they said was the maximum that could be fired per minute.



Samuel Henry Bundles, Jr.

Using the GI Bill After World War II

Samuel Bundles, Jr. shares that he was drafted at the end of World War II. After the war, he used the GI Bill to finish his studies at Indiana University. He recalls how he fell in love with photography during his time in the US Navy and even wrote for a Navy base newspaper. He reflects on how this experience caused him to change his major to journalism at Indiana University.



Joining the US Army

Samuel Bundles, Jr. discusses how he signed up for the US Army Reserves in 1948 to avoid being drafted. He explains that he joined the Army Reserves because there was no Navy reserve in Bloomington Indiana where he lived at the time. He explains that he was married and had a new car when the Korean War started. He notes that due to his Navy experience, he was a sergeant in basic training. He shares that he took the test for officer candidate school but was ordered to Korea before he could attend.



Promotion or Home

Samuel Bundles, Jr. remembers receiving a call from 8th Army headquarters to appear for an examination and interview for commission as a 2nd Lieutenant. He mentions that during that time, he had earned enough points to return home. He reveals that he was offered the commission, but he ultimately declined it.



Samuel Nickens

His Service was Educational

Samuel Nickens says his service was very educational as he was able to experience other cultures first-hand. He shares he had no negative experiences. He appreciates the society that has developed in South Korea and believes that the alliance between the U.S. and South Korea is mutually beneficial.



Samuel Stoltzfus

Proud of his Service and South Korea

Samuel Stoltzfus attributes the success of modern Korea to the intelligent, friendly, and hardworking Korean people. He is proud of his service because of how far Korea has come, but he points out the horrific battles that helped make it happen. Once, while standing guard at headquarters, a truck driven by a Turkish soldier returned from the reservoir. In the back, litters of wounded were stacked upon piles of dead soldiers. Despite the deaths he experienced, Samuel Stoltzfus feels he was fortunate during his service.



Sanford Epstein

Korean Orphans

Sanford Epstein recalls sending half of his monthly wages home to his family and shares that he gave quite a bit of his money away as there were many orphans. He shares how orphaned children would follow them around and offer to do odd jobs. He recounts fellow soldiers adopting Korean orphans and elaborates on how one of the orphans, with monthly support from the men in his unit, graduated from college in Buffalo, New York, and became a CPA.



Sangmoon Olsson

Life During the War

Sangmoon Olsson describes her life during the Korean War. Her brother had a high position under the Japanese Imperial control and when the communists took over, they wanted to capture her brother. Sangmoon had to go into hiding for a total of eight months, interrupting her nursing studies. When the Allies eventually pushed back the Communists, Sangmoon Olsson was able to complete her nursing studies.



Swedish Red Cross

Sangmoon Olsson describes the services the Swedish Red Cross offered. The Swedish Red Cross in 1954 treated mostly civilians, but a few veterans because the war had ended in 1953. The Swedish Red Cross offered Surgery, Operation, and Plastic Surgery. Sangmoon Olsson describes that her training prepared her well to help the civilians of Korea in the various medical services.



Revisiting Korea and Socialism

Sangmoon Olsson describes her experience when re-visiting Korea after many years. She did not want to put out her family and make them come to her. She remembered the roads of "old Korea." However, the family met her and reminded her the country had changed and was not the "old country." She was filled with pride and amazed at the rebuilding of South Korea. Sangmoon Olsson also describes that Sweden, being more left on the political spectrum. Being left probably impacted Sweden's positive relations with North Korea.



Santos Rodriguez Santiago

A Great Opportunity to Learn

Like many others, Santos Rodriguez Santiago did not learn anything about Korea before being sent there for the war. He argues that this is a good experience though because the military sends you places, and you learn a lot. He explains that he learned to work with others and the customs of others, but that many young people only learn



Seymour Bernstein

Playing for the Others

Seymour Bernstein explains how he had trained to originally be an infantryman. He and his colleague had asked to give a piano concert for the soldiers and we allowed even though there was some skepticism. He recalls getting assistance in moving a piano to the theater so that he could play. This was the start of a tour to play for many others.



Impressions of Korea

Seymour Bernstein describes what it was like to live in Korea during the war. He then explains how Korea became more modern on each subsequent trip he took back to the country after his initial encounter. However, even though it was more modern there were certain precautions that he had to take.



Sheridan O’Brien

We Have Never Been Forgotten

Sheridan O'Brien expresses his satisfaction with his contribution during his brief time in Korea. He believes that he and other Korean War veterans have genuinely become part of the Korean family and will, consequently, always hold a place in the hearts of the Korean people.



Shorty Neff

Letter from a Korean Friend

Shorty Neff reads and reflects on a letter he received from a Korean friend who was a Sergeant in the Korean Army and served as an interpreter. "Hello, Neff (July 8, 1953) - I received the package from you, and I was very glad to get it. I and all the boys enjoyed ourselves with the candies. How have you been lately, Neff? I bet you have a nice time in your home life. Do you remember the night you left here? I was on guard that night. As soon as I walked in the tent from the guard, you were going out with two bags. Then I helped you carry your baggage. I was very sorry because I was on guard. I should write you before but I didn't know your address. Now I know your address so I can write you whenever I have time. I'd like to hear from you and let me know how things are going. Is that okay? Well, nothing is new over here, so I think I better close for now. Until I hear from you, take care good care of yourself, Neff. Thanks again for your package. From sincerely friend..." He then reflects on his time with his friend.



Soonok Chun

The Miracle of Korea

Soonuk Chun describes the sense of pride she felt when revisiting Korea later in life and seeing the remarkable recovery. She explains the importance of younger generations needing to learn how their parents lived during the war and how poor they were in order to appreciate what they have today. She calls today's Korea a miracle.



Sotirios Patrakis

Korean War Veterans Involvement

Sotirios Patrakis details his pathway to involvement with Korean War Veterans. He shares that as a member of the Army reserve officers, he took part in a convention in Korea commemorating the start of the Korean War. He recalls how kind the Korean people were and felt it a pity that there was no opportunity for veterans from Greece to gather together and relive that period of their lives. He comments on Korea's progress since the war and is proud of its economic efforts.



Preservation and Educating Youth

Sotirios Patrakis shares his thoughts on preserving the memory of Korean War veterans' service and on educating youth about the Korean War. He expresses that this endeavor began rather late as many veterans have since passed or mix their facts due to age. He adds that it is good to do it even now though so that everyone knows and remembers this history.



Message to Veterans and South Koreans

Sotirios Patrakis offers a congratulatory message to Korean War veterans from Greece as well as to the South Korean people. He shares that the veterans went on their own accord as the people of Greece believe in democracy and freedom. He commends South Korea's economic strength developed through the years since the war and adds that it is a very good example for many countries like his own.



Stanley Fujii

Fight the Aggressors!

Stanley Fujii describes the big picture of why he was deployed to fight in the Korean War. He knew he was there to fight against communist aggressors to free Korea. His testimony includes his discussion on why he was thankful to have a role in helping Korea to be free. His description includes reflections on two Korea's, one he saw from the frontlines, and modern Korea he was able to return to see in 2010.



