Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Fear



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Abisai González Camacho

The Bronze Medal with Valor / La Medalla de Bronce con Valor

Abisai González Camacho provides an account of the events which earned him a Bronze Medal. He details the way in which he saved the lives of many by jumping into a river and grabbing a rope to help fellow soldiers safely cross. He explains that enemy troops were nearby during the ordeal. He laments that he witnessed the way in which many others drowned during this incident.

Abisai González Camacho relata los hechos que hizo el para que le dieran la Medalla de Bronce. El detalla la forma en que le salvó la vida a muchos cuando salto al río que estaban cruzando para agarrar la cuerda que se había rota para ayudar a sus compañeros a cruzar con seguridad. También explica que las tropas enemigas estaban cerca durante esta terrible experiencia. Lamenta haber visto como muchos otros se ahogaron durante este incidente.



His Life Saving Helmet / El Casco que le Salvó la Vida

Abisai González Camacho shows off the helmet which saved his life many times in Korea. He shares that it was the most important part of his uniform as it was the first thing he put on whenever he moved. He explains that the helmet saved his life and points out where it was damaged.

Abisai González Camacho muestra el casco que le salvó la vida muchas veces en Corea. Comparte que era la parte más importante de su uniforme ya que era lo primero que se ponía cada vez que se movía de lugar. Explica que el casco le salvó la vida y señala dónde se dañó.



Basic Training and War / El Entrenamiento y la Guerra

Abisai González Camacho offers an overview of his basic training and the most difficult aspects of the war. He explains that he felt physically prepared for war as he joined the National Guard prior to his recruitment but was not ready for the realities of the war. He recounts that, having often conversed with his buddies the night before, it was difficult whenever one of them was killed.

Abisai González Camacho habla sobre su entrenamiento y los aspectos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que se sentía físicamente preparado para la guerra porque estaba en la Guardia Nacional antes de su reclutamiento, pero no estaba preparado para las realidades de la guerra. Cuenta que, habiendo conversado con sus compañeros la noche anterior, era difícil cuando moría uno de ellos el próximo día.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Abisai González Camacho recounts his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he could not believe his surroundings upon first seeing the front line. He remembers that while he was treated well by his commanding officers, they were in fact very tough individuals.

Abisai González Camacho habla sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no podía creer lo que lo rodeaba cuando vio por primera vez la línea del frente. Recuerda que sus oficiales lo trataron bien, y sin discrimen, aunque eran personas muy duras.



Missing in Action / Perdido en el Campo de Batalla

Abisai González Camacho speaks about a friend who was lost in action after embarking on a patrol. He remembers that the lost soldier was from his hometown and was never found after multiple search expeditions. He details the efforts to recover him or his body and how fruitless these efforts were.

Abisai González Camacho habla de un amigo que se perdió en combate después de ir en una patrulla. Recuerda que el soldado que se perdió era de su pueblo y nunca fue encontrado, aunque hubieron un par de expediciones de búsqueda. Detalla los esfuerzos para recuperarlo a él o a su cuerpo y cuán infructuosos fueron estos esfuerzos.



Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Adolfo Lugo Gaston recalls the worst and longest battle that he experienced, that of Kelly Hill. He explains that allied troops fought an incalculable number of Chinese communist troops. Their mission was to win the hill and help four-thousand marines that were trapped.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón recuerda la batalla de Kelly Hill porque fue la más dura. Explica que las tropas aliadas lucharon contra un número incalculable de tropas comunistas chinas. Su misión era conquistar el cerro y ayudar a los cuatro mil infantes de marina que estaban rodeados.



Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Adolfo Lugo Gaston provides an account of his first impressions of the country upon landing in Korea. He vividly remembers an eerie silence and seeing bodies buried beneath the snow near Seoul. Additionally, he speaks about the difficulty of trench warfare and explains the fact that many soldiers were shot because they left their foxholes to complete mundane tasks.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón relata sus primeras impresiones al llegar en Corea. Recuerda el silencio que había y una tristeza porque había cuerpos enterrados bajo la nieve cerca de Seúl. Además, habla sobre lo difícil que era la guerra de trincheras y explica que muchos soldados fueron fusilados porque abandonaron las trincheras para tareas mundanas.



Albert Cooper

One Last Grenade

Albert Cooper talks about defending a radar station that had come under attack. Alone in a fox hole, he intermittently fired his rifle and threw hand grenades to keep the enemy at bay until he had exhausted his ammunition save one last grenade, which he kept and brought home as a memory of the battle.



Albert Gonzales

First Impressions of Busan

Albert Gonzales describes what he saw when he first arrived in Busan. He explained how there were machine guns at every intersection as they rode in on the cattle cars. He remembers how terrified he and the soldiers felt not knowing what to expect during this war, yet they persevered.



Albert Harrington

Typical Duties of the Infantryman

Albert Harrington describes the typical duties of a soldier serving in the infantry. He explains these duties consisted of checking ammunition, re-digging trenches after rain, and patrolling. He comments on the dangers of patrolling and details one particular instance where the company nearest his was hit. He also describes the penalties for taking one's boots off as they were required to keep them on during certain services.



Albert Kleine

Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



Surviving a Chinese and North Korean Attack

Albert Kleine was stationed near the Imjin River during his time in the Korean War. He was very fearful of the flowing river and the sounds it gave off that showed its strength. Later he would realize that the river was nothing compared to the flutes signaling the attack by thousands of Chinese and North Korean troops.



The Cold went Right to Your Soul

Albert Kleine felt that the cold weather was the worst part of fighting in Korea. Even though he was stuck there fighting the Chinese in the terrible weather, he doesn't hate them because they were only told to fight. He wasn't fighting the man, he was fighting the country.



Albino Robert “Al” D’Agostino

"Radio Communications Defense and Guerillas"

Al D'Agostino describes his role in establishing a radio relay to communicate with the soldiers. The winters were very cold and they had to set up shelter on a mountain. They handled their own defense against the guerilla fighters which was an extremely difficult job.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Battle of Old Baldy / Batalla de Old Baldy

Alfredo Forero Parra details the horrors of war as experienced at the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the way in which they were bombed for over eleven days with heavy artillery and mortars. He recounts a painful story in which his friend, Corporal Gonzalez Varela, who commanded the second squad of his platoon was brutally killed as the avalanche of Chinese troops advanced on their company.

Alfredo Forero Parra detalla los horrores de la guerra que el sufrió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe la forma en que fueron bombardeados durante más de once días con artillería pesada y morteros. Además, relata una dolorosa historia en la que su amigo, el Cabo González Varela, quien comandaba el segundo escuadrón de su pelotón, fue brutalmente matado cuando la avalancha de tropas chinas avanzó sobre su compañía.



Toughest Battles / Batallas Más Duras

Alfredo Forero Parra explains that the Battle of Old Baldy was one of the five bloodiest battles of the war. He adds that it was the worse battle for the Batallón Colombia as ninety-five troops were killed, and twenty-eight soldiers were captured as prisoners of war. He recounts the way in which he was wounded and almost died.

Alfredo Forero Parra explica que la Batalla de Old Baldy fue una de las cinco batallas más sangrientas de la guerra. Cuenta que fue la peor batalla del Batallón Colombia, porque que murieron noventa y cinco soldados y veintiocho soldados fueron capturados como prisioneros de guerra. Además, relata la forma en que fue herido y casi muere después de una explosión.



Message to students / Mensaje Para Los Estudiantes

Alfredo Forero Parra shares his thoughts on war and its many consequences. His message to future generations is that war should be avoided as it is cruel and inhumane. He adds that it is important for future generations to remember the valor and stoicism of Colombian troops.

Alfredo Forero Parra comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y sus múltiples consecuencias. Su mensaje a las generaciones futuras es que se debe evitar la guerra, ya que es cruel e inhumana. El termina su mensaje pidiéndole a las generaciones futuras que recuerden el valor y el estoicismo de las tropas colombianas.



Ali Dagbagli

Battle of Kunu-ri

Ali Dagbagli describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle of Junu-ri was the first major military engagement for Turkey since WWI. He describes being surrounded on all sides by the enemy. The battle lasted for three nights and four days. Therefore he lost many friends in the battle and was shot four times.



Ali Saglik

"Cold Blooded"

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He laid mines in the front, had dogs defending their flanks and men stationed in the rear, with machine guns in the front. At the Battle of Kunu-ri there was continuous fire for two days and eventually the Turkish soldiers defeated the Chinese in close combat with bayonets affixed. Ali Saglik lastly describes the loss of two soldiers under his command.



A Civilian War

Ali Saglik describes how the Turkish forces captured a spy. He also describes how enemy forces, hiding in civilian houses, shot and injured a fellow soldier. Not all Korean civilians were enemies, however, as some would provide fresh fish. Ali Saglik also describes the Battle of Kunu-ri and how the "Americans ran away." Turkish soldiers attached bayonets and killed Chinese for two days.



Alice Allen

Injuries During War Never Tarnished Their Love

Alice Allen was on the home front when her husband, Jack Allen, was injured during the Korean War. Thankfully, he was injured on his right arm and not his left because he is left-handed. Even with an arm and leg injury, Alice Allen maintained her love for her Korean War Veteran.



Allen Clark

Allen Clark's First Prisoner of War

Allen Clark was establishing observation posts and was maneuvering around Gimpo Airport when he came across a family who had captured a North Korean soldier. He felt the process of handing him to the property authorities went well, but he was concerned that there were many more POWs with the possibility of being outnumbered. He wasn't sure how the Korean people felt about American's arrival during the conflict, but at that time, he felt they were happy and pleased the US soldiers were there.



Highway Through The Danger Zone

Allen Clark described the harrowing scene he experienced coming out of the narrow road while leaving the Chosin Reservoir making them easy targets for the enemy. Allen Clark was sitting in the back seat of a Jeep when the enemy fired a shot that punctured through the gas tank (quickly emptying it), and shooting a hole right through the tire. They jumped out of the jeep and ran behind a small hill that was just beyond some railroad tracks as a parapet while the Jeep driver hooked their vehicle to a truck and pulled it out of Kunwoori.



Star for the Chosin Few at Koto-ri

As an Assistant Artillery Liaison Officer of the 7th Marine Regiment, Allen Clark told the story of the Frozen Chosin, who survived the 42 degrees below zero temperatures for several days while attempting to secure a place in the mountains that gave them an advantage point that overlooked a bridge. He described the conditions at Koto-ri were so bad, the scarf he described was the only thing that kept him from further hypothermia damage. Anxious and ready to go as the weather began to improve, Colonel "Chester" Pulley on a clear night had pointed to the star that was in the sky and said, "We are going in the morning," and that rallying point for the Marines when they needed it the most.



Evacuation of Civilians after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

South Korean civilians wanted to escape so bad that they were willing to leave behind everything and jump aboard overcrowded ships to leave the war-stricken area. It was estimated that 99,000 civilians were crammed on two boats with the survivors from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir with aid from a Chaplin who convinced the boat skipper to bring all the civilians to safety.



Andrew Cleveland

Dangerous Moments

Andrew Cleveland recalls never being attacked by enemy aircraft, but he does remember being attacked by mines. He remembers constantly looking for submarines, although he could not remember finding any. He shares he was generally out of harm's way from major combat. He remembers going through a typhoon, with waves so big that they split open part of the ship. He recounts not knowing if the ship was going to sink or turnover at the time, but adds they survived the storm and were able to repair the ship.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Wounded in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap describes being wounded in battle while serving in the Pusan Perimeter, 1950. His troop had been fighting North Koreans all night long on September 1st. At about 5:30 AM, he was hit by a machine gun by the North Koreans.



Andrew Greenwell

The Most Dangerous Flight

Andrew Greenwell describes flying over the East Sea on a classified mission when his plane found itself in the middle of a typhoon. He recalls preparing for a parachute exit due to the predicament. He remembers saying his last prayers, preparing for the worst, and the pilot being able to pull the plane out of the storm.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza's initial encounter as he landed in Pusan was filled with shock because he never heard of Korea. One image that he will never forget is hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of the children were, as he described, "disfigured."



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Ángel David Jiménez Jusino

Assigned as Scout / Asignado como Scout

Angel David Jimenez Jusino discusses the living conditions soldiers faced during Korea. He relays the story of how he came to be assigned as a scout, which was a perilous job, after he disobeyed orders. He explains the living conditions soldiers faced during the brutal winter of 1952.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron los soldados durante Corea. Relata la historia de cómo llegó a ser asignado como explorador, que era un trabajo peligroso, después de que desobedeció las órdenes. Explica las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron los soldados durante el invierno brutal de 1952.



Worst Experience / La Peor Experiencia

Angel David Jimenez Jusino shares the story of the Battle of Kelly Hill. He explains that as a scout, he was tasked with engaging the enemy to draw them out from their hiding spots. During a scouting mission to Kelly Hill, his team encountered so many troops, that the sergeant screamed at them to retreat and defend themselves however they saw fit. The memory of this mission saddens him, as two within the scout group were taken as prisoners of war, and two others were killed.

Angel David Jimenez Jusino comparte la historia de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Explica que, como explorador, tenía que enfrentarse al enemigo para sacarlo de sus escondites. Durante una misión de exploración en Kelly Hill, su equipo se encontró con tantas tropas que el sargento les gritó que se retiraran y que se defendieran como pudieran. Esta misión lo entristece, ya que dos dentro del grupo dos fueron tomados como prisioneros de guerra y otros dos murieron durante el ataque.



Wounded / Herido

Angel David Jimenez Jusino details the incident which led to his hospitalization. He was in the hospital for over twenty days when fuel fumes exploded, burning his face and arms. He explains the way he was evacuated and how he returned to the front line after recovering from his injuries.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino describe el incidente que resultó en su hospitalización. Estuvo en el hospital más de veinte días después que los vapores de combustible explotaron y le quemaron la cara y los brazos. Explica la forma en que fue evacuado y cómo regresó al frente después de que se recuperó de sus heridas.



Engaging the Enemy / Enfrentando al Enemigo

Angel David Jimenez Jusino discusses the tactics used by American planes in order to pinpoint the location of the enemy. He describes how American bombs were dropped on the enemy but sometimes missed and landed close to allied forces. Additionally, he shares a story of his friend dying in combat.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino analiza las tácticas utilizadas por los aviones estadounidenses para ubicar al enemigo. Él describe cómo los aviones tiraban bombas sobre el enemigo, pero a veces explotaban cerca de las fuerzas aliadas. Luego comparte una historia de como su amigo murió en combate.



Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez

Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez describes the patrol which almost cost him his life. He explains that he was left on patrol to guard a bridge for three days and nearly froze to death. When he was finally relieved of his duty, he was unable to move or speak and two soldiers warmed his body over a fire until he was able to move again.

Aníbal Ithier-Rodríguez describe la patrulla que casi le cuesta la vida. Explica que lo dejaron patrullando para vigilar un puente durante tres días y casi murió por el frio. Cuando finalmente fue relevado de su deber, no podía moverse ni podía hablar y dos soldados calentaron su cuerpo sobre un fuego hasta que pudo moverse de nuevo.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez describes his first impressions of the war. He explains that within the first two weeks of combat, the kitchen at his camp was bombed and one sergeant was angry that they were brought rations and demanded, at gun point, that they should all get hot food. Additionally, he shares his memories of the Korean countryside.

Anibal Ithier-Rodríguez describe sus primeras impresiones de la guerra. Explica que, dentro de las primeras dos semanas de combate, la cocina de su campamento fue bombardeada y un sargento estaba enojado porque les trajeron raciones y exigió, a punta de pistola, que todos deberían recibir comida caliente. Además, comparte sus recuerdos del paisaje coreano.



Discrimination / Discriminación

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez discusses the discrimination he witnessed while serving in Korea. He states that the Puerto Ricans in his company were blamed for mistakes and were assigned the worse jobs. He describes an incident in which he and the other three Puerto Ricans discovered an ammunition fire, and even though they put out most of it, they were never recognized for their heroism. In contrast, the soldiers that relieved them of the fire were given medals for saving the lives of those in the camp because they put out the fire.

Anibal Ithier-Rodríguez habla sobre la discriminación que presenció mientras sirvió en Corea. Afirma que a los puertorriqueños de su compañía se les echaba la culpa de los errores y se les asignaban los peores trabajos. Describe un incidente en el que él y los otros tres puertorriqueños descubrieron un fuego de municiones, y aunque apagaron la mayor parte, nunca fueron reconocidos por su heroísmo. En cambio, los soldados que los relevaron del fuego recibieron medallas por salvar la vida de los que estaban en el campamento porque ellos terminaron de apagar el fuego.



Antone Jackim

An Aircraft Mechanic's Duty during the Korean War

Antone Jackim describes his duty as an aircraft and engine mechanic during the Korean War. He talks about being a part of the B-29 flight crew, his job to help operate the air vents and electric motors when the pilot needed a break. On one mission, 3 out of 4 engines were hit by gun fire, the bomber barely making it back to Japan.



Aragaw Mselu

Ethiopians in Battle

Aragaw Mselu describes fighting conditions. Chinese spies were a constant threat. For example, they would disguise themselves with leaves and move slowly. Also, when attacking a battle the soldiers affixed bayonets for close combat fighting. Enemies were not spared. The Ethiopians were unable to take one hill. However, they were not overrun.



Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Arden Rowley

Moment of Hesitation Led to Capture

Arden Rowley describes the night of November 30, 1950 and being captured by the Chinese Communist Forces. He describes how his unit was surrounded, which led them to destroy their equipment and leave the convoy. He recalls how he and another soldier became separated from the group and seeing a group of soldiers approaching. He remembers that by the time they could properly identify the approaching soldiers, it was too late. He shares how being captured was a traumatic experience because one minute you are firing at them and then you are at their mercy. He elaborates on his fears while being captured and the twenty-four day march he endured to the first POW camp.



Arthur C. Golden

Baptism By Fire (Graphic)

Arthur Golden recounts his first days in Korea and the fear he experienced when the shooting began. He describes the experience of his company moving to set up the perimeter and a rifle company digging in near them. He remembers meeting the rifle company's squad leader while digging a foxhole and the following day seeing that soldier’s lifeless body removed. He shares as part of their role for the United States Marine Corps 1st Division, they successfully pushed the enemy back. Following this success, he recalls regrouping for the Incheon Landing. Shortly after the landing, he describes the retaking of Seoul and moving down to Wonsan.



Arthur Gentry

"Little" Battle at Pusan Perimeter

Arthur Gentry fought in Pusan at the perimeter where the North Koreans had taken control. United States troops were ordered to dig in and begin to dig fox holes as heavy mortars were falling as his commander was injured. They were there for two days to help straighten out the line for the army and provide support for the army. This is an example of how quickly some troops were embroiled in battles as they landed in Korea.



Inchon Landing: 15 Foot Ladders

Arthur Gentry and his comrades created 15-foot ladders to use to "land" in Inchon by scaling a 15-foot sea wall. The tide went out for 6 miles, so this was how the troops had to get ashore.
The marines climbed over the side of the ship and went into the boats. Rockets and bombardments awaited the Marines as they approached Inchon.



"Bonsai" attack

Arthur Gentry lived through the "bonsai" attack near Kimpo Airfield. Japan occupied Korea for 35 years, and the North Koreans learned this "bonsai" tactic from the Japanese. Arthur Gentry remembered how Roosevelt made a decision to divide Korea while working with the Soviet Union. The U.S. Air Force was bringing in supplies to the airfield, so protection of the airfield was of great significance.



War Torn: 1950 Heungnam Evacuation

Arthur Gentry had an emotional experience when he and his fellow Marines were evacuated from Hamheung along with 100,000 North Korean refugees. As the reality of war set in, seeing the ships in the harbor the troops and the countless refugees were relieved to be rescued. Arthur Gentry remembered all the ships, his company straightening their lines, and the Marine Corps singing hymns as they marched forward.



Arthur Hernandez

White Horse Mountain

Arthur Hernandez recalls his journey from Japan to Busan, Korea, during the frigid winter. He remembers taking a troop train from Busan north towards the front lines. Upon reaching their destination, he describes being escorted up a mountain which lay on the front line. As they hiked up the mountain, he remembers seeing the remains of the enemy. He provides details of a ten-day battle which took place at the location known as White Horse Mountain.



Life on the Front Lines

Arthur Hernandez shares his experience of serving on the front lines of White Horse Mountain. He recalls facing periodic shelling, aerial bombings, and mortar attacks by the Chinese forces. He mentions meeting a soldier from Puerto Rico who purposely injured his foot to return home from the war zone. However, he recalls the wounded soldier returning to the front lines after healing, only to later become a casualty of enemy fire.



An Attack at Night

Arthur Hernandez describes the intense darkness he experienced while serving on the front lines. He remembers resting in his foxhole one night and a grenade exploding nearby. He recalls firing rounds at a Chinese soldier who was running towards their position. He explains how friendly artillery barraged their position until daylight to counter the Chinese attack. After the attack, he remembers discovering a photograph on the deceased Chinese soldier that depicted him holding a violin.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

Impact from a Tour in Korea and Japan

Arthur Sorgatz was able to learn about how other people live when he was stationed in Busan starting in 1954. Poverty was very high in Korea after the war and America's poverty level is nothing compared to Korea's at that time. In Japan, Arthur shipped damaged trucks to the port while creating his own fun by scaring Japanese civilians by backfiring trucks right within busy towns.



Asefa Desta

Korean Service

Asefa Desta describes the details of his service in the Korean War. He describes how Korean civilians were so helpful during the war. American supplies were a necessity. Engagements with the Chinese were frequent. He describes how he did not want to even blink to give his position.



Asefa Mengesha

Action in Korea

Asefa Mengesha recounts seeing his friends die and is proud that his unit never surrendered nor left a man or body behind. He shows the camera his wounds suffered from 16 mm mortar rounds. One shell failed to fire from his mortar and exploded in front of him.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Engaging the Chinese

Asefa Werku Kassa describes an engagement with the Chinese that left a deep scar on his forearm. He was stationed along the frontlines and frequent encounters with Chinese infantry. On one occasion a Chinese soldier gave him a deep gash before another Ethiopian soldier came to his aid. Asefa Werku Kassa eventually shot and killed the Chinese soldier. Also, Ethiopian soldiers never surrendered due to instructions. This was for fear of what the Ethiopian military would do to their families.



Battle Experience

Asefa Werku Kassa describes his service in Korea. He cannot remember the exact locations of service due to moving around. The mountains and terrain stick out more than anything. Also, he shares an image of his scar from the Chinese military encounter. He also describes how he was in charge of a unit. He would constantly move them from danger, much to the chagrin of his commanders.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Danger in Korea

Assefa Demissie Belete describes the danger of Korea. For instance, he describes going on patrol at night and facing against the Chinese. But, he describes how the soldier did not have fear. Ethiopian soldiers were following orders. Assefa Demissie Belete describes one incident of a fellow soldier being hit by a heavy bomb. The other soldiers never found his body.



Austin Timmins

A Dangerous Landing

Austin Timmins (RCAF) describes one of his most memorable missions, a dangerous landing in high speed winds as a part of a Canadair North Star flight crew. The plane ran out of fuel as they were landing in Japan. It was a very stressful land but the pilots had to remain calm.



Avery Creef

Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Ayhan Karabulut

Memories and a Message

Ayhan Karabulut describes how he cannot forget the memories of the men he served with who lost their lives. He also describes how he feared the sound of planes overhead after returning home. He did have a special message for the Republic of Korea, "May Allah give them long life."



Baldwin F. Myers

Fighting His Way Back to the Lines

Baldwin Myers describes the Battle of Jinju and his time behind enemy lines. As the city was falling, Baldwin Myers had to find a weapon and fight his way back to American lines. He successfully rejoined American forces the day before Jinju fell.



Barry J. McKay

Early Conflicts Along the Peninsula

Barry J. McCay was stationed aboard the HMNZS Pukaki when he first arrived in the waters off of Korea. He describes action aboard the HMNZS Pukaki as it cruised the East Sea. He recalls how, In one encounter, his ship came under fire from a Soviet-made MiG jet.



Basil Kvale

Fighting in Ujeongbu and the Taebacek Mountains

Basil Kvale was taken to Ujeongbu (Northern Korea) with an amphibious military group to set up for battle. They moved a lot and were so close that they could see the Chinese right near their location. At a new location in the Taebacek Mountains, Basil Kvale was over 3,000 feel above sea level and it was an important location to give orders of where to bomb.



Chinese POW-Ping

Basil Kvale captured a Chinese POW named Ping who later was sent with other soldiers. As a Marine, Basil Kvale was asked to help give the coordinates for the bombing to aid his commander. He had the cannons and bombs attack from four different sides which led to total disaster for the Chinese.



Basilio MaCalino

The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Belay Bekele

So Many Surrenders

Belay Bekele describes fighting conditions in Korea. He explains how the threats were everywhere, because of all of the enemy surrenders. Ethiopian forces took in all people, enemies, and civilians. He also discusses how the winters and mountains were the most difficult things outside of the enemy. Winters were extremely cold and there were so many mountains.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Duties to Ensure Safety

The Combat Chemical Engineer Corps developed smoke screens over the rivers which would allow the battalion to lay the bridges without being attacked by the enemy. The worry was that while placing these bridges, the enemy would lay mines in the river bottoms, so the engineers were hoping they had done their job well without risking the lives their fellow soldiers. Ben Schrader hoped that all the bombs had be deactivated prior to coming so close to these rivers.



Closure to the Present Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believed that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the US with bombs. It is just like the Cold War the lasted for many years. He would support reunification between North and South Korea since he went back to Korea for a revisit and he saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benigno Ramos Perez

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Benigno Ramos Pérez shares some of the most difficult moments he experienced during the war. He explains how an enemy combatant tried to infiltrate their unit and was caught trying to do so. Following that incident, he recounts how a young man in his unit was killed during a forward observing mission. He shares the story in which his clumsiness saved his life as a mortar fell where he should have been if he had not dropped his helmet.

Benigno Ramos Pérez comparte algunos de los momentos más difíciles que vivió durante la guerra. Explica cómo un soldado enemigo intentó infiltrarse en su unidad y fue atrapado al intentar de hacerlo. Después de ese incidente, comparte la historia de cómo un joven de su unidad murió durante una misión de observación avanzada. Por último, comparte la historia en la que su torpeza le salvó la vida cuando un mortero cayó donde debería haber estado si no se le hubiera caído el casco.



Letter to Future Wife / Carta Para Su Futura Esposa

Benigno Ramos Pérez has his wife read a letter he wrote to her from the front lines. Within the letter, he provides a firsthand account of the dangers he encountered and comments on his inability to sleep. He details how two sergeants were injured during combat and praises American troops. He emphasizes the importance of their love in the letter.

Benigno Ramos Pérez hace leer a su esposa una carta que le escribió cuando él estaba en Corea. Dentro de la carta, provee un relato de los peligros que encontró y comenta como no podía dormir. Detalla cómo dos sargentos resultaron heridos durante el combate y comenta que las tropas estadounidenses eran buenas. Incluye la importancia de su amor en la carta.



An Emotional Letter / Una Carta de Amor

Benigno Ramos Pérez reads a letter he wrote to his girlfriend who became his wife of sixty-one years. He explains the toll the separation had on his psyche and the belief that God would reunite them. His reading brings tears to his wife who accompanies him on this portion of the interview.

Benigno Ramos Pérez lee una carta que le escribió a su novia, quien se convirtió en su esposa de sesenta y un años. Explica lo duro que fue la separación y su creencia de que Dios los reuniría. Su lectura hace llorar a su esposa que lo acompaña en esta parte de la entrevista.



Benito B. Arabe

I Liked to Fight with Communists

Benito B. Arabe describes his units pulling out from the battle at Hill 010. He shares how members of his unit had no idea where the enemy was and states he was not afraid as he "liked to fight with the Communists". He recounts how he remained in Korea until after the armistice concluded the fighting. He offers some detail of his return trip to Korea where he saw many houses and happy people and returned to the boundary between North and South Korea.



Benjamin Allen

First Days in Korea

Benjamin Allen shares he left for Korean in September 1950. He recounts his journey to Japan and then on to Busan (Pusan), Korea. He recalls riding a train towards Seoul which he remembers seeing burned as the North Koreans were retreating from the city. He offers his take on fear.



Bernard Clark

Patrol Duties

Bernard Clark went on a variety of patrols during his time in Korea. He calls these patrols "recce" (reconnaissance). "Recce" patrols consisted of five men and entailed going out to a point and returning with the intent to keep an eye on things in no man's land. His listening patrol consisted of three men who went out into no man's land and sat in a location all night to listen for enemy movements.



Living Conditions

Bernard Clark had to live in trenches near and on the front lines because there were not any shelters of any kind. The trenches were six feet deep and a fire could be made during the winter to stay warm. C-Rations were eaten most of the war, and they included beans and tea. He recalls taking over for the Greeks at "Kowang San/Little Gibraltar" area near Hill 355, and he remembers finding many dead bodies left in the trenches.



Coping with Loss and Memories of Korea

Bernard Clark is still saddened by the loss of his friends while serving. He dealt with those losses as a young man in a few different ways. He also attended several concerts during his time in Korea, and he remembers a road march while on reserve which entailed a fiery mishap. Napalm drops took place during the Korean War, and he describes the aftermath of this weapon.



Bernard Hoganson

Telling Stories and the Bronze Star

Bernard Hoganson discusses his grandchildren. He shares why he does not really tell his grandchildren stories from his service in Korea. He describes how he received the Bronze Star.



Bernard Lee Henderson

Fire In The Hole

Bernard Henderson shared his experience of being struck in his chest with shrapnel. Puny Wilson, one of the members of his regiment, was pulling guard-men one night and yelled, "Fire in the hole" 5 times. After throwing the 2nd grenade, Bernard stood up from his fox hole and the grenade hit him right in the chest. Although it didn't penetrate through his clothes, he started tearing his clothes off yelling for a corps men to help him.



Life as a Soldier During the Korean War

Bernard Henderson would sleep in his foxhole with his clothes on in a sleeping bag in shifts with other Marines. As a Marine, they did not shower often since they were stationed up in the mountains. The most difficult time he had was trying to escape from a Chinese attack by running down railroad tracks since it was not even, but he just wanted to stay alive.



Bernard Smith

Bernard Smith- Struggles with Equipment

Bernard Smith described that the equipment that was set up was only good for a 50 mile radius and many times they would need to reach as far as 200 miles to get a signal. Since there wasn't a hill in between their location, they could operate from machines and make compromises to get it to work. They had multiple diesel-fueled generators to ensure they were able to continue to operate if the other ran out and the freezing cords were another concern as Bernard Smith lived through the cold winters in Korea.



Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago

Infiltrated by the Enemy / Infiltrado por el Enemigo

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago provides an account of a dangerous battle in which enemy troops infiltrated their unit. The problem, he explains, was that the Filipino language sounded like Chinese, and they assumed that it was allied troops returning to the line. He describes the fighting which ensued and resulted in his sergeant being shot.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata una peligrosa batalla en la que tropas enemigas infiltraron a su unidad. El problema, explica el, era que el idioma filipino sonaba como chino, y asumieron que eran tropas aliadas que regresaban. Describe la lucha que siguió y que resultó en su sargento herido.



Lucky to be Alive / Vivo de Milagro

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago shares one of the most impactful moments of the war. He describes the incident in which he and others were almost killed by friendly fire when they were attempting to prepare mortars in Seoul. Following that attack, he remembers how they went on a trek and forever engraved in his memory is the sight of a little four-year-old girl begging on the side of the road.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago comparte uno de los momentos más impactantes de la guerra. El describe el incidente en el que él y otros casi murieron por fuego amigo cuando intentaban preparar morteros en Seúl. Después de ese ataque, él recuerda que hicieron una caminata y siempre le quedo grabado en su mente el recuerdo de una niña de cuatro años que mendigaba al costado de la carretera.



Unprepared for War / Sin Preparación Para la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explains why he was unprepared for combat. He states that as a member of the reserves, he was sent to Korea without basic training. He remembers how his captain, a West Point graduate, requested he not be a forward observer as he was not trained as a soldier.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explica por qué no estaba preparado para el combate. Afirma que, como miembro de las reservas, fue enviado a Corea sin el entrenamiento básico. Recuerda que su capitán, un graduado de West Point, pidió que no fuera un observador avanzado ya que no fue entrenado como soldado.



First Days at War / Primeros Días en la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describes his first impressions of Korea and the utter devastation he encountered. He remembers being immediately struck by the fact that the train which transported them to the front was riddled with bullet holes. Furthermore, he details the way in which Seoul was destroyed and the way in which a major bridge was blown up by the allies to prevent troop advancement by the enemy.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y la devastación total que encontró. Recuerda que le llamó la atención el hecho de que el tren que los transportaba al frente estaba lleno de agujeros de balazos. Además, detalla la forma en que Seúl fue destruida y la forma en que los aliados volaron un puente importante para evitar el avance de las tropas enemigas.