Stanley I. Hashiro

Process to Receive an Award

Once Stanley I. Hashiro found his station in Korea, he was assigned his duties while in Korea. He worked on paper work to deliver special awards/decorations to combat soldiers. He reveals even how this had to be done in secret for soldiers who were Prisoners of War, due to their delicate situation.



Stanley Jones

Ballistic Meteorology Work

Stanley Jones describes the work of ballistic meteorologists. He explains the codes used by anti-aircraft guns. He shares how this job supports military operations.



Stefan Schomann

Germany's Humanitarian Aid

After World War II, West Germany sought acceptance from the other allied powers and wanted to assist in the war effort. Because they had demilitarized after the war, they could only assist with humanitarian aid. Stefan Schomann explains how they helped and why this form of assistance was important.



Germany as a Supporter

Stefan Schomann explains why he thinks Germany was not designated as one of the participating countries from the beginning. He believes that they were ready to support from the beginning and it is justified to call them a supporter. He said that Germany’s contribution was “highly appreciated” by the Koreans he visited.



"A Complicated and Contradictory Process.”

When asked about his insights on modern Korea, Stefan Schomann shares about his experiences with the people in Korea, including their willingness to grab onto hope for the future. He states that he seemed to be the only one pessimistic, and this results from his own experiences with German history. He says that while the future is unclear, he thinks it will be a “complicated and contradictory process.”



Stelios Stroubakis

School Construction Assistance

Stelios Stroubakis shares his experience assisting with the construction of a school large enough to serve 200 students when complete. He recalls that the school was located next to a Greek Orthodox church. He recounts putting tiles on the roof and adds that the school was still under construction when he left.



Revisiting Korea

Stelios Stroubakis describes his revisit to Korea in 2016. He expresses that he could not believe his eyes regarding the process Korea had made since the war, adding that it was a miracle. He wishes Korea well and shares his hope of Korea never facing war in the future.



Photos from the Past

Stelios Stroubakis provides a glimpse of the past through several personal photos. He offers a picture viewing of his unit's Korean translator as well as photos related to a baptism which took place near the school he helped construct. He additionally provides a photo of the soldiers and staff who aided in the construction of the school.



Steven G. Olmstead

"High Diddle Diddle, Right up the Middle"

Steven Olmstead describes his unit's movement through "Hellfire Alley" on its way to Hagaru. He talks about being engaged by enemy Chinese soldiers and the esprit de corps among the marines in his company. He recalls the actions of Rocco Zullo, the first sergeant in his marine unit, during the movement to Hagaru. He describes Sergeant Zullo's heroic actions which were thought to have led to his death and shares surprising news about the first sergeant.



"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Returning Home

Steven Olmstead recounts his trip home to see his family. He describes two encounters with people on his way to Albany, New York. He expresses his amazement when one individual did not know where Korea was located and details a kind gesture offered by another.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Steven Olmstead describes why he thinks the Korean War was important and its legacy. He compares his opinion if he were to have been asked in 1950, his first time there, versus his opinion about its importance in 1965 when he returned. He comments on the remarkable progress Korea had made in such a short time and how seeing it firsthand made him feel.



Steven Hawes

British Perception of the Korean War

Steven Hawes describes the British perception of the Korean War. Because the British had just fought in World War II and were involved in several other conflicts, he states that entering another conflict seemed quite normal. While it was not something that people necessarily wanted to do, they were not surprised by it especially because they were aware of what was going on internationally. Steven Hawes also explains why he thinks that the war became a “Forgotten War.”



Reflecting on South Korea’s Progress

When asked about the legacy of the Korean War, Steven Haws succinctly and accurately sums up the outcomes of what he believes as a “just war.” He commends the Korean people for taking advantage of the opportunities they were given, becoming a world leader in just a few decades. He argues that the practical outcomes that came from a terrible situation were worthwhile and that the British and Korean people should continue to strengthen a positive relationship.



Stuart Gunn

Korea Then and Now

Stuart Gunn revisited South Korea in 1995. He noticed all of the changes to the land and advancements in technology during his revisit. A strong work ethic was needed by the Korean people to be able to reap such benefits and success in Korea today.



Sunny Rose

Lessons Learned from the Military

Sunny Rose explains what he learned while he was in the military. Among the life lessons is his belief that you should love your country and do what you can do to protect it. He also learned that you need to work with different people from various backgrounds to accomplish goals.



Message to Young People

Sunny Rose shares a message to young people. He emphasizes having pride in your country, including understanding its history and its current events. He encourages youth to stay informed and to be careful about the leader that they choose.



Suwan Chinda

Pork Chop Hill

Suwan Chinda recalls his experience at the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He shares that he was assigned to communications and was sent to repair lines when needed. He remembers receiving orders to repair a line that had been damaged by bombs near the front lines on one particular occasion and recalls members of his team arguing with the officer who assigned them to the job as they were fearful of becoming injured. He shares that he was not scared and was willing to fight. He adds that he sustained no wounds at the battle.



No More Fighting

Suwan Chinda shares his thoughts on war. He speaks of war negatively and adds that he does not want to see people fighting. He comments on Vietnam being one country and states that he would like to see Korea as one country as well.



Return to Korea

Suwan Chinda recalls his return visit to Korea. He describes his experience and the changes he witnessed, stating that the transformation was unbelievable compared to Thailand which is still a developing country. He shares that he never dreamed Korea would be what it has become and adds that he felt welcomed there.



Message to Koreans

Suwan Chinda describes the people of South Korea as hardworking and attributes the country's development to the work ethic of the people. He expresses that South Korea is a model country. He shares that he is happy for the Korean people and feels appreciated for his service.



Svend Jagd

Memorial Construction

Svend Jagd detailed his desire of building a memorial for Danish veterans and eventually accomplishing this goal. During the planning of the memorial, he suggested acquiring granite or other stone from a Korean mountain and that was achieved, much to his delight, by the Korean Association. He noted how the stone was transported to Denmark on a cargo ship named the Jutlandia, the same name as the ship he served on.



Seoul Liberation Parade

Svend Jagd reflected on participating in a Seoul Liberation Memorial Parade. He remembered seeing women lift their children so they could touch the veterans. During the parade he recalled being embraced by an old Korean man who was crying. He reflected on returning to Korea several times and always being moved by his feelings.



T.J. Martin

Hoengsong Massacre February 1951 (Full Story)

T.J. Martin chronicles the Hoengsong Massacre where he states that approximately 2,400 Americans died. He details the events of the massacre, recalling thousands of Chinese soldiers advancing with hand grenades, rifles, and some even empty-handed, and provides a vivid account of his movements during those two days. He recalls the moments leading up to his capture by the Chinese.



Korean War Experience Impact

T.J. Martin reflects on what Korea means to him. He speaks of his experience with pride and appreciation. He shares that he developed a deeper and stronger urge to defend freedom following his service than he possessed before the war.



Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya

Bazooka and Never Leave a Man Behind

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes his experience in Korea. He was a bazooka shooter. For example, one occurrence almost left him dead when a shell did not fire. Importantly, he describes never leaving a lost soldier behind. The Ethiopians never lost a soldier to Prisoner of War.



Transformation of Korea

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes the transformation of Korea. He describes the war-torn Korea. Buildings were destroyed by the enemy. Even the water was contaminated. However, now Korea has become green and everything is clean. This is a major difference from his war-torn experience. He is happy that Korea has undergone this transformation. He is not asking for compliments.



Ted Bacha

First Thoughts about Korea

Ted Bacha remembers being so young that he wasn't sure what to do or think when he was sent to Korea. The only thing he focused on was keeping his men alive. He said that he must have done a pretty good job because most of his men came back.



The Impact of PTSD

Ted Bacha explains that he is extremely impacted by his PTSD. He takes medicine to help him fall asleep, but when he forgets to take the medication, memories start to come back again. Even though the nightmares impact him three to four nights per week, Ted Bacha does not regret his service because he was glad to help the people over there.



Return to Korea

Ted Bacha returned to Korea in 2010. He comments that he didn't see any rice paddies like he had seen in the war. He was extremely impressed by the buildings, especially his hotel. Ted Bacha is very proud of his service and the Korea people for what they accomplished.



Remembering the Battles

Ted Bacha remembers what it was like in Daegu, Daejion, Pyongyang, Pusan, and other battles. He explains that his friends got captured, and General Dean was captured as well. He states that they were firing their weapons almost daily.



Ted Kocon

Memories from WWII Resurfacing in Korea

Ted Kocon shares his soft side of service and well as some memories from World War II. He recollects his earnings and sending money home to his wife. He shares that seeing wounded during the war brought back memories from his time serving in World War II. He recounts his departure from Japan in 1953 and receiving the Air Force Commendation Medal for his service during the Korean War.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Daily Non-Combat

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes the living conditions for the soldiers. He describes that there were no beds and soldiers slept on the ground. He provides his pay in the Ethiopian dollar. His pay could buy a sing good chicken and two medium chickens per month. Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen also describes life upon returning to Ethiopian. People did not care, however, the majesty did receive the soldiers for a dinner.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Humble Beginnings to Big City

Teurangaotera Tuhaka grew up on a farm in New Zealand. His life was simple, and people were considered wealthy if they owned a bicycle. Once he passed the Navy test and traveled to the big city of Aukland, he had to get used to city life with cars and ships. He was also trained on an island outside Auckland.



Engaging the North Koreans

Teurangaotera Tuhaka fought the North Koreans. One incident entailed firing on a North Korean supply train. His frigate held a record for firing forty-two times in a minute. He was fired upon by the North Koreans, and to get away, his ship had to zigzag out of the way. He shares how lucky they were to escape.



Patrolling the Han River and Frigate Life

Teurangaotera Tuhaka spent a lot of his service patrolling the Han River (also known as the Hangang River) while receiving support from additional United Nations ships. He had to focus on his job so that he did not have fear while fighting the North Koreans. Conditions were rough at sea because he had to break through ice to get the frigate through the water.



Tex Malcolm

Arriving to Korea in Dec. 1950

Tex Malcolm was shipped to Korea on Nov. 1950 after stopping in Japan. All the different US branches were on one ship and the conditions were packed with multiple soldiers getting seasick. He landed at Pusan on Dec. 12, 1950 on his 21st birthday.



Theodore Garnette

Basic Training in Geneva, New York

Theodore Garnette expresses his desire to enlist in the United States Air Force as a means of receiving advanced training to further his education. He discusses his upbringing on an Indian Reservation in South Dakota and how it had prepared him for the physical demands of basic training. He shares how the officers at boot camp were impressed by his marksmanship despite his small stature.



Eagle Feather Ceremony and Radio School

Theodore Garnette acknowledges that his decision to enlist in the United States Air Force was highly admired by other members of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. He vividly recalls being honored as a warrior with an eagle feather ceremony, the highest recognition awarded to members of the tribe. Later, he was transferred to Biloxi, Mississippi, for radio school where he received training to become an intercept operator.



After a Year in England

Theodore Garnette remembers his year-long assignment in England where he encountered many people who were fascinated by his American Indian heritage. He recalls feeling disappointed when the military halted personnel promotions after the Korean War ended. He shares how this development prompted him to not re-enlist. He recounts how after returning to Illinois he worked in a watch factory and car garage to support himself and his mother.



The Effects of Serving

Theodore Garnette expresses his frustration regarding his discharge from the military due to the classified duties he performed while serving in Korea. He reveals that he signed a secrecy act upon leaving the service which prevented him from discussing his missions during the Korean War. He shares he did not receive any medals for his classified work. Despite these challenges, he acknowledges that serving in the military had a positive impact on his life and admits he has continued to receive excellent care from the VA hospital.



Theodore Paul

Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas DiGiovanna

Message to the Korean People

Thomas DiGiovanna recalls feeling pride after a visit from a Korean representative who gave him a medal and expressed her immense gratitude. The Korean representative tells him that if it were not for Korean War Veterans like himself, that she would not have even been born. He really enjoyed the visit and was full of pride.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Proud to be a U.S. Marine and Korean War Veteran

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. expresses his pride in serving his country as a U.S. Marine during the Korean War. He appreciates the recognition he receives for his service. Despite being injured, he does not harbor any bitterness, considers himself fortunate to have good health, and acknowledges the sacrifices made by all who served. He reflects on the support he has received from the Veterans Administration after being injured and is grateful for their assistance.



Thomas J Dailey

Modern Korea

Thomas Dailey comments on Korea's progress since the war. He shares his pride for having served there but conveys that he still has many dark memories from that time. He elaborates on the kindness Koreans have shown him over the years.



Thomas M. McHugh

What is a Korean War Veteran?

Thomas M. McHugh describes his size as particularly smaller than the other soldiers because of his young age, a reason he thinks he was not sent to serve in Korea during the war. He discusses his life after the Korean War, and having difficulty finding a job in his field of expertise. He explains what a veteran of the Korean War is, and that although he served without seeing combat, he considered the combat soldiers his as his peers.



A Unique Respect for Veterans

Thomas M. McHugh describes the Korean people as the most thankful in the world to American veterans. He tells of his amazement at the efforts the people went to in making sure his needs were met during his visit to Korea. He explains that seeing citizens on the sidewalk respect him for his service was shocking, compared to how the rest of the world reacts to American veterans.



Thomas Norman Thompson

Laundry on the War Front

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls the winter conditions faced by men on the Korean war front. He tells that after he washed his socks in the cold river, he had to put them in his underarms, using his body heat to dry the socks. He remembers that Korean women would do laundry for the entire company he was in. Additionally, he would pay $1.00 for the women to clean and press his uniform. He tells of how much gratitude the Korean people continue to show American veterans.