The Effects of the Winter / Los Efectos del Invierno

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago recounts the living and weather conditions they faced in Korea. He remembers being amazed by the frigid temperatures and describes the effects on both living and deceased soldiers. He further elaborates on the weather by describing how allied troops left North Korea by boat after blowing up the port.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata las condiciones de vida y del clima que enfrentaron en Corea. Recuerda estar asombrado al frio que había y describe los efectos del invierno tanto en los soldados vivos como en los muertos. Da más detalles sobre el tiempo al describir cómo las tropas aliadas se fueron de Corea del Norte en barco después de volar el muelle.



Bezuneh Mengestu

Most Dangerous Moment

Bezuneh Mengestu recounts his most dangerous moment caught behind the lines by the Chinese. His unit was sent to spy on Chinese movements and did not realize they had travelled past their boundaries. The Chinese opened fire on their truck but they refused to surrender.



Bill Chisholm

Replacing Marines in Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm arrived in Korea via Wonsan and was soon sent as part of a unit to replace the 1st Marine Division on the east side of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He recalls almost immediately being surrounded by two divisions of Chinese soldiers. He describes the immense fear he felt in being surrounded by these units.



Bill G. Hartline

Doing My Duty

Bill Hartline speaks about his time in Funchilin Pass and the area around Yudam-ni. He recalls just finishing his four-hour watch shift and crawling into his sleeping bag when "all hell broke loose." He details taking a couple of men with him to hold a bridge on the road while the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir raged all around them. He notes that remarkably despite all the chaos of war around him, he never had to fire his machine gun.



Lucky You Got Lost

Bill Hartline recalls an old farmhouse at the bottom of Funchillan Pass packed full of men from his unit as well as those of a utility company all trying to seek warmth. He recounts how being tasked to look for a missing soldier, prior to his unit departing for Hagaru-ri, saved his life.



Bill Hall

New Equipment and Additional Pilots Leads to Advantage

Bill Hall recalls how with the arrival of additional land-based pilots came additional equipment for his unit. He remembers that their new equipment included a 20mm cannon as well as tracer bullets which allowed pilots to see where shots were being fired. He explains how this served as a great advantage for the American planes over the Chinese ground forces. He notes that his first mission was on August 7, 1950, but that he was soon cut because he was needed as a Landing Signal Officer (LSO).



Medical Care for Wounded

Bill Hall recalls the challenges doctors faced in treating the wounded. He remembers their inability to treat everyone, so they frequently stacked the injured up and covered them with a blanket. He vividly describes one new, very green reservist who arrived in Korea having never touched a gun. He remembers this reservist was injured and later transferred to a Navy hospital for treatment. He jokingly recalls how an Army nurse declared that this young man would live.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



Battle of Naktong Bulge

Bill Lynn tells about the Battle at Naktong River. He survived the battle because the Korean he was fighting was unable to reload his gun. Both of the men accompanying him were killed primarily because they were using malfunctioned equipment left over from World War II.



Bill Scott

We Called Them Hoochies

Bill Scott described what it was like on many of the hills he fought and the sand bags filled with dirt and rock used to protect them from the enemy. He described digging into trenches on the hill, and his mortar squad was placed just on the other side of the hill to fire at the enemy. Bill Scott pointed to a shadow box as he's describing the shrapnel that was collected from the battlefield that was fired at them by the Chinese.



Almost hit by the Chinese

Bill Scott described the fighting and living situations on the top of Pork Chop Hill. He recalled the area they were quartered in during their time on the hill.
Bill Scott was resting in his bed in this living quarters when it was hit and mortar barely escaped his head by inches. He said when he woke, the sound was deafening, and the area was heavily damaged. Bill Scott picked up pieces of the shell and stuck it in his pocket.



Bob Garcia

Joining the US Army

Bob Garcia talks about enlisting in the US Army in 1950. He describes his early sentiments about joining and his experience in basic training at Fort Dix, New Jersey. He also talks about his prior knowledge of Korea as the Korean War began.



Fear on the Front Lines

Bob Garcia talks about his first days on the front lines in January 1952. He describes, at the age of nineteen, being "scared to death" by the strange noises found in an artillery battery.



Bob Imose

Making Sure Communication was Always On

Bob Mitsou Imose recounts one 1954 flight mission to penetrate air defense systems in the western part of the peninsula. He describes his time in Korea as a communication electronics officer with the 5th Air Force beginning in 1967, working in cooperation with the 8th Army Division, to ensure communication always remained on. He details the military bases he visited in Korea as part of his duties during this period.



Bob Wickman

Lived in Constant Fear

Bob Wickman shares he was only in Korea for a bit over a month, but he experienced some severe fighting near the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts in July 1953. He recalls that at twenty-two he was "old" compared to many of the young Marines he was treating. He notes they lived in constant fear, not necessarily of dying, but of being hurt.



What a Hospital Corpsman Carries

Bob Wickman describes the supplies he carried while attending to Marines on the battlefield. He shares that much of the gear which included battle dressings, scissors, tape, and morphine were stuffed into pockets of their uniform to avoid being easily identified by the enemy. He notes that he carried grenades but was fortunate to never have used them.



Brian Hamblett

An Appalling Situation

Brian Hamblett describes looking into a foxhole and finding a Chinese soldier. He explains that the soldier was just as surprised and pulled his grenade without throwing it. The Chinese soldier was badly injured from his own grenade. He goes on to describe seeing the results of napalm and growing more horrified by the memories of it as he has grown older. He describes the burned bodies and total suffocation of the land.



Bruce Ackerman

Home for Christmas?

Bruce Ackerman feared being surrounded by the Chinese in the Chosin Reservoir and had to endure the cold Korean winters, frost bite, and a near explosion close to his bunker. He thought that the soldiers would be home for Christmas in 1950, but sadly, he was wrong. Bruce Ackerman remembered the evacuation of 100,000 refugees during the winter of 1950 and that included North Korean civilians who were left homeless due to the invasion of the Chinese to support North Korean troops.



The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



North Korean Infiltration

The North Koreans infiltrated the Marine Corps by scouting out artillery positions. Bruce Ackerman noted that the artillery was a very important tool used during the Korean War. There was more artillery fired in the Korean War than in WWII.



Bruce W. Diggle

Hill 355 and the "Apostles"

Bruce Diggle shows the famous Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. The British Commonwealth forces fought for possession of Hill 355 during the series of battles that corresponded to the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge to the east. The North Koreans were positioned on three smaller hills that the Kiwis nicknamed the Apostles - Matthew, Luke, and John. He took pictures of the North Korean positions during a truce.



Burley Smith

It is Remarkable It Happened Without Any Incidents

Burley Smith gives details about the minefields of Hamheung harbor. He recounts how the United States Navy marked the minefield for them to navigate around the mines. He describes the United States Navy minesweepers maneuvering beside them to mark the minefield which allowed them to navigate through the mines. Along with this, he shares that the refugees were never searched and could have overtaken the ship at any time. For these reasons, he shares that it is remarkable that it all happened without any incidents.



Carl B. Witwer

Part II: Destroyer Experience

Carl Witwer returned back to Korea and had to assist with radar technologies on the destroyer U.S.S. Hanson in the West Sea. He compares his duties a part of Task Force 95 compared to his prior assignment. He also elaborates on a time his ship saw action with a submarine and how it was a close call.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Combat Jump

Carl Jacobsen recounts jump training in Daegu, Korea, and recalls making multiple training jumps in order to receive his wings. He offers an account of his first combat jump and details the related mission. He comments on the destruction he saw during his service.



A Dangerous Moment

Carl Jacobsen shares memories of one of the most dangerous moments he experienced in combat. He recalls being given orders to collect ammunition and receiving sniper fire on his return with the ammunition. He recounts stopping the vehicle he was driving to return fire and wondering if he would make it out of the situation alive.



Carl Rackley

Escaping Through Marine Corps Bombs

Carl Rackley reflects on his experiences at the 38th Parallel. He describes being trapped there for roughly ten nights. He also details the amount of Chinese soldiers there. He expresses his gratitude for the Marine Corp troops who bombed the area for him to escape.



Nerve Damage from War

Carl Rackley describes here the lasting impact the Korean War has had on his life since he served. He describes having nerve problems and how this affects his daily life. He describes the roots of these nerve issues from their origins in war.



Carl W. House

First Night with a North Korean Spy

Carl House described that his unit worked with ROK soldiers and the language barrier made it difficult to understand each other. They relied heavily on sign language as a way to interpret their needs. During the first night, Carl House discovered that the person in his foxhole was a North Korean spy with assistance from the ROK soldier. They questioned the spy and the ROK soldiers took him away. Carl House felt he was lucky and he was amazed that the ROK was able to identify the spy.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Surrounded at Jangjin: Last Line of Defense

Carl House arrived at Jangjin with his unit and was told no enemy forces were within a fifteen-mile radius. He recalls many soldiers began building fires, drinking coffee, and preparing sleeping bags. He shares that Chinese forces surrounded the U.S. soldiers in a horseshoe-shaped position around three in the morning, making it nearly impossible for them to escape. He remembers fighting for three days and running low on artillery after a failed airdrop landed in enemy territory. He recounts his captain ordering his unit to stand rear guard while fellow soldiers pulled out and recalls doing what he could to hold off the Chinese.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As he was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke his arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When he made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the thirty-degree-below-zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

Cold Patrols/ Patrullas Frías

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describes a typical day on the front lines. He explains that night patrol as a machine gun operator was the most difficult assignment, especially on cold winter nights. Additionally, reconnaissance patrol duty instilled immense fear in him as he could not make a sound which was especially difficult on nights when temperatures were low. He concludes that he and others feared weather conditions more than combat.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describe un día típico en el frente. Explica que la patrulla nocturna como operador de ametralladoras era la tarea más difícil, especialmente en las noches frías de invierno. Asimismo, la patrulla de reconocimiento le daba un miedo inmenso, ya que no podía emitir ni un sonido, y era más difícil en las noches cuando las temperaturas estaban bajo cero. Él y otros temían las condiciones climáticas más que el combate.



Fear During the Battle of Old Baldy/ Miedo Durante la Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts the worst action he encountered during the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes being continuously bombarded throughout the night and having to hold the front until American reinforcements arrived hours later. He explains that although their camp was surrounded by landmines and barbed wire, Chinese and North Korean troops pierced their defenses. He marvels at the tenacity of enemy troops as bodies exploded in the air as they marched through the minefield.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto relata la peor acción que vio que fue durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él describe haber sido bombardeado continuamente durante toda la noche y tener que mantener el frente hasta que llegaran los refuerzos estadounidenses horas después que empezó la batalla. Explica que, aunque su campamento estaba rodeado de minas y alambre de púas, las tropas chinas y norcoreanas atravesaron sus defensas. Se acuerda de la tenacidad de las tropas enemigas cuando los cuerpos volaban por el aire mientras marchaban a través del campo de minas.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

Wounded in the Line of Duty /Herido en La Linea de Combate

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recalls the fear he experienced during the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was injured, and his friend died. He details the way in which he and three others were surrounded in a bunker when Chinese troops infiltrated their camp. He describes the hours that passed in which they had to decide whether to continue fighting and die or risk being caught as prisoners of war. Eventually, he explains, they were rescued by American and Puerto Rican troops, but sadly one of his friend’s injuries were so grave that it was impossible for him to be saved.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recuerda el miedo que vivió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy en la que resultó herido y su amigo murió. Él y otros tres soldados fueron rodeados en un búnker cuando las tropas chinas se infiltraron en su campamento. Describe las horas que pasaron en las tuvieron que decidir si iban a seguir luchando y morir o arriesgarse a ser capturados como prisioneros de guerra. Finalmente, él explica, fueron rescatados por tropas estadounidenses y puertorriqueñas. Desafortunadamente, las heridas de su amigo eran tan grave que fue imposible salvarlo.



Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco details the events which led to the worst battle for the Batallón Colombia in terms of casualties. He explains that tactical errors by the commanders in the United States Army led to Chinese infiltration of their camp. Enemy troops, he remembers, waited until relief troops entered the camp to attack because those that were part of the relief did not know the camp or where the ammunition was stored and thus chaos ensued. He adds that the Colombian commanding officer asked for the relief unit to come in during the day as opposed to the night.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco describe la peor batalla del Batallón Colombia en términos de bajas. Explica que los errores tácticos de los comandantes del ejército de los Estados Unidos fueron la razón por la infiltración china en su campamento. El recuerda que las tropas enemigas esperaron hasta que las tropas de relevo entraron al campamento para atacar porque los que formaban parte del relevo no sabían ni dónde estaban las guardadas las municiones. Añade que el comandante colombiano pidió que la unidad de relieve llegara durante el día y no durante la noche.



Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco shares his opinions on why he believes that war should be avoided. He explains that wars lead to hunger, disease, fallow fields, crying mothers, orphans, and leveled cities. In his opinion, he explains that diplomacy is a better way to solve disputes. He laments the fact that the Colombian government did not use their experience to try to solve the problems with guerilla fighters in their own nation.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco comparte sus opiniones sobre por qué el cree que se debe evitar la guerra. Explica que las guerras provocan hambre, enfermedades, campos que no producen, madres que lloran, huérfanos y ciudades arrasadas. En su opinión, la diplomacia es una mejor manera de resolver problemas. Es por ello por lo que lamenta que el gobierno colombiano no aprendió su experiencia para intentar solucionar los problemas con los guerrilleros.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco discusses his first impressions of the war and Korea. He remembers that he and others experienced real fear upon first landing in Incheon. During the first two months he spent in Korea, he recalls that they trained in modern warfare and took care of prisoners of war. He recounts the desperation of the civilian population, in particular, what women were forced to do to survive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco cuenta de sus primeras impresiones sobre la guerra y Corea. Recuerda que él y otros tuvieron miedo cuando llegaron por primera vez en Incheon y vieron lo que es la guerra. Durante los dos primeros meses que pasó en Corea, recuerda que tenían entrenamiento y los asignaron a cuidaron a los prisioneros de guerra. El se acuerda de la desesperación de la población civil, en particular, de lo que las mujeres se vieron obligadas a hacer para sobrevivir.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Difficult Moments / Momentos Dificiles

Carlos Julio Mora Zea recalls that the most difficult moments he experienced occurred during his training and during his time at T-Bone Hill. He admits that he found basic training incredibly difficult even though they were given a helper. At T-Bone Hill, he explains that the conditions were terrible as they faced constant danger.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea recuerda los momentos más difíciles que sucedieron durante su entrenamiento y durante su tiempo en la Colina T-Bone. Admite que encontró el entrenamiento básico increíblemente difícil a pesar de que les dieron un ayudante. En la Colina, explica que las condiciones eran terribles ya que siempre estaban en peligro constante.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

Difficult Moments / Los Momentos más Difíciles

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He recounts the events which occurred during the Battle of Hill 400 in which, under heavy fire, their battalion lost sixteen soldiers. He was tasked with the difficult mission of transporting the dead and wounded during this battle under heavy mortar fire.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Relata los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla de la Colina 400 en la que, bajo un fuego intenso, su batallón perdió dieciséis soldados. Se le encomendó la difícil misión de transportar a los muertos y los heridos durante esta batalla mientras estaba bajo fuego de mortero.



The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describes some of the most dangerous moments he experienced during the war. He explains the events which led to heavy casualties of Colombian troops during the Battle of Old Baldy. As a driver, he details, he was assigned to move ammunition, artillery, and personnel as they attempted to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describe los momentos más peligrosos que vivió durante la guerra. Él explica los acontecimientos que resultaron en muchas bajas de su batallón durante la Batalla del Old Baldy. Cuenta que como conductor, él tenía que mover municiones, artillería y personal mientras intentaban reconquistar el cerro a las tropas chinas.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

Papasan Hill / La Colina Papasan

Carlos Rivera-Rivera shares his experience in a battle which took place as allied troops tried to gain control of Papasan Hill. As a mortarman, he recalls that the bombing was unending. It was during this battle, he explains, that he became desensitized to the reality of the war as so many perished during the fighting.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera comparte su experiencia en una batalla en la cual las tropas aliadas intentaron controlar la colina Papasan. Como él era mortero, recuerda que el bombardeo era interminable. Él explica que fue durante esta batalla que se volvió insensible a la realidad de la guerra, porque murieron tantos durante la lucha.



Long Nights / Noches Largas

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explains that night patrols were the most dangerous moments of the war. He recalls feeling that the nights would never end as they had to wait in the trenches from six in the evening until six in the morning. He remembers the anxiety he experienced as he waited for orders.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explica que las guardias nocturnas fueron los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra. Recuerda sentir que las noches nunca terminarían ya que tenían que esperar en las trincheras desde las seis de la tarde hasta las seis de la mañana. Recuerda la ansiedad que tenían mientras esperaban órdenes para disparar.



Carroll F. Reusch

On Patrol on the Front Lines

Carroll F. Reusch explains he served as a medic on the front lines in Korea beginning in 1952. Despite his role as a medic, his role encompassed more than taking care of medical issues. He notes that a medic always accompanied any groups larger than three soldiers on patrol at night. He recalls not really knowing what to expect on the first night but that the fear ramped up with later patrols.



Cecil Franklin Snyder

Drafted into the Army

Cecil Snyder talks about being drafted into the US Army in the fall of 1958. He describes basic training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, and mentions the duties of a clerk, his military occupational specialty.



Cecil K. Walker

Re-Supplying on the Front Lines

Cecil Walker describes the loss of two men while moving supplies, who were killed by guerrilla fighters. At other times drivers were held up so Allies could perform airstrikes on the hills in front of them. Cecil Walker describes how he was not scared though, because he was with others and doing a job.



Cecil Phipps

Captured!

Cecil Phipps talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers, becoming a prisoner of war. He describes his initial three-day evasion and a fateful decision that led to his capture. He shares how he and seven fellow soldier were made to march north at night until they reached the Chinese border.



Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Poyktong POW Camp (#5) and the harsh living conditions he lived through as prisoner, offering remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions he went from one hundred ninety pounds to seventy-five pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



"Always Trying to Escape"

Cecil Phipps talks about a fellow soldier that attempted and failed several times to escape Camp #3. He describes how he tried to aid his friend and what happened when he was captured and returned.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Experiences with Patients and First Experience in Korea

Cecelia Sulkowski recalls the variety of patients she saw, describing them as seasoned soldiers, not new recruits. She describes the feelings of the patients and how they felt disheartened with the lack of supplies they were sent in to fight with. She becomes quite emotional when she recalls her feelings about these soldiers. She continues discussing her arrival to Korea and remembers the cold winters especially.



Discussing Patient Deaths

Cecelia Sulkowski recollects her perpetual struggle with death and destruction surrounding her. She discusses the importance of humor. She speaks about the advent of triage and the usage of MASH hospitals. She explains her hospital was a stationary unit and that she was not on the move like others. She describes the makeup of her unit as well.



Cevdet Sidal

Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes intimate details from the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle was the first engagement on foreign soil for Turkish fighters since WWI. Cevdet Sidal provides details about being surrounded and the heavy losses to the enemy. He also describes how there were enemy war planes used in the battle.



Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One Master Sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. Cevdet Sidal turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face.



Charles Bissett

PTSD and Its Effects on Personal Life

Charles Bissett describes his battle with PTSD. He shares that upon his return, he was quick to anger not only with his wife but with others. He describes his nightmares of seeing part of the war and his reaction to automatic weapon firing. He shares it was hard to deal with.



Charles Blum

Having Trouble All the Time

Charles Blum describes his experiences with PTSD from the Korean War. He explains sitting on a grenade and the shrapnel that entered his body. He then describes sitting with a fellow soldier until he dies then having to quickly kill a Chinese soldier.



You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Mass Grave Site Filled with Civilians

Charles Buckley drove all throughout Korea during his time there and witnessed the narrow roads, trees, and the damage incurred. He recalls a massive grave site that had been unearthed full of slaughtered children. It's predicted that this grave site was from when the North Koreans overran Seoul, South Korea and killed anything is their path.



Non-Combat Related Deaths

Charles Buckley said there were many non-combat related deaths with at least 5 to 7 within his own unit. While in Wonju, a radio relay site, a young man was in a 6 X 6 truck and he was trying to get up a slick mountain with another soldier, and the 6 X 6 truck rolled over killing them both.



Charles Bull

Training Can Be a Huge Pain in the Neck!

Charles Bull was shocked when he joined the Navy. It was difficult to take care of himself by washing, ironing, cooking, and caring for other men. He also had to learn all seamanship training for tools and ships. During a training, he almost was hit in the head with a 14 point lead pipe.



Charles Carl Smith

A Difficult Journey

Charles Smith talks about his journey by train from Pusan to Chuncheon. He describes having to deboard the train several times because they had come under attack.



Life in the Punch Bowl

Charles Smith talks about the 11 1/2 months that he spent in the Punch Bowl and describes what it was like to be a part of trench warfare along the MLR. He tells the story of his first encounter with enemy troops and how he hoped to not be "yellow."



PTSD

Charles Smith talks about his severe PTSD from his experiences in Korea. On the front line, he describes being treated like an animal and not knowing any fellow soldier's names. He talks about how he dealt with PTSD once he returned home.



Charles Comer

Military Occupation

Charles Comer describes his job as a military policeman as well as patrolling the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) after the armistice was signed. He describes manning check points and patrolling the hills where the former Chinese prisoners were staying after Syngman Rhee released them. He explains that his patrol duties along the DMZ were at night and were often times quite dangerous.



Charles E. Gebhardt

The Beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the scene at the beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about the KATUSA soldiers assigned to his unit and how he thought they had gotten spooked. In reality, the Chinese offensive had already begun.



Charles Earnest Berry

Experiences with Chinese Soldiers and Rethinking War

Charles Earnest Berry discusses fighting the Chinese and how quick and mobile they were since they carried less equipment than the American soldiers. He explains how the Chinese would put human waste on their bayonets to increase the chances of wounds becoming infectious. He recounts finding an entire National Guard unit dead and hauling dead bodies from the front. All of this made him rethink war. He shares that when his mom asked what he would like her to package and mail, he requested liquor instead of cookies.



Capture and Escape

Charles Earnest Berry discusses the severe cold weather in Korea and being captured at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes how he was able to escape and safely return to American lines despite the challenging circumstances. He recalls the massive waves of Chinese soldiers and heavy artillery bombardments that he and his fellow soldiers endured during their time in Korea.



The Role of Aircraft at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Charles Earnest Berry remembers witnessing American aircraft attacking the Chinese and North Koreans. He saw pilots dipping their wings to American soldiers. He describes arriving at a bombed bridge and having to wait for the bridge to be airlifted, which rendered a loss of people and equipment during the wait. He describes how the USS Missouri firing on the enemy and how he was evacuated from Korea after being wounded.



Charles Elder

Taking Care of Myself

Charles Elder talks about the cycle of taking care of himself during his time as a wounded prisoner during the Korean War. He had moments of extreme highs or lows. He had to remind himself to have hope of survival.



Charles Hoak

The Reality of the Situation

Charles Hoak describes being seasick for three days and his brother being seasick for seventeen days on the way to Korea. He recalls their arrival in Korea and remembers taking a train to their base. He describes how he could see and hear mortar fire on the train and how, at that moment, the reality of war set in.



Last Push by the Chinese

Charles Hoak tells the story of when the Chinese Army were making a last push. He recalls being in the trenches with weapons loaded and U.S. Army airplanes dropping flares on their location so that they could see what was taking place on the battlefield. He remembers how the Republic of Korea (ROK) troops held the line and thwarted the advance of the Chinese Army.



Charles L. Chipley

The Bombing and Return Fire of Incheon

Charles L. Chipley Jr. describes the USS Rochester bombing of Incheon prior to soldiers landing. He shares that the landing, in his opinion, was very successful. He recounts that return air attacks came from the north while his ship was sitting in Incheon Harbor, and 4 bombs were dropped targeting his ship.



Chinese Attacks Against Civilians

Charles L. Chipley Jr. offers his account of providing evacuation aid to the Marines at Heungnam. He recounts that his ship provided gunfire support so that troops could be loaded onto the evacuation ships. He describes the movement of a speculated 100,000 Chinese troops killing civilian Koreans.



Charles Rangel

The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Charles Ross

Inchon Landing and Movement Northward

Charles Ross describes his experience during the Inchon Landing. He recounts an order given to his unit to hold its ground at all costs and shares that it was one of the scariest moments he experienced while in South Korea. He describes traveling north, receiving little resistance along the way, and recalls North Korean soldiers surrendering as his unit crossed the 38th Parallel and made its way to Pyongyang.



Initial Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross recounts being under the impression that the situation in Korea was under control and in the process of ending during the fall of 1950. He recalls his unit being sent north to help a unit which had run into some resistance and being attacked by the Chinese on the way. He describes an emotional scene once the attack had ended that left a lasting impression on him.



Chemical Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross describes being trapped for three days following the attack at Unsan, near the Nammyon River. He recalls waiting for the 5th Calvary to come to the rescue and overhearing that it had met resistance and would not be able to help. He recounts a strange explosion and shares how a phosphorus chemical attack allowed him and other soldiers to make their escape.



Charles Weeks

One Mortar Round

Charles Weeks describes being under attack by North Korean mortar fire and how a foxhole saved his life. This circumstance still haunts him to this very day. He elaborates on how this situation strengthened his relationship with God.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

"Outgunned and Outflanked"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the beginning of the Korean War. Stationed in Japan, he describes hearing the news of the North Korean invasion of South Korea and his unit's quick deployment to the war. He talks about being "outgunned and outflanked" by North Korean forces at Masan because of substandard equipment and supplies.



Fighting the Chinese at Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about fighting Chinese forces at Pyongyang. He describes eating Thanksgiving dinner before the difficult withdrawal south from Pyongyang. During the withdrawal, he says they often went for days without food and their vehicles ran out of gas.



Chester Coker

The Battle That Got Me

Chester Coker speaks about the battle which impacted him the most. He recalls how he and his unit were just north of Panmunjeom, close to the 38th parallel. He remembers a stalemate had been reached, and negotiations were stalled, and the Army was ordered to push north. He shares how the battle that followed was the most fierce he experienced, pushing the North Korean and Chinese soldiers back north. He recalls how they were able to push forward because many of the enemy troops were asleep. He describes how a grenade landed and blew up on top of him.



Chong Rae Sok

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the conditions that his unit faced including cold weather, loss of communication, and little food. He talks about the fighting that took place, taking one hill at a time.



Chuck Lusardi

The Hardest Part

Chuck Lusardi describes the hardest parts of his time in Korea revolved around seeing the great suffering of the civilian population. He recalls the worst living conditions for Koreans seemed to be near the Iron Triangle. He shares how much of his time was spent within sight and sound of the front lines, and he is proud he never hit a mine with his equipment and was never hit by a sniper. He remembers jeeps bringing out the severely wounded as tough times as well. He notes feeling totally helpless at times.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

P.O.W. Capture: Right Into The Lion's Den

Clarence Sperbeck retails the story of being captured as a prisoner of war north of the Imjin River. He was sitting with a group of experienced "ol' timers", who told him that the Chinese were going to come around this valley, but Clarence Sperbeck told them there was no way it was going to happen. The soldiers heard the bugles blow (as a means of communicating with each other from afar) and mass firing ensues as they are given orders to pull back (which he never understood). General Ridgeway devised a trap within this valley to make the Chinese think that we were pulling back giving them the advantage, but when the Chinese made it to the center, General Ridgeway closed the gap which killed over 50,000 Chinese. However, when the original order was given, Clarence Sperbeck's platoon started to retreat and took the wrong turn. Turns out there were captured vehicles and they walked right into a group of Chinese soldiers.



Frozen In Fear

Clarence Sperbeck recalls while on the move picking up extra men who had been displaced from their unit and abandoned weapons. He found one guy frozen (not literally), just sitting there whether fear or uncertainty, Clarence Sperbeck kicked him in the shin with his combat boot (said it hurt like hell), handed him a weapon, and told him to fall in line with the rest. The other soldier was a new replacement paralyzed again with fear who didn't speak or move even after being kicked by Clarence Sperbeck.



My Capture

Clarence Sperbeck remembered April 25, 1951 because that was the day he was captured by the Chinese. Having been warned not to walk on the ridge line since it made it easy for the Chinese to detect your movement, the US troops walked the ridge line anyway. Clarence Sperbeck made an attempt to shoot in the direction of a sound behind him when a concussion grenade landed near him knocking him to the ground damaging his back. When he came out from under a rock, a Chinese soldier screamed at him to put down his weapon; he jumped behind a pine tree to try to shoot at the enemy, but the Chinese soldier's buddy was pointing his weapon at Clarence and he wouldn't have been able to shoot both. He put his rifle down and spend the rest of his time with the Chinese after walking for 3 months to get to the POW camp.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



Hope This Never Happens to You Too

Clarence Sperbeck commented on how fast the Chinese moved compared to the US troops. It was said that the average number of steps per minute the Chinese took were 140 to Americans' 120. While unable to hear, see, or walk due to his illness (amoebic dysentery), most of the American prisoners bypassed Clarence Sperbeck when he needed help, but a few soldiers helped him up. He was often the last in line (so weak/sick) during the march which would put him at a greater risk of being shot.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



You Dream Just Before You Die

Clarence Sperbeck tells the story of another camp that lost over 1600 men in a period of 2 weeks, and the Chinese brought the survivors of that "massacre" to Camp 1 to merge those survivors with his prison camp. Clarence Sperbeck was already suffering with amoebic dysentery at that time, so when he came upon his old squad leader who had survived the "massacre" (death from other camp), the squad leader demanded the Chinese to provide medical care for Clarence Sperbeck. He said he would have dreams of cooking a full meal, then going back to cook some more. Many men declared that these were the symptoms dying men.



Performing Medical Experiments on the Prisoners

In the 3 month stay in this hospital at Camp 1, the Chinese performed medical experiments on the prisoners by implanting a gland from an animal into POW's bodies. POWs were told that if the gland stayed in their body, they would potentially run a high fever and die from an infection. Clarence Sperbeck said the soldiers wouldn't let the incision heal over and they would attempt to squeeze the gland out to keep it from infecting their body.



Clayborne Lyles

Jubiliation at Sea

Clayborne Lyles participated in the Navy's ocean search and rescue efforts when there were US pilots that were shot down over the Pacific Ocean. He felt jubilation to be part of 22 pilot rescue missions, but he was sad when none of these missions were discussed in the newspapers. One mission that made him laugh, but it was still serious event was when a pilot was shot down and he was shot in the butt. Clayborne Lyles remembered how the sailors would give each other grief to lighten the mood of war.



The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Friend or Foe?

Clayborne Lyles was part of General Quarters, "All arms, man your battle stations." The USS Toledo didn't realize that the incoming planes were US planes, so everyone was told to get ready to fight in the middle of the night. Thankfully, sailors used the Identifying Friend or Foe (IFF) gear before any shots were fired from the USS Toledo.



Clifford Bradley Dawson

Cease Fire and Christmas in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson shares his experience of the cease-fire being called in July 1953. He describes watching across the Han River and seeing the final rounds going off that night. Despite the cease-fire, he remembers there being no celebrations and how he felt suspicious of the Chinese and North Koreans. He remembers celebrating Christmas in Korea even though they had no tree. He shares how, to pass the time, they played cards.



Clifford L. Wilcox

A Close Call

Clifford Wilcox describes a time when on duty as a forward observer, an enemy shell exploded in front of his foxhole. He was lucky that the shell fired right over his head, missing him. Thankfully, he was covered with dirt with no shrapnel.



The Worst Day of My Life

Clifford Wilcox describes the day he left home for Korea as being the worst day of his life. He had to leave behind his wife and a newborn baby boy. He also just had a new house, car, and job. He describes his wife's experience waiting by the window for him, yearning for her husband to return home.



Why Do Veterans Not Talk About Their Experiences?

Clifford Wilcox discusses the reasons he think veterans do not talk about their experiences in war. He mentions the killings, prisoner of war experiences, as well as wounds inflicted. Although he understands this, he feels differently wanting to share his experiences in the Korean War.



Clyde D. McKenrick

"What Kind of Trouble Are You In?"

Clyde McKenrick tells an amusing story of when he was called into the office of an alarmed personnel director because the FBI had been asking questions about him. He had no idea why the FBI was interested in him. He explains that the FBI interest was because of the security clearance he needed to become a cryptographer.



Clyde Fruth

Day by Day

Clyde Fruth talks about the dangers he faced as a forward observer from incoming artillery and snipers. He details about an enemy unit that was always prepared to attack them and would sneak up through the trenches. He describes always have to keep his eyes open for the enemy.



Colin C. Carley

Radio Operators in the Korean War

Colin Carley shares that he worked alongside an Australian brigade when he patrolled near Panmunjeom in late 1950 through early 1951. As a radio operator for his New Zealand Battery Brigade, he recalls being scared of all the tracer bullets that would whiz by him. He remembers how he would feel sick when battles began because he never knew if he would be able to return home again.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Cruz Sanchez Rivera

Cruz Rivera Nearly Perishes on Patrol

Cruz Rivera was ordered to go on patrol even though he was a cook and it was not part of his normal duty. On one particular patrol that he was surprised to be ordered to go on, he took nine soldiers to blow up two houses that were being used to develop ambushes for American soldiers. After destroying the houses with incendiary grenades, Rivera slipped down a ridge and was falling towards a booby trap. He only survived by falling into a groove and had to be pulled out.



Curtis Lewis

Basic Training and MOS Training in California

Curtis Lewis graduated high school in 1952 and jointed the Air Force right away. He attended basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. After earning high scores in the technology industry, he was sent to California to learn his military operational specialty. While in California, he was able to see many of his Army friends leave for Korea, but not all returned.



Curtis Pilgrim

Facing Fear With Courage

Curtis Pilgrim recalls living in a constant state of fear while serving on the front lines, yet finding courage to stand firm. He remembers being in awe of the Chinese soldiers and their determination to survive and how the Chinese often used American weapons against them. He recalls feeling unprepared when it came time to pull the trigger, despite being trained for combat.



Cyril Kubista

Life on the Homefront and the US Draft

The Korean War was not spoken about much on the homefront. Civilians thought that it would be over really quick. Then, Cyril Kubista was drafted in June 1953 for the US Army right after he was married. He was upset about going Fort Sheridan, Illinois for basic training, but he prayed with a chaplain to help with his feelings.



Dan McKinney

The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly sixty-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Infractions and Consequences for POW's

Dan McKinney talks about infractions and consequences for prisoners in his POW camp. He describes the cages that they were sometimes held in. He also discusses his perceptions of North Korean POW camps versus Chinese POW camps.



Life After the Armistice Was Signed

Dan McKinney talks about life in the POW camp during months prior to and days after the Armistice were signed. He mentions that their treatment became better or worse based on the state of the negotiations. He talks about the prisoners' reactions to the news of the Armistice as well as how he and his comrades were transported to be exchanged nearly a month after the ceasefire went in place.



Daniel Carvalho

Dodging Mines

Daniel Carvalho describes the spotlight on the water. He remembers having to use bamboo sticks to poke mines away from the LST. He discusses moving from Wonson to Buson.



Daniel J. Rickert

Dangerous Times

Daniel Rickert talks about several times he was in danger while serving as a demolition corporal in Korea. He talks about suffering a concussion and a severe leg injury. He also mentions that because of his attached status, though deserving, he was not written up for a Purple Heart.



Operation Nomad

Daniel Rickert talks about his role in Operation Nomad. This was the last major UN offensive of the war. He describes in detail the demolition of a railroad tunnel near Kunsan.



Daniel Kawaiaea

I'm a Squad Leader Now

Daniel Kawaiaea speaks of the challenges he faced as a squad leader who was provided with very little training to prepare him for commanding others. He discusses the mindset many felt in having to take a human life to save his own. He concludes with a brief account of being wounded in the jaw while serving in Korea.



Daniel M. Lopez

A Strange Sound in the Night

Daniel M. Lopez recounts a dangerous experience on guard duty. He remembers hearing a sound and waking his fellow soldiers and sergeant. He recalls that North Koreans attacked them shortly after. He shares the aftermath of the battle, putting the dead on stretchers and trucks, was the worst moment of his touring career in the Korean War.



Strung to a Barbed Wire Fence

Daniel M. Lopez shares a memory of an American sergeant being captured by North Koreans. He recalls the sergeant being hit and strung to barbed wire. He remembers a captain calling in a Marine plane to destroy the body and remembers watching the scene unfold. He adds that memories like that stay with a person, but he expresses that he is not sorry he joined and is proud to have served.



Bridge Over Barbed Wire

Daniel M. Lopez details capturing an enemy soldier. He explains that the North Koreans would make a man-bridge over the barbed wire separating American and enemy troops in an effort to attack. He recounts capturing an enemy soldier scratched up from the barbed wire and requesting an interpreter to translate. He shares that the enemy soldier escaped and ran towards the South. He also adds that the interpreter ended up joining the U.S. Marine Corps.



Darold Galloway

Mission of the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about the ongoing mission of the USS Fletcher during the ship's involvement in the Korean War. He describes drawing fire from enemy artillery and heading out to sea to rendezvous with naval ships that had greater artillery range.



David Carpenter

Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



Modo Island

David Carpenter lost four Marines who were taken as POW's off the coast of Wonsan. He stayed on Korea's islands until peace talks began in 1953. He recalls going on leave to Japan to get some rest and relaxation (R & R) before he returned to England.



David Espinoza

Becoming a Paratrooper

David Espinoza describes how he trained to become a paratrooper before he was deployed to Korea. He explains that the training was very hard and lots of heart. He recalls the importance of not looking down when making a jump and how to handle a parachute properly. He describes the first time he jumped out of an airplane for training to qualify for Paratrooper wings.



On the Front Lines

David Espinoza recounts being attacked by North Korean and Chinese forces. He recalls carrying five-gallon cans of water on his back while digging trenches. He describes sustaining mortar and sniper fire by night during patrols. He recalls hearing the loud bugles sounded by Chinese soldiers during an enemy attack.



David Heine

First Impressions of Incheon Harbor

David Heine describes the early morning sight of Incheon Harbor and the feelings he experienced that stayed with him during his time in Korea. As a young man, he remembers being very scared because he didn't know what to expect. He describes how they disembarked the ships and were then sent off to their units.



Dangers at the DMZ

David Heine faced many dangers while stationed near the DMZ, including one night when he worked to restore communication lines that had been cut every 20-30 feet. He describes the anxiety he faced not knowing what he might encounter.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez shares his mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so he would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them being rather tall. He believes the prisoner was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but he tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge and First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. He was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Valley

Unprepared for War

David Valley talks about his lack of preparation for war as a 19-year old. He describes seeing the bodies of dead soldiers and being taken under the wing of a WWII veteran.



David White

Life as a Platoon Leader

David White talks about his duties as Platoon Leader. His responsibilities included setting up ambushes and relieving his men and the conditions under which they operated. Most of these operations were against the North Koreans and took place at night.



Danger from Mortar Fire

David White talks about the frequent danger of enemy mortar fire. A lot of soldiers would get scared and try to run. However, they would get hit and it was better to lie low to the ground to avoid it.



A Close Call from an Enemy Mortar

David White tells a story about an incident when he and his sergeant's position was hit by a partially exploded enemy mortar shell. Both he and the his sergeant were not injured. In surprise, they laughed after the situation.



Delbert Ray Houlette

Massacre in a Korean Village

Delbert Ray Houlette recollects here on some of his toughest moments while serving in Korea. He describes the disconnect between the Marine Corps with the Army and ROK soldiers. He also details having to build a causeway over a river in the middle of fighting. Lastly, he remembers witnessing a village after it had experienced a massacre.



Delcio Rivera Rosario

Injured at the Battle of Jackson Hill

Delcio Rivera Rosario received the Purple Heart for injury suffered during the Battle of Jackson Heights. He recalls the enemy throwing hand grenades in his vicinity which resulted in his injury. He describes despite being wounded in his heel running downhill to escape the enemy advance. He notes that while he still suffers pain from this injury, he does not regret his service.



Delmer Davis

Searching for the Chinese

Delmer Davis talks about the raiders' mission near Wonsan. He describes moving far forward of the front lines in search of enemy forces, eventually locating 10,000 Chinese troops.



Demetrios Arvanitis

I Thought I Would Not Survive

Demetrios Arvanitis recounts the battle in which he thought he would not survive. He describes receiving a communication detailing a Chinese attack on the hill in which he was positioned in the Iron Triangle. After being bombarded by the Chinese artillery, he remembers the American artillery successfully pushing the Chinese back.



Danger Remained Before Our Eyes

Demetrios Arvanitis discusses his near death experience shortly before the ceasefire went into effect. He describes how the Chinese seemed focused on removing his unit from their location north of the 38th parallel. During the night before the ceasefire, he remembers shells detonating and cutting down all of the trees surrounding his trench. He reveals how the chaplain held a mass the following morning at the location in which he escaped death.



Denis John Earp

The Moment of Capture

Denis John Earp explains the moment when he was captured. He shares that up to that point, he had never been hit. He recalls how his plane was hit three times and describes the emergency procedures he took as his plane lost altitude.



"Lenient Policy"

Denis John Earp remembers that, upon capture, he was interrogated by Chinese soldiers. Knowing his rights under the Geneva Convention, he shares he knew his rights under the Geneva Convention and explains how he refused to answer some questions. He recalls how he was quickly informed by the Chinese about their “lenient policy” and soon was placed in a scary situation that was meant to force him to change his mind.



Park's Palace

Denis John Earp describes the conditions at Park’s Palace, a Prisoner of War (POW) camp in North Korea. He describes a cruel game they would play for the guards’ entertainment. He explains the interrogation tactics, including waterboarding, that were used to gather information.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

War is Hell, Winter is Worse

Desmond Vinten describes spending twenty-seven days in an English military prison. His charge was "firing on the Queen's enemy without the Queen's permission." His sentence reflected the reality that sometimes shooting at the Chinese created more danger due to the Chinese soldiers' skill at firing mortars in retaliation. Besides the challenges of engaging the enemy, the heat, cold, and dust left him with the understanding that "war is hell, but winter is even worse."



Dick Lien

A Turk on a Mission and Losing Friends

Dick Lien describes meeting a Turkish soldier and shares that the soldier was dedicated to collecting an enemy's head every night. He recounts that the Turkish soldier would come back with the decapitated head and place it on a stake in front of his pup tent. He adds his thoughts on losing comrades while serving and states that the losses increased his anger.



Domingo B. Febre Pellicier

Danger on the Front Lines

Domingo Febre Pellicier describes his experiences on the front lines. He shares that they would often be on patrol watching for the Chinese troops. During the attacks on the hills, there would often be mortar flying around. He recounts a mishap he had with a hand grenade that almost cost him his life.



Lack of Water for Hygiene

Domingo Febre Pellicier explains how scarce water was on the front lines. He explains that they were only able to shower once per month and how brushing one's teeth was a luxury. While some of the hills had a water pipe, using it often meant making oneself a target for the Chinese who were watching.



Domingo Morales Calderon

Wounded in Action / Herido en Batalla

Domingo Morales Calderon details the events which took place during the Battle of Hill 427. He remembers how his friend, who was much stronger, died during the battle while saving his life. He recalls his rage at Chinese forces and shares the fact that he wanted to kill every one of them himself to avenge his friend’s death.

Domingo Morales Calderón detalla los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla del Cerro 427. Recuerda cómo su amigo, que era mucho más fuerte, murió durante la batalla después que le salvo la vida. Cuenta de su ira contra las fuerzas chinas y comparte el hecho de que quería matar a todos ellos él mismo para vengar la muerte de su amigo.



Not a Pacific Ocean / Un Océano que no es Pacífico

Domingo Morales Calderon describes his journey to Korea. He jokes about the fact that there is nothing pacific about the ocean as most of those on board the MacArthur Ship got sick on their thirty-day voyage due to the rough seas. He explains that his seasickness debilitated him to the point where he had to be hospitalized for ten days in Japan. He recalls understanding the devastation of war when he finally arrived in Korea in April.

Domingo Morales Calderón describe su viaje a Corea. Bromea sobre el hecho de que no hay nada pacífico en el océano, ya que la mayoría de los que estaban a bordo del barco MacArthur se enfermaron durante su viaje de treinta días debido a las olas. Explica que se enfermó tanto que tuvo que ser hospitalizado durante diez días en Japón. Recuerda como entendió la realidad de la guerra cuando finalmente llegó a Corea en abril.



Don McCarty

Fear on the Front Lines That Led to PTSD

Don McCarty was afraid every minute that he was in Korea. Even after the Korean War ended, North Koreans continued to surrender to the Marines by crossing the 38th parallel. Don McCarty feels that he has a better understanding of life once he fought in the Korean War because there were so many Marines that lost their lives. Every night at 2 am, he wakes up with nightmares from his time at war. PTSD is a disease that Don McCarty is still living with 60 years after the Korean War ended.



Don R. Childers

Arriving in Korea

Don R. Childers recalls his journey to Japan and Korea by ship, where some of the men suffered from severe seasickness. After landing in Korea, his company was loaded onto trucks and taken to a small, remote town called Wonju. There, they set up camp in a dry river bed and were immediately told to "dig in." It was only later, when someone yelled "incoming mail" - referring to enemy artillery shells - that he realized the importance of this command. He was then assigned to the Weapons Company and the Eighty-one Mortar Patrol, starting as an ammunition carrier and eventually volunteering to be a forward observer, responsible for identifying target locations.



Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Donald Arthur Summers

Nuclear Weapon Tests

Donald Arthur Summers shares how, on March 1, 1954, he was involved in Operation Castle, a series of nuclear weapon tests. He notes that although they were twenty-seven miles away from the blast site, the explosion brilliantly lit the sky just before daybreak. He recalls the crew thoroughly washing the ship from the bow to the stern to rid it of any radiation contamination.



Donald C. Hay

Engaging North Korea

Donald C. Hay describes engaging the North Korean military. The Royal Marines would land, go ashore, and engage the North Koreans. He describes the New Zealand Navy providing cover to Royal Marines. He recollects on one occasion when the Royal Marines took two North Koreans prisoners. He explains the HMNZS Rotoiti often moved fairly close to the shore to provide support including one occasion where he felt uncomfortably close to the enemy.



Action on the Han

Donald C. Hay describes his service aboard the HMNZS Rotoiti. The ship completed three missions up the Han River attacking enemy positions. He recalls one occasion when an Australian ship patrolled further up the Han River. This ship was attacked and received substantial damage. Donald Hay recollects seeing dead bodies floating down river on many occasions.



Donald Clark

Basic Training in Hawaii

Donald Clark describes his naive expectations of basic training in Hawaii. He and two other young men that he had just met had thought that the colorful posters on the wall in the recruiting office were signs of what to expect. Unfortunately, shortly after arriving at basic training, he realized he was in "fourteen weeks of hell." He quickly learned that he would be going to Korea.



Life as a Radio Operator During the War

Donald Clark describes what it was like to serve as a Radio Operator during the war. He explains what members were on the team and what it was like in the radio truck. He mentions the only moments of combat they experienced while they were set up next to a river and the bridge was bombed- they quickly moved to a new location!



Cold Winters as a Radio Operator

Donald Clark describes the cold winters in Korea. He explains that the men would fight over who would get to serve the midnight shift because the radio truck was much warmer than their tent thanks to the BC10 transmitter and other equipment. He recalls a time in Seoul when they had to cut cardboard boxes to cover the holes in the tent and block the cold winds.



Donald Dempster

Why the Forgotten War?

Donald Dempster believes that since the Korean War was after WWII, the American public had enough of war. He further feels that the Korean War has been forgotten by the public because it was not reported by US media as much as other wars. He acknowledges that recruitment was not as large during the Korean War as it was during WWII.



Donald Duquette

Typical Day as a Combat Photographer

Donald Duquette talks about what life was like as a combat photographer in the Korean War. He explains that most photographers were looking for action shots, but they took pictures of everything that was going on. He remembers that some shots were dangerous.



Donald H. Jones

"To Hell with the Wire, Let's Move!"

Donald Jones tells the story of his group's reaction to being strafed by enemy planes when laying communications wire and subsequent encounter with a new Lieutenant during their escape.



Both Heels Shot Off

Donald Jones describes a specific night battle when the heels of both of his boots were shot off yet he was uninjured.



Donald J. Zoeller

Adventures at the Battalion

Donald Zoeller describes some interesting events that happened while he was stationed near Chuncheon. He describes walking into a minefield with his commander and their duties while in camp. He also remembers an airplane trip he took over enemy territory.



Donald Lassere

Hill 907

Donald Lassere describes his first real encounter with the enemy in the Battle of Hill 907. He recounts the struggle to climb the hill and how they were almost wiped out. He remembers the will of the North Koreans as they fought to the death for their country and how he knew they were weakening when he encountered young children behind the weapons.



Conquering Communism and Personal Fear

Donald Lassere shares his personal fear in going to war for a country and a people he did not know. He describes the pride he felt while helping to halt the spread of communism for these very people.



Donald Lynch

Injuries and Difficult Experiences

Donald Lynch talks about being injured twice. He recalls going on a patrol one day on Hill 812 and the lead man stepping on a "Bouncing Betty" release-type booby trap. He recounts how all eight to ten men were hit by pellets. He shares how a pellet hit his thigh and came out about 50 years later when he was messing with it. He notes another injury which entailed a bayonet. He recalls of his war experience occurring in the Punchbowl region, close to the 38th parallel. He references witnessing all of the wounded men leaving the frontlines when he first arrived as his most difficult experience in Korea. He also recalls assisting the sewing of wounds.



Donald Peppard

Taken Prisoner

Donald Peppard recalls North Koreans boarding the USS Pueblo, navigating it to shore, and docking at a pier in Wonsan. He details how he and fellow crew members were taken as prisoners, tied, blind folded, and separated from each other. He shares that half of the crew was loaded onto a train while the other half, including himself, was taken by bus to a building where he experienced multiple beatings by a crowd of people. He describes being reunited with fellow crew members on the train previously specified and comments on the ride to Pyongyang.



Surviving North Korea

Donald Peppard describes how he and his fellow crew members spent their days as prisoners in North Korea. He recalls having to entertain themselves for eleven months through card games, exercise, and reading and writing. He shares that he and others endured what they referred to as "Hell Week" where they were beaten for forty-eight hours straight before they were released.



Donald R. Bennett

We Were in Big Trouble

Donald Bennett begins this portion of his account of the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir with his unit's departure to headquarters. Along the way, he remembers seeing burning trucks and witnessing American and Chinese units shooting at each other. He recalls their encounter with the Chinese who eventually knocked the track off of the first tank and then shortly thereafter surrounded the American trucks and tanks, including his. He details the night being very cold and dark. His tank was hit by something, which he later would discover was an anti-tank weapon that knocked off his 50-caliber machine gun. He shares the damage that was done to his tank and the destruction of another tank.



Last One Up the Mountain, Last One Down

Donald Bennett recounts living conditions while they were in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He shares a detailed account of a close encounter between the Chinese and his tank. He recalls the challenge of driving the tanks back down the mountain after the snow had been packed down into the ice. He remembers that his tank was the last tank down. He shares how those that remained in his unit were taken by boat back to Busan and were reformed at an airstrip where they conducted foot patrols before fighting their way up the center of Korea across the 38th Parallel in support of the 1st Marine Regiment.



Donald Schneider (Part 1/2)

The Challenges of Letter Writing

Donald Schneider colorfully describes not only the challenges of writing letters from the front lines, but also the dangers faced by the soldiers whose job it was to deliver the incoming mail. He remembers having to use his helmet to write on while having to use pencils because the pens were frozen. He said that while it was difficult to write, everyone looked forward to the mail that they received.



The Moon during Patrols

Donald Schneider explains the effect that a full moon can have on foot patrols, and how memories of those patrols still influence him today. He associates that moon with the night patrols that became very dangerous since the enemy could see them. He said that always meant "someone was not coming back."



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Transitioning Back to Civilian Life

Donald Schneider's challenges in the early 1950s didn't end when he returned to Wisconsin. In this clip, he describes his personal struggles returning to life as a civilian and to the workforce after having been gone for two years. He had been guaranteed his job when he returned, but this caused a woman to become resentful towards him. After a while, he said that he just learned to not talk about it and “clammed up”



Combat Nightmares

Donald Schneider shares his experiences of what combat soldiers often deal with when trying to transition back to life as a civilian. He describes vivid nightmares which often made him not want to go to sleep. He explains how he worked a lot to avoid having to sleep and experience those vivid nightmares, and how he has made other adjustments to avoid potentials triggers.



Donald Stemper

Importance of Topography: Life or Death

Don Stemper pulls out a map and uses it to explain the importance of topography. These skills proved that the tiny details could mean the difference between life and death, winning, or losing the war effort. He says accuracy is so importance during war.



Donald Urich

Learning About the Armistice

Donald Urich recalls being in Korea when the Armistice was signed. He felt relieved and believe the Armistice was a good thing because there would be no more fighting or killing. He remembers thinking that nobody told the North Koreans about the Armistice because they were sending shells over the DMZ when he traveled up there with a supply truck.



Doris B. Porpiglia

The Women Just Sat There and Wouldn't Shoot

During her time in basic training, the women GIs were given the opportunity to practice shooting weapons. They were actually given a choice in the event that at any given time they were told they had to shoot their weapon, they should be ready. Doris Porpiglia said she wanted to be prepared, but most women just sat there and didn't attempt to try shooting at all, but Doris Porpiglia didn't understand their reasoning.



Doug Mitchell

Captured North Korean Soldier

Doug Mitchell and some men in his unit that were in their foxholes spotted a North Korean solider who was coming down the road towards them. Rather than shooting him, the soldier held up his hands in the air. The North Korean soldier surrendered to the US Army, and the men behind the lines took him back.



First experience with death

Doug Mitchell recalls a night where it was difficult to see, especially since there wasn't any light and the sites had glass installed in them which made it very hard to see through. While on duty as a machine gunner, he noticed a tank that was coming around a turn and they halted to tell them who it was or they'd shoot. It turned out that it was a lieutenant that walked up to present himself before they moved the tank any further. As they were standing on the deck, Doug Mitchell heard a mortar going off and he was able to get to safety, but the lieutenant was blown apart.



3 Dreadful Components of the Korean War

Doug Mitchell described 3 things that he hated about war: Patrol at night, crawling on the front line to knock out machine guns, and dreaming about the stress soldiers felt. He said it was scary when the guys behind you were firing at a machine gun while you were told to crawl close enough to throw a grenade at the machine gun while hoping a riflemen wasn't there to shoot you. Bayonets were another dreadful memory from the Korean War and Doug Mitchell said that no one needs to go through fighting against bayonets.



Dwight Owen

Landing in Korea

Dwight Owen describes landing on the beaches of Wolmido, near Inchon. He mentions the artillery used and his mission once he landed on the beach. He states that it was the worst night of his life and remembers questioning what he had gotten himself into.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Ed Donahue

On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed M. Dozier

Operation Mouse Trap: Dog Company Used as Bait

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951. He notes that his company, Dog Company, was used as bait to lure the enemy to a mountain near the front line. He recalls the Chinese coming across the valley and being met by a squadron of American Black Widow aircraft. He explains how a few of the Chinese were able to drop in between Dog Company and the tanks in their rear as well as the fighting which ensued.



Operation Mousetrap: The Loss of a Friend

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951. He notes that Dog Company was to follow the assault on a hill after Fox Company, but when Fox Company was hit so badly his company became the first ones up the hill. He recalls how, in the end, there were only three of the twelve men in his squad that survived the attack. He shares the struggles to come to terms with the loss of a friend during this operation and how closure came through connecting with this soldier's widow years later.



Wounded by a Mortar Shell

Ed M. Dozier recalls his experience of being wounded by a mortar shell while on patrol along a rice paddy on April 10, 1951. He describes how he suffered shrapnel wounds to his shoulder and near his jugular vein. This resulted in an evacuation by helicopter, despite his own disagreement, to "Easy Med" (E Med) near Chuncheon.



Struggles but No Regrets

Ed M. Dozier candidly shares the struggles that he and many Korean War Veterans faced following their service. He speaks about his struggles with PTSD after the war and discusses his thoughts about today's soldiers. Despite the challenges since returning home, he claims he has no regrets.



Eddie Reyes Piña

A Change to Trench and Outpost Warfare

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls receiving training with heavy mortars in Hokkaido, Japan, and moving to Incheon and then on to the area of Pork Chop Hill. He notes that by the time he arrived, fighting had transitioned to more trench and outpost warfare. He offers insight into the differences between outposts and listening posts.



"If You Do Not Know the Unknown Then You Are Going to Be Fearful"

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls how he returned from Korea while still a teenager. He reflects on the importance of learning about the Korean War and the country itself. He believes that by learning about the unknown we can eliminate much of the fear in the world.



Edgar Green

Shipped to Korea

Edgar Green describes the feeling of nervousness he and fellow soldiers experienced boarding the HMS Unicorn in Hong Kong destined for Korea. He shares that having World War II veterans among the crew was helpful as they offered advice. He recounts having to line up with other fellow soldiers along the flight deck and endure a round of injections prior to arriving in Korea.



Edgar Tufts

Most Fearful Time in Korea

Edgar Tufts describes his most fearful memories in Korea when the advanced party he was in was heavily shelled by the Chinese Army,



Edith Pavlischek

44th Mash Unit Korea

Edith Pavlischek discusses her role as an Army nurse. She talks about the MASH triage unit that was created to perform neurosurgical procedures on the front lines of the war. Edith Pavlischeck worked diligently every day to help the wounded soldiers and witnessed some devastating events during the War.



Edmund Reel

Food in the Prison Camp

Edmund Reel describes the food that he and other prisoners received from their Chinese captors during his thirty-four months as a POW. He recalls eating soybeans, cracked corn, sorghum, and millet. He shares that they were fed two meals a day and provides an example of the ration size.



Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Captured by Chinese

Edmund Reel explains the circumstances that led to his capture and imprisonment for thirty-four months. He recalls there being roughly five thousand enemy soldiers advancing towards him. He shares that he had no choice but to surrender.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

First Bayonet Fight / Primera Batalla de Bayoneta

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro recounts one of the most fearful nights in Korea. Lieutenant Vasquez never allowed his soldiers to use sleeping bags, but because soldiers were tired and cold, many of them disregarded this order. One night, North Koreans infiltrated a Colombian platoon and killed twenty soldiers while they slept. Two Colombian platoons surrounded those North Korans and were forced to draw their bayonets to fight them. It was his first bayonet offensive, and he was amazed at the fear that the bayonets evoked in the North Koreans. Through their actions, they were able to save fifty percent of the platoon that was attacked.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro relata una de las noches más temibles que paso en Corea. El teniente Vásquez nunca permitió que sus soldados usaran sacos de dormir, pero como los soldados estaban cansados y tenían mucho frío, desobedecieron la orden. Una noche, los norcoreanos infiltraron un pelotón colombiano mientras dormían y mataron a veinte soldados. Dos pelotones colombianos rodearon al enemigo y usaron sus bayonetas para combatirlos. Fue su primera ofensiva de bayoneta y él estaba asombrado al miedo que las bayonetas provocaban en los norcoreanos. A través de sus acciones, pudieron salvar el cincuenta por ciento del pelotón que fue atacado.



Most Honorable Mission / Misión más Honorable

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro was asked to participate in what he recalls as the most honorable mission, which, was the rescue of two deceased Colombian soldiers. They were all dressed in while camouflage as Korea was blanketed by eighty centimeters of snow. They crawled for hours in the middle of the night and utilized hand signals and mine detectors to remain undetected by enemy forces. The mission took the majority of the night, and they successfully returned to their base by five in the morning.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro participo en lo que recuerda como la misión más honrosa, que fue el rescate de dos cuerpos de soldados colombianos. Todos estaban vestidos con ropa de camuflaje blanca porque Corea estaba cubierta con ochenta centímetros de nieve. Se arrastraron horas durante el medio de la noche y utilizaron señales manuales y detectores de minas para no ser detectados por las fuerzas enemigas. La misión tomó la mayor parte de la noche y regresaron con éxito a su base a las cinco de la mañana.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Flashbacks and Nightmares

Eduardo Sanchez is describing the loss of men when they were seeking for mines. The mine seekers actually hit a mine and members of the navy who were on the three boats lost their lives. For years after the explosion, he continued to have flashbacks and nightmares of the event. This event is forever in his memory and has impacted his life overall.



My Happiest Moments

Eduardo Sanchez remembers his happiest moments in the war came from meeting the other men who were from his home town. They called their little reunion the Mexican Village. However, it was a sad moment when they realized who would no longer be returning to the village due to the war ending. Veterans returning home found it hard to find occupations.



Edward A. Gallant

First Weapons Monitory System

Edward Gallant was assigned as a weapons monitoring repairman on a MSQ 28 System (Fort Bliss, TX). This 40 foot computer could provide 6000 miles of microwave radar which was 2 times the distance of the United States. Edward Gallant said they could see all the way to Russia. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Edward Gallant said that the Russians who had pulled their weapons out of Cuba, gave the WMD to China, and the Chinese sold it to North Korea which is why they have access to the materials they claim they have. They gave 3 of these Weapons Systems to Germany, 2 Korea, and Edward Gallant operated one that sent over 256 missiles towards their target (mission led by Howard Hughes).



Military Service, a Family Affair

Edward Gallant followed the military tradition in his family. Some of his brothers fought in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. One of his brothers was a POW that was killed in action during the Korean War and is buried in Hawaii.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Edward C. Sheffield

Surrounded by the North Koreans

Edward Sheffield describes the events leading to his capture by the North Koreans. He recalls receiving incoming fire and being surrounded roughly fifty miles outside of Seoul. He comments on the poor treatment he endured as a POW.



Bayonets and Belts

Edward Sheffield describes the physical treatment he endured from his North Korean captors. He shares that he was stabbed with a bayonet as well as kicked when he was first taken prisoner. He recalls thinking they might kill him due to possessing a belt he had taken as a souvenir.



Introduction to the Tiger

Edward Sheffield identifies one of the camps where he was held prisoner for the first year and a half as Camp Seven. He describes meeting the "Tiger", the enemy police force commanding officer who later began the forced death march he would survive. He recalls the "Tiger" ordering the murder of all men in the sick bay prior to the march.



The Death March

Edward Sheffield shares memories of the death march he and fellow POWs experienced. He describes the machine guns set up to potentially kill him and the turn of events following the pleas made by missionaries within the group. He recalls the punishment for being the last man in line during the death march.



Edward Langevin

Hawk Missile

Edward Langevin learned how to repair Hawk (Homing All the Way to Killer) missiles which are semi-active radar surface to air missiles. He spent 40 weeks in Huntsville, Alabama for basic training. While in Korea, he did repairs on the missiles near the DMZ.



DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



Edward Mastronardi

Edward Mastronardi's Arrival at Pusan

Edward Mastronardi recalled the heavy pollution, dark clouds, and high noise level upon his arrival at Pusan. Young boys were at the dock being mistreated by their boss as their ship was unloading close to nightfall. They would later move to northeast of Pusan and would anchor next to a burial ground believed to be full of prisoners.



We Were Alone and the Chinese Were Everywhere

Edward Mastronardi described the scene at hill 464 and 467 as two humps on a camel. They lacked communication due to the terrain (mountains), no air support, and overcast caused artillery to shoot without knowing directly what it was going to hit since the visibility was so bad. Edward Mastronardi brought Colonel up to witness several hundred Chinese only yards away, so the Colonel wanted to take out his 9 mm to attack the several hundred Chinese himself! They decided that attempting to attack the Chinese was too much, but they did it anyway and didn't succeed in taking Hill 464.



The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



"Let's Go You Bastards, You Can't Live Forever!"

Within 100+ yards of their objective to attack the Chinese at Hilltop 187 near Samich'on River, Edward Mastronardi described how close the shells were from the tops of their heads, but it didn't stop their advancements since the shrapnel flew forward not putting them in any immediate danger. Edward Mastronardi held his 9 mm gun in his hand and waived it in the air shouting to his men, "Let's go you bastards, you can't live forever!" Bravely charging ahead, breaking the Chinese hold without losing a single man, Edward Mastronardi fought the Chinese at Hill 187.



"Canada boy, tonight you die!"

Before the Battle of Song-gok Spur, a Chinese Company Commander walked straight up to the front line and leaned over and said, "Canada boy, tonight you die!" To which Edward Mastronardi replied, "Come and get us you SOB!" which was documented in the Canadian documentary 28 Heroes. They located the company Commander in Beijing after the war to interview about this event. The battle resulted in only 6 Canadian deaths.



Edward R. Valle

Frightened During Guard Duty

Edward Valle expresses his surprise when he was directed to take guard duty while serving in Korea. He shares he thought this duty was left up to the Army. He recalls the fear he experienced when he encountered ROK soldiers patrolling the same perimeter.



Arriving in Korea

Edward Valle notes he arrived in Korea in June 1954. He recalls the chaplain taking photos to send home to families to reassure them their soldier had arrived and that he would keep them safe. He describes the transport from Japan to Korea by plane and hearing rumors of planes being shot down en route.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



The Battle at Pyongyang

During the Battle at Pyongyang, Edward Redmond, his battalion had their first casualties. Everyone became very determined to fight. He believed that the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) and the Americans were not well-trained.



Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edwin Durán González

A Difficult Night / Una Noche Peligrosa

Edwin Durán González describes an attack in which North Korean and Chinese troops advanced on their trenches. He and another soldier did not hear the command to retreat from their observation post and were forced to hide while they heard footsteps above them. He recounts the fear he felt that night.

Edwin Durán González describe un ataque en el que las tropas norcoreanas y chinas avanzaron sobre sus trincheras. Él y otro soldado no oyeron la orden de retirarse de su puesto de observación y se vieron obligados a esconderse. Ellos oían los pasos del enemigo por encima de ellos. Cuenta del miedo que sintió esa noche.



First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Edwin Durán González details his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival in the winter of 1951. He was most shocked by the cold he encountered. Furthermore, he explains that he could not understand how a country could divide itself in the way Korea did. He still remembers the fear he felt upon arriving and the relief that followed periods of rest and relaxation.