Thomas Nuzzo

Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Nuzzo was attending Fordham University when he was drafted for the Korean War. Unlike most draftees, Thomas Nuzzo knew about Korea from stamp collecting and his schooling. Being sent to Korea was not scary he said because he found the Korean culture so interesting.



Fighting With and Training the ROK

Thomas Nuzzo went to bootcamp and specialized as an infantryman. Once he was sent to Korea, he was stationed with the 1st Republic of Korea (ROK) to train the South Korean troops. By the end of his time in Korea in 1954, Thomas Nuzzo was able to participate in a changing of the guard for the 10th Headquarters which made him very proud.



Thomas O’Dell

Using DDT to Cook in Korea

Thomas O'Dell used DDT for killing insects including gnats and fleas. He even used DDT for cooking C-rations by adding it to his fire in the trenches to warm he food. Hot water for baths were also warmed over a DDT-created fire.



Chinese Propaganda Leaflets and Speeches

Thomas O'Dell fought against the Chinese and North Koreans. There was propaganda slogans broadcast over loudspeakers throughout the night to try to brainwash the US troops. Leaflets were shot over the trenches by the Chinese to convince the US troops to surrender or to switch to the Chinese's side.



Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Korea: Unbelievable Differences Between 1952 to 2000

Thomas Parkinson shares how he saw unbelievable differences between the time he was stationed in Korea in 1952 to 2000 during his first revisit. He describes going back four times since 2000 and recalls how the advancements in buildings, technology, and bridges was astounding. He shares how the changes from the Korean cardboard houses to the multi-stored houses was a visible difference.



Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Thomas Tsuda

Typical Day on the Front Lines

Thomas Tsuda remembers what it was like fighting on the front lines. He comments on the cold temperatures he and other fellow soldiers experienced and shares that most of the fighting took place at night. He recalls resting, sleeping, and writing letters during the day while there was little action taking place. He speaks of the wounds he sustained on the front lines and shares his pride in serving to prevent the spread of Communism.



On the Line during the Ceasefire

Thomas Tsuda recalls where he was at the time of the ceasefire. He remembers being on the front line and seeing Chinese soldiers waving white flags. He explains that he and fellow soldiers were hesitant at first to greet them but shares that they slowly began to talk to them and shake hands. He adds that held no anger towards the Chinese as they were merely doing their job like he was. He expresses his pride in serving his country.



Revisiting Korea

Thomas Tsuda reflects upon his revisit to Korea. He compares modern Korea with the Korea he saw in 1953, commenting on its buildings and prosperous economy. He describes the Korean people as friendly and kind.



Tine Martin

Letter from Home

Tine Martin shares that he missed his mother the most and wrote letters to her often. He recounts one painful letter from his girlfriend while in Korea which he refers to as a "Dear John" letter and resulted in a breakup. He recalls having to censor the content in his letters and provides an example of one incident he was not allowed to write about due to its sensitivity.



Titus Santelli

Reflections on Service

Titus Santelli reflects on South Korea's progress since the war. He shares that he is proud of his service not because of heroics but because he feels it made him a grown and responsible person. He explains that his service allowed him to attend school upon his return.



Tom A. Bezouska

Fear of Losing a Brother (Graphic)

Tom Bazouska shares the unique experience serving in the same company as his twin brother. He recalls his side of the control panel receiving heavy shelling; blowing three men, including himself, over the hill to their assumed death. After regaining consciousness, he shares that he immediately tried to help the men around him. While tending to the others, all of a sudden his brother appears. During the struggle to help the other men, his brother,Tony, is wounded. Even though now they were both wounded, they continued to help the others to safety.



Meaning Behind Rakkasan

Tom Bazouska reminisces about the trip he took with his brother to the dedication of the Korean War memorial in Washington D.C.. He recalls seeing many veterans with the name Rakkasan on their shirts at the dedication and elaborate on its meaning. Rakkasan translates to "man fall with umbrella (or) parachute" and was originally given to the first American troops who landed on Japanese soil. He outlines the history of the name's association with the 187th Airborne Division and the specific connection to the unit during the Korean War.



Returning Home

Tom Bazouska recalls the strange experience he shared with his brother when returning home. After their father picked them up from the airport, he remembers stopping at the hangout where they often meet their buddies. He recalls walking in with his brother and many of their buddies simply asking where they had been. He shares how few people knew about the war. The brothers admit that their friends treated them differently and nothing felt the same. They explain the impressive show of gratitude they experience when interacting with the Korean people.



No Regrets Joining Airborne Division

Tom Bazouska describes jumping experiences with the airborne division. He provides an overview of what happens when a jump is called off due to dangerous conditions. He elaborates on the sight of seeing the chutes all in the air and snapping pictures of each other during practice jumps. Even though the airborne division was dangerous and challenging, the camaraderie he gained was worth the risk.



Tom Collier

Contemporary Seoul

Tom Collier returned to South Korea in 2004 and was amazed at the different place Seoul had become. He tried to locate landmarks from his days fighting in Korea and could find nothing that was similar because of the transformation. Tom Collier is also proud of his service and how South Korea has turned out.



Tom Muller

Homecoming for Korean Veterans v. WWII Veterans

Tom Muller describes pride in his service during the Korean War. He recollects his time as a teen and going to victory parades for World War II veterans. Tom Muller then compares this experience with his own coming home and a "tie" parade.



Tommy Clough

Transporting a Wounded Chinese Soldier

Tommy Clough offers an account of transporting a wounded Chinese soldier. He recalls his unit's location at Hill 327 and remembers that a moaning noise was identified coming from no man's land. He recounts that they were cautious at first as they thought it might be a trap but shares that the moaning was coming from a wounded Chinese soldier. He details having to transport the wounded soldier to receive medical treatment and shares how he convinced the driver to continue the journey rather than killing the wounded soldier on the way.



News of the Ceasefire

Tommy Clough describes the day he and fellow POWs were told that the peace treaty had been signed. He recalls gathering in the center of the compound and the Chinese surrounding them with fixed bayonets. He relates that he was confused about what was happening as he listening to a Chinese commander. He shares that they had been told the war was over for them and that he and others were hesitant to believe them. He recounts how they heard cheering from the American compound shortly after, and he states their cheering was confirmation.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



War Comparison

Tony Espino comments on the Korean War being forgotten despite its successful outcome. He feels that no other war post World War II has rendered the level of prosperity as seen in South Korea over the years. He laments that textbooks in the United States cover little of the war and its outcome.



Troy Howard

Livin' in a Fantasy World

Prior to seeing his cousin return from war as a wounded veteran, Troy Howard said that he was living in a fantasy world where war was action packed just like the movies but no one died. Troy Howard decided to enlist when he started seeing wounded soldiers return to the states. He claims it was his duty to watch his brothers backs.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

His Most Important Contribution

Tsege Cherenet Degn was most proud of his work with the poor in South Korea. He recounts his work helping with the poor children and their school. His pride also extended to an orphanage that was sponsored by the Ethiopian army.