Edwin Durán González relata detalles sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea a su llegada en el invierno de 1951. Lo que más le impactó fue el frío que encontró. Además, explica que no podía entender cómo un país podía dividirse en dos como lo hizo Corea. Todavía recuerda el miedo que sintió al llegar y el alivio durante los períodos de descanso y relajación.



Edwin Maunakea, Jr.

Rescue at Nakdonggang River

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes his rescue of a Captain during fighting at the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about carrying the wounded soldier across the Nakdonggang River. He discusses what happened when he found medical help.



Crash and Burn

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes an incident when a US Navy plane crashed nearby his location. He explains his attempt to rescue the downed pilot. During the rescue attempt, he explains how he was burned by a napalm bomb that exploded on the downed plane.



Edwin R. Hanson

Incheon Landing, September 15, 1950

Edwin Hanson remembers his boat was supposed to land around 5:00 PM as the 3rd wave, Boat 5, on Blue Beach at high tide. They were delayed when the tracks on the LST was lost resulting in them encircling the area before they could land. He recalls approaching shore in an Amtrack and slogged their way through mud in his last remaining clean pair of Dungarees. Once they made it to shore down the road, they climbed a hill and three Soviet T-34 tanks coming right towards them. The US forces hit the gas tanks located in the back of the tank, watching them blow up right in front of him.



Experiences During the Wonsan Landing

After the Seoul recapture, the men were now at the Wonsan Landing where they were sent to secure a pass that North Koreans were using to get away. The North Koreans had barricaded the road and began to open fire on US troops. Edwin Hanson described how over 93 North Koreans were killed and seven US troops were killed including Sergeant Beard from his regiment.



You're the Guy that Saved My Life

Edwin Hanson recalls his first encounter with Chinese at Kor-'o-ri. Edwin Hanson threw four grenades and two went off, so the following morning he went down and picked up the 2 that didn't go off and threw the remaining grenades at their front lines. Ralph Alfonso Gastelum vividly details the chaos breaking out one evening while he was eating as the Chinese moved near his tent. He remembers grenades going off and it proves to be decades later that he finds out the Hanson saved his life.



First Shots at the Chinese at Chosin Reservoir

Edwin Hansen describes an occasion when a Chinese soldier played dead near an American campfire. He recollects US troops were heating C-rations by the campfire when noticed about 15-20 yards away, the enemy had lifted up off the frozen ground and began firing upon the US servicemen. Hanson shot and killed the Chinese soldier attacking his regiment. He and Ralph Gastelum recall the immediate impact of killing the enemy and its long-term effects.



Edwin Vargas

Fighting for a KATUSA

Edwin Vargas shares that while he was company commander, he took it upon himself to advocate for his KATUSA when the KATUSA accidentally hit a South Korean soldier with a vehicle. He explains that the soldier was not hurt, but the KATUSA was on the brink of being arrested until he spoke to the commanding officer for the South Korean Regiment. He shares that after the incident, he became very good friends with this commanding officer.



Elbert H. Collins

Injured in the Line of Duty

Along the front lines at the Nakdong Perimeter, North Koreans were charging the Americans and came as close as 20 yards away. Elbert Collins was actually shot with a ricochet bullet in his bottom. He explains what it was like on the front lines.



Living Conditions

Elbert Collins explains that they had to eat C-rations and smoke cigarettes from World War II. He describes the foxholes in which they slept, including the one in which he dug that flooded out. He admits that he was scared to death during this time and questioned why he was there.



Incheon Landing

In preparation for the Inchon Landing, Elbert Collins had to stay in a warehouse during a typhoon that came through the area. He remembers all of the preparation that they were given. He describes the instructions that they were given for the landing, but explains that he was so scared that he did not follow the directions.



Elburn Duffy

My Life was on the Line

Elburn Duffy recalls several incidents from his involvement in the Battle of Chail-li where lives were in peril. He explains that as a soldier they never caught enough sleep. He offers details on the daily lives of soldiers serving in Korea.



Eleanor Newton

Earthquakes and PTSD

Eleanor Newton describes the responsibilities of responding to civilian accidents while on base at Edwards Air Force Base. This included responding to help after an earthquake in Tehachapi, California. She also explains the importance of treating patients with PTSD and assuring them they were safe.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Scars From the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis suffered many injures during the Korean War. A grenade went off right by his face and he experienced pain and scaring to his right cheek. A military artillery shell blew up right by him and he almost lost his right leg and arm.



Ellsworth Peterson

72 Days on the Front Line

Ellsworth Peterson talks about the difficulties of being on the front line without rest for 72 straight days. He describes the fear and experience of falling under the attack of heavy shelling. He elaborates on his unit suffering many casualties during these attacks.



Alone on a Chinese Outpost Raid

Ellsworth Peterson talks about a mission in which he and others in his unit raided a Chinese Outpost. In the skirmish, he describes finding himself separated from the other members of his party. Surrounded by Chinese soldiers, he laid down and pretended to be dead before making his way back behind friendly lines.



Epifanio Rodriguez Nunez

Tense Moments / Momentos Tensos

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describes a difficult moment during the war in which he and his captain were attacked by the enemy. He recounts that they were ambushed from behind thereby pinning them to their location. He recalls how they were supported by American airplanes but were forced to jump from their jeep and landed in a septic hole.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describe un momento difícil durante la guerra en la cual él y su capitán fueron atacados por el enemigo. Él cuenta que fueron atacados por atrás, fijándolos así en su ubicación. Fueron apoyados por aviones estadounidenses, pero se vieron obligados a saltar de su jeep y cayeron en un pozo séptico.



Ernest J. Berry

Skating Over Dead People

Ernest J. Berry describes traveling by truck from Busan to the Han River. He recalls the unsettling realization that people were paid and encouraged to kill him. Upon arrival, he and his unit found Canadians skating on the frozen river, so the new arrivals joined them. Beneath the ice, he saw the faces of dead soldiers and people peering up at him.



"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



"I Wanted to Make a Difference."

Ernest J. Berry was deeply moved by his aunt's medical care before she died. He chose nursing to make a difference in people's lives. When the Korean War broke out, though afraid, he enlisted in the army and sailed for Korea.



Ernesto Sanchez

Attacked by 135,000 Soldiers

Ernesto Sanchez describes the night 135,000 Chinese soldiers attacked in an effort to push back UN Forces . The Chinese pushed the United Nations forces back, but with the help of the American Soldiers they were able to hold off the Chinese and no land was ultimately lost. This location was a strategic position because it was a gateway to Seoul.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discusses the most difficult moments of the war and the fear he felt during dangerous missions. He details the Battle of the El Chamizo Hill in which they were under fire for over twenty-four hours and slowly advanced to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops. Furthermore, he remembers the dangers he faced during night patrols and advanced observation missions.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discute los momentos más difíciles de la guerra y el miedo que sintió durante las misiones más peligrosas. Detalla la Batalla del Cerro El Chamizo en la que estuvieron bajo fuego durante más de veinticuatro horas y eventualmente avanzaron para reconquistar el cerro de las tropas chinas. Además, recuerda los peligros que enfrentó durante las patrullas nocturnas y las misiones de observación avanzada.



Ethel Julia Archibald

Incident During Rest and Relaxation Leave

Ethel Archibald recalls a memorable experience while on leave with a colleague. She shares they were intercepted by Japanese soldiers who kept them under guard at a hotel for almost the entire week of their leave. She reflects on the fear she felt amid the situation and recalls sleeping with a camera tripod under her pillow just incase. The remembers how they were eventually released by the Japanese soldiers, and she admits she did not tell anyone about the incident because she did not want the incident publicized.



Eugene Buckley

Dog Tags Saved Eugene Buckley

Refusing to surrender while trapped in a ravine, Eugene Buckley and another soldier (O'Donnell) were climbing out of the ravine when they noticed a soldier who had been shot in the neck. Trying to save his life, Eugene Buckley was shot once in the shoulder and another shot went through his dog tags under his arm. He was lying on the ground trying to help another soldier who wouldn't make it out alive.



Returning to the Front Line: Casualties and Hunger

The interviewer asked what happened to the rest of the platoon that was left behind, and Eugene Buckley replied that everyone had been massacred except for himself, O'Donnell, and another soldier. Eugene Buckley had dysentery at the time and he got back so the infirmary gave him a lollipop shaped pill that he consumed to help with the problem. He said when he went into the war, he was 165 pounds, but when he was taken for his wounds, he was only 95 pounds, practically a skeleton.



Eugene Evers

Shot Down in a RB-29 Over North Korea

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being shot down. He explains flying over North Korea during his reconnaissance mission. He describes the Russian MiG that ultimately took him out of the sky.



Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



You Are Going to Die

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being questioned by Chinese soldiers during his time a POW. He explains how a fellow soldier saved his life by telling them that he was an "ABC agent". He describes the feeling associated with being told you are going to die.



Details of Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult daily living conditions of being a prisoner of war. He explains what it was like during a seven month period (July 1952-January 1953) as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



28 Hours to Mukden

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses his arduous and physically challenging journey while be transferred to a POW camp in Mukden (presently Shenyang), China.



This Particularly Mean Guard...

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions and one particularly mean guard he encountered during his seven month stay in Mukden Prison (China) as a Prisoner of War.



On Trial as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being put on trial while being held at Mukden Prison (Manchuria) and his sentence of death by hard labor in the mines.



Eugene Ferris

Crash Landing

Eugene Ferris shares an experience while in NewFoundland in which he lost a friend during a dangerous landing. He describes the placement of the runway and how planes were forced to rely on the tower during periods of extreme fog. On one particularly foggy night, he remembers his plane successfully landing and the tower instructing another plane that it was coming in too low. He recalls the pilot ignoring the instructions from the tower and the underside of the plane being ripped off during the landing.



Eugene Gregory

Experiencing Fear

Eugene Gregory shares that he experienced fear while serving in Korea. He recounts his amphibious landing as the time he was most fearful due to having never been in combat and being unsure of whether the enemy would be there to counter the landing. He shares that as he became more experienced and more combat aware, the fear diminished but never went away.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Eusebio Santiago

Defense of Democracy

Eusebio Santiago describes the loss of fellow Puerto Rican soldiers who were there to help a country under attack. Sadly, he shares of never knowing what happened to these men. He reflects on his choice to re-enlist in order to continue the defense of democracy. He elaborates on the division of Korea by the United Nations after World War II and emphasizes his wish for the two Koreas to be a free and unified country again.



Everett G. Dewitt

Scary Moments

Everett G. Dewitt describes being in combat. He explains a particular incident when his unit was caught up in a fire-fight. The Air force cleared the way for them but they suffered many losses. He goes on to describe another incident that occurred several months later that involved being shelled by mortars.



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



All Marines Were Headed to Korea

Ezra Frank Williams stated that he should have put his duty station as Korea because that's where the US military was sending all their Marines. Everyone laughed at him when he asked where the enemy was while in basic training in 1951. They told him that he'll really get a good look at them while he's in Korea.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Discrimination in the Army / Discriminación en las Fuerzas Armadas

Felipe Aponte-Colon faced discrimination in the army. He noticed that American and Puerto Rican troops were treated differently. This discrimination was most evident during the Battle of Kelly Hill in which casualties were overwhelmingly Puerto Rican. Orders were given for Puerto Ricans only to take the hill and he refused to go with his men because he did not want forty-one more casualties. He recalls that there were two colonels but after an investigation, neither was blamed for the mistakes which led to the deaths of over six hundred Puerto Ricans.

Felipe Aponte-Colón sufrió de discriminación en el ejército. Se dio cuenta de que las tropas estadounidenses y puertorriqueñas eran tratadas de maneras diferente. Esta discriminación fue más evidente durante la Batalla de Kelly Hill en la cual que la mayoría de las bajas fueron puertorriqueñas. Se dieron órdenes para que los puertorriqueños solo tomaran el cerro Kelly. El se negó a ir con sus hombres porque no quería cuarenta y una bajas más. Recuerda que había dos coroneles, pero después de una investigación, ninguno fue culpado por los errores que resultaron en la muerte de más de seiscientos puertorriqueños.



Felipe Cruz

Induction into the U.S. Marine Corps

Felipe Cruz reminisces about his enlistment into the United States military in 1951. He recalls a sergeant from the United States Marine Corps advising him to relax and enjoy some coffee and cookies as he waited for his induction into the U.S. Naval Service which he initially believed meant joining the U.S. Navy. He recounts how, later, when he returned to the waiting area and helped himself to more cookies, he was reprimanded by the same Marine Corps sergeant who exclaimed, "From now on you don't move unless you're told." He highlights the strong bond among U.S. Marines and how he attends reunions for the amphibian tractor battalion he served in.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Most Impactful Moments / Momentos Más Impactantes

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares the moments which were most difficult during the war. He explains that while fighting in the North, he ran out of ammunition and felt unprepared for the weather. Moreover, he explains the importance of his job finding sounds from the enemy.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que mientras luchaba en el norte, se quedó sin municiones y no tenía la ropa necesaria para el clima. Además, explica la importancia de su trabajo encontrando sonidos del enemigo.



Fermín Miranda Valle

The Battle of Pork Chop Hill / La Batalla de Pork Chop Hill

Fermín Miranda Valle was assigned to an American unit, as opposed to the Puerto Rican 65th Infantry, and fought during the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He explains that his mission was to move artillery to the top of the hill in a tank. He provides a compelling narrative of the battle and the dangers he faced.

Fermín Miranda Valle fue asignado a una unidad estadounidense, porque habían desbandado la Infantería 65 que era puertorriqueña, y luchó durante la Batalla de Pork Chop Hill. Explica que su misión era llevar la artillería a la cima de la colina en un tanque. El provee la historia de la batalla y de los peligros que enfrentó.



Fidel Diaz

A Scary Place

Fidel Diaz describes how scary it was his first few nights in Korea after the Inchon Landing. He said that seeing the other soldiers that had been captured as an effective form of psychological warfare. He explains how close the North Koreans got to his foxhole.



Land Mine Injury

Fidel Diaz was traveling on foot with his South Korean partner through a field when they went under attack by the North Koreans. Both his South Korean partner and Field Diaz were injured from a land mine. He recalls getting treatment and the people and Bible that saved his life.



Only Seventeen

As a seventeen year old boy, Fidel Diaz says that he really didn’t have any other experiences to draw upon and was really unsure of what he was doing. He describes what happened as the unit headed down to Taegu. He shares a story of what happened to a woman that was pushing a wagon.



Floyd Hanamann

They Called It C-17

Floyd Hanamann describes his experience working with psychiatric patients in the military hospital. He explains the symptoms he would see when soldiers would come back from the Korean War. In addition, he explains that there would be some soldiers who could only be furnished with a mattress as they would destroy the furniture if provided.



Electroshock and Aversion Therapy

Floyd Hanamann describes the treatments Korean War veterans would receive for their mental health issues at Fitzsimmons Army Hospital. He explains watching soldiers undergoing ECT treatments and how high they would rise from the table when shocked. He also describes the therapy for alcoholics who were poisoned to vomit and expel liquids to encourage aversion to the substance.



Searching Pockets for Knives and Forks

Floyd Hanamann describes mealtime in the military mental hospital. He explains searching through pockets of soldiers who thought they could use utensils as weapons against enemies. He also describes the fights that would break out between soldiers during meals. He recalls the granting of discharge for some soldiers based on improvement.



Frances M. Liberty

Remembering an Incident on the Train

Frances Liberty recalls an incident where the fireman and stoker on the train ran away when they saw Chinese Soldiers on a nearby hill. She admits she thought she was going to die, but a soldier was able to drive the train back to Pusan. She discusses another experience that occurred while serving in a medical facility. She remembers everyone pulling out overnight and being left behind with a young captain. She recounts they were discovered by U.S. Marines that helped them evacuate.



Francis John Ezzo

War Made Me a Better Person

Francis Ezzo says the war made him a better person because he saw what happened during war. He explains that he heard about Word War II, but experiencing war helped him understand what war was like. He shares that the experience helped him appreciate life more.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

Difficult Moments during War - Momentos difíciles durante la guerra

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the first battle he encountered and the trench warfare in which his battalion supported American troops. He remembers patrolling the hills and thinking about how little experience he and his fellow Colombian soldiers had prior to arriving in the north. In order to engage the enemy into battle, they had to cross a narrow ridge as there were landmines surrounding the area and dead Chinese soldiers on the barbed wire. He describes the mortar attacks which were near his platoon they endured and the heroism of his fellow soldiers as they endured a day long battle. He recalls one of his soldiers, while bleeding heavily, asking the rest of his company to leave, but they refused.

Francisco Caicedo Montua describe la primera batalla que enfrentó y la guerra de trincheras en la que su batallón apoyó a las tropas estadounidenses. Recuerda que tenían que patrullar los cerros y en esos momentos Francisco pensaba en la poca experiencia que él y sus compañeros colombianos tenían antes de llegar al norte. Para enfrentar al enemigo en la batalla, tuvieron que cruzar una cresta en la cual habían minas por toda la área y soldados chinos muertos en el alambre de púas. Describe los ataques de mortero que cayeron cerca de su pelotón y el heroísmo de sus compañeros mientras pelearon una batalla que duró un día. Uno de sus soldados, mientras sangraba mucho, le pidió al resto de su compañía que se fueran, pero ellos no estaban dispuestos a dejarlo solo.



Frank Abasciano

The Chosin Reservoir

Frank Abasciano describes how it felt to be in the Chosin Reservoir alongside a WWII Battle of the Bulge veteran. He remembers being trapped there for several nights and that the WWII veteran said their situation in Korea was worse than his prior experience in WWII. He explains how they "didn't even have a chance to be afraid."



Frank E. Butler

Gratitude

Frank E. Butler describes going ashore in Seoul while serving in the New Zealand Navy. He remembers seeing millions of people in Seoul and describes it as being very busy. He reminisces about his later return visits. He appreciated the gratitude the South Korean people showed him upon return.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

Most difficult time in Korean War

When asked about the most difficult moment of his service, Frank Cohee says that it was when the Chinese came in. He remembers having to drive down icy mountains and getting separated. He states that they were shot at during this time, but fortunately, didn’t’ get hurt.



Frank Seaman

Driving Over a Landmine

Frank Seaman describes a dangerous, night, service run to tanks on the Main Line of Resistance (MLR). He recalls riding in the passenger seat on a truck carrying 200-250 rounds of 90 millimeter ammunition along with 50 and 30 caliber machine gun ammunition when a sudden explosion took place. He remembers a flash and flying through the windshield as his truck had hit a landmine.



Dangerous Moment and Living Conditions

Frank Seaman shares one of his most dangerous moments while serving and recalls his basic living conditions. He recounts a particular service run to deliver fuel to a platoon of tanks where mortar rounds came in before his departure. Unscathed, he remembers dealing with flat tires on his truck on his return back to base. He also provides insight to his living conditions, describing pup tents and larger tents which could provide shelter for 4 to 5 men.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. He remembers one of his friends drowning while clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. He notes another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. He shares the horrific conditions that the soldiers endured in the "Frozen Chosin".



Franklin O. Gillreath

Surrender and Difference Between Chinese and North Korean Treatment

Franklin Gillreath describes the events leading up to surrendering and the difference between Chinese and North Korean treatment. He explains that the North Koreans were harsh and would hit any soldier who could not understand their directions in Korean. He compares this example to the Chinese approach which involved finding a translator rather than hitting a soldier who could not understand directions.



Traitors in the POW Camp

Franklin Gillreath shares memories of traitors among fellow soldiers in the POW camp. He explains that not being able to confide in some of his own countrymen weighed heavily on him mentally. He recounts fellow soldiers snitching on other soldiers in hopes of receiving more food and better treatment. He recalls one soldier in particular snitching to receive a lapel pin and adds that he suffered for his actions on the way home from Korea.



Fred Liberman

"A Shocking Experience"

Fred Liberman describes a "shocking experience" that he had while in Korea. He recalls having to raid a village and forcefully remove civilians, including the elderly and children. He explains how he wrote a letter home to his brother about it. This is an experience that still bothers him today.



Fred Liddell

The capture of Fred Liddell: POW

Fred Liddell was captured by the Chinese in May 1951 at Hill 151 (Jirisan Mountain). His regiment was supposed to hold this hill until the US artillery saturated the hill. As Fred Liddell went down a slope around rocks, he met up with the Marines that were milling around near multiple vehicles on fire. The Chinese surrounded the US soldiers even as Fred Liddell was killing some of them in the bushes. Injured US soldiers were burned to death in a hut while over 300 POWs were forced to march to a cave and then onto Camp Suan.



Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



Korea Revisit Program in 1986: The Evolution of Korea

Fred Liddell could not believe that evolution of South Korea in 1986 when he revisited through the Korea Revisit Program. He remembered Seoul train station completely in ruins along with all the buildings, but when he saw it rebuilt, it was a miracle. When he visited the Suan cultural center, Fred Liddell was able to share all of the changes that he saw from 1951 to 1986 including straw huts to homes and women plowing fields to mechanization. Fred Liddell was invited to visit the hut where the peace treaty was signed, but he felt extremely nervous because it was so close to North Korea.



Fred Ragusa

"I'll Tell You What You Can Do with Those Poles"

Fred Ragusa recalls an incident when his troop was under intensive fire, coming from both sides. When they lost communication, one of his peers grabbed a spool of wire and ran up a hill to reconnect communication, risking his life. While this sergeant survived, he was reprimanded for disrespect until the superiors realized how important his act was.



"We Were Glad to be Alive"

Fred Ragusa recalls one of his scariest experiences in Korea. In a mission to try to bring jets into the area, the smoke round burst into two because the density of it was not correct. As he was running toward that unit, the smoke rose as the jets were coming in with napalm. Fortunately, the jets did not fully come in and the troops were just glad to be alive.



Galip Fethi Okay

Korean War Experience

Galip Fethi Okay describes his Korean War experience. He was stationed at three different fronts during the war (Vegas, Elco and Berlin). He was also at Sand Bag Castle. Galip Fethi Okay also describes his injury from shrapnel that hospitalized him for two months. For his service, he earned many medals.



In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



Garry Hashimoto

Experiences on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto talks about his experiences on the front lines. He was originally a rifleman, but because he was more experienced than most after only three months out there, he became a forward observer. He shares how he had to stay one hundred feet ahead of his platoon and keep a lookout for ambushes. He reflects on the dangers he faced, including facing machine gun fire. He remembers being bombarded with artillery shells all the time, especially from the Chinese.



Chinese Soldiers and PTSD

Garry Hashimoto discusses his perspectives on Chinese soldiers. He remembers Chinese soldiers being crazy. He shares how they were often high, and that they would find drugs on them. He believes they took drugs so they would stay awake and fight all the time. He comments on his sleep schedule and shares that he suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He reflects on how one of his replacements was killed soon after taking his post.



Gene Stone

Dangerous First Night on the Front Lines

Gene Stones recalls a dangerous situation the first night he was on the front lines with the 1st Marine Division. He details one of his tent mates returning from the outhouse to alert everyone the Chinese were coming over the concertina wire fence into their camp. He remembers not really recognizing the danger while the event was occurring but later realizing the enemy had shot at him.



George Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Son's Death

George Brown recounts learning of his brother Arthur L. Brown initially being classified as Missing in Action on July 7, 1950. He shares that Arthur was serving in Korea as part of the 21st Regiment, 24th Division, Company K where when he was not actively carrying out his duty as an infantryman. He recalls how the family later learned he was being held as a Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. He recounts learning how Arthur died on his twenty-first birthday in January 1951 and that some of the returning soldiers told his family Arthur had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



Regrets of Hearing About Their Son's Death

George Brown recalls his parents were hit very hard by the news of their son Arthur Leroy Brown's death. He recalls his mom was pregnant with their first daughter and all were excited with the news. He remembers how Arthur eagerly shared the news with his fellow soldiers. He recounts how before Arthur left for boot camp, he and his father got into a scuffle because his father did not want him to quit school to join the Army.



The Burial of a POW

George Brown shares he was only six years old at the time his family was notified of his brother Arthur's death in POW Camp 5 in North Korea. He states that Arthur was temporarily buried in North Korea in a shallow grave due to the ground being frozen solid. He explains that the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency lists Arthur as unaccounted for and shares that Arthur is memorialized on the Courts of the Missing at the National Cemetery of the Pacific.



George Dixon

Death Soon After Arrival

George Dixon was sent two miles into North Korea after landing in Incheon in February 1952. His squad leader kept a close watch on him since he did not have infantry training; George Dixon was shot in the helmet during this time, but his protective squad leader was killed right next time. Shortly after this, George Dixon explains how he captured the first POW for his regiment



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George J. Bruzgis

Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



George P. Wolf

Flying in the Berlin Airlift

George Wolf was a pilot in the Air Force during the Berlin Airlift after WWII. He provided food, but mostly coal to the people living in West Berlin during the Russian blockade. He flew the same path that the famous, Gail Halvorsen, flew during the 11-month blockade.



Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf was a "Mosquito" pilot who flew reconnaissance missions in support of Army infantry. These missions took him very low to the ground. Tanks would hide under foliage and shoot at his plane from the ground.



Scouting Troop Movement During the Battle of Jipyeongri

George Wolf was a Mosquito pilot during the Korean War who located enemy troops and directed fighters during the Battle of Jipyeongri. During the February 1951, he helped provide information from the air to help lead the UN troops to victory. This was a tough battle against the Chinese troops near the village of Chipyong-ni, present time Jipyeong-ri.



The Role of a Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf's role during the Korean War was that he was a Mosquito pilot that provided reconnaissance for UN nations. The Chinese wore dark green uniforms and he only flew 100 feet off the ground. Both the North Koreans and Chinese would hid really well with their camouflage uniforms.



Nobody Believed Us

George Wolf encountered Chinese troops early in the war while performing reconnaissance as a Mosquito pilot in February 1951. He reported many times about Chinese presence, but he felt they were ignored. In late October through early November 1951, George Wolf saw thousands of Chinese cross the Cheonggyecheon River, so he reported this information to the US intelligence officers, but they did not believe that the Chinese were fighting in the Korean War.



George Staples

Service in Korea

George Staples describes is role in the Korean War. He shares how he piloted a Huey B-35 and transported wounded soldiers from the front lines to MASH. He describes how the enemy shot through the helicopter and hit him in the abdomen and leg. He recounts how the helicopter could not make it back to base. He shares he was able to return to U.S. controlled land north of Incheon, though, and was taken to MASH.



Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He recalls he was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. He notes he is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. He shares that, above all, the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



Nightmares of War

George Staples describes the horrors of combat. He details how these events have haunted him, seeing the wounded men. He shares that the events of flying into the frontline and saving men show up in his dreams--images he cannot forget. He describes these events as PTSD.



George W. Liebenstein

Thought I Would Be Drafted

George "Bill" Liebenstein served as part of the 1st Field Artillery Observation Battalion of the 8th Army Division in Korea from April 1953 through July 1954. He recounts the fear of being drafted in part because he was not ready to leave home. He was drafted into the U.S. Army and offers an accounting of the days leading up to his deployment to Korea. He notes that upon arrival in Korea he "pulled" guard duty the very first evening. He recalls the fear of being in a strange country where he did not really know what was going on.



George Warfield

A Troop Ship Hits a Cyclone

George Warfield did not know anything about Korea before he went over. When traveling on a troop ship with 1,500 soldiers, they hit a cyclone that tossed the ship all over the ocean which made men throw up all over. Luckily, George Warfield did not get sick during any of his travels in the military.



Destruction on Christmas Eve

George Warfield landed in Korea on December 24, 1950 and had Christmas Eve dinner on the ship before he was dropped off at Inchon harbor. He counted 17 tanks that went out to battle from Inchon, but only 1 came back the next morning after fighting. George Warfield passed through Euijeongbu one night and saw the terrible conditions for civilians, but he did not stay in any location longer than a day.



Experiences Working With the Turkish Troops

George Warfield worked with the Turkish Army and they were tough. The Turkish Army even practiced hand-to-hand combat with their own troops to stay battle-ready. George Warfield said that he would fight with them against an enemy at any time.



Georgios Margaritis

Witnessing Devastation

George Margaritis reflects on his first days in Korea as he traveled from Busan to Cheorwon. He recalls seeing fires on the outskirts of Seoul and absolute disaster in most places they traveled through. He shares is concern for the Korean people and their futures.

Note: English translations of answers begin at 12:12, 13:34, and 15:04



Battle for Outpost Harry

George Margaritis vividly recalls the events of the attack on Outpost Harry, which he references as Hill Harry in June of 1953. He explains his unit was sent to replace the American forces on the hill after devastating fighting. He shares his memories of the brutal fighting that went on at the hill.

Note: English Translation begins at 29:49



Brutal Fighting on Harry Hill (Outpost Harry)

George Margaritis offers vivid details of the devastating fighting at Outpost Harry (Harry Hill). He recalls death and brutal fighting. He concludes by sharing the happiness felt when the armistice was reached.

Note: English Translation begins at 39:36



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Battle of the Hook 1953

Gerry Farmer describes the Battle of the Hook and how he was wounded. He says the Hook was action from the start compared to Hill 159. He recalls there being four or five solders in the bunker which connected to trenches and other bunkers. He adds there were different types of patrols.



Wounded

Gerry Farmer describes being wounded at the Hook after he volunteered to drive a jeep to Area 3. He remembers he was blown forty yards from the jeep, and adds he still has injuries and shrapnel in his back. He recalls being transported to a Norwegian MASH and then to Seoul where he underwent three operations.



Gerald Edward Ballow

The Training Changed Completely

Gerald Ballow knew at the beginning of July 1950 that US troops were going to enter Korea after North Koreans invaded South Korea, so training started to change. Even though he volunteered to go, Gerald Ballow was asked to stay behind at GHQ to assist. He shares how it felt to find out that his friend was killed in combat.



Jubilation after Inchon Landing

Gerald Ballow remembered the jubilation that took place after the successful Inchon Landing took place. He also felt that General MacArthur was doing a fantastic job during the Korean War and that it was Generals George Marshal and Omar Bradley's jealousy that flushed General MacArthur out of the Korean War.



Crossing the Yalu River

Gerald Ballow expresses his opinions about what he considers an “intelligence disaster” at the Yalu River. He believes that the officers knew that the Chinese were amassing across the river before they got there. He explains how the US was completely outnumbered by the Chinese and there were not any additional troops to send up there to help fight the Chinese.



GHQ 1st Raider Company

Gerald Ballow describes the book he wrote about the GHQ 1st Raider Company that was made up of the soldiers in General MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. He explains that soldiers fought through the Chosin Reservoir and they helped with the Inchon landing too. He describes their roles and what they achieved during the Korean War.



Gerald Harbach

Moment of First Combat

Gerald Harbach describes his first real moment of combat and how the weather impeded their efforts. He describes how water filling the trenches from heavy rains and then a sudden and drastic drop in temperatures made for a very difficult maneuver. He recalls they had yet to receive winter clothing and were sleeping standing up to avoid frostbite, though many did suffer from it. He remembers relieving the company on duty and shaking hands with one fellow only for him to fall dead minutes later from incoming shells.



Just Keep Running

Gerald Harbach describes scenes of intense battles that he witnessed at Outpost Harry and Pork Chop Hill, as well as the Battle of White Horse. He recalls moments where all he knew to do was to try and keep running. He vividly remembers the sound of the bullets as they whizzed past his head.



Gerald Land

Bayonet Checks "Across His Neck"

Gerald Land admitted he had never heard of Korea before he was sent and he described his Marine friend, Bill Carroll, of Fox Company, who Gerald Land thought had been wiped out at the "Frozen Chosin." Bill Carroll managed to survive after being shot by laying on the ground pretending to be dead during "bayonet checks". His friend recalled the bayonet sliding across his neck, but he survived and woke up on the hospital ship even though he wanted to go back with his Company. A soldiers' best advice was, "don't get captured!"



Live or Come Home In A Box

Gerald Land described how long the journey was from California to Japan which was a total of 14 days. When he arrived in Yokohama, Japan, they were picking up more soldiers to take to Korea and he stumbled upon an old high school friend (yelling down from the top of the ship to the deck). They had some time to talk about why he was in Japan, and his friend said he had gone AWOL while in the Air Force because of a girl he wanted to be with in Japan, but was located and brought to trial. He was given a choice: go to Fort Leavenworth to serve a 4-year sentence or be sent to Korea with the 40th Division. "Live and your record is wiped clean or come home in a box."



Gerald Land's First Encounter with North Koreans

Gerald Land described how his Company Commander and his Sergeant were at an Outpost at Kumwha Valley for 3 days for 3 nights with no sleep. They barricaded themselves with barbed wire and hung C-ration containers so if anything hit the wire, it would make a sound, and the men knew where to shoot. Gerald Land spoke often of rats crawling around touching the C-rations, but it did alert him when the North Koreans were near.



War Is Hell: My First Kill

Gerald Land recalled when he was shot by North Koreans for the first time, and how terrible he felt knowing that he was tearing the enemy to pieces with his gun. As a Methodist, he carried a prayer book around and prayed for guidance/forgiveness for his time in the war. He also hoped and prayed that he would make it home safe to his family.



Released POWs Had a Blank Stare In Their Eyes

Panmunjom was the site of disembarkation at the time when Gerald Land left in September of 1953. He came across American soldiers who had been held as Prisoners of War. Gerald Land was overcome by sadness when he saw how sick the POWs looked. They just stared into space and this made Gerald Land reflect how lucky he was to come out alive. He couldn't imagine the type of torture those men had been put through.



Gerald Spandorf

Friend or Foe?

Gerald Spandorf's ship traveled the world including 16 countries while in the Navy. One time during a bad storm, he was allowed to de-board in England to protect himself. When his ship went to the Netherlands, Gerald Spandorf's ship was left in port because the native people didn't like Americans due to the bombing that they did during WWII.



Traveling with the Navy

Gerald Spandorf loved when his ship was in port because the sailors were able to walk around different countries. In Germany, the Germans asked him his name and they loved him because he had a strong German name. Gerald Spandorf told them that the Germans didn't like his family because his parents and grandparents are jews.



Concerns About North Korea Today

Gerald Spandorf felt mad at North Korea because they are test bombing different areas around Korea. He's afraid that their bombing will start another war and he doesn't want anything bad to happen to the Korean people. Since he's been out of the Navy, Gerald Spandorf has been learning more about the Korean people and they have all been so sweet to him.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Shooting Chinese from Hidden Vantage Points

Germaye Tesfaye was a heavy machine gunner for the Third Battalion. While manning the front lines, he and his battalion hid under heavy cover to avoid being discovered and killed. Using heavy weaponry to shoot the enemy from a distance, he and his fellow Ethiopians killed numerous Chinese. At one point he was shot in heavy fighting.



Gilbert Hauffels

Death of a Hero on White Horse Hill

Gilbert Hauffels and the Luxembourg Platoon fought at White Horse Hill. They took position six hundred meters in front of the trenches, merely 400 meters from North Korean artillery. During the barrage, Luxembourgian Sergeant Robert Mores rushed in to save soldiers whose bunkers had collapsed on them. Sergeant Mores was one of two soldiers from Luxembourg killed in the Korean War.



Gilberto Diaz Velazco

Most Difficult Night of the War / La Noche Más Difícil de la Guerra

Gilberto Diaz Velazco explains why the Battle of Old Baldy was the most difficult fighting of the war. He recounts that the Chinese took advantage of the fact that Company A was being relieved by Company C and attacked UN troops in the midst of this confusion. The Chinese and North Koreans were relentless, and the fighting seemed never-ending. He and others would be relieved for a while and then were reintroduced to the battlefield. He recounts walking over dead fellow soldiers and the measures he had to take to find a fallen friend.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco explica qué la Batalla de Old Baldy fue la lucha más difícil de la guerra. Él cuenta que los chinos aprovecharon del hecho que la Compañía A estaba siendo relevada por la Compañía C y atacaron a las tropas en el medio de esa confusión. Los chinos y los norcoreanos sequian atacando toda la noche y la lucha parecía interminable. Lo relevaron a él y otros por un tiempo y luego serían reintroducidos a el campo de batalla. Cuenta haber caminado sobre compañeros muertos y las medidas que tuvo que tomar para encontrar a un amigo que había muerto.



Recovering the Fallen / Recuperando a los caídos

Gilberto Diaz Velazco recalls the difficulty of the fighting at Hill 180 and the carnage of war. He recounts that they suffered casualties during the fighting but were not allowed to leave the dead behind. As a follow up mission, he was a member of the operation to recover the dead. He explains that he felt like bait because the enemy was waiting for them to recover the fallen and fired at them injuring his lieutenant.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco recuerda la dificultad del combate en el Cerro 180 y la crueldad de la guerra. Cuenta que sufrieron bajas durante la batalla, pero no se podía dejar atrás a los muertos. Como segunda misión, él fue miembro de la operación para recuperar a los
cadáveres. Explica que se sintió como carnada porque el enemigo estaba esperando que recuperaran a los caídos y les dispararon hiriendo a su teniente.



Night Patrol / Patrulla Nocturna

Gilberto Díaz Velazco details his duties as a forward observer. He explains the measures he took to remain undetected. He additionally explains how they had to rely on all their senses to detect the location of the enemy.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco detalla sus funciones como observador avanzado. Explica las medidas que tomó para no ser detectado de noche. También explica cómo tuvieron que confiar en todos sus sentidos para detectar la ubicación del enemigo.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

Losing a Brother / La Pérdida de Un Hermano

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama remembers the painful events which resulted in the death of one of his best friends. He recounts how his friend was an amazing athlete and expert rifleman and because he was an excellent soldier, he was in the first line. He laments the way in which his friend and so many other young men died during that battle.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama recuerda la batalla que resulto en la muerte de uno de sus mejores amigos. Cuenta que su amigo era un atleta increíble y un fusilero experto y, como era un excelente soldado, estaba en la primera línea. Lamenta la forma en que murió su amigo y tantos otros muchachos jóvenes durante esa batalla.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama shares the most difficult moments of the war. He discusses an incident in which their platoon was in trouble as they were forced to fight Chinese troops into the night. He remembers that air reinforcements helped save them after the intense fighting.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Habla de un incidente en el que su pelotón estuvo en problemas al verse obligados a luchar contra las tropas chinas hasta la madrugada. El recuerda que los refuerzos aéreos ayudaron a salvarlos después de horas y horas de combate.



PTSD’s Impact on Family / El Impacto del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático

Anita Ortiz Arbona, Gilberto Rodríguez Orama’s wife, discloses the extent to which he suffered from PTSD. She discusses the way in which his violent nightmares have affected her. As a loving wife, she explains that she can now predict when he will have an episode and is able to wake him before his suffering continues.

Anita Ortiz Arbona, la esposa de Gilberto Rodríguez Orama, revela hasta qué punto el padecía trastorno de estrés postraumático. Ella cuenta de la forma en que las pesadillas violentas de su marido la afectaron. Ella explica que ahora puede predecir cuándo su esposo tendrá un episodio y entonces lo despierta antes de que continúe su sufrimiento.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes being a Medical Assistant. The Ethiopian soldiers did not have a doctor assigned to them. Instead, there were six medical assistants assigned per shamble (two hundred fifty men). He does have nightmares about the wounds he witnessed. Someone with their stomach "out" is terrifying.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes his Korean War experience. Men lived in bunkers. There was no hot food. Men did not sleep, due to constant attacks. Mortar shells would shake the ground at all hours. Soldiers showered every ten days because the Americans made them. Girma Mola Endeshaw still describes his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Gordon H. McIntyre

Life Near the Front

Gordon McIntyre transferred to an English unit due to the extensive loss of life in the English outfit. Near headquarters he noted a Canadian field hospital and rows of drums filled with napalm. Throughout his first night he was not afraid despite the explosions from incessant artillery fire. The next morning he left the truck to find an unexploded mortar shell that would have killed everyone at the post had it exploded.



Battle of Maryang-san

Gordon McIntyre describes five to six days of continuous fighting at the Battle of Maryang-san. He camped around eight hundred meters from the front lines. The second and third nights all soldiers stood ready to leave in the middle of the night if overrun. The Battle of Maryang-san featured combat between the Australian Army and the Chinese as the North Korean army had been decimated by that point. The danger did not scare him because he was too busy to think about it at the time.



Grace Ackerman

Speaking About War: A Healing Process

Grace Ackerman feels that the Korean War Legacy Foundation is important because it allows the veterans to speak about their experiences during the Korean War. Students and future generations will also be able to gain knowledge from the interviews. Experiences such as the cold weather, being away from family, and personal experiences endured during the Korean War.



PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Gregory Garcia

Jumping into Combat

Gregoy Garcia spent time in Pyongyang trying to stop the infiltration of Chinese and North Koreans in the fall/winter of 1950. He remembers his most dangerous moment was jumping into combat and landing while shooting. He explains that his griswold bag with his knives fell off due to their weight.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Earning the Bronze Star / Como se Gano la Estrella de Bronce

Guillermo Frau Rullan discusses one of the worst battles he experienced while in Korea. He explains that he was conducting a patrol in the area near Panmunjeom with brand new soldiers the day before he was to leave the war. He remembers that he did not want to go on the mission because he did not want to be killed a day before the end of his tour. He details the battle which ensued and resulted in his earning a Bronze Star for bravery.

Guillermo Frau Rullan habla de una de las peores batallas que vivió mientras presto su servicio en Corea. Explica que estaba realizando una patrulla en la zona cercana a Panmunjeom con soldados nuevos el día antes de irse de la guerra. Recuerda que no quería ir a esa misión porque no quería que lo mataran un día antes de irse. Él describe la batalla y lo que hizo el para que le dieran la Estrella de Bronce por su valentía.



Feelings About the Draft / Sentimientos Sobre el Servicio Obligatorio

Guillermo Frau Rullan shares his pride in being an American soldier and his beliefs about mandatory military service. He notes that he was an idealist when he was young and truly believed in the United Nations and its stance that an attack on one was an attack on all. In addition, he admits that he would have felt weak if he had failed the physical exam.

Guillermo Frau Rullán comparte su orgullo por ser un soldado estadounidense y sus creencias sobre el servicio militar obligatorio. Él indica que era un idealista cuando era joven y verdaderamente creía en las Naciones Unidas y su postura de que un ataque contra uno era un ataque contra todos. Además, admite que se habría sentido débil si no hubiera aprobado el examen físico.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Volunteering for the Greek Army and Bravery in his Heart

Haralambos Theodorakis entered the military in 1948 as an infantry soldier after 23 months of training. He found out about the breakout of the Korean War through the Army and he wanted to go there to fight without any fear. Even knowing that he could die didn't stop Haralambos Theodorakis from wanting to go over to Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harlan Nielsen

End of the War and Its Effects

Harlan Nielsen offers an account of his duties while in Korea following the signing of the armistice and his return home. His wife chimes in and explains his reaction of dropping to the floor anytime there was a loud noise after his return. She describes a story in which she hid and jumped out to scare him. He dropped to the floor and told her afterwards never to do it again.



Harold A. Hoelzer

All Hands on Deck!

Harold Hoelzer recalls arriving in Korea and being offered the opportunity to take his first shower since leaving the US. He recounts how his ordinary shower experience took an unexpected and hectic turn when an air-raid siren sent soldiers scrambling from the shower depot. He merrily recalls the mass of laughter that ensued after the shower had been evacuated and the half-naked troops looked up to see a single, dinky surveillance airplane putter past.



Harold Barber

Thanksgiving Day at War

Harold Barber describes a Thanksgiving Day that he spent during the Korean War. The soldiers were given a bowl of soup to eat, but they had to leave and return to patrolling their area and became completed surrounded by the enemy. Those who did return after the ambush, only returned to soup that was frozen solid.



Snowballs and Tootsie Rolls

Harold Barber is describing being shot in the leg and being transported to the hospital by a corpsman. The corpsman fed them snowballs and tootsie rolls as they journeyed sixteen miles. It took them eight days to traverse the dangerous terrain, but the injured soldiers ultimately reached the hospital.



Harold Beck

Atrocities in Seoul

Harold Beck’s first impression of Korea was that of “atrocity.” When he drove into Seoul, he remembers how the building were “all shot up” having changed hands three times. However, among the most atrocious memories was that of the bodies hanging off the bridge- new ones were placed there daily.



Harold Bill Christenson

The Loss of Friends

Harold Christenson describes moving towards the fronts lines, escorted by ROK soldiers, and the fear he felt hearing small arms fire and artillery and seeing the flashes associated with the weapon fire as his company pressed inland near the mountains. He shares that within the first two months of arrival, the friends he went to Korea with were gone. With sorrow, he recounts the loss of one friend when his company was overrun by the Chinese at Gibraltar and remembers the injuries another friend sustained from a landmine.



Harold Don

Seeing and Experiencing Battle

Harold Don shares that he was apprehensive about arriving to Korea. He recalls witnessing the destruction from prior battles upon landing in Incheon. He remembers how his unit experienced fire from North Korean tanks at Yeongdeungpo and observed the destruction at Seoul. His unit then boarded another ship and attempted a landing at Wonsan but was forced to wait due to mines needing to be cleared.



Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Harold Heckman

Terrified and misguided from the very first night

Harold Heckman remembers his first night on the front lines of Korea - a night that resulted in seven American causalities. Due to the ineptitude of a senior commanding officer, American soldiers on night patrol) ended up walking through a minefield which resulted in many unnecessary causalities. Harold Heckman never saw the commanding officer again.



Earning his Bronze Star

Harold Heckman talks about the mission that ended up earning him a Bronze Star. The assignment was to seek-and-capture a North Korean soldier for intelligence. He recalls how he led a mission team through the dark to captured and bring back a North Korean soldier from the North Korean front line - an effort that almost rewarded him with a Russian war-time trophy.



Decisions made, prices paid

Not every decision that Harold Heckman made during the war is one that he's proud of. He mournfully recalls how he was made to deal with an American soldier who defected during the onset of battle. A tough decision he can still remember clearly, and ultimately, effects him to this day.



Harold Huff

A Typical Day

Harold Huff discusses his workload in Japan. He recalls working on an old zero base, in the middle of a hydroponic farm. He shares that the farm was sending produce to the front lines in Korea. He recollects stories of Korea from soldiers who witnessed it firsthand, saying it was cold and dangerous.



Harold Yamauchi

Miracle On the Hill

Harold Yamauchi recounts his personal experience with religion after witnessing what he calls a miracle on the hill. He recalls the predicament he and fellow service personnel faced--pinned down by the enemy with no visual of a way out. He describes how an unexpected airstrike on both sides of the hill provided the cover needed for all seventeen of them to make it out alive.



Million Dollar Wound

Harold Yamauchi recalls the time he got a "million dollar wound", a term meaning he was lucky to be alive. He describes the ordeal of transporting to a medic facility and meeting other wounded along the way. He tells of the joy of discovering wounded fellow soldiers to be alive after thinking they had surely passed.



Harrison Lee

When war makes you leave a friend behind

Harrison Lee recalls a story that he never told anyone for a very long time - a story that follows him to this day. During the Battle of Taejon Harrison Lee and his best friend engaged a North Korean machine gun nest setting up along a dirt road. Upon realizing that the machine-gun nest had them outgunned he begs his friend to retreat with him... only to realize his friend was KIA.



"Baptism by Fire"

Every front line soldier has a "baptism by fire" story (i.e. first enemy contact story) and here Harrison Lee shares his. He remembers how a peaceful dining experience in Korea turned into his first moment of military combat. He can still remember the intense feeling of fear during those drawn-out moments many years ago.



Seeing the face of war

Within the first two nights in Korea, Harrison Lee witnessed the effect of war in a way that made what him and his comrades were getting into real danger. After retrieving a KIA soldier from the front lines the commanding officer at Harrison Lee's post made each soldier look at the body. It was then that Harrison Lee felt the full gravity of his situation in Korea.



Harry Burke

Incheon Landing

Harry Burke describes his first days in the orient. He shares how he was surprised with the odor and stench in Japan and Korea. He recalls the initial landing on Incheon happened on the 18th but that he arrived on the 21st to see the devastation that had taken place three days prior.



My Most Difficult Days

Harry Burke is describing how eight men were killed and twelve were wounded is his company. After experiencing this, he was sent back to Incheon and went around from the west side of Korea to the east side to Wonsan. He describes their days in the war.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Frostbitten and Wounded

Harry C. Graham talks about his experience during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes suffering frostbite and being shot through the shoulder while performing his duties as a Radio Operator. He was evacuated on a truck convoy, narrowly escaping the heavy fighting against the Chinese.



Escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Harry C. Graham talks about his escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes having to wait until dark to traverse a mountain by foot because of being stranded in trucks on the mountainside. He recounts how after hours of walking, he and seven fellow soldiers found themselves in a minefield before being rescued by United States Marines.



Training and the Inchon Landing

Harry C. Graham describes his arrival in Korea. He details the circumstances of training Republic of Korea (ROK) soldiers at Mt. Fuji, in Japan, before moving on to take part at the Inchon Landing in September of 1950. He describes his first impressions of Korea.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment, fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. He shares how most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below due to the quick retreat. He describes how he used six crates of two-inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, he recalls that Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



Harry Olson

Best War Our Country Was In

Harry Olson recalls the feeling of nervous trepidation, in fear of the memories that would return if he returned to Korea. He describes his final decision to make the trip back to Korea and the overwhelming appreciation the Korean people showed him for his service. He compares this experience to his experience returning home from the war and his service not being acknowledged.



Henk Bos

Pulling Himself Together

Henk Bos recalls the fears he experienced in Korea. He explains that the most frightening thing was facing the enormous Chinese bayonets and the man-to-man fighting that often occurred at night. He recollects his unit coming under major attack by the Chinese and seeing nearly everything covered in blood and flesh the following morning. He notes that the area was called "Stinky Hill" from that point on because of the decomposing bodies. He shares that these experiences led to nightmares and attempts to suppress these memories with alcohol. He adds, however, that one day he simply decided he needed to pull himself together.



Henri Socquet

Hard to Forget

When asked if he was still bothered by the scenes of death, Henri Socquet responds with “absolutely.” However, he recently was at meeting of Korean War veterans and met a man who had been injured by a grenade while in combat and Henri Socquet had helped save. He remembers the night that this happened as well as many other times since they are hard to forget.



Henry Kosters

The Most Difficult Times: Sweeping for Mines

Henry Kosters shares that the process of sweeping for mines and removing one from a river were the most memorable and scariest time he experienced during the war. He describes the process of sweeping for three different types of mines: contact, magnetic, and a type of mine that sensed the vibration of passing ships. He recounts the process of finding the mines and bringing them to the surface of the water.



Henry T. Alex

Building Bridges

Henry T. Alex describes the protocol for building bridges in the midst of war. He remembers the feeling of fear and how it would make him sick to go out on the front lines despite knowing what to do and how to do it. He recalls always having enough material due to the importance of being able to move the infantry along.



Henry T. Pooley

Shelling

Henry T Pooley describes when he was shelled in his bunk near Hill 355. The Chinese artillery attack left him dazed and two comrades wounded. Henry miraculously wasn't wounded.



Henry Winter

Replacement Duty

Henry Winter speaks about his arrival in Korea at Inchon. He was a replacement for injured soldiers and joined a new unit assigned to duty at Heartbreak Ridge.



Heartbreak Ridge

Henry Winter describes his first time in combat. He vividly recalls the shelling and the sound of a horn blaring as the enemy charged up the hill. They repelled the charge suffering 60 casualties during the course of the battle. Henry Winter recalls another instance of shelling when one brother found another dead.



Herbert Neale

Close Call on the Front Lines

Herbert Neale recounts a close call with incoming artillery fire on the front lines. He remembers waking up, lying over the artillery, from a concussion and hearing a friend call out that he had been hit. He details his friend's wound and the effort made to transport him safely to an evacuation site. He reflects on his friend's healing process after losing a lung and on how one never really recovers from the wounds of war.



How to Deal with the Memories

Herbert Neale discusses how he deals with the memories of war. He shares that he closes his mind to the visuals as dwelling on them, he insists, would drive one crazy. He admits that even after several decades since the war though, visuals of dead Chinese soldiers enter his dreams and, every now and then, wake him up in the middle of the night.



Herbert Schreiner

Reflection on Korean War Experience

Herbert Schreiner describes his role with Tell America and states that the number one question he receives from students centers on whether or not he was afraid while serving in Korea. He shares that he was and that fear was present amid the troops in combat areas. He also reflects on his experience and his gratefulness for the opportunity to serve in Korea as he feels it made him a better person.



Herbert Werner

Refugees During War

Herbert Werner became very emotional as he described being an 18 year old seeing war first hand. He said witnessing the wounded, being under fire, civilians fleeing, and children affected by war made him overcome with emotion. He never saw as much fear as he did while there and it still gets to him even today. Herbert Werner made an instant personal connection with the refugees during the Hamheung Evacuation since he was an orphaned child himself.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Herbert Yuttal

On The Frontlines

Herbert Yuttal talks about being on the front lines as a Forward Observer at an outpost near Kaesong. He explains that they fired a lot of artillery rounds, destroying a lot of the landscape at Old Baldy and Pork Chop Hill. He remembers seeing his friends dying during these battles.



Doing My Duty

Herbert Yuttal speaks about what he had to do in Korea and his pride in doing his duty because of the results. He explains that you have to display maturity and accept the situations as they come. He explains that while he wished he hadn't had to do it, his responsibilites included killing a lot of people. However, the progress of Korea speaks to why he had to do that.



Hiroshi Shima

I Wanted to Come Home Safe

Hiroshi Shima offers an account of a one-time visit to Seoul. He recalls the joy people felt with the signing of the armistice and his return home to Hawaii. He admits that one of the greatest difficulties soldiers faced was fear, especially because everyone wanted to come home. He explains that many saw buddies die, but that really they were not there long enough to have real buddies.



Homer Garrett

First Glimpse of the Korean People

Homer Garrett described the Korean people when he first arrived in Korea as hungry and begging for food/supplies. It was the worst the worst catastrophic area that he had ever seen and Korea really needed a lot of help to rebuild. Korea was still in ruins 12 years after the Korean War ended.



Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Captured Submarine & Firing at the UN Troops

Homer Garrett described encounters with North Korean agents during his service in Korea. His unit captured a 2-man operating submarine that was trapped on a sand bar which carried 4 North Korean agents. That same submarine is now located in the 2nd Infantry Division Museum. The other close call incident involved their Military Police Jeep and a lady who was standing in the road. She ran from the intersection when suddenly shots were fired piercing the radio in their jeep.



Homer M. Garza

Crossing the Han River

Homer M. Garza speaks about his unit crossing of the Han River in their push to force the enemy back north. He also speaks about losing men from his unit.



Homer W. Mundy

Enemy Attacks

Homer Mundy talks about what it was like being under enemy attack. He also talks about fighting the enemy during withdrawal and encirclement near Gotori. He also recounts his second major injury.



Hong Berm Hur

Korean War POW and the Simple Ways to Show Appreciation

Hong Berm Hur met Mr. English Model who was a POW (prisoner of war) during the Korean War. English Model was captured by the Chinese and was put into a camp for over a year. Thankfully, he escaped and made his way to Hawaii. This is where he shared his story with Hong Berm Hur. Hong Berm Hur not only likes to hear the stories of Korean War veterans, he also takes care of these veterans when he's not working so that he can properly show the veterans gratitude that they deserve for their service during the Korean War.



Horace Sappington

Half Dead or Captured

Horace Sappington describes his encounter with North Koreans and Russians a few miles outside of Osan. Ill-equipped and undermanned, he details the scene of a Major driving out in a jeep to meet and talk with the oncoming mass of North Korean and Russian troops. He shares that the enemy fired a cannon, blowing up the jeep and killing the major, continuing to advance upon their position. He adds that he was wounded during the fighting and was tended to by a medic who was killed shortly after during their retreat. He explains that over half of US soldiers there that day were either killed or captured.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Lee

Landing at Incheon

Howard Lee recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon landing at Incheon. He remembers the early morning journey on a Landing Ship Tank (LST) and walking in waist-deep water towards the shore where he saw a city on fire. He recounts dead bodies floating in the water and the fear he felt as he and his company made land and rallied at the assigned checkpoint.



Howard R. Hawk

Legacy of Korean Defense Veterans

Howard R. Hawk explains the role of the Korean Defense Veterans in Korea after the armistice. He recalls a strong desire by the Korean officers to reunite the country by attacking the North. He states they were always prepared for a potential attack by the North Koreans.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recounts the most dangerous moments of the war, which occurred near the 38th Parallel. He explains that some of the most difficult memories are those of witnessing fellow soldiers die under mortar fire. Additionally, he provides an account of the battle for Kumsong and the importance of regaining territory which was previously lost.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso relata los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra, que ocurrieron cerca del paralelo 38. Él explica que algunos de los recuerdos más difíciles son las memorias de cuando vio morir a sus compañeros cuando el batallón estaba bajo fuego de mortero. Además, ofrece un relato de la batalla por Kumsong y explica la importancia de recuperar el territorio que anteriormente se había perdido.



Letters from the Home Front / Cartas de la Familia

Hugo Monroy Moscoso shares the story of a mass card which was given to him by his mother. After more than sixty years, the writing is faded, but he shares that it said, “May God protect you and bring you back.” He explains that it was that card and his faith which allowed him to survive the war.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso comparte la historia de una imagen de Cristo que le mando su madre. Después de más de sesenta años, lo que estaba escrito se borró, pero el recuerda que decía “Que Dios lo proteja y te traiga.” Explica que da las gracias a esa carta y su fe en Dios que sobrevivió a la guerra.



Ibrahim Gulek

Sandbag Castle

Ibrahim Gulek describes the conditions at Sandbag Castle. War had stopped briefly due to a ceasefire, while negotiations were occurring. However, the Chinese attacked without warning. There was about two months of constant warfare in close combat. Ibrahim Gulek was a sniper and told to fire at a certain location where the enemy was located. At one point soldiers were told to consume alcohol in order to not feel death.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Sorrow of War

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes a sorrow for fighting in war. The Nevada Front was very fierce. He describes a sadness for fighting. Killing someone is very hard on a person's soul. Ibrahim Yalςinkaya lost many friends in Korea.



Iluminado Santiago

Nightmares

Iluminado Santiago reflects on the impact his service in Korea had on his life. Because of the experience of seeing wounded and traumatized soldiers, he highlights the mental struggles which plagued him for a long time. Often the names of some places escape him, yet he recalls his nightmarish experience on Kelly Hill. During this experience, he describes their withdrawal from the hill and a negative interaction with American troops as they retreated further down the hill.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Agony of the Wounded

Inga-Britt Jagland describes the anguish of the wounded soldiers. Men who were injured and lost limbs agonized over the future. Inga-Britt Jagland broke protocol and would comfort these men, reassuring them. Above all, Inga-Britt Jagland describes a nurse's role was not just care, but comfort.



Ismael Heredia Torres

First Days / Primeros Dias

Ismael Heredia Torres describes his arrival in Incheon and then Seoul. He explains that immediately after he arrived, he was assigned to an observation post and then to a listening post. It was during this second mission that he saw intense fighting which lasted over six hours. He was lucky to survive this attack as he was unable to move or communicate with the rest of the company.

Ismael Heredia Torres describe su llegada a Incheon y luego a Seúl. Explica que enseguida que llego al frente, lo asignaron a un puesto de observación y luego a un puesto de escucha. Fue durante esta segunda misión que vio intensos combates que duraron más de seis horas. Tuvo suerte de sobrevivir el ataque porque no podía moverse ni comunicarse con el resto de la compañía.



Saddest Battle / La Batalla Más Triste

Ismael Heredia Torres shares the story of his participation in the worst battle of the war. He explains that they were trying to climb Hill 223 when the Chinese intercepted their company and a battle ensued for over four hours. He, and others in the company, were saddened because Captain Lyman was killed in action that day.

Ismael Heredia Torres comparte la historia de la peor batalla de la guerra en el que el participo. Él explica que estaban tratando de escalar la colina 223 cuando los chinos interceptaron a su compañía y se produjo una batalla de más de cuatro horas. Él y otros en la compañía estaban tristes porque el Capitán Lyman murió en acción ese día.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Observation Post Attacked

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares memories of the fear he experienced while being in Korea during the war. He recounts being in a foxhole and an attack on his Observation Post (OP) occurring. He elaborates on how he defended his position with hand grenades.



J. Robert Lunney

The SS Meredith Victory Volunteers

J. Robert Lunney discusses the decision by Captain LaRue to volunteer his ship for the evacuation efforts in Heungnam. He recalls the urgency to evacuate the military personnel and civilians. He explicitly breaks down the positions and resources involved in the evacuation and the chaotic scene they encountered in the port. Because of the great leadership exhibited by Captain LaRue, he shares the crew never questioned his decision to assist in the evacuation.



Jack Allen

Concussion Grenades and the Aggressive Chinese Army

At the end of November 1950, Jack Allen was wounded by the Chinese who overran the US troops. The Chinese had so many troops that they easily came over the hills. A concussion grenade took the nerve out of Jack Allen's right arm, so he couldn't use it and his knee was shot too. He was laid on straw and a tarp until a helicopter basket took him back off the line and onto Japan to recover. There were hundreds of wounded that accompanied Jack Allen, but he knew that he wouldn't be left behind because that's a Marines' motto.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Cooper

Duties and Thoughts on Battle

Jack Cooper details the duties of soldiers assigned to a howitzer weapon and shares that there never was really any downtime. He recalls men rotating on and off shifts and most of the action taking place in the afternoon and evening. He shares that the intensity of battle made one nervous at times but that one grew accustomed to the reality over time. He adds that one did what he had to do.



Jack Goodwin

First Engagement: Task Force Smith

Jack Goodwin recounts his experience in Task Force Smith, the first group to engage with North Korean soldiers during the Korean War. He shares that they were severely outnumbered and ill-equipped with only four hundred or so men against roughly twenty thousand North Korean soldiers, having severely limited ammunition. He recalls remaining U.S. soldiers being forced to leave their position and walk during the night to a village where they were captured the following morning.



People Who Fall in a Death March

Jack Goodwin describes the Death March as a POW which took place November 1st-9th, 1950. He shares that 86 men died along the way from either wounds sustained prior to the start of the march or from being shot by the North Koreans who were forcing them to march. He recounts civilians being forced to march with them as well, including nuns, priests, engineers, and politicians.



Jack Howell

Morale in Wonsan

Jack Howell describes landing in Wonsan, Korea, shortly after the Marines had taken over Wonsan. He recounts the morale of fellow soldiers and shares memories of a commander greeting them on the beach with a pep talk once they had landed. He recalls scenes of Wonsan and shares that there seemed to have been little resistance as there was no major destruction to observe.



Screams from Hill 1080

Jack Howell shares his memories of combat against Chinese troops as he and his fellow soldiers fought to control and defend Hill 1080. He describes the encounter as overwhelming due to the mass number of Chinese soldiers attacking them. He recalls unnerving memories of frozen Chinese soldiers in their bunkers as well as the screams and taunts of the Chinese.



Jack Keep

Life on a Destroyer

Jack Keep lived on the Gatling Destroyer for four years as a First Class Boatswain's Mate. Living quarters were close while their jobs included scrubbing the deck, maintenance, general quarters, and watch.



Jack Kronenberger

Red Alerts

Jack Kronenberger describes several times where a "Red Alert" was issued, meaning some North Koreans had crossed the border. He remembers his roommate being very alarmed, but there wasn't anything for them to do- "just keep doing your job." They had a machine gun in their hut, but did not have to use it.



Jack Sherts

Radio Operation in Battle

Jack Sherts describes his job as a radio operator during the Korean War. In one episode, he had to take batteries to the soldiers in the infantry line. On the journey, he slipped and went down a mountain while trying to deliver the batteries under enemy fire. Jack Sherts also describes relaying fire orders for the 18 guns of his unit.



The most difficult part of war

Jack Sherts describes the intense cold. During his time in the Punchbowl, he would have to break the ice off of his eyelids. The weather during this time was 20 degrees below zero. Since he was also a jeep driver, driving in the snow and mud was very difficult as well.



Jack Wolverton

Under Fire and Almost Killed

Jack Wolverton recalls the one time he was under fire and almost lost his life. His unit was ordered to pile a bunker with ammunition, but the mission was aborted. His unit came under small arms fire near no man's land, and a bullet, coming very close to his head, only chipped a rock.The rock hit his wrist and scared him, making him think he was shot. He luckily left the incident unharmed.



James “Jim” Cawyer

Close Calls and Rough Rides

James "Jim" Cawyer discusses the large amount of Korean War casualties. He raises the point that many losses of life were not combat-related. He describes three examples of his own close calls he encountered during the war.



James “Jim” Valentine

Death on the Ice at Chosin Reservoir

Jim Valentine discusses crossing the ice in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he was surrounded. He explains how they had to not attract attention due to Chinese soldiers. He discusses the harsh winters he experienced. He explains that he is still unsure as to how/why he survived.



James “Jim” Wetmore

You Never hear the One That Hit You

Jim Wetmore describes being seriously wounded by a mortar and his evacuation from the battlefield in the Punch Bowl area on April 11, 1952. He explains that the saying is true: you never hear the one that hit you. He describes awaking face down in a fighting hole, helmet full of blood, broken jaw and a deep face wound so badly gaping he could stick his fingers inside the wound. He goes on to describe being evacuated down a mountain on a ski cablecar and being too afraid to look down.



James A. Newman

Sneak Attack on the Yalu River

James Newman was stationed on the frigate HMNZS Hawea up the Yalu River. He participated in a daring attack along the border between China and Korea. Fighting as a gunner, his ship attacked enemy positions along the Yalu River and took the enemy by complete surprise.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



James Burroughs

Combat as a Machine Gunner and Friendly Fire

James Burroughs explains how ammo carriers would replace a machine gunner if he was killed. He recalls a Master Sergeant being shot and killed by a sniper while standing next to him. He discusses fellow soldiers in his unit being injured and U.S. Army artillery fire not always landing where intended.