2013 Korean Visit

Tsege Cherenet Degn describes his return to South Korean in 2013. Upon his return to Ethiopia, a Korean citizen visited his home and built 13 homes including one for Tsege for which he is grateful.



Tsolakis Akrivos

I Chose to Fly

Tsolakis Akrivos discusses his decision to choose the Air Force and the mission of Greece in Korea. He shares a personal story about promising his dying father to pursue medicine. In order to fulfill his promise, he recalls taking the exam for medicine and the air force. After scoring well on both exams, he notes how he chose the airplanes. He provides an overview of the main mission for the Greek pilots during the combat years and proving their worth to the Americans.



Protecting Values of Civilization

Tsolakis Akrivos reflects on why he volunteered to serve in the Korean War. He connects learning about the history of Greece to his decision. Given his life experience, he emphasizes why he and his fellow Greeks chose to protect the values of freedom and democracy in Korea.



Vartkess Tarbassian

Headed to Korea

Vartkess Tarbassian spent time training for war at boot camp. After that, he was given a 10-day leave to spend time with family. On the train to the coast, he was treated like royalty by the the train's workers.



The Last Leg of Travel to Korea and Training in Japan

Vartkess Tarbassian rode on the USS General Collins for 14 days to get to Japan. When he arrived in Japan in 1953 he was trained there for a few weeks, but when he was supposed to be shipped out to Korea, he was chosen to receive more training in Japan. His MOS was a radio operator.



Veli Atasoy

Captivity

Veli Atasoy describes life after being taken as a Prisoner-of-War (POW). He, along with other prisoners were held near the city of Pyoktong, a city in North Korea near the Chinese border. While a prisoner, the Chinese military tried, unsuccessfully, to use propaganda to convince the Turkish troops to switch sides. There were massive infestations of lice in the camp and even a "fake" Sergeant. Veli Atasoy describes how, above all, even in the most dire of situations he turned to Allah above.



Pride and Family during Imprisonment

Veli Atasoy describes his pride in South Korea. He sacrificed so much being imprisoned, subsequently he is more prideful of his service in Korea than his native country of Turkey. While imprisoned, he had no communication with his family. His family had no news and even asked the Turkish government about their son. Therefore a certain hardship of not knowing and suffering occurred between Veli Atasoy and his family occurred.



Vern Rubey

Supporting Infantry behind the Front Lines

Vern Rubey comments on his branch change from infantry to artillery which he was pleased with and recalls landing at Incheon. He describes the role of the service battery that he was assigned to as a First Sergeant in the Army. He shares memories of the scenery he saw while traveling throughout Korea supporting differing artillery units.



Revisiting Korea

Vern Rubey comments on his return to Korea and speaks highly of the Korean people, praising their friendliness and support. He details his trip in particular and recalls the progress Korea had made since his departure back in the 1950's. He offers his opinion on Korean-US relations.



Vernon Walden

Football in the Military

Vernon Walden remembers playing football in the military for two years, having to stop the year broke out. He explains that while he was small, he knew a lot about the game and that was definitely an advantage. When he had to make the choice between becoming a paratrooper and playing football, he chose airborne school because he didn’t think he would make the team that year.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Puerto Ricans: Cultural Barriers

Victor Spaulding describes the difficulties when working with Puerto Rican soldiers due to cultural barriers (e.g., language). He shares how it was hard for Puerto Rican soldiers to adjust to the change in climate from their native land. He adds that despite these challenges, Puerto Rico's regiments were strong, and he recounts how he successfully integrated with them.



Experience with PTSD

Victor Spaulding discusses his experience with PTSD following his time in Korea. He shares that he dealt with alcoholism and divorce and admits that he found little relief until he begin sharing his story. He emphasizes the importance of sharing distant memories in order to relieve some of the burden.



Víctor Luis Torres García

Impact on his Life / El Impacto de la Guerra

Víctor Luis Torres García shares his pride in being an American and a veteran that raised five boys that also served their country. Additionally, he recounts the personal toll the war took on his psyche as he is unable to shake bad memories of his friends that were killed in action. He confidently states that anyone that has the Third Division badge suffered in Korea as much as he did.

Víctor Luis Torres García comparte su orgullo de ser estadounidense y un veterano que crio a cinco hijos que también prestaron su servicio para el país. Además, relata el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su psique, ya que no puede borrar las memorias de sus amigos que murieron. Afirma con seguridad que cualquiera que tenga el escudo de Tercera División sufrió en Corea tanto como él.



Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a Las Generaciones del Futuro

Víctor Luis Torres García reflects on the legacy of the war and what he wishes future generations will learn from it. He explains that while he would like to see a reunified Korea in his lifetime, he doubts it will happen. He hopes people remember the sacrifices made by so many to protect democracy against communism.

Víctor Luis Torres García reflexiona sobre el legado de la guerra y lo que desea que las generaciones futuras aprendan de ella. Explica que, si bien le gustaría ver una Corea reunificada durante su vida, duda que eso suceda. Él espera que la gente recuerde los sacrificios hechos por tantas personas para proteger la democracia contra el comunismo.



Vikram Tuli

The Experience of India's Custodian Forces

Lieutenant General Mohan Lal Tuli took many photographs. He witnessed a desolate Korea. He recounts that both the north and the south saw the Indians as partial, which was proof that they were not. Many of the troops whom he served with were experienced fighters who fought with the British Army in World War Two. He also recalled the incredible strength of the Korean people.



Opportunities To Visit South Korea

Vikram Tuli discusses the benefits of college students attending the peace camp funded by the Korean Ministry of Patriots and Veteran Affairs. His children have attended those camps, as well as many other Indian students. The peace camp is one of two programs run by the Ministry, the other being the Revisit Korea program for its war veterans. It is important to pass on the legacy of the Korean War Veterans in that way so that they can become future change makers. He also discusses his visit to Seoul seven years prior, remembering the war memorial and the solemn ceremony he attended. He remains impressed by the progress Korea has made.



The Costs of War

Vikram Tuli talks about the effects of war, and how the families of veterans from twenty-two countries were affected by this conflict. Generations will pass before that wound fully heals. He believes the deeper connections between countries such as education, commerce, and culture will help prevent these types of conflicts in the future. He reminds us to love thy neighbor and that we are one.



Vincent Ariola

Revisiting Life in a Tank

Vincent Ariola describes his reasons for not wanting to go back to visit South Korea. He explains that although he spent many hours in his tank, he did not sleep in it, but tanker operators slept in tents. He describes his experiences with having guard duty very often and being very tired from not being relieved. He further explains that artillery came very close to his tank and to his astonishment, he was never hit.



A New Beginning

Vincent Ariola reflects on his difficulty forgetting things he encountered during his time serving in the Korean War. He calls the experience of being drafted a new beginning and describes why he believes it is. He description paints a picture of what life is like for a young man who is drafted and has never been away from home.