Taking an Enemy Position

James Burroughs describes the fierce battles fought for hills in Korea, highlighting the strategic advantage of holding the high ground. He shares how officers disguised their ranks to avoid being targeted by enemy snipers. He recalls the intense experience of capturing an enemy position, being forced to spend the night sleeping among the dead bodies, and then rolling the corpses down the hill the following morning.



James Butcher

A Close Encounter with a Chinese Soldier

James Butcher went face-to-face with a Chinese soldier as he was fighting for Triangle Hill. The Chinese soldier was getting ready to throw a grenade at the US troops and he became scared when he saw James Butcher in the trench with him. After a long pause, James Butcher took down the enemy trench.



James Creswell

Typical Day of Service

James Creswell describes how he served as an advisor to three or four South Korean Majors and Colonels. He recounts offering radio signal, leadership, combat, artillery, and tank advice and training to other soldiers. He explains that there was significant guerrilla warfare, and due to the successes of the advisory support he was involved in, he shares that there was a bounty on his head. He expresses the level of danger, adds that no logos or insignias were worn, and recalls having a rifle in his hands at all times.



Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



South Korean Soldiers "Bugging Out"

James Creswell describes how he went up to the front line several times to see how the South Koreans were fighting due to having helped train them. He shares that two other men along with him would communicate via walkie-talkie on the status of the line. He recalls that the South Korean soldiers, when scared, would leave the British and American soldiers in the middle of the night without warning. He refers to this as "bugging out" and adds that it left the British and American soldiers vulnerable to attack by the Chinese.



James E. Carter, Sr.

Thoughts of Home

James Carter discusses how he would go to the ship deck and think about his family. He shares his thoughts and concerns about leaving his wife at home who was five months pregnant when he headed to Korea. He mentions her several times during the interview and how their separation weighed on his mind. He shares his experience of meeting Chesty Puller an awarded leader of the Marines.



Battle of the Chosin Reservoir/Battle of Jangjin Lake

James Carter describes the attack at Koto-ri. He explains how his platoon was heading to meet up with the Easy Company. He describes being attacked by the Chinese and the subsequent retreat. He recalls the dangers and losses his platoon faced. He shares how he luckily survived some possibly fatal shots.



James E. Fant

Surviving Combat and Rest and Relaxation

James E. Fant describes war as "something you can't get over." He speaks of witnessing people being killed and his experiences of surviving combat. He reflects on being ordered to take Rest and Relaxation in Japan after four or five months in Korea. He comments that the military would take men off the front line to reduce their tension. He remembers returning to Hill 355, the place where he had previously experienced intense combat and witnessed the loss of several comrades. He expresses gratitude for having been able to return to the United States.



Heavy Weapons Squad and Going on Patrol

James E. Fant reflects on his role as a member of a heavy weapons squad during the Korean War. He recounts the nerve-racking experience of going on patrol at night, never knowing if they would come in contact with the enemy. He remembers the importance of knowing the correct passwords when returning from patrols. Despite the passage of time, he finds it astonishing that the conflict between North and South Korea has remained unresolved.



The Korean War - The "Forgotten War"

James E. Fant discusses the Korean War as a police action as part of the reason it is considered the "Forgotten War." He describes his sense of duty to serve when he was drafted and draws a comparison between his own feelings and those of some individuals during the Vietnam War. He emphasizes how the nature of war has changed considerably since his time serving in Korea.



James Elmer Bishop

First Time Under Fire

James Elmer Bishop discusses the first time he came under fire in Korea. He recalls a time when he was on guard duty, and he came face-to-face with a Chinese soldier. He describes shooting the Chinese soldier with a forty-five caliber sub-machine gun and being stabbed with a bayonet when the solider fell on him. He explains that he fought the Chinese solider for a while not knowing the soldier was already dead. He says while he can laugh about it now, at the time, he thought he was going to die.



Being Wounded and Helicopter Evacuation

James Elmer Bishop discusses being injured when a shell hit near him after an ambush. He recalls being thrown over nineteen feet into a river bed by the blast. After returning to camp, he recounts being told he was bleeding and realizing he had shrapnel in his leg. He shares that he realized how much he was bleeding when he removed his boot. He describes being flown on a helicopter to a hospital, losing consciousness, and coming to while lying on the stretcher attached to the side of the helicopter. He admits he passed out again from the loss of blood and woke up next in the hospital when they were pulling shrapnel from his leg.



James Ferris

Troopships and Preparation for Deployment into the Korean War

James Ferris describes being put on an American troopship with five thousand Marines. He recalls traveling twenty-nine days to reach Japan. He shares that once in Japan, his division was so large the soldiers were split and sent to multiple locations around the country to wait for deployment to Korea.



James H. Raynor

Only Trained in Mess Halls

James H. Raynor describes his first combat in the Korean War. He was not prepared for the conflict, having only trained in the mess hall during basic training. He describes how scared he was and not knowing what to do during the fight.



New Year's Eve at T-Bone Hill

James H. Raynor describes his News Year Eve at T-Bone Hill. He elaborates on the poor food rations, the extreme cold, and calling out to his "mommy" for strength. He describes a surprise attack that destroyed everything around him.



James J. Barden

Sunset Missions

James J. Barden describes preparation for the thirty bombing missions his crew executed in 1952. It took much of an entire day for his squadron to prepare the planes and bombs for night missions from Yokota Air Force Base in Japan. Each mission was to bomb various locations on the Korean Peninsula.



James L. Owen

Most Difficult Thing

James L. Owen explains that the most difficult thing of his service was knowing it had to be done. He shares it was hard to accept the fact that one must "kill or be killed." He describes how so many officers were killed, that job responsibilities constantly changed, and that one had to persevere.



James L. Stone

Refusing to Give Up

James L. Stone recounts a night attack made by roughly eight hundred Chinese. He describes how he was shot in the leg and neck and remembers another soldier placing a small cloth on his neck to stop the bleeding. He recalls being surrounded by Chinese soldiers but shares that he and his men refused to give up despite the circumstance.



James Low

Truman's Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Military

Racial tension grew after the Executive Order 9981 was issued. When James Low was in the US National Guard, he saw a confrontation between Southern soldiers and African American soldiers from Harlem, New York. Racism still existed for African Americans on the home front during the 1950s. Since James Low went to an integrated school, his beliefs were different than the Southern soldiers that were stationed with him.



Begging to Join the US Army

James Low wanted to join the US Army after he graduated high school because he wanted to do his part just like everyone else did during WWII. There was a group of James Low's friends that went to volunteer month after month until there was a spot open. Finally, in February 1951, he was accepted into the Army, but had to wait until he was 18 years old to sign the paperwork because his mom refused to give permission to his 17 year-old son.



James M. Cross

Scared or Mad (graphic)

James Cross describes how he was either scared or mad at the Chinese, particularly while at Heartbreak Ridge. He recalls having one hot meal a day and recounts an incident which occurred shortly after finishing a meal. He remembers being mad at the Chinese during the majority of his service for what they were doing to American soldiers, and he shares that he tried his best to stop them at whatever cost.



James M. Oyadomari

I Just Accepted What I Had to Do

James M. Oyadomari describes how he was assigned as a radio operator at a relay station just behind the front lines during his time in Korea. He recalls that most of the incoming fire flew well over their heads but that one round landed nearby. He confesses to being somewhat afraid but notes that he did not panic. He shares the struggles many of the younger soldiers dealt with while serving in Korea. He recalls the time as difficult but that he simply accepted what he had to do.



James P. Argires

"Fearless" at the Inchon Landing

James Argires describes his experience in the Inchon Landing, explaining that there was some controversy around whether it would be successful. He describes the terrain and the struggles he faced. When asked if he was afraid, he explains how being young made him “fearless.”



James Parker

Friendly Fire Experience

James Parker recalls some of his typical duties while serving. He describes participating in exercises and his experience with "friendly fire". He shares that napalm and artillery were mistakenly dropped and fired on their own troops.



James Pigneri

Interaction with Korean MP's

James Pigneri talks about his time serving with two young Korean military police officers. Because of the dedication of the MP's, Pigneri goes unharmed but the MP's die tragically in battle.



Awards and Air Drops

James Pigneri discusses the awards that he received during the Korean War. He also gives details about how he and other soldiers received their rations and supplies via air drops. The receiving of supplies was a dangerous mission where many soldiers were killed trying to supply the combat soldiers with their daily necessities.



James R. Kaleohano

Replacement Company

James Kaleohano arrives in Korea and his company is replacing the company that was just ambushed. They are transported in cattle cars to the front lines in North Korea. James's company goes straight to the front line and he is given the job of a machine gunner.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Sleep Deprivation and Thoughts on Fear

James Shimabuku recounts the difficulties of trying to sleep with shrapnel falling around the troops. He offers an account of a fellow soldier moving dead bodies and shooting an enemy soldier who was still alive amid the bodies. He shares his philosophy on fear and states that one either lives or dies.



James T. Markley

Swimming with Torpedoes

James Markley describes how the Navy and Air Force worked together after the war. The Air Force dropped torpedoes as they were looking for submarines. James' job was to swim out to the torpedo, hook a line on it, and sit on the torpedo while the sailors pulled the torpedo into the ship.



James Tilford Jones

Fighting against the Chinese

James Jones has vivid memories of how Chinese battlefield tactics were distinctive. They had unique sounds and smells, as well as unique military strategies. His platoon would dig in each night, fight, retreat and then dig in again as the Chinese kept coming.



Jean Clement

Dangerous Moment

Jean Clements recalls a dangerous moment he experienced while serving in Korea. He shares that the night patrols were especially dangerous and recounts one in particular where he and fellow soldiers were assigned to check a particular post near the Imgingang River in no man's land due to an issue with the communication lines. He recounts having to maneuver through rice fields and securing one side with his machine gun as they made their way to the post.



Imjingang River Attack

Jean Clement shares an account of soldiers on patrol being attacked by the Chinese. He describes the camp where he was assigned, sandwiched between the Imjingang River and a mountain, and recalls that it was not located in the best position for defense against an attack. He shares that Luxembourg soldiers were conducting a patrol across a nearby floating bridge on the Imjingang River, and they were attacked by the Chinese. He recalls helping a soldier out of the river after he had jumped in to protect himself from the Chinese fire. He recounts destroying the equipment they could not carry with them prior to leaving so that it would not fall in Chinese hands and describes how the Belgium soldiers carved a path through the mountain to safety.



Jeff Liebregts

We Finally Took Hill 325

Jeff Liebregts does not recall knowing if they were fighting Chinese or North Korean soldiers at Hill 325. He explains that before the third attempt to take the hill it didn't matter what job you had. You were given a gun and sent up the hill. He shares details about being afraid and if someone says they were not, they are joking. After taking the hill, he remembers feeling tired and lying down near body bags. He recalls waking up to someone kicking him to check if he was alive.



Jerry Bowen

Dangerous Moments

When asked about dangerous moments, Jerry Bowen describes exchanging mortar fire with the Chinese in formation in front of his camp. He got some mortar bombs and went up to the top of the hill, but feared the Chinese would ambush them. He describes using hand grenades and the other events of that night in detail.



Jerry Kaspen

Live Bomb evacuated by Helicopter

In this clip, Jerry Kaspen describes the tense moment when he was left alone with in a field of live bombs. During this time the military removed a live bomb that was too close to a local village. Jerry Kaspen historically photographed the first live bomb ever evacuated by helicopter.



Jesse Englehart

You Get Used to It

Jesse Englehart describes how a South Korean man was communicating with North Korea. He remembers an incident and seeing this man beaten with a bat. He explains how in war soldiers become desensitized to violence.



Taking a Hill

Jesse Englehart describes his part in taking a hill. He explains how he prepared for battle with his helmet. He described weapons used against him and others during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He also explains that he was lucky to survive and how they made sure they left nothing the enemy could use.



Jesus Rodriguez

"There was a lot of them, and just one of me"

Jesus Rodriguez remembers the battle in which he won him a Silver Star for his bravery. He fought against the North Koreans for 5 hours after his company abandoned him in the middle of the night. Jesus Rodriguez reflects on the translator's role that night and the potential for him to have been a spy.



Jim Morris

Jim Morris Faces His Greatest Fears while in Korea

Jim Morris describes his fears at his first assignment at the air base near Kimpo. He relates the Marines that had been guarding the base pulled out the day after he arrived and left the Air Force to guard it themselves. He feared being shot and someone threw rocks at them but could never figure out who it really was. He says the North Koreans would attempt to steal gas and trucks from the base. He stayed on guard duty until being reassign to become a radio operator.



Jimmy A. Garcia

An Outpost Harry Survivor

Jimmy A. Garcia shares his experience of patrolling for Chinese activity at night. He recalls a time when he was ordered to patrol alone, which was a perilous and nerve-racking task. He provides an overview of the sieges of Outpost Harry that took place in June 1953. He speaks of the casualties his company suffered as they defended the hill and expresses pride in being called a survivor of Outpost Harry.



The Last Days of Service

Jimmy A. Garcia pays tribute to two of his closest comrades who lost their lives during the Korean War. He acknowledges they all experienced moments of fear but did their best to conceal their emotions. He narrates two incidents where some soldiers he knew had trouble coping with the uncertainty and horror of war. He shares how he found solace and happiness by joining the regimental choir during his last days of service in Korea which brought joy to those who heard the performances.



Joan Taylor

Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor shares her first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. She explains his father passed away, and his mother was left to run a business and needed help. She communicates that her first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting; however, he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe C. Tarver

Danger Aboard the Aircraft Carrier

Joe C. Tarver describes the danger involved in maneuvering the large "Sky Raider" planes on the cramped flight deck, often in unstable weather conditions. The aircraft had large bomb loads, which was a consistent reminder of how meticulous airplane maneuvers had to be. He explains how one of the men he was stationed with accidentally got blown into a running aircraft propeller. Additionally, regular practices aboard the aircraft carrier were conducted to prepare to shoot at enemy fire if necessary.



Joe D. Slatton

Inchon in 1953 and Driving Colonels Crazy

Joe D. Slatton landed in Inchon, Korea in April 1953. He recalls hearing guns shooting all around him. First, Joe D. Slatton became a driver with the 703 Ordnance for officers (captains and colonels) until he drove a colonel down a goat path, and into a ditch, to avoid incoming fire in the Kumhawa Valley.



The Most Difficult Time Above the 38th Parallel

Joe D. Slatton recalls three difficult events while he was in Korea. He reflects on the passing of his father, how Howitzers ruined his hearing, and getting lost in no-man's-land.



Slatton and the Time of the Armistice July 27, 1953

After the armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, Joe D. Slatton's was assigned the job of collecting all military items that were above and around the 38th parallel. He recalls being scared because North Koreans continued to walk around armed.



Joe H. Ager

We Did Not Expect an Attack

Joe Ager shares details about the slow drive along the narrow roads to the east of the Chosin Reservoir. After reaching where the 5th Marines had been, he explains how they chose to stop and dig in. He notes the harsh living conditions they experienced. He describes the surprise of being attacked and surrounded by the Chinese.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe O. Apodaca

The USS Henrico in Korea

Joe O. Apodaca discusses his time in Korea while aboard the USS Henrico. He shares he witnessed U.S. Marines disembarking from the ship via nets onto LCMs and other boats which then transported the units to shore. He remembers how the ship traveled roughly one to two miles from the beach near Incheon, Seoul, and Busan. He recalls seeing flashes of light on land throughout the night and passing enemy planes.



Joe Rosato

Bad Ankle Injury

Joe Rosato recalled that while fighting near the Yalu River, he, his sergeant, and a lieutenant were ordered to take out a machine gun nest using the 57-recoilless rifle. Not soon after their assigned task to take out the gunnery, they were ordered to quickly get down the road and regroup in no particular order. They were to just move as quickly as they could. Joe Rosato was carrying the rifle when his foot was wedged between rocks and he fell in a hole while twisting his ankle so bad he couldn't walk on it. He had to abandoned his rifle and limp as fast as he could to meet up with this regiment, but they lost a lot of men that day.



The Most Difficult Conditions Were Being Constantly Cold and Wet

Joe Rosato described that in most places around Korea, it wasn't safe to walk around. During the winter months, the scariest times were when they lived in the fox holes and it rained so much that it would fill the fox holes with water. Sleeping in a foot of water made Joe Rasato fear that he would freeze to death or drowned, so they had to make the choice to stay where they were or sleep outside the fox hole and risk getting shot.



John A. Ciburk

Fear of Jumping

John A. Ciburk elaborates on the need to bail out of a plane while on a mission due to 2 engines catching fire. He describes the conditions at the time which entailed dense fog and close proximity to mountains, making it hard to judge when the plane might strike as it was quickly losing altitude. He recalls his fear of heights from childhood and shares how the fear of jumping from a plane claimed a life.



John Atkins

Memories and Dreams

John Atkins describes the disturbing dreams he had while in college after serving in the war. While taking a comparative anatomy course in college, the images of the frozen dead bodies that he recovered during the war haunted him. He states that he thinks about his time there more since he has a grandson the same age.



John B. Jackson, Jr.

The Reality of Leaving My Country

John B. Jackson describes the moment he realized he was leaving American soil and would soon be on foreign soil. He recalls the emotional impact it had on him as his ship passed the Golden Gate Bridge. He remembers the learning experience of simply watching the sun rise and set over water, a sight he had never seen before.



John B. Winter

Typhoon During Inchon Landing

John Winter participated in the Inchon Landing in September 1950. He explains that they met other ships near Japan before moving towards Korea. He describes what it was like on the ship since there was a typhoon occurring.



John Beasley

Typhoon, Napalm, and a Big Breakfast

John Beasley describes the arduous trip to Inchon from Japan on a Japanese Navy Landing Ship Tank (LST). The voyage took place after a ten-day hold-up in Japan due to a typhoon. He recalls that the continuous large waves caused napalm containers aboard the ship to break loose on the deck. He describes the mood and morale of his fellow Marines as they ate a big breakfast of steak and eggs, and the concern about who would make it back alive from their mission.



Sights and Sounds of the Incheon Landing

John Beasley recalls the sights and sounds of 5:00 in the evening on September 15, 1950, the first day of the Inchon Landing. He describes only having rifles and mortars to use against Russian tanks that were coming in the next day after the landing. He recalls that other soldiers who had come off a carrier came in to assist with use of napalm. He gives a first-hand account of the heroic efforts of fellow Marine, Walter C. Monegan Jr., during the Inchon Landing. Monegan posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his valor.



Taking Back Seoul and the Wonsan Landing

John Beasley describes being in combat and his near death experience in the recapturing of Seoul. He describes his unit's voyage from Incheon to Wonsan after leaving Seoul. His description highlights the contributions of the U.S. Coast Guard and naval support in the Korean War.



A Picture of the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

John Beasley describes his own experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. His descriptions include seeing the U.S. Army suffer heavy casualties, as well as hearing a testimony from a wounded soldier about the atrocities done to the wounded by the Chinese. He recalls serving under his highly decorated commander, Colonel "Chesty" Puller. He also describes suffering a shrapnel wound during the Seoul Recapture.



John Blankenship

Night Missions with Napalm

John Blankenship knew that he was always in danger and a few of his friends were shot down. He flew every night and ended up flying 87 missions in about 1 year. The A26 held 14 gun, 4-6 bombs, and napalm. When enemy convoys stopped and were trapped, John Blankenship dropped napalm on North Korean troops.



John Boyd

Fire! Another Korean War Enemy

John Boyd remembers having to deal with several fires during his year in Korea. He recalls one such occasion when a space heater caused a fire in the signal office and the subsequent chaos that followed.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd recalls the devastating Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. He notes that they were always getting messages in regarding how had been wounded or killed. He remembers that artillery fire often went over their location. John Boyd details his duties during his final days in Korea.



John Burton Forse

First Experience in a Tank

John Burton Forse describes his first experience being in a M26 Pershing tank after being assigned as an assistant driver upon his arrival in Korea. He had to readjust to operating the machine gun in the tank. He also describes the sounds and feelings inside the tank.



First Time on Patrol

John Burton Forse describes the way he felt the first time he went on patrol in a tank. He describes feeling confident but reluctant at the same time. This is the moment soldiers are trained for. He describes the feeling as "this is it." He also details all the Chinese he saw dead everywhere.



John C. Delagrange

Enemy River Crossing

John Delagrange recalls spending most of his time at Kimpo Air Base, analyzing aerial photos for intelligence. He remembers sending a reconnaissance flight to investigate an area of concern on the Imjingang River. He highlights that was the location where many of the Chinese troops hid and invaded during the Korean War.



North Korean Defector - Kenneth Rowe

John Delagrange remembers the day No Kum Sok landed his MiG 15 fighter at Kimpo Air Base defecting to South Korea in 1953. No Kum Sok (Kenneth Rowe) wrote a book, and he heard about the incident first-hand during their phone conversations later in life. No Kum Sok was a North Korean pilot during the Korean War, but he stole a MiG-15 and flew over the DMZ to Kimpo Air Base to earn his freedom.



John Cole

Battling for Hill 1520

John Cole fought for Hill 1520 during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts how many men were lost defending that hill. He remembers three Chinese soldiers climbing into his fox hole and how he had to fight using hand-to-hand combat. He notes this was when he was shot through his right arm.



John Cumming

Was Never Supposed to Be There

John Cumming shares how he did not have experience loading the Dakota aircraft and how a commanding officer quickly taught him the ropes. He describes quickly realizing there were many soldiers doing the same job from other nations. After the group decided to work together, he admits there was no original plan for him to travel to Busan, and he was never supposed to be in Korea. He recalls his first flight into Busan and common issues during the landing process.



By God They Were Tough

John Cumming describes finding ways to keep casualties from freezing to death while traveling on the Dakota Aircraft. He reflects on one experience during a flight in which he attempted to do everything he could to keep a soldier warm. Even with all of his efforts, he shares how his jacket had to be cut off of him because there was no saving the soldier. He recalls not knowing who he was handling during transports and just focusing moving the soldiers. Yet, he notes one particular incident in which he did know a group of soldiers were from Turkey because they were upset with the Americans leaving them behind.



Transporting Napalm

John Cumming describes a tense situation while transporting napalm from Japan. He provides a description of the loading process of the crates of napalm. While returning to Iwakuni, he remembers encountering bad weather and the aircraft climbing to a higher altitude. Due to the heightened air pressure, he describes the crates sticking together and the canisters shrinking to the size of cigars. He admits having to write off the entire load and making a note to never go over twelve thousand feet with a load of napalm on board.



The Dreaded Stacking System

John Cumming describes a few close calls due to the stacking system used at runways and the layout of the Dakota aircraft. During one return flight, he recalls the pilot making the decision to land without the green light from the ground because he had been circling the runway for forty-five minutes. After a precarious landing, he remembers wondering why the pilot had chosen to land. He comments on another return flight in which they were shaken because they were forced to circle the runway three times with a full load of casualties.



John Fry

"A Vicious Time"

John Fry shares that he served in the Royal Australian Regiment as a rifleman. He recalls being sent to Korea in 1953 after having joined the military due to unemployment increasing in the textile field. He remembers Korea being in terrible condition as many people were living in cardboard boxes. He shares his memories of arriving in Pusan before heading North. He comments on his involvement in the Battle of the Hook, an experience he calls a “vicious time.” He shares his amazement of the unbelievable progress Korea has made since the war.



John Funk

Fear, Pride, and Additional Thoughts on the War

John Funk describes his mixed emotions about going into war. He shares that anxiety, fear, patriotism, and pride radiated through his mind as he entered into the Korean War. He states that he was able to overcome his apprehensions about the war because he knew he was doing something good for the world, and he briefly shares his thoughts on the attitude towards the war on the home front.



Painful Memories

John Funk shares how he saw more devastation and pain than the average soldier because he was with the medical unit. He recounts the stories of three patients which have remained with him through the many years since his service. He recalls one centering on a Korean solider he transported in the middle of the night, another regarding an American soldier that had attempted suicide and was airlifted to his team, and finally, the image of a Korean child who lost both parents.



John H. Jackson

Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson shares he fought in the Battle at the Chosin Reservoir through Christmas Eve of 1950. He recalls how the weather was very cold, reaching down to fifty degrees below zero. He remembers how some of the soldiers were freezing to death as the Chinese continued to fight.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson explains he was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He shares he fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He recounts how he continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John I. Reidy

Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

Helping Injured Comrades

John Baker details the stark reality of war. He shares how they dug into foxholes and experienced enemy fire. He includes specific details of the helplessness he felt when others in his unit were severely wounded in battle.



John Jefferies

A Sergeant's Mistake and a South Korean helper

John Jefferies shares memories of an encounter with a drunk American sergeant. He recalls happening upon a drunk American sergeant who was firing at children running in a village. He shares that when he confronted the sergeant, the gun was turned on him. He recalls running to seek the help of several South Korean soldiers, but upon his return with aid, the sergeant had fled. He adds that he luckily found no children wounded.



John Juby

Dangerous Conditions in Korea

John Juby explains how he was wounded from being scratched by barbed wire. He describes his duties as a part of the detachment of Pioneers, and explains why soldiers have differing experiences. He recalls being fired upon by American soldiers who did not detect the presence of the British troops who were nearby.



John K. Barton

A Dangerous Moment

Reflecting upon the most dangerous elements of war, John Barton describes his experience with life threatening elements. He replies that there were a few moments during the war where he might have lost his life, but ultimately doesn't want to discuss it. He notes that that "the powers that be took care of us, we were all in it together."



John L. Johnsrud

The US Draft and Arriving in Pusan

John L. Johnsrud was drafted when we was 22 years old in 1950. It took 19 days to get from Seattle to Yokahama Japan by boat before heading to Pusan. He arrived in Pusan on a troopship with 5,000 other soldiers.



Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



John Levi

Escaping Heungnam by any means necessary...

John Levi talks about his emotional encounter with Korean citizens in Heungnam. Fleeing the war zone, many Korean citizens looked for any way out with backs that were loaded with children and anything they could carry. He shares how he saw the plight of his people, the Native American people, in the same struggle that many Koreans had to endure during the war.



Dealing with Guerrillas

John Levi recalls his experience with guerrilla warfare pushing north of Pusan. He recounts how, one night, they ran into the guerrillas. He calls it one of the scariest moments in his war experience - not knowing if the next mortar was going to land on him or not.



John McBroom

Several Incidents on Board

John McBroom recalls several incidents on board the U.S.S. Symbol while in the Hamhueng area. He remembers North Koreans firing at the ship from the beach. He recalls gunfire from both the North Koreans and another the USS Wiltsie (DD-716) that was posted nearby for protection.



John Munro

Guarding the 38th Parallel

John Munro recalls that his mission was to patrol the DMZ at Panmunjeom to make sure the border was safe. He recounts serving in a variety of battalions depending on where he was stationed in Korea. He shares that while serving on the DMZ, he also added mines along the line to keep away North Koreans who might have snuck over the 38th parallel.



John Naastad

DMZ

John Naastad describes what it was like to be stationed near the DMZ in 1956. He discusses reports of troop movements and tensions along the line. He also recounts a trip he took to see the Bridge of No Return.



John O. Every

The Terrible Cold and Frostbite

John O. Every talks about being in combat near the Chosin Reservoir, and being evacuated due to extreme frostbite. He recalls seeing airplanes drop supplies, and recounts the tough losses of fighting. He explains being evacuated and taken to various hospitals for recovery.



Close Encounters Under Enemy Fire

John O. Every speaks about being under enemy fire and encountering Chinese soldiers. He was awarded a Marine Corps Commendation Medal for enduring the enemy fire. He explains having to repair ammunition that was not properly operating.



John Parker

Lucky to be Alive

John Parker recalls completing one hundred and seventy sorties as a fighter pilot during his time in Korea. He shares one of his most memorable missions above Pyungyang which involved a lot of aircraft damage. He shares how he is thankful to be alive after he had severe damage to his plane’s fuselage.



John Pritchard

The Various Jobs of a REME Engineer

John Pritchard helped a group of English entertainers by fixing the ambulance they were transported in after breaking down in transit. They kept a very unique souvenir hanging from their flagpole. This humorous episode was balanced by the realities of war, including one episode where John was sent off base to tow a mortared tank and came face to face with human loss.



John Rolston

Moments of Danger

John Rolston shares how he had to land on pierced steel planking instead of cement. He shares concerns he had about flying in certain weather conditions. He explains how the snow and rain were terrifying conditions that made his plane spin around. He shares the fears he had that he might not survive some landings or take-offs.



Close Encounter with a North Korean Pilot

John Rolston describes being a flight leader and bringing people to Japan and they were returning. He shares how he was very close to shooting down a North Korean pilot who went below the 38th parallel. He shares how he could have shot the pilot, but he didn't want to murder someone who was lost.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Memories of South Korea, 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes his experience getting to South Korea in 1957. He recalls seeing meats hanging in the market, honey buckets, and the smell of kimchi. He describes his impression of Korean people and his appreciation for their warm sentiment toward Korean War Veterans.



John Tobia

War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Wallar

Mending Communication Lines

John Wallar talks about being under Chinese mortar fire while working on a line gang. He describes his team's job and how they went about mending broken communication lines.



John Y. Lee

The War Breaks Out

John Y. Lee, a resident of Seoul in 1950, speaks about the day the Korean War began. He describes what he saw and his subsequent flight from the city. He recalls swimming across the Han River to safety.



Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina provides an account of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that their unit had incurred heavy losses after two weeks of bombing and was attacked by the enemy who seized on their weakness. He recalls that this battle was particularly brutal because Chinese troops outnumbered them ten-to-one. He adds that the following day, he and a handful of others volunteered to climb back up Old Baldy to recover the dead and wounded.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina brinda un relato de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Explica que su unidad sufrió grandes pérdidas porque los chinos los bombardearon por dos semanas antes de la batalla y aprovecharon de su debilidad cuando los atacaron. Él se acuerda que esta batalla fue brutal porque las tropas chinas los superaban en número diez a uno. El agrega que al día siguiente, él y una docena de soldados más se ofrecieron como voluntarios para volver a subir a Old Baldy para recuperar a los muertos y heridos que quedaron en la colina.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina speaks about the difficulty he faced any time he was in combat. He recalls the mental toll seeing fellow soldiers blown up minutes after having a conversation with them took on his psyche. Begging god to let him live and see his family again, he remembers that it was in Korea that he really learned how to pray.

Jorge Eliécer Cortez Medina habla de las dificultades que enfrentaba cada vez que estaba en combate. Recuerda el costo mental que tuvo en su psique ver a compañeros volar en pedazos por el aire minutos después de haber tenido una conversación con ellos. Rogando a Dios que lo dejara vivir y volver a ver a su familia, recuerda que fue en Corea donde realmente aprendió a rezar.



Lying to go to War / Mentiras Antes de La Guerra

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina recounts the way in which he lied to his family about his decision to go to war. He explains that he knew they would object, so he told them he was being sent to Panama to train in communications. He admits that it was only when he arrived in Korea and saw a nation turned to ashes and the devastation of the civilian population that he understood the reality of war and the consequences of his decision.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina relata la forma en que le mintió a su familia sobre su decisión de ir a la guerra como voluntario. Explica que sabía que se opondrían, por eso les dijo que iba hacia Panamá para hacer un entrenamiento en comunicaciones. El admite que fue sólo cuando llegó a Corea y vio una nación convertida en cenizas y la devastación de la población civil, que entendió la realidad de la guerra y las consecuencias de su decisión.



Basic Training / Basic Training / Entrenamiento

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina offers an overview of his training prior to combat. He states that he attended communications school in Colombia and then received further training when he arrived in Korea. He provides details about the training in Korea which included nighttime navigation practice which required them to walk for miles.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina ofrece su perspectiva de del entrenamiento que recibió. Cuenta que asistió a la escuela de comunicaciones en Colombia y luego recibió más entrenamiento cuando llegó a Corea. Provee detalles sobre el entrenamiento en Corea que incluía la práctica de navegación nocturna y las caminatas en la oscuridad.



Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro

Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro shares the most difficult moments of the war which almost resulted in his death. He details the first battle in which he participated in as an advance guard member in the Kumhwa Valley and remembers how close their position brought them to enemy lines. He explains that he almost blew his entire team because he prematurely unpinned a grenade.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra en los cuales casi muere el y mata a sus compañeros. Provee detalles sobre la primera batalla en la que participó como miembro de la vanguardia en el valle de Kumhwa y recuerda lo cerca que llegaron a las líneas enemigas. Explica que casi murieron todos porque le saco el pin a una granada y no sabia que hacer con ella.



First Days in Korea / Primeros Días en Corea

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro provides an account of the devastation and poverty he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He explains that he will never forget the way in which civilians begged for food and clothing at every train station. Additionally, he describes the living conditions the Colombian army faced in Korea.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro describe la devastación y pobreza que vio cuando llego a Corea. Explica que nunca olvidará la forma en que los civiles pedían comida y ropa en cada estación de tren. Además, relata las condiciones de vida que enfrentó el ejército colombiano en Corea.