Vincent Segarra

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Vicente Segarra reflects on the legacy of the war and his participation in it. He believes that people should remember that Puerto Ricans fought bravely and helped defend the United States and allowed democracy to triumph in South Korea. He urges future generations to join the military as wars are necessary to stop evil dictators from destroying the planet.

Vicente Segarra refleja sobre el legado de la guerra y su participación en la misma. Él cree que la gente debería recordar que los puertorriqueños lucharon con valor y ayudaron a defender a Estados Unidos y permitieron que la democracia triunfara en Corea del Sur. Insta a las generaciones futuras a unirse al ejército, ya que las guerras son necesarias para evitar que dictadores destruyan el planeta.



Virbel Trotter

Job During the War

Virbel Trotter explains what his job was during the war. He explains that they were a support group that had to ensure the front lines had the supplies that they needed. He remembers it being somewhat dangerous because of mortar fire.



Virgil Malone

Life in Daegu During the Korean War

Virgil Malone shares photos he took while stationed in Daegu, South Korea. These photos illustrate the living and working conditions of the South Koreans in Daegu area. They touch upon the economic disparity among South Koreans during the war; some lived in farmhouses, while others lived in huts.



Walter Dowdy, Jr.

Decision to Enlist

Water Dowdy, Jr., discusses his fear of being drafted, which would have interrupted his education as he pursued his dream of becoming a doctor. He shares his parents' reaction to his decision to enlist in the United States Army. He recalls going through basic training at the same camp where his father had received training during World War II. He remembers qualifying for Officer Candidate School (OCS) but was shipped to Japan in 1950 before he could begin.



Crossing the International Date Line

Walter Dowdy, Jr., recalls his voyage to Japan in 1950 on a merchant marine ship that crossed the Pacific Ocean. He remembers feeling seasick throughout the fourteen-day journey. He shares his experience crossing the International Date Line and being initiated into the "Domain of the Golden Dragon." He remembers being re-assigned to cook on a US Army base in Japan.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Growing Up During the Great Depression

Walter Kreider, Jr., shares that he grew up as an only child. He recalls his family experiencing hards times as many others did during the Great Depression, but he fondly remembers the love and support his parents, aunts, and uncles shed on him during his upbringing. He recalls the willingness of neighbors to help one another.  



Contrasting Korea: 1950s vs 1980s

Walter Kreider, Jr., contrasts the Korea he saw in the the 1950s to the Korea he revisited in the 1980s. He shares his recollections of Seoul and the destruction he saw while serving. He comments on how the war left many children orphaned. He shares that the Korea he saw on his return visit starkly contrasted his memories as there were many cars and buildings, and he comments on its beauty. He attributes the transformation to Korea's quest for education.



The Korean People

Walter Kreider, Jr., with no prior knowledge of Korea before serving, shares what Korea is to him now. He comments on the Korean people specifically, describing them as hardworking, creative, and caring. He adds that they are a good ally and represent freedom and liberty. He comments on similarities between Korean and Amish farmers.



Warren Housten Thomas

Revisiting Korea

Warren Housten Thomas recalls the time he revisited Korea and how appreciated he felt. He describes how well the Korean civilians and the Republic of Korea government treated him and the other veterans. He remembers the streets being filled with civilians and how excited he was to see the population surviving so well.



The Punch Bowl

Warren Thomas describes being stationed near the infamous "Punchbowl" area in Korea. He remembers the Punchbowl being an area surrounded with mountains and the difficulties it created in trying to climb those mountains in the winter. He recalls one event in which he was ordered to take his tractor and clear a road for the troops, having to crawl at times and work around twenty-foot-high snow drifts.



Warren Middlekauf

Chapter 312: "The best thing that ever happened"

Warren Middlekauf discusses the Korean War Veteran's Association Chapter 312 located in Maryland. Chapter 312 is the most active chapter in Maryland, the East Coast, and perhaps the country. He also makes a contemporary connection analyzing the help and support veterans receive today, unlike the Korean War Veterans who never even got a proper welcome home. He remarks about the numerous entities that exist today to honor, and provide assistance to war veterans.



Basic Training and Specialty Training to Join US Army

Warren Middlekauf was drafted into the US Army in 1952 and he was informed of this event from a letter through the mail. After attending multiple training locations, he was prepared as a Stevedore to load and unload ships during the Korean War. Stevedores were also known as the transportation corps. After that, he was trained to use amphibious duck vehicles to transport supplies to troops.



The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



School, Letters, and the Excitement of the Armistice

Warren Middlekauf's military base was located near a Korean school that continued through the war. During the armistice of 1953, he was in Korea and was excited to send the US soldiers home. Throughout his time in the war, Warren Middlekauf wrote letters to his wife along with money to save for after the war.



Warren Ramsey

Air Transport Duties and Making Connections With the Injured Soldiers in Flight

Warren Ramsey started serving at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii in 1949. Before the Korean War started, he would service and repair air planes. Once the war began, he deliver supplies and troops from Hawaii while pulling out the injured United States soldiers.



A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Early Entry into the Military and Loving Every Minute of It!

Before the Korean War, Warren Ramsey was in high school and joined the Air Force before he graduated high school in 1947. After graduating high school, he went to Lackland Air Force Base for boot camp. Thankfully, warren Ramsey thought that the transition to the United States military was not difficult because we grew up in Boy Scouts and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After training, he was stationed at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where he worked with troop and supply transport.



Wayne Derrer

Proud to be a Veteran

Wayne Derrer discusses his pride for having fought in the war. He explains the South Korean rehabilitations and improvements have been tremendous. He goes on to describe the great appreciation the South Korean people have for the American veterans and how he has received the Ambassador Peace Medal.



Wayne Dierlam

Reflection of Service

Wayne Dierlam reflects upon his service while in Korea. He remembers the mountains and valleys and gives his thoughts on a unified Korea. He shares the importance of training.



Wilbur Barnes

Promotion Experience

Wilbur Barnes shares his experience of almost missing out on a promotion to Sergeant. He credits the Master Sergeant in his unit for advocating for his promotion. He takes pride in being the only Black Sergeant in his unit.



Wilfred Lack

POWs Cross the Bridge of No Return

Wilfred Lack recalls American POWs crossing the Bridge of No Return and his initial interactions with the shocked soldiers. He remembers the expressions on the soldiers faces as they were released. During the prisoner exchanges, Wilfred Lack was there to tell the soldiers that they were home and safe, which he regards as a rewarding experience.



Willard L. Dale

Duty to Serve

Willard L. Dale confesses there was not a soul serving in Korea that was not scared. He explains he and his brother, Martin, both served in the same area while they were in Korea, and he recounts being able to share Christmas dinner together in 1952. He believes it was his duty to serve his country's mission to assist the Korean people.



Do Your Job Like You Are Supposed to Do

Willard L. Dale ranked as a Private First Class while serving in Korea. He explains he learned respect and the work ethic one needs to do his job like he should. He recalls the pay rate while in Korea and shares he did enjoy a five-day R and R in Japan before returning to the U.S. on Dec. 1, 1953.



Willard Maktima

Basic Training and Ship Duties

Willard Maktima recounts his experience attending boot camp where he was the only American Indian in his company but was able to interact with people from different backgrounds. He shares how basic training involved a lot of marching, learning about Naval history, and firing weapons. He recalls how, upon completing boot camp, he was stationed on the USS Furse destroyer ship which was docked at the San Diego Harbor. He explains their main responsibility was to protect battle and supply ships that sailed out at sea. He details how the crew would track foreign submarines and prepare to intercept any potential torpedoes.



Discrimination in the Southeast U.S.

Willard Maktima explains that during the war, his squadron was split in half with one half being sent to Korea and the other half (to which he belonged) being stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, to prepare for the Cold War campaign. He shares how he, unfortunately, experienced discrimination while stationed in the southeastern region of the United States due to being an American Indian. He recounts how this discrimination was enforced by the Jim Crow laws which required him to use separate bathrooms and drinking fountains from White people. He recalls how, on one occasion, he informed a bus driver he was an American Indian, not White, and chose to sit in the back of the bus where African Americans were also segregated.



A Desire to Learn

Willard Maktima shares his experience as a second-class petty officer at the air missile test center in Point Mugu, California. He explains he was responsible for documenting court marshals that took place on the base and delivering confidential messages between missile test sites. He notes how, during his downtime, he would often read books in the library. He reminisces on one of the librarians asking him about his future plans after the service which inspired him to obtain a GED and later pursue a college degree.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Not Forgotten War But Ignored

William explains how he detested for years that the war was not forgotten, but ignored. He explains how he felt that the American public didn't want to go back to war after WWII so soon. He describes returning from Korea on leave, but no one cared.



William Arnaiz

The Ship Home

William Arnaiz describes coming home as a great experience. He was on a large ship with troops from several regions. They went through the Panama Canal, dropped off Columbian troops, then dropped off other troops in Puerto Rico.



William Beals

Thankful for Thankfulness

William Beals discusses how much it meant to him to receive a letter from the President of Korea thanking him for his service in the war. He truly was honored by this gesture and even hoped that his granddaughter, who is currently in the service, would be able to thank the president for this. He explains how much gratitude he has seen from Koreans for his service.



William Bishop

Continuing the Legacy

William Les Bishop discusses the future of the KWVA and what he would like to see happen to allow for its continuation. He has been involved for many years though the development of his chapter and around the country. He shares that he thinks that its very important to focus on the legacy of Korean War veterans, relying on the younger veterans like him to do this.



William Burns

Hey Bill Where Have You Been?

William Burns was very excited to come home after his time in the war because he missed his mother's favorite chicken dish. After meeting up with a friend back on the home front, he did not remember that William Burns went away to war due to the lack of media coverage. The Forgotten War was definitely evident in his hometown of Auburn, NY because WWII was so publicized and there were not a lot of information coming to the US about the Korean War.



US Soldiers Fighting Along Side KATUSA

William Burns worked with many KATUSA and Korean civilians during his 11 months in Korea during the war. The Koreans who worked with the US troops worked hard, but had a difficulty with communication. William Burns showed personal pictures of two KATUSA that he worked closely with during the war, but he remembers about 10-15 were stationed with this regiment.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Famous Task Force Smith

William Coe was a member of the famous “Task Force Smith.” He explains why the group was so well-known and important. He gives some details about what happened during that time, including taking a Russian vehicle.



William D. Freeman

Gone for Good

William Freeman elaborates on how he has no interest in returning to the Korean Peninsula. He communicates his knowledge of South Korea's successes today and adds he has a great rapport with the South Koreans in his community. He shares his pride for his war efforts but continues by stating that he had enough experience in Korea for a lifetime.



William Eugene Woodward

U.S. Marine Corps

William Eugene Woodward remembers the rigorous physical demands he faced during his basic training at Camp Pendleton. He recalls how he was chosen to be the squad leader of over fifty troops during his time in boot camp. He shares how he was later assigned to the 5th Machine Gun Platoon and served in Korea from 1950 to 1951.



Wounded and Returning Home

William Eugene Woodward recounts how, after being wounded in Korea, he returned to the United States with forty-two other wounded Marines for treatment. He recalls how when he disembarked the naval ship in San Francisco, he was overwhelmed with joy and kissed the deck in gratitude to be home. He remembers how people expressed their gratitude for his service in Korea.



Importance of the U.S. Air Force

William Eugene Woodward discusses the significant impact the United States Air Force had during the wars of the twentieth century. He recalls a personal experience where he had a near miss with a U.S. fighter plane in Korea. He expresses his patriotism and pride in serving his country during the Korean War.



William Jacque

Rather Fight Communism There Than Here

William Jacque shares the reasoning for his willingness to serve in Korea. He explains that he wanted to fight for the Korean people as he was familiar with Communism and it's movement into Korea. He shares that he would rather fight Communism somewhere else than in his own country.



William Kurth

The Songs and Culture of Korea

William Kurth offers his experiences with the deeply saturated Korean culture. He describes physical appearances of the Korean people, the Korean alphabet, and a folk song. He performs his own rendition and shortened version of the Korean folk song, "Arirang."



William MacSwain

Tricking the US Government to Join the National Guard

In 1945, William MacSwain lied to recruiters at the age of 15 when he told them that he was 17 so that he could join the National Guard with friends. Due to the low number of military divisions, recruiters signed him without a second thought. In 1949, he was put to work in Oklahoma to protect businesses after a tornado tore through the state.



Military Leadership Training

In September 1950, William MacSwain reported to a military leadership school that was led by WWII veterans. Since he was already trained on a variety of weapons, William MacSwain felt that psychological warfare treatment was important lessons that he learned. Once he returned to Fort Polk, he was in charge of 4th platoon (an infantry division) who were all older than him.



Training for War in Japan

In May 1951, William MacSwain was sent to Japan to train with his platoon on terrain that was similar to Korea. General Ridgway said that the US National Guard should not be sent to Korea because they were not trained well enough. After watching William MacSwain's platoon in Japan practicing a maneuver, he was impressed with what he saw, so the National Guard was free to fight in the Korean War.



William McLenahan

Korean War Era Veteran

William McLenahan describes the difference between being a Korean War veteran and a Korean War Era veteran. He expresses great sympathy for those who suffered through the war and is thankful for the opportunity he had to do a small part. Despite having served there, he still feels he knows little about the Korean War and is in awe that there has yet to be a peace treaty.



William O’Kane

Arrival in Korea in 1952

William O'Kane arrived in Korean in 1952 at Sokcho-Ri. He was assigned his job as a wireman with Head Quarters Company 2nd Battalion 11th Marines. He remembers a lot about the conditions in Korea when he arrived and the conditions of the villages.



Interaction with Korean Marine Corps and Anzacs

William O'Kane worked with a seventeen year old Korean interpreter for his battery group. The Korean Marine Corps were tough and they worked on the left side of William O'Kane's regiment. He also fought along side with the Commonwealth Division of New Zealand (Anzacs/Australians) and had fun sharing stories about politics.