Moments of Peace and Danger / Momentos de Paz y Peligro

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro juxtaposes the best and worst moments of his time in Korea. He discusses the worst battles he experienced and those experienced by the Batallón Colombia. He then describes the happiest day he had which occurred when he was promoted and became the youngest sergeant within the Colombian troops.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro habla sobre los mejores y peores momentos de su tiempo en Corea. Habla de las peores batallas que vivió el y aquellas que el Batallón Colombia sufrió las más bajas. Luego describe el mejor día que tuvo que fue el día que lo ascendieron y lo nombraron el sargento más joven de las tropas colombianas.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Dangerous Missions / Misiones Peligrosas

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera discusses the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls being frightened whenever he was sent on reconnaissance missions as they had to explore neighboring hills and could see the enemy’s movement and numbers. He remembers that whenever the enemy retreated, they would be able to use their foxholes. Being that they were outnumbered three-to-one, he marvels at the fact that he survived.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera analiza los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda que se asustaba cada vez que lo enviaban en misiones de reconocimiento, ya que tenían que explorar las colinas vecinas para poder ver el movimiento del enemigo. Recuerda que cada vez que el enemigo se retiraba, utilizaban sus trincheras. Dado que los superaban en número tres a uno, se maravilla por el hecho de haber sobrevivido.



Difficult Goodbyes / Despedidas Difíciles

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera reminisces about the emotional farewell he bid his mother as he left for Korea. He explains that it was particularly difficult for her as he was her only child. The emotional stress was compounded, as he details, by the seasickness he experienced on the month-long boat ride to Korea.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recuerda la emoción de la despedida de su madre cuando él partió hacia Corea. Explica que fue especialmente difícil para ella porque era su único hijo. El estrés emocional se vio agravado, como detalla él, por el mareo que tuvo durante el viaje en barco de un mes a Corea.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

Danger in Busan

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recalls the danger imposed by plain-clothes North Koreans in Pusan (Busan). He describes how the North Korean's infiltrated the area, which made it impossible to determine who they were.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describes the destruction he encountered in Korea. He explains that it is difficult for anyone that lived through a war to explain what happened. He recalls being saddened by the fact that Koreans, including professionals from universities, were forced to take menial jobs.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describe la destrucción total que encontró en Corea. Explica que es difícil para cualquiera que haya luchado en una guerra explicar lo que vio. Recuerda que le entristeció el hecho de que los coreanos, incluidos los profesionales de las universidades, se vieron obligados a aceptar trabajos manuales ayudando a los soldados.



Helping Civilians / Ayudando a los Civiles

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna details the heartbreaking conditions that civilians endured during the war. He remembers entering living dwellings and encountering weak elderly people and malnourished children. While it was frowned upon by American troops, he explains that Puerto Ricans gave rations to those civilians.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna detalla las condiciones de los civiles durante la guerra. Recuerda entrar en viviendas y encontrarse con ancianos débiles y niños desnutridos. Él explica que los puertorriqueños les daban raciones a esos civiles aunque las tropas estadounidenses no lo hacían por miedo de darle comida al enemigo.



Worst Battle / La Peor Batalla

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna explains that he fought in many terrible battles. He details one in which they captured about five hundred prisoners. He remembers every detail of that battle because his friend died from an ambush by North Koreans while he was charging up a hill.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna explica que luchó en muchas batallas terribles. Detalla una en la que capturaron a unos quinientos prisioneros. Recuerda cada detalle de esa batalla porque su amigo murió cuando los norcoreanos lo emboscaron mientras subía una colina.



Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane

First Days / Primeros Días

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane describes his duties as a scout for the reconnaissance patrol. He recalls that he was immediately asked to go on patrol the first day he arrived. Additionally, he describes an incident in which he almost died protecting a Jeep for his captain and it was luck that saved his life.

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane describe sus funciones como explorador de la patrulla de reconocimiento. Recuerda que le pidieron que fuera a patrullar el primer día que llegó a Corea. Describe un incidente en el que casi muere protegiendo un Jeep para su capitán y fue la suerte lo que le salvó la vida.



Personal Impact of the War / Impacto Personal de la Guerra

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane discusses how he adjusted to civil life after the war. He speaks about how difficult it was for him knowing that his daughter was born while he was fighting in Korea. He explains that he constantly thought about her and what kind of father he would be.

José Antonio Díaz Villafañe comenta cómo se adaptó a la vida civil después de la guerra. Habla de lo difícil que fue para él saber que su hija nació mientras que el luchaba en Corea y no poder conocerla. Él explica que pensaba constantemente en ella y en qué tipo de padre sería.



Jose E Hernandez Rivera

The DMZ After the Armistice

Even after the armistice was signed, Jose E. Hernandez Rivera served in Korea until 1954. During that time, he served near the DMZ. While there were no shots fired, he explains how it was still scary because they never knew if the North Koreans would retaliate.



Jose E. Colon

The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that any time they were on the move it was incredibly dangerous as they were always met with mortar attacks. He remembers how they were ambushed one night, and his friend was killed. He wonders if he killed anyone as they shot in all directions as they could not see the enemy. Forever etched in his memory are the hardships of civilians and what they had to resort to in order to survive.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Él explica que cada vez que se movía del sur hasta el frente era increíblemente peligroso porque siempre lo atacaban con morteros. Recuerda que una noche los emboscaron y mataron a su amigo, y ellos disparaban en todas direcciones porque no podían ver donde estaba al enemigo entonces él no sabe si mato a nadie. Las miserias de los civiles y lo que tenían que hacer para sobrevivir le han quedado grabadas en su memoria.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his first impressions of Korea. As soon as they landed in Busan, they were transported by truck to the north, and he recalls the terrible condition the country faced. He was especially taken aback by the misery of civilians. Within hours of arriving to the front, he witnessed an American airplane shot down.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz explica sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Tan pronto como aterrizaron en Busan, fueron transportados en camiones hacia el norte, y él recuerda las terribles condiciones en las que se encontraba el país. Mas que la destrucción, se acuerda de la miseria de los civiles. A las pocas horas de llegar al frente, el enemigo derribo un avión estadounidense.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Most Dangerous Conflicts / Conflictos Más Peligrosos

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez shares his memories of the most dangerous battles that Colombian troops faced. He discusses the perils during Operation Barbula and the bloody nature of the Battle of Old Baldy. Because of the heavy fighting Colombian troops encountered in March of 1953, they nicknamed it the “gory month of March.”

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez comparte sus recuerdos de las batallas más peligrosas que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas. Habla de los peligros durante la Operación Barbula y lo sangriento que fue la Batalla de Old Baldy. Debido a los intensos combates que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas en marzo de 1953, lo apodaron "el cruento mes de Marzo".



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recalls the most difficult moments he faced while fighting in Korea. He details the fighting during operation Barbula and the fighting at Old Baldy. He explains that it was the longest night of his life and remembers having to take the place of a downed machine gunner.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentó durante la guerra en Corea. Detalla los combates durante la operación Barbula y los combates en Old Baldy. Explica que fue la noche más larga de su vida y recuerda haber tenido que tomar el lugar de un ametrallador que habían matado.



Jose Leon Camacho

Stay Away From Memories

Jose Camacho explains why he is glad that his son did not have to serve in the military. He describes his experiences with memories of Korea and how hard it is on him. He shares how his wife tells him to stay away from his memories of Korea.



José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez

Dangerous Arrival / Llegada Peligrosa

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez recounts the story of his voyage to Korea. He explains that his platoon were replacements for all those lost at Pork Chop Hill and Kelly Hill. His company was divided into two and he was part of the second wave of soldiers that would be sent to Korea. He provides an account on how fifty soldiers from the first wave were killed the day they arrived, as the train transporting them to Seoul was bombed by Russians.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez cuenta la historia de su viaje a Corea. Explica que su pelotón reemplazó a todas las bajas en Pork Chop Hill y Kelly Hill. Su compañía se dividió en dos y él formó parte de la segunda ola de soldados que serían enviados a Corea. Brinda un relato de cómo cincuenta soldados de la primera ola murieron el día que llegaron, cuando los aviones rusos bombardearon el tren que los transportaba a Seúl.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez shares the moment in which he feared that his patrol unit would restart the Korean War. He explains that after hours of patrolling near the DMZ, they were lost and decided to split up. His group stumbled on a group of Koreans which luckily were South Koreans that helped them return to their base.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez comparte el momento en el que temió que su patrulla reiniciara la Guerra de Corea. Explica que después de horas de patrullaje cerca de la DMZ, se perdieron y decidieron separarse. Su grupo se topó con un grupo de coreanos que afortunadamente eran surcoreanos y los ayudaron a regresar a su base.



The Cold / El Frío

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez explains the difficulty soldiers faced when serving during the winter. He notes that the trenches were minus ten degrees Celsius and that many soldiers lost their feet due to frostbite. He describes the way in which fires were used to warm up.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez explica la dificultad que enfrentaban los soldados al servir durante el invierno. Cuenta que hacían diez centígrados bajo cero en las trincheras y por eso muchos soldados perdieron los pies y se los tuvieron que amputar. Describe la forma en que se usaban los fuegos para calentarse.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

Sudden Attack / Sudden Attack / Ataque

José María Gómez Parra provides a detailed account of the start of the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the intense fighting that occurred and the manner in which Chinese troops advanced into their territory. He adds that the Chinese would try to dissuade Colombians from fighting through speakerphones by telling them they were going to die or have an amputated limb to diminish troop morale. He shares that during the battle he was an assistant machine gunner along with two other individuals, one of whom was killed and the other that ran away. He recalls how he kept his position and fought until he realized the hill was lost.

José María Gómez Parra ofrece un relato del inicio de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe el combate intenso que ocurrió y la forma en la cual las tropas chinas entraron a su territorio. Además, cuenta que los chinos trataban de disuadir a los colombianos de pelear a través de los altavoces diciéndoles que iban a morir o que les amputarían una extremidad para romper la linea de combate. Durante la batalla, fue asistente de ametralladora junto con otros dos individuos, uno de los cuales murió y el otro se escapó. El mantuvo su posición y luchó hasta que se dio cuenta de que la colina estaba perdida.



José Pascagaza León

Combat Baptism / El Bautismo

José Pascagaza León details the training he received both in Colombia and Korea. After completing infantry school, he explains that they were sent by boat to Korea and upon landing they completed more intense training to understand how to utilize weapons and heavy artillery. Furthermore, he describes the training, which was dubbed the baptism, in which they were shot at with real ammunition to train them to stay down while crawling through a field.

José Pascagaza León detalla el entrenamiento que recibió tanto en Colombia como en Corea. Después de completar la escuela de infantería, él explica que fueron enviados en barco a Corea y al desembarcar completaron un entrenamiento más intenso para aprender cómo utilizar las armas y artillería pesada. Además, describe el entrenamiento, que se denominó el bautismo, en el que se les disparaba con munición real para entrenarlos a permanecer agachados mientras se arrastraban por el campo.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

José Pascagaza León remembers the most difficult moments he faced in Korea. As a member of the rearguard, he states that he did not have the difficulties of those in the front but felt in danger when the enemy returned fire after they launched mortars. He recalls the fighting at the Battle of Hill 180 and the use of heavy artillery to support those in the front.

José Pascagaza León recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentó en Corea. Como él era miembro de la retaguardia, afirma que no tuvo las dificultades de los del frente, pero se sintió en peligro cuando el enemigo respondió con fuego después de que lanzaron morteros. Recuerda los combates en la Batalla de la Colina 180 y como tuvo que usar artillería pesada para apoyar a los que estaban en el frente.



José Vidal Beltrán Molano

Most Dangerous and Peaceful Moments / Momentos Más Peligrosos y de Paz

José Vidal Beltrán Molano recalls the fear he experienced during night patrols and how different periods of rest and relaxation felt. He explains how night patrol was especially dangerous as they were unaware if they would be ambushed at any minute. On the other hand, he states that periods of R and R in Japan instilled in him a sense of incredible peace and happiness.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano recuerda el miedo que tenía durante los patrullajes nocturnos y cómo se sentía tan diferente durante el periodo de descanso y relajación. Explica que la patrulla nocturna era muy peligrosa ya que no sabían si serían emboscados en cualquier momento. Por el otro lado, afirma que los períodos de R&R en Japón le inculcaron una sensación de paz y felicidad increíble.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge/part of Battle of Pusan Perimeter

Joseph Dunford, Sr. shares that his first battle in the Korean War was the 2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge. He explains how the North Koreans broke the lines and he fought to push them back. He shares how responded using his training. He knew his role was critical.



Joseph F. Gibson

First Battle Came Soon

Joseph F. Gibson describes going straight from a ship to a train after landing at the Pusan Perimeter. He explains how he was trained to jump into a ditch when he heard shooting. He shares how shortly after arriving in the Pusan Perimeter he was under fire by the North Koreans. He shares how he had to run alongside the Nak dong River while dodging bullets.



"All Hell Broke Loose"

Joseph F. Gibson describes having to protect seventeen injured patients who were under his care in the medic tent as the Chinese broke the line. He explains how his unit was only fourteen miles from the Chinese border. He explains how he was told that the war would be over soon since they had pushed all the way through North Korea. He describes how the Chinese joined the North Koreans and how he took a lot of incoming fire in order to hold his tent safe from invasion. He shares how many Chinese were captured by the US and the loss of a Catholic priest.



Joseph Gruber

Most Dangerous Moment

Joseph Gruber's responsibilities during the war included delivering mail from Busan to Incheon. He recounts being shot at by enemy forces one day which resulted in two of their tires being hit. He credits a detachment of GI's following them with running off those who had shot at them and getting them back on the road with repaired tires.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



The Punch Bowl

Joseph Horton describes his experience trying to hold a line against North Korean forces. He recalls his first real combat duty and seeing wounded and killed soldiers. He describes how his job was to extricate the wounded from the battlefield.



Deployed to Korea

Joseph Horton describes being drafted and not knowing he was going to Korea. He talks about going to Arkansas and California where he proposed to his wife on the phone, not knowing he was going to Korea. He discusses sailing to Korea in September of 1952 and explains that he landed in Incheon in October of 1952.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Stacked Up Like Cordwood

Joseph Annello describes the cold winter's affect on dead bodies during the Korean War. He explains that bodies would be stacked up like wood and frozen limbs would have to be broken to evacuate them. He describes the horror of the situation not setting in until after the fighting had ended.



Why Waste A Bullet

Joseph Annello describes being hit with a bullet and hand grenade. He describes it being the last thing he remembers before being prodded by a Chinese bayonet. He explains that he became a prisoner of war and was soon left by the side of the road to die.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

"It Was the Fourth of July"

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes that they were stuck at the top of the hill because of a roadblock created by the Chinese. He shares how this maneuver blocked the US soldiers in with their trucks, supplies, and ammunition. He shares how he along with other men charged the Chinese blockade but were outnumbered. He shares how he was shot an injured. He describes how once the trucks were filled with injured, Chinese continued to attack the soldiers from all sides. He explains how he was shot again but this time in his soldier. He describes shots by the Chinese that sounded like the 4th of July.



Joseph Lissberger

Danger Beyond the Front Lines

Joseph Lissberger talks about the danger of setting up loudspeakers beyond the front lines for psychological warfare. He mentions that five men in his unit were killed while performing this important duty.



Joseph M. Picanzi

Mind Plays Tricks on You

Joseph Picanzi discusses his first night patrol at the Berlin Outpost and the one patrol in which his unit encountered mines. He provides an account of the four-hour night patrol and feeling as if his mind was playing tricks on him. After returning from the patrol, he recounts how the grenades would be counted and collected. He continues to share details about another patrol in which his unit was forced to navigate mines and were evacuated by helicopter.



I Was the Lucky One

Joseph Picanzi discusses the purpose of each type of patrol and different issues while living on the line. He emphasizes how he was a lucky one because he came out of the war without being wounded. Yet, he recalls one night where he came extremely close to being wounded during a mortar attack.



Joseph P. Ferris

Kimpo under Air Attack

In this clip, a Joseph P. Ferris describes what it was like being under enemy air attack. He also recalls one of his experiences taking care of a fellow airman who became a causality.



Joseph R. Owen

Lack of Preparation

Joseph R. Owen details the lack of experience his outfit had before being sent to Korea. They were trained for only two weeks at Camp Pendleton in California. He taught them the rest of their skills on the ship heading towards Korea. He describes how their lack of preparation showed once they had their first combat in Incheon.



The Chinese: Morale Destoyer and Fear Creator

Joseph R. Owen describes his greatest moment of terror facing the Chinese at the Chosin Reservoir. He had to persevere and be a leader despite the fact that the Chinese were coming in droves attacking. He describes the causalities witnessed on the scene as well.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Surrounded at Taejon

When they woke up in the middle of the night in Taejon, Joseph Monscvitz and his unit saw a large tank that quickly started shooting at them. They jumped in a sewer to seek cover, but soon learned that they would need to escape further. Joseph Monscvitz explains how he made the wrong choice, ended up being surrounded again in a little village, and found himself as a Prisoner of War.



Prisoner of War

Joseph Monscvitz describes his experience as a Prisoner of War marching from Taejon to Seoul to Pyongyang. He remembers being interrogated by a Russian soldier and eventually loaded onto a train that he thought was headed to Manchuria. The train stopped in the Sunchon Tunnel where many of the men were killed, but Joseph Monscvitz was fortunate to respond.



Joseph T. Wagener

Operation Piledriver

Joseph Wagener remembers an incident during the Spring Offensive of April 1951 when UN troops tried to locate Chinese forces across the Imjin River. In order to assist the Belgian B Company, he provides an explanation for his unit's occupation of a key bridgehead. Despite reports from nearby villagers that the Chinese had recently retreated with their equipment, he describes the Chinese positioning themselves a mile away from their location. He elaborates on his experience during the Chinese assault on the Luxembourg battalion as they held the bridgehead.



Josephine Krowinski

A Nurse's Duty in Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not know anything about Korea before she was assigned to go, but she always trusted that wherever the Army needed nurses, that's where she was to go. She always did what she knew best, how to nurse people back to health ever since she graduated from nursing school in 1942. Josephine Krowinski was never scared and she always felt prepared for anything.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Josue Orlando Bernal García shares his memories of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that Chinese troops waited until replacement troops were sent in to unleash their terrible attack. He describes the chaos that ensued after they were infiltrated by enemy troops and the way in which American troops were mobilized to support them. He details his role during the ordeal and the resulting toll of the battle.

Josue Orlando Bernal García comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él explica que las tropas chinas esperaron hasta que se enviaran tropas de reemplazo para empezar el ataque. Describe el caos que resultó cuando entro el enemigo, y la forma en que se movilizaron las tropas estadounidenses para apoyarlos. También el relata su experiencia y el precio resultante de la batalla.



A Typical Day / Un Día Típico

Josue Orlando Bernal García describes the tasks that soldiers were required to complete when they were not in the front lines. He explains what night patrols entailed when they were not in Combat. He shares the story of a chance encounter with an enemy patrol group and recalls how the North Koreans said, “Colombia number one,” and allowed them to leave without any fighting.

Josue Orlando Bernal García describe las tareas que los soldados debían realizar cuando no estaban en combate. Explica como eran las patrullas nocturnas cuando estaban de retaguardia. Comparte la historia de una noche de patrulla que se encontraron con un grupo de patrulla del enemigo y recuerda cómo los norcoreanos dijeron: “Colombia número uno” y los dejaron irse sin luchar.



Colombian Military Training / Entrenamiento Militar en Colombia

Josue Orlando Bernal García shares his prior knowledge of Korea and the stories of his training. Like many others, he explains that he did not know much about Korea before he decided to enlist. He details how they were trained in Colombia and shares a story of how they were attacked by guerrilla fighters in Cundinamarca on a training mission.

Josue Orlando Bernal García comparte sus conocimientos previos de Corea y las historias de su entrenamiento en Colombia. Como muchos otros, explica que no sabía mucho sobre Corea antes de decidir a prestar su servicio. Detalla cómo fueron entrenados en Colombia y comparte una historia de cómo fueron atacados por guerrilleros en Cundinamarca en una misión de entrenamiento.



Jovencio P. Dominguez

I Was Scared at First

Jovencio P. Dominguez highlights his role providing artillery support for the infantry units. Since he worked with the artillery, he states he was away from the front line and can not speak on any dangerous moments. Yet, he recalls at first he was scared but eventually he became accustomed to the artillery and was no longer frightened.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Stationed in Japan

Juan Andres Arebalos recounts his experience sailing on the USS Hope to Japan for advanced training on weaponry and fitness after completing basic training. He notes how every soldier had duties aboard the ship, and he worked in the ship's galley. He shares he visited the location in Hiroshima where the atomic bomb landed during WWII, vividly remembering the indention in the land and people searching for belongings.



Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



The Battle of Taejon

Juan Andres Arebalos provides an overview of the North Korean's advancements in Taejon. He recounts retreating from the city to reinforce his troops. He remembers observing the city burning after the North Koreans seized it. He provides information about General William Dean, the United States general who was captured during the retreat from Taejon.



Tales of Survival

Juan Andres Arebalos admits he did not feel he would survive the situation in Taejon. He comments on how enemy troops would snatch the food and supplies dropped by United Nations airplanes. He recalls being so hungry he ate fly-infested rice in a South Korean village. He recalls an enemy sniper shooting at them as they filled their canteens with water at a creek. He admits to being unable to sleep at night because of his fear.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Juan Figueroa Nazario

Typical Day for a KP / Día Típico Para un KP

Juan Figueroa Nazario explains his line of work in the kitchen. He recounts that he did not know how to cook before he entered the army but was forced to learn quickly. He remembers how he was assigned to deliver hot food to the front lines which endangered him at times. He recalls the terrible sight of seeing dead soldiers piled up on either side of his trek to deliver food.

Juan Figueroa Nazario explica su línea de trabajo en la cocina. Él cuenta que no sabía cocinar antes de ingresar al ejército, pero se vio obligado a aprender rápidamente. Se le asignó la entrega de comida caliente a las líneas del frente, y ese trabajo era peligroso. Recuerda la terrible escena de ver montañas de soldados muertos en ambos lados de su caminata para entregar alimentos.



Juan Manibusan

Friendly Fire and Fallen Comrades

Juan Manibusan recounts his efforts to save an injured comrade. Injured himself, he details lifting a badly wounded soldier from a bunker and applying a tourniquet to the soldier's leg before leaving to search for help. He describes descending into a valley and climbing another hill, searching for the safe zone. He shares that a hand grenade was thrown at him as friendly fire and recounts the moment they realized he was one of their own.



Searching for Food Amidst Destruction

Juan Manibusan recounts his first impressions of Korea upon arrival. He remembers the poor shape of the country as well as observing people desperately searching for food. He compares it to his time spent as a child in a Japanese concentration camp during World War II. He also shares how his experiences there impacted his marriage.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Brutal First Days / Primeros Días Brutales

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez presents an overview of his time in Korea as he was only there three months before being wounded in combat. He recoils at the intensity and brutality of the war as he shares a story of being told to bathe in a river which was full of corpses. He recalls having to trek for days to reach the Yalu River and ruining his kidneys due to a lack of available drinking water. Once they arrived at their destination, He explains that Chinese forces outnumbered them and all his men, but two individuals were killed in action.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez describe sus impresiones de Corea, ya que sólo estuvo allí tres meses antes de ser herido en combate. Se horroriza cuando se acuerda de brutalidad de la guerra y comparte la historia del tercer día en combate que lo mandaron a bañarse en un río que estaba lleno de cadáveres. Recuerda haber tenido que caminar por días para llegar al río Yalu y cuenta que se arruino los riñones debido a la falta de agua potable. Una vez que llegaron a su destino, él explica que las fuerzas chinas los superaban en número a ellos y a todos sus hombres murieron menos dos individuos que fueron heridos.



Wounded in Combat / Herido en Combate

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez recalls the incident which ended his time in Korea. He details how he was saved by Green Berets and received first aid after being injured. He explains that he had to learn the password to enter the base and was subjected to questioning upon arrival. He shares that when he entered the base, he met Colonel Harris and unbeknown to him, it was Thanksgiving, so eating that meal is the last thing he remembers, as after he wound up spending a year in the hospital with a diagnosis of amnesia.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez recuerda el incidente que puso fin a su tiempo como combatiente. Detalla cómo se salvó y como recibió primeros auxilios después de haber sido rescatado por los Green Berets. Explica que tuvo que aprender la contraseña para ingresar a la base y fue interrogado al llegar. Él comparte que cuando ingresó a la base, habló al coronel Harris y, sin saberlo, era el día de Acción de Gracias y recibió una cena que es lo último que recuerda, ya que terminó pasando un año en el hospital.



Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains that he did not have any prior knowledge of the war in Korea had never heard anything about the country. He remembers that they boarded the ship without being told where their destination was. He shares that the only thing they were told was “Good luck and Good aim” by the honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín at Fort Buchanan.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica que no tenía ningún conocimiento previo de la guerra de Corea y nunca había oído nada sobre el país. Recuerda que abordaron el barco sin que les dijeran a dónde iban. Comparte que lo único que les dijeron fue “Buena suerte y buena puntería” por parte del honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín en Fort Buchanan.



The Purple Heart / El Corazón Púrpura

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains the impact that the war had on his life. He shares that he was awarded a Purple Heart and Bronze Star but never received the paperwork for these distinctions due to red tape within the military. He reflects on the most difficult moment which was when a friend died in his arms, as well as his battles with PTSD.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su vida. Él comparte que recibió el Corazón Púrpura y la Estrella de Bronce, pero nunca recibió la documentación para estas medallas debido a la burocracia dentro del ejército. Se acuerda del momento más difícil que fue cuando un amigo suyo murió en sus brazos y sus batallas contra el trastorno de estrés postraumático.



Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales

Lost in a Minefield / Perdido en un Campo Minado

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales speaks about his relationship with commanding officers. He shares the story of when an officer sent him as a messenger after he asked to be relieved from the front line. He remembers that the information he was given was inaccurate, and he found himself lost and disoriented in the woods until he was finally found by Greek troops who helped him out of a minefield.

Juan R. González Morales habla de su experiencia con los oficiales americanos. Comparte la historia de cuando un oficial lo envió como mensajero después de que pidió ser relevado del frente. Recuerda que la información que le dieron no era fiable y se encontró perdido y desorientado en el bosque y finalmente fue encontrado por las tropas griegas que lo ayudaron a salir de un campo minado.



Lost Battalion / Batallón Perdido

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales describes his first memories of Korea. He recollects feeling uneasy in Busan and being struck by the smell of the fertilizer used. He remembers that the first few days were difficult as his battalion, Company L, was lost for days during a training mission, and they were forced to drink contaminated water. He recalls that the news of this disappearance made headlines in Puerto Rico.

Juan R. González-Morales describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda que se sintió incómodo al llegar en Busan porque el olor del fertilizante que usaban era tan desagradable. Recuerda que los primeros días fueron difíciles ya que su batallón, la Compañía L, estuvo perdido por días durante una misión de entrenamiento y se vieron obligados a beber agua contaminada. Él se acuerda que la noticia de esta desaparición llego hasta Puerto Rico.



Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales discusses his prior knowledge of the war in Korea and his feelings about mandatory service for Puerto Ricans. He explains that he did not fully form an idea on whether Puerto Ricans should be sent to war. He clarifies that he was happy to join the United States Army but did not want to be sent to Korea at that time.

Juan R. González-Morales discute su conocimiento previo de la guerra en Corea y sus sentimientos sobre el servicio obligatorio para los puertorriqueños. Él explica que no tenía opinión sobre si los puertorriqueños debiesen ser enviados a la guerra. Aclara que estaba feliz de unirse al ejército de los Estados Unidos, pero no quería que lo enviaran a la guerra en ese momento.



Julien De Backer

Dangers at the Observation Post

When he arrived, Julien De Backer received his assignment immediately to go to an observation post. He had to warn the allied troops if the enemy was coming. Among his biggest fears during this time was not the Chinese or the North Koreans, but rather the poisonous snakes.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Medical Unit / Unidad Médica

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez describes his job as a medic during the war. He explains that his unit was responsible for gathering all injured soldiers and administering first aid. At times, he was forced to conduct operations on injured soldiers, even though he was not trained on how to perform surgeries. He adds that he was responsible for referring patients to the M.A.S.H. unit, which was better equipped to handle the most severe injuries.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez cuenta como era su trabajo como médico durante la guerra. Explica que su unidad era responsable de sacar a todos los soldados heridos y tratarlos. Se vio obligado a realizar operaciones en soldados heridos, a pesar de que no estaba entrenado. Además de tratar a los heridos, estaba encargado de referir pacientes a la unidad M.A.S.H. porque estaba mejor equipada para manejar las lesiones más graves.



Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez provides an account of the Battle of Kelly Hill. The 65th Infantry suffered many losses during this battle and needed reinforcements multiple times. He explains that Chinese forces set up traps to capture prisoners, but the traps, rigged with explosives, resulted in several casualties. After seeing so much death, he shares that he suffered vivid nightmares upon his return.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez brinda un relato de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. La Infantería 65 sufrió muchas bajas durante esa batalla y mandaron reemplazos varias veces. Explica que las fuerzas chinas tenían trampas para capturar prisioneros, pero las trampas, llenas de explosivos, resultaron en varias bajas. Después de ver tanta muerte, comparte que sufrió pesadillas a su regreso.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Wounded During the Battle of Old Baldy / Herido en la Batalla de Old Baldy

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas presents an overview of the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was severely wounded. He explains that the battle was particularly brutal because the enemy offensive was conducted when replacement troops were entering the front. Furthermore, he states that it was an unwinnable fight because they were outnumbered ten-to-one. He remembers how he and others sought refuge in a bunker and describes the way in which they were wounded.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla del Viejo Calvo en la que fue herido gravemente. Explica que la batalla fue brutal porque la ofensiva enemiga empezó cuando las tropas de reemplazo entraban al frente. Además, afirma que fue una pelea imposible de ganar porque los superaban en número diez a uno. Recuerda cómo él y otros buscaron refugio en un búnker y describe la forma en que fueron heridos.



Rescue from Combat / Rescate del Combate

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas shudders at the memories of regaining consciousness in the middle of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that he was disoriented and could barely see as his face was covered in blood and dirt. He laments the loss of his friend during this battle and explains how he and others were able to reach safety and were eventually rescued.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de como recupero la conciencia en el medio de la Batalla del Old Baldy. Explica que estaba desorientado y apenas podía ver porque tenía la cara cubierta de sangre y tierra. Lamenta que murió su amigo durante esta batalla y explica cómo él y otros pudieron ponerse a salvo y eventualmente fueron rescatados.



Called to Action / Llamado Para Ir a la Guerra

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas discusses how he received the news of being drafted into the war. He explains that he wished to pursue a military career and understood that he had to serve in Korea to advance. Even though his brother returned from Korea before he left, he states that they did not discuss the war and thus he was unaware what awaited him in the front lines.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas cuenta cómo recibió la noticia de ser reclutado para la guerra. Él explica que deseaba seguir una carrera militar y entendía que tenía que prestar su servicio en la guerra si quería avanzar. Aunque su hermano regresó de Corea antes de que él se fuera, afirma que no hablaron de la guerra y, por lo tanto, no sabía lo que le esperaba en el frente.



Surviving the Attack / Sobrevivir al Ataque

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas shares his memories of being wounded in action. He details the way in which he used trenches to avoid being hit by napalm during the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that he felt like a dead person as he was convinced that he would never recover.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de haber sido herido en combate. Detalla la forma en que utilizó las trincheras para evitar las bombas incendiarias durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Explica que se sentía como un muerto porque estaba convencido de que nunca se recuperaría.



The Voyage / El Viaje

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas details the voyage to Korea. He describes the way in which they travelled through Colombia to reach the coast and then by ship to Hawaii, Japan, and finally Busan. He remembers the cold they encountered arriving on the peninsula in January.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas detalla el viaje a Corea. Describe la forma en que viajaron a través de Colombia para llegar a Cartagena y luego en barco a Hawái, Japón y finalmente Busan. Recuerda el frío que sufrieron al llegar a la península en enero.



Kaku Akagi

Experiencing Discrimination

Kaku Akagi shares he was ten years old when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. He remembers listening to President Franklin D. Roosevelt address the nation on the radio. He recalls going through town on his way to school the following morning and seeing a sign hanging from a storefront that said, “No Japs Allowed.” He speaks about a time when someone on the sidelines during a basketball game intentionally tripped him as he ran down the court. He describes the next four years as “tough” but says the experience helped him empathize with others from diverse backgrounds.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Keith G. Hall

Becoming an Officer

Keith G. Hall was selected to return to New Zealand for officer training. He describes choosing to return to Korea to avoid the daily routine of work back in New Zealand. In that sense, Korea was a welcome adventure.



Slippery Slopes and Minefields

Keith G. Hall describes the dangers of defusing anti-personnel mines, as they included both trip wires and three-prong detonation features. In one instance, a sergeant working with him slipped on a slope and exploded a mine. His body was thrown onto another mine, which Keith G. Hall had to deactivate in hopes of saving the sergeant.



Get Out of This Field!

Keith G. Hall describes training reinforcements to clear minefields. Inserting pins into mines in order to deactivate them was of utmost importance. In one instance, a soldier forgot and had clear the field fast.



Keith H. Fannon

Returning Home from the Forgotten War

Keith H. Fannon describes how the mail worked during the war and how his family received information about the Korean war. He also talks about coming home to friends that were unaware of the war and the impact the war has had on his life since.



Ken Thamert

Reimagining the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert recalls traveling to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers, learning not to take the bottom bunk due to all of the vomiting. Upon arriving in Incheon, he describes the overwhelming feeling when imagining what other soldiers experienced during the infamous Incheon Landing at the start of the war. He remembers seeing devastation all around.



Kenneth Borchers

The Enemy Talked To Us

Bodies lay dying on the battlefield not too far from where the troops were stationed on the hill they were defending territory. Kenneth Borchers recalled the sounds bodies were making as the men were dying during the night. There was death all around and soldiers moaning from their pain was a constant sound.



A Breakfast Surprise

The men in Kenneth Borchers's platoon were enjoying a delicatessen of eating pancakes while on the front line one morning. As they got situated on the ground to eat, they saw the enemy running through their camp. The US soldiers never could fire a shot before the enemy passed their camp and were down the hill.



Attack By the Chinese and the Rats

After spending nights as an observer on the hill they were defending, Kenneth Borchers continued to report to Lt. Stone that there were people coming up the road, but no one believed him. The area they were located had been fairly secured with barbed wire, but around 9pm, the rats began to run.
Therefore, Kenneth Borchers knew that his troops were under attack by the Chinese who mounted the barbed wire fences by using acrobatic moves to scale the fence.



Kenneth F. Dawson

War is War

Kenneth F. Dawson trained in Waiouru in New Zealand before sailing to Japan and then Korea. Assigned as a driver in Korea, he carried ammunition to the front lines. The work was dangerous and several men had been blown up before he was assigned to the job. He drove ammunition to Panmunjeom, but he dismisses the danger of being blown up by asserting that "war is war."



The Children Prayed for Him

Kenneth F. Dawson describes an incident in which he heard cries for help on the front lines. A soldier had been hit and needed a stretcher. As he reached the soldiers who had called, a mortar hit them. Upon return to his truck, he discovered bullet holes in the door. Kenneth Dawson attributes his survival to the children of Niue Island.



Always Alone

Kenneth F. Dawson describes his experiences delivering supplies to the front lines. No one wanted to accompany him due to the danger. One cold night in the middle of a battle, he drove with his lights off to the front lines to deliver food and cigarettes to the soldiers. Flares lit his way to the top of the hill.



Hill 355: Death and Danger

Kenneth F. Dawson remembers being in the thick of fighting when the Chinese tried to take Hill 355. Driving up to deliver ammunition, he met an oncoming truck of Canadians. Blood was pouring out of the truck. Another time, on the Imjin River, he pulled the body of a dead American from the water and buried it in a sand bank. In a third instance, he drove a family north to the 38th Parallel so they could rejoin their relatives.



Kenneth Gordon

Most Difficult Thing

Kenneth Gordon shares the not knowing if you were going to leave was the most difficult part of his time in Korea. He recalls how he always carried his violin in one hand and his M1 Rifle in the other. He recounts a story of being injured while cleaning his gun one last time. He comments on another challenge he faced which was maintaining his violin throughout the time he was there, and he shares how a POW provided needed advice for doing just that.



Kenneth J. Winters

Camp Liberty Bell Attack

Kenneth Winters recalls his memory of the Camp Liberty Bell Attack. This incident took place on August 10, 1967, when his unit, while on a tree cutting detail in the DMZ were ambushed by North Korean soldiers. He talks about being shot by enemy fire and being wounded by grenade shrapnel. Four US soldiers were killed and 17 wounded in the attack.



Going Home, Coming Back to Korea

Kenneth Winters talks about his time in Korea from 1967-1968. He talks about going back to US after he was wounded and returning to Korea and the DMZ, the site of an ambush he was involved in just a few months prior.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Kirk Wolford

We Knew We Were at War

Kirk Wolford tells of situation he witnessed while serving on the front lines. He recalls his communication chief stepping out into the road in the middle of the night to confront what he thought was friendly noise only to find himself facing a Russian tank, the first they would encounter followed by masses of Chinese soldiers. He remembers coming to the realization that he was indeed fighting in a war.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Preparation for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea's job was to prepare for the Incheon landing by labeling, measuring, and counting vehicles, ammunition, and supplies. He also prepared vehicles to be secured on the Navy ships during transit. Lacy Bethea really trusted and looked up to his commander because he knew that wherever the commander went, he would be safe.



Final Preparations for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea worked with the embarkation captain by making diagrams for the placement of vehicles on the ship. Luckily, he was able to work with many high ranking officers while preparing the military supplies. Some officers also took Lacy Bethea to San Diego, California for drinks and finalizing preparations for the Incheon Landing.



Lawrence Elwell

Grateful to Be Alive

Lawrence Elwell describes being wounded in a battle near Hagaru-ri after getting caught in crossfire with the Chinese. He notes that a Navy corpsman tended to his wounded right arm and stopped the bleeding. He shares he was then evacuated to Yokoska, Japan. He explains that his injury prevented him from returning to the front lines and adds he was not eager to go back into the firefight anyway. While hospitalized in Japan, he recalls being awarded, rather unceremoniously, the Purple Heart. He recounts how he was later sent to a U.S. Navy hospital in Pensacola, Florida, to finish his recovery.



Letter Home

Lawrence Elwell recalls a vivid memory of sitting on a hillside in North Korea near Yudamri. He recalls the timing of the event as early December 1950 and shares he was writing his father a letter. He remembers explaining in the letter how they are surrounded by the enemy and that he was not certain he would make it to his upcoming twentieth birthday.



Tonight Marine, You Die!

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamri. Among his revelations, he speaks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that, ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured in the United States which resulted in high casualties among American troops.



Leandro Diaz Miranda

Battle of Kelly Hill / Batalla de Kelly Hill

Leandro Díaz Miranda explains the difficulty the 65th Regiment encountered at the Battle of Kelly Hill. He details the terrible fighting as they were outnumbered ten-to-one. They suffered many casualties and thus the troops were completely demoralized by the end of the battle.

Leandro Díaz Miranda explica la dificultad que encontró el Regimiento 65 en la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Detalla lo terrible que fue la lucha, ya que fueron superados en número diez a uno. Sufrieron muchas bajas y, por lo tanto, las tropas estaban completamente desmoralizadas al final de la batalla.



Leo C. Jackey

Making Their Way Down the Mountain

Leo C. Jackey recounts the challenges his unit and others faced in making their way down the narrow roads from the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir region. He recalls one truck getting too close to the edge and going over the side of the mountain. He shares his unit was one of the last to leave Heungnam.



Leo Glover

It shook us up

Leo Glover recalls what he most remembers from his tours in Korea. He describes one particular mission to fly into the Chosin Reservoir to retrieve men and fly them to safety. He explains that the plane's skin was very thin and the men feared grazing a piece of ice would be disastrous.



Leo Ruffing

This was God's plan

When Leo Ruffing first went to Korea, he was very frightened. He remembers crying in the compound. However, after that first night of crying, he never had that kind of fear again. He shares that he believed that he was fulfilling the will of God.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Armistice Day

Leon "Andy" Anderson shares his experience being there for the Armistice in July 1953. He explains how he was near the front lines in the recon rear area. He shares how the Chinese and North Koreans were shooting at the US troops all the way up to the last minute before the Armistice. He shares how he celebrated the end of the war.



Leona Stern

Seeing the Troops Off

Leona Stern recalls hearing about Charles deploying from someone in her office. She shares how they were not supposed to know about the men shipping out, but her father drove her to the railroad station to say goodbye. At the station, she remembers soldiers asking them to deliver things to their loved ones because they did not know what to do with their belongings. She discusses how it took them about a week to organize and send all of the personal items to the families.



Leonard Laconia

Just How Close We Were To The Enemy

Leonard Laconia's jeep squadron moved around from Seoul to Pyongyang and up to the North Korean Airports that he noted as K23 and K24 (Pyongyang). He recalled spending most of his time around K23 and he was told originally there were 30,000 Chinese headed their way, but there was actually 380,000 Chinese soldiers. Leonard Laconia's missions, known as a "sorties," would only last about 15 minutes (refuel & amp; rearm) because they would run out of ammunition so quickly due to the number of Chinese they were fighting.



The Chinese Were Smart, But Napalm Was Stronger

When Leonard Laconia's air squadron went on "strafing" missions, the Chinese were smart to just lie down flat on the ground to keep from getting shot which was a great defense tactic. Leonard Laconia's group responded by dropping napalm which wiped out most of the Chinese troops. He described that one canister of napalm would cover the diameter of a football field spreading across consuming the oxygen in the air and heat would rise under the plane. The Chinese wore thick heavy coats during the winter and the napalm would just stick to it aiding in the burning of bodies.



US B-29s Couldn't Stop the Chinese

Leonard Laconia stated that the Chinese would fly MiGs from Manchuria, but they would burn fuel so quickly that they rarely made it to Korea. The US would fly B-29s up and down the Yalu River dropping bombs to destroy bridges, but it didn't stop the Chinese from coming down into Korea. The Chinese still found a way to get across the Yalu River.



Bed Check Charlie

An enemy plane was nicknamed "Bed Check Charlie" by The Stars and Stripes newspaper which was provided for every US soldier. In the newspaper, it threatened that "Bed Check Charlie" would come at night and killed one of the men from his squadron by dropping grenades and mortar shells. Leonard Laconia remembered that many of the enemy planes maneuvered well through the night sky, so soldiers were afraid of them.



Leonard Nicholls

Observation Post Observations

Leonard Nicholls manned the observation posts while on duty as a radio operator. The front lines were traumatic. Traveling to a post on Hill #365 took them through Chinese lines. He describes the process of calling in artillery fire on Chinese positions.



"Walk Away Smartly"

Leonard Nicholls recalls an episode when he was injured by a errant dynamite blast. After setting up the charge, the lieutenant told him to "walk away smartly" so as not to trip and fall. Although he panicked and ran, the blast shot earth and debris far enough for a large rock to injure his knee.



Leslie Peate

Korean Porters

Leslie Peate elaborates on the work of the Korean porters. He defines them as mostly farmers and/or anyone who would help out during the war. He shares that those men worked harder than any other group of people during the war and stresses that they received no recognition at all and most likely no payments for their efforts.



Lewis Ebert

An Accident at K-2

Lewis Ebert was near a rocket that was accidentally fired and blew up a tractor trailer on base. That trailer was parked near him when it blew up because he was working at the K-2 Air Base. Luckily, Lewis Ebert didn't get injured in the incident.



Preparing For and Entering the Korean War

After the Korean War started in June 1950, Lewis Ebert traveled to San Fransisco to prepare to leave for Japan and arrived there the middle of July. In September 1950, he was put on a train to travel to the south-end of Japan and then flew into Taegu, South Korea (September 16, 1950, the day after the Incheon Landing). The ROK (Republic of Korea) were flying out of Taegu which had a steel mat runway.



The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lloyd Thompson

Creeping Up Behind Us

Suspecting it may have been a Yakovlev (Yak-9), the enemy flew behind Lloyd Thompson's plane close enough that the radar indicated only one plane. When they landed, the Yak started dropping bombs on the runway at Gimpo Air Force Base. The Air Force responded with anti-aircraft weapons and blew the enemy plane apart.



Louis G. Surratt

Killed in Action Versus Missing in Action

Louis Surratt served in the 8th Fighter Bomber Wing at Suwon. Suwon had the longest runway in Korea and housed three different Air Force squadrons of about 30 pilots each. The 8th Fighter Bomber Wing oversaw the F80 Shooting Star. Louis Surrat's job was casualty reporting and awards and decorations. He estimates that around thirty pilots were reported as either killed or missing in action.



Louis J. Weber

Chorwon and Battle of Triangle Hill

Louis J. Weber explains how he landed. in Inchon. He shares how he was sent to Chorwon, which was part of the Iron Triangle. He explains that he was an infantryman. He shares that his job was to protect his bunker while sending out artillery to fight the Chinese.



Luigi Montani

"A Constant Tension"

Mr. Montani discusses what it was like on the DMZ patrol. He vividly describes what the DMZ looked like: A no man's land with barbed wire, watch towers, and check points. Mr. Montani describes his time patrolling the DMZ as "a constant tension". This clip could be used to introduce students to the danger that still existed (exists) after the armistice along the DMZ.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Luis Arcenio Sánchez shares the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls an incident in which he and his lieutenant were almost killed while they were relaxing and ended up laughing at the fact that they were covered in dirt from the explosions. He additionally describes the fear of going out on patrol for three days as most times forward observers did not return alive.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda un incidente en el que él y su teniente casi mueren mientras se relajaban y terminaron riéndose del hecho de que estaban cubiertos de tierra. También describe el miedo que tenía cuando tuvo que salir a patrullar por tres días, ya que la mayoría de las veces los observadores de avanzada no regresaban vivos.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

Volunteering for a Dangerous War / Voluntariado Para una Guerra Peligrosa

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández offers his views on why he decided to volunteer for the war even after seeing friends return to Korea with amputations. He explains that they embarked with courage and discussed their futures on the voyage to Korea. The reality of the war instilled fear within him upon arriving and he was unsure he would return as he heard his friends die over the radio.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández ofrece sus recuerdos de por qué decidió presentarse como voluntario para la guerra incluso después de ver a sus amigos regresar de Corea con amputaciones. Explica que se embarcaron el barco con coraje y discutían su futuro en el viaje a Corea. La realidad de la guerra lo lleno de miedo al llegar y no estaba seguro de si regresaría cuando escuchó a sus amigos morir por la radio.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

Legacy of Batallón Colombia / Legado del Batallón Colombia

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describes the most dangerous battles of the war. He provides an account of his participation in the Battle of Old Baldy and Hill 180 including a moment of heroism in which he charged up a hill to save his friend’s life. He believes that the battle of Old Baldy was a great triumph for Colombia as they the fought with so much valor.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describe las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Brinda un relato de su participación en la Batalla de Old Baldy y la colina 180 y cuenta sobre su momento de heroísmo en el que subió una colina para salvar la vida de su amigo. Él cree que la batalla de Old Baldy fue un gran triunfo para Colombia porque lucharon con mucho valor y el legado del batallón.



The Voyage / El Viaje

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa remembers the fear and happiness he felt on his voyage to Korea. He explains that they enjoyed themselves during a stop in Puerto Rico as they were entertained by Celia Cruz but suffered terrible seasickness on the boat. He recalls the fear and nerves they experienced as they landed and were being attacked on the first day.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa recuerda la tristeza y la alegría que sintió en su viaje a Corea. Explica que se divirtieron durante una escala en Puerto Rico porque Celia Cruz los entretuvo, pero sufrieron por el mareo del barco. Recuerda el miedo y los nervios que tenían cuando llegaron y fueron bombardeados el primer día.



Luis Maria Jimenez Jimenez

A Serious Ultimatum / Un Ultimátum Serio

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez shares his memories of Old Baldy in 1953 and 1954. He recalls a very serious incident in which the captain of their Battalion was captured by the Chinese. He explains that there was an ultimatum following the incident and recounts the details of how the incident was handled.

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez comparte sus recuerdos de Old Baldy en 1953 y 1954. Recuerda un incidente muy grave en el que el capitán de su batallón fue capturado por los chinos. Explica que hubo un ultimátum después del incidente y relata los detalles de cómo se manejó el incidente.



Luis Perez Alvarez

Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Luis A. Perez Alvarez describes the living conditions in Korea. He remembers the rations they received while on the front lines. Moreover, he tells the story in which he lost his eyesight and was almost discharged early because of his injury.

Luis A. Pérez Alvarez describe las condiciones de vida en Corea. Recuerda las raciones que recibían cuando estaban en las líneas de combate. Además, cuenta la historia en la que perdió la vista y estuvo a punto de ser dado de alta a causa de su herida.



The Front Lines / Las Líneas del Frente

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his memories about the first time he saw the front lines in Korea. He remembers it as being hell on earth. Additionally, he shares his impressions of the impoverished civilians and the Korean country ravaged by war.

Luis A. Pérez Álvarez comparte sus recuerdos sobre la primera vez que vio las líneas del frente en Corea. Lo recuerda como un infierno. Además, comparte sus impresiones sobre el país devastados por la guerra y la pobreza de los civiles coreanos.



Luis Rosado Padua

The Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Luis Rosado Padua recalls his experience during the Battle of Kelly Hill. He was originally in the tank company, but when he was transferred to the medical unit, he was responsible for carrying out the wounded from the battlefield. He describes the carnage of the battle of Kelly Hill which seemed to be unending.

Luis Rosado Padua recuerda su experiencia durante la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Originalmente estaba en la compañía de tanques, pero cuando fue transferido a la unidad médica, estaba a cargo de sacar a los heridos del campo de batalla. Describe los horrores de la batalla de Kelly Hill que parecía interminable porque había tantos chinos que estaban peleando.



Toughest Battles / Las Batallas Más Duras

Luis Rosado Padua remembers the terrible fighting which ensued during the Battle of White Horse and Kelly Hill. He explains how much soldiers suffered during these battles. He adds that the cold weather exasperated the situation.

Luis Rosado Padua recuerda las terrible battallas de White Horse y Kelly Hill. Explica que sufrieron los soldados durante estas batallas porque pasaron hambre. Agrega que el clima frío exasperó la situación.



Manuel Antonio Gaitan Briceño

After the Armistice / Después del Armisticio

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describes the daily operations of the Colombian troops that arrived after the signing of the Armistice. He explains that while combat was over officially, there was a fear that fighting would break out again. Given this fear, he recounts the training that combat troops endured to remain prepared for anything.

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describe las operaciones diarias de las tropas colombianas que llegaron después de la firma del Armisticio. Explica que, aunque el combate había terminado oficialmente, existía el temor de que la lucha estallaría nuevamente. Por esta razón, él cuenta del entrenamiento que tenían las tropas de combate para estar preparadas por si empezara devuelta la guerra.



Maples and Metcalf

Shemya Island

Shemya Island has lights out on the runway on the right side, so pilots had to make sure that they didn't miss the small runway. This runway was near the Bering Sea, so it was very dangerous for the pilots. The runway was only 4 x5 miles long.



Marcelino C. Nardo

Dangers of Land Mines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls being among the group of Filipino soldiers sent as an advance unit to Christmas Hill. He recalls arriving about 2:00 in the morning and seeing piles of dead bodies. He explains their main mission was to lay landmines to protect the area from further Chinese encroachment.



Challenges of Serving on the Front Lines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls many difficulties of serving on the front lines. He remembers it was often hard to see where the enemy was and could only hear the sounds of incoming artillery fire. He shares the story of a friend being killed while trying to deliver water to the front line. He speaks frequently of the cold and the lack of equipment many encountered when facing Korea's cold winters.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

Choosing War over Colombian Violence / Elegir La Guerra Sobre la Violencia Colombiana

Mario Nel Bernal Avella explains his motivations for volunteering to fight in Korea. While he was in the military academy, Colombia erupted into the worst violence the country had seen in over 200 years. He felt that going to war was better than remaining in the unrest that existed in Colombia where he did not know where his enemy was. He states that if he were reborn, he would not change his military career as he is incredibly proud of his accomplishments.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella explica sus motivaciones para ofrecerse como voluntario para pelear en Corea. Mientras estaba en la academia militar, Colombia reinicio la violencia que el país no había visto en más de 200 años. Sentía que ir a la guerra era mejor que quedarse en Colombia donde no sabía dónde estaba su enemigo. Afirma que, si volviera a nacer, no cambiaría su carrera militar ya que está increíblemente orgulloso de sus logros.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recalls the difficulties troops faced when fighting in trench warfare near the 38th Parallel. He details the proximity between UN and enemy troops and explains that it was unfathomable that so much fighting could occur in such a small distance. He explains the perilous nature of mundane tasks, including going to the bathroom, when one is being constantly hunted.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentaron las tropas cuando peleaban en una guerra de trincheras cerca del Paralelo 38. Detalla la proximidad entre las fuerzas de la ONU y las tropas enemigas y explica que le parecía mentira que tanto combate pudiera ocurrir en una distancia tan pequeña. Explica los peligros de las tareas mundanas, incluido ir al baño, cuando a uno lo están cazando constantemente.



Worst Battle / La Batalla Más Dura

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recounts his experience at the Battle of Hill 400. He explains the ground operation which resulted in his platoon piercing into enemy lines and capturing a number of prisoners of war, documents, and bloody cash. He details the way in which American airpower covered the platoon with the use of machine guns and napalm. He led his platoon on this mission without ever firing his gun as he was forced to fight with his bayonet in hand-to-hand combat. He described the battle as hell on earth and went in with the mindset that he had to win or die.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata su experiencia en la Batalla de la Colina 400. Explica la misión que resulto en su pelotón atravesara las líneas enemigas y capturar a varios prisioneros de guerra, documentos y dinero. Relata la forma en que el aviones estadounidense cubrieron el pelotón con el uso de ametralladoras y napalm. El dirigió su pelotón en esta misión sin disparar su arma, pero estuvo obligado a luchar con su bayoneta en un combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Describió la batalla como el infierno en la tierra y entró con la mentalidad de que tenía que vencer o morir.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post-War Readjustment

Marion Burdette recounts walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed U.S. Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he recalls being able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. He describes how the impact of war on his life led him to feel that he needed to traveled the U.S. to release his stress. He recounts how he decided to reenlist in the Army for three years. He adds it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Marshall E. Davis

Former POWs sabotaging their generators

The location of their headquarters was near a fence line that once held POWS that had integrated with the locals but some became apart of a guerrilla style action that would sabotage their generators and effect the transmitter that was far away from the headquarters. When the transmitters would go out it was usually because of the generators. Marshall was assigned night duty and was always on the lookout for possible saboteurs affecting their generators.



Marshall W. Ritchey

Keep Your Head Down

Mitchell W. Ritchey describes the 3 most important things to making it home: stay warm, keep your head down (always wear your helmet), and doing everything you could to stay alive. He recalls the year he was there was marked by one of the coldest winters ('52) and says they had "Hoochies" that they made while on the front lines where they would dig a hole into the side of a mountain and put sands bags into the hill (in case of incoming mail-grenade drop) and 3-4 bunks at one time. Most of the men slept in sleeping bags and Mitchell said he never took his boots off.



Martin Rothenberg

Mission Impossible: Speaking a Foreign Language

Martin Rothenbert was proud that the US Army had provided soldiers with a book containing Korean instructions and he used it to ask simple questions to the Korean people he met. He recalled a time while in the village at the base of the hill, an older Korean man wasn't friendly to anyone and never spoke. Therefore, Martin Rothenberg took the time to learn some basic questions to get to know the older Korean man and his attitude totally changed. This made all the difference to build a bond between soldiers and civilians.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Captured by the Chinese

Sam Bass was captured in September 1951 around the Punchbowl or Old Baldy area. He describes how he was arrested by the Chinese who had cut them off through the line. He explains the living conditions during that time, including the marching and sleep conditions.



Marvin Denton

Losing Buddies Was The Hardest Experience

Marvin Denton described times when he lost members of his unit. One solider was walking between two companies and he was killed by a mine. Gun shots fired in the middle of the night when soldiers had discovered someone was killed. Another soldier survived a shell that hit his helmet, missing death by inches, and a different soldier, who had lied to his parents, telling them everything was okay, was bombed after an ambush. Marvin Denton were extremely thankful he lived through the experience and he feels we live in the greatest country in the world despite all of our problems.



Mathew Thomas

Mission in Korea

Mathew Thomas recalls his job description. He and his battalion were in charge of taking care of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the role being dangerous because some POWs were not checked for weapons when they were brought into the camp facility. He shares how there were times when POWs tried to escape.



Matthew D. Rennie

Battlefield and Memories

Matthew Rennie details suffering a head wound during an encounter with Chinese soldiers. He recalls a bullet grazing the back of his head and spending several days at a MASH unit to receive care. He reflects on the fear he experienced on the battlefield and his feelings of helplessness as he watched fellow soldiers die. He shares that he suffers from PTSD and nightmares despite so many years having past since his service in Korea.



Maurice Morby

Dangerous Letter Writing

Maurice Morby tells a story about writing letters while sitting on a log in camp. He describes bullets coming in from all around and diving behind the log for cover. In the end, they discovered that a nearby British unit was test firing weapons nearby unaware of his unit's camp location.



"We're in a Minefield!"

Maurice Morby describes accidentally walking into a minefield while on patrol during Operation Skunk. He talks about the terrain, how he and a fellow soldier made their error, and how they escaped the potentially dangerous situation.



Mine Clearing Dogs

Maurice Morby talks about dogs that were used to discover enemy mines. He describes the dogs' duties and one particular encounter with several dogs in camp.



Second Hand Mail

Maurice Morby tells a story about what he called "second hand mail." While eating lunch one day, his unit's encampment came under heavy artillery fire. He describes that later it was found out that the artillery fire was from friendly tanks, their shells ricocheting off of a nearby river.



Mayo Kjellsen

C-Rations, Rats, and Radios, Oh, My!

Mayo Kjellsen ate lots of C-Rations while stationed in Korea. His job was to carry a 45 pound battery pack and communicate over the radio for his regiment. One night, on radio watch in his bunker, he started shooting at large rats running throughout the rafters and he scared his commander.



Wounded in Korean War

Mayo Kjellsen was wounded twice during the Korean War. He was hit by shrapnel in his knee and the other shot blew him out of his bunker. After his second injury, he was sent to a hospital ship in the harbor and was taken to Japan for rehab. After 6 months of healing, Mayo Kjellsen was sent back to the US to finish his time in the military.



McKinley Mosley

Life of a private during War

McKinley Mosley describes his life as a 16 year old leaving home, going through basic training, and then on to Korea for the war. He learns infantry at Ft. Riley, Kansas and artillery in El Paso, Texas. He then travels from Ft. Custer in Michigan on to California to Japan and ultimately to Korea.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle is famous for Turkish soldiers. The engagement was very fierce. However, the Turkish were able to turn back a larger Chinese force. Mehmet Cecil Yasar describes how the Chinese attacked at night. The Turkish fighters lost many troops during the Battle of Kunu-ri.



First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the people he encountered after arriving in Korea. He describes how Busan was a ghost town. He saw only one person, who had frozen to death. The buildings were all riddled with bullets. Overall the war brought hunger, misery, disease and death. Mehmet Cecil Yasar also describes the constant danger. There were many traps set by the enemy.



Mehmet Copten

Papasan Hill, aka Hill 1062

Mehmet Çöpten describes Papasan Hill near Cheorwon. This is a battlefront in the Iron Triangle. He describes how deceptive the Chinese fighters were. The Turkish soldiers had to come up with a code to send messages when the Chinese were attacking. The Chinese would even use soldiers surrendering as a cover to launch an attack. The Turkish soldiers had to be constantly aware of a possible attack.



Vegas Front

Mehmet Çöpten describes the Vegas Front. He describes how the Chinese used howitzers on one hill, while simultaneously attacking another. The Turkish fighters lost one hundred and fifty-three men. The fighting took place over thirty-six hours. They eventually won the battle and the front. The Turkish fighters then turned over the front to the American forces.



Mehmet Esen

Battle of Kunu-ri aka Wawon

Mehmet Esen describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle is also known as Wawon. Mehmet Sen describes the American retreating, while the Turkish soldiers stayed. He provides details about how there were approximately five hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers that fought. After the fighting stopped only sixty-nine remained.



Battles in Korea

Mehmet Esen describes the fighting conditions when he first arrived in Korea. The Turkish soldiers fought near the Manchurian line. One famous battle was Cheorwon in North Korea. Another battle he describes is Sandbag Castle, or Kumkale. During one of the battles, he was wounded and sent to a hospital in Seoul.



Mekonen Derseh

There's a Snake in My Bed

Mekonen Derseh describes the toughest thing that happened to him in Korea. The fighting was over when Mekonen Derseh was in Korea. He describes the cold winter as being the toughest part of his service. One night a snake was cold and made its way into his sleeping bag. He did not know until he was folding his sleeping bag up.



Melese Tessema

Fear and Commitment in Battle

Melese Tessema acknowledges feeling afraid as he joined the fighting in the Korean War, but he asserts that soldiers cannot allow fear to interfere with a mission. He arrived in Kumhwa and fought the Chinese on Hill 358. Shrapnel from a mortar shell injured his leg during the fighting. Melese Tessema received Korean, Ethiopian, and United States awards, including the United States bronze star.



Chinese Artillery Barrage

Melese Tessema considers the Battle of Triangle Hill Battle his most dangerous experience. His platoon had just arrived at their location and thus had not yet dug many trenches. The Ethiopian soldiers had the high ground, but large numbers of Chinese approached. The Chinese had difficulty climbing in the steep terrain. Still, he lost fellow soldiers, including his dearest friend. Melese Tessema and the other platoon officers spoke English, but soldiers from the lower ranks did not, creating language barriers across groups. At one point his platoon provided machine gun support to Korean forces nearby. After fighting ended, their only hope was to communicate in sign language.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



A Brutal Attack

Melvin Hill explains a brutal attack at a roadblock on the way back from the Yalu river. He recalls his experience with hand-to-hand combat, saying he never thought he would ever put a knife into someone, stab someone with a bayonet or shoot someone right in front of him. He describes running over people in the middle of the road. He believes that his survival of the attack by the Chinese is only due to luck.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Going to Korea

Nancy Lubbers describes her feelings when she learned that her new husband was going to Korea. She remembers being devastated because she had heard a little bit about the situation in Korea. She explains that they had only been married for a few months and she was worried that they wouldn’t be able to contact each other.



Incheon Destruction

Melvin D. Lubbers talks about the physical destruction he saw in Incheon upon his arrival in Korea. He explains that they didn’t get to a see a lot because it was nighttime, and they had been loaded up to move to another part. He remembers thinking “how could anyone even survive?”



Melvin J. Behnen

It Haunts You (Graphic)

Melvin Behnen describes the challenge of taking care of enemy soldiers killed in action. He shares details about dealing with the remains of those killed on the battlefield, and the fear of finding explosives within the bodies made the ordeal extremely challenging. He elaborates on the struggles he faced seeing the loss of life and reveals how he sought out help to cope with the memories.



I Was Bitter

Melvin Behnen reveals that being drafted and forced to sell his company made him bitter at first. He shares that during the trip to Korea, he came to terms with his reality and focused on his duty. Nonetheless, he advises future generations to do their best. He recalls how when his son entered the Marines, he provided this same advice to him. He draws connections between his son’s experiences in the Persian Gulf and his experiences in Korea.



Merl Smith

The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

Jincheng Campaign- Battle at Kumsong "All Hell Broke Loose"

Merle Degler always carried in his pocket rolls of film he had taken during his time in Korea. One day, he found an empty ammo box and decided to put the film in the ammo box, and the next thing you knew, "All Hell Broke Loose." He recalls the ROK and his unit were overrun by the Chinese, so they were told to retreat. Merle Degler learned just a few months ago, that the the US artillery regiment left their equipment when they retreated, so the Chinese used the equipment against our own people. They reorganized before the next morning to create a new front line, but with a lot less equipment since they had lost it while retreating.



Fighting in the Iron Triangle in Jan. 1953

Merle Degler was stationed in the Iron Triangle and he fought along with the US Marines who had be run off an important hill by fighting the Chinese. He went to White Horse Hill right after a battle like WWI trenches right at the front line. After he had been in a bunker for a while, a soldier took him out of the trench towards no-man's-land, and he was taken to a field full of dead Chinese soldiers.



The Troubles with Traveling by a Truck

Merle Degler's job was to work on military trucks at the front lines in North Korea in early 1953. After being told that he had to move out, Merle Degler drove a truck up into the mountains with his regiment until the engine blew. Because he was not able to fix the truck on the side of the mountain, he was towed down the hill and back to a ROK camp where he had to stay until meeting up with additional soldiers willing to lead him back to his regiment.



Mert Lassere

Punchbowl Insecurities

Mert Lassere details the difficulties faced while seeing action in the Punchbowl. Having to ration ammunition and food due to supply chain issues, he recalls daily life was a struggle. He remembers not feeling prepared for combat or having what was needed to withstand the cold weather.



Last Man Standing

Mert Lassere describes close encounters with death on the front lines. He provides an account of having multiple commanding officers killed and how it was always important to stay one step ahead of the enemy with maneuvers. He poignantly details an account of twenty eight men that went on a patrol and how only four men returned, he being one of the four.



Michael Daly

Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Michael Fryer

The Realities of Warfare

Michael Fryer recalls broken buildings, poverty, and the state of destitution of the Korean people. He describes the poor conditions in Seoul in late 1951. He recounts the shock he received when he encountered battered and dead American soldiers on the front line.



Michel Ozwald

Battle of Keum Hwa

Michel Ozwald recalls his engagement