"The Forgotten War"

William O'Kane felt that the Korean War should not have been called "The Forgotten War." He really became upset when the war that he fought in was called a Korean police action or the Korean Conflict. Soldiers from around the world fought and died during the Korean War, so William O'Kane wished that more people remembered the war.



Volunteering After WWII

William O'Kane volunteered for the Marine Corps because his brother was in the military along with many of his friends. While in bootcamp at Camp Pendleton, SC, he read about the war and followed it because many people he knew were involved in the war. He said that since he was so young when he enlisted, he felt that he was invincible.



William Puls

The Impact of the Forgotten War

William Puls describes his revisits to South Korea in 2000 and 2010. He explains his amazement at the cleanliness and modernization of the cities in South Korea. He praises the South Koreans for their admiration and respect toward Korean War veterans. He shares his opinion on what can be done to resolve the continued division between the countries of North Korea and South Korea.



William Rooyakkers

Coming Home

William Rooyakkers describes coming home after being wounded. He remembers the warm welcome he received from his hometown and how special it was to be welcomed with cheers and appreciation. He especially remembers the joy coming from putting aside differences and becoming friends with former enemies.



William Steele

The Honor Flight

William Steele describes the emotion felt when participating with the Honor Flight, a flight where veterans are taken to the nation's capital to be honored and celebrated for their service to the country. He recalls the warm send-off and all of the details that go into that day. In particular, he shares the tribute made by a ninety-four year old woman who was a retired B-17 Bomber mechanic that stood outside and saluted them as they went by her house.



William Watson

On the Hunt for Enemy Submarines

William Watson recalls his speciality as a boatswain's mate aboard the USS Philip during the Korean War. He elaborates on the destroyer's mission to locate enemy submarines. He shares that several enemy submarines were encountered during his service but that none were ever fired upon.



Daily Life on a Navy Destroyer

William Watson describes daily life as a Boatswain's Mate on a Navy destroyer. He comments on the size of the ship and enduring rough seas. He recalls practicing the procedure for rescue if a man fell overboard and details duties such as keeping the ship clean and participating in regular trainings.



William Weber

A Very Special Honor

William Weber talks about his role in the creation of the Korean War Veterans Memorial and the honor of being selected as a model for one of the nineteen statues (Statue #16). He shares that the sculptor was instructed to include the differing ethnicities serving in the United States Armed Forces during the Korean War. He details the unique symbolism associated with the statues and the accompanying wall.



Forgotten and Unknown War

William Weber quantitatively compares the Korean War to other twentieth century wars. He comments on the personnel utilized during the war and shares that this information and these statistics are largely lost in American history. He elaborates on the need for an additional Wall of Remembrance for Korean War veterans on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.



Through the Cracks

William Weber expresses his frustration of the placement of the Korean War in American history despite the honorable conduct by the United States. He shares how he feels it even exceeded the United States' conduct in WWII. He comments on how the Korean War has fallen through the cracks and is only given a few paragraphs in textbooks.



The Portrayal of the Korean War

William Weber discusses how the generation of Korean War veterans is not portrayed as a generation of heroes in American media. He comments on the lack of Korean War focus in education and shares how students will never be able to appreciate what it meant and demonstrated due to this reality. He adds that Korean War veterans are merely guest lecturers rather than seen as significant additions to the curriculum as students are not required to learn about the war.



William Wienand

USS Pine Island's Work in the Korean War

William Wienand and the rest of the soldiers on the USS Pine Island participated in many reconnaissance missions as the flagship which hosted the Admiral of the Navy. He explains the breakup of the groups and their responsibilities. As a radioman, William Wienand worked his way up to a 3rd Class Petty Officer since he worked around the clock as the Supervisor of the Radioshack.



William Wienand's Role and Missions for the USS Pine Island

William Wienand's role in the Korean War was to radio all information from the soldiers stationed in Korea to naval leaders across the world. All messages were encrypted, but he knew that many messages gave instruction to the admiral of his flagship in addition to supplying assistance to ground troops. While he doesn’t remember all of the messages, he knew that they were important.



Playing an Important Role: Basketball

William Wienand explains how the operations assisted with the Korean War even though he was mainly offshore. He had to convey weather information, which was extremely important. As the supervisor of the radioshack, he had to make sure that all of the others were doing their job, including helping the basketball team.



Willie Frazier

Integration of the U.S. Military

Willie Frazier provides an overview of President Truman's order to desegregate the United States military in 1948. He discusses Eleanor Roosevelt's role in helping to integrate the armed forces after her visit to Camp Lejeune. He explains that Eleanor Roosevelt questioned why African Americans received basic training at Montford Point, a segregated facility within Camp Lejeune. He notes that the first African American to become a Marine was in 1942, just three years before his induction into the U.S. Marine Corps.



Wilma Altizer

Korean War Soldier on the Home Front

Wilma Altizer is a Korean War Era veteran even though she worked on the US home front. She explains how military looks at the time period, not the soldier's location to determine the time of service.



Wistremundo Dones

World War II / La Segunda Guerra Mundial

Wistremundo Dones offers an account of his service during World War II. He explains that he landed in North Africa in 1944 and made his way north into Europe. He describes the way in which he fought in the Alps, France, and eventually Germany.

Wistremundo Dones ofrece un relato de su servicio durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Explica que desembarcó en el norte de África en 1944 y se dirigió al norte de Europa. Él describe la forma en que prestó su servicio en los Alpes, Francia y, finalmente, Alemania hasta 1945.



Yilma Belachew

Ethiopian Kagnew Soldiers

Yilma Belachew describes the Ethiopian soldiers' experience. He identifies that no Ethiopian soldier became a POW and that the soldier must sacrifice their life. Therefore, men who were injured would continue to fight even when seriously injured. Yilma Belachew also describes training by Swedish elite soldiers. Soldiers must prepare their minds for combat in addition to the physical battle.



Ambush Patrol

Yilma Belachew describes his command of the Ambush Patrol. He describes how he would encounter Chinese on the front with just fourteen other soldiers. His platoon did not lose a single man. The patrols were very dangerous and difficult. Ambush Patrols were carried out in the dark with no lights and then waiting for the enemy with a small number of soldiers.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.



Dangers of a Sniper

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes being a sniper during the war. On one occasion a mortar exploded near him. The explosion covered him in dirt and took the life of the man beside him. Events of the war, however, made him stronger, not scared. He also describes Chinese were good at karate.



Engagement with the Chinese

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes engaging the enemy. He describes how he sniped and killed seven Chinese soldiers. The incident occurred at night. The Ethiopians waited to be given orders to fire. Firing at night would give your position away. He also describes being so cold that he put his leg in a fire to keep it warm. His leg ultimately ended up being damaged from this incident.



Sacrifices for Good

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes revisiting Korea. He is amazed at the transformation Korea has undergone. His sacrifices were not wasted. Korea also has given back to the Ethiopian soldiers. The Ethiopian government has given the veterans nothing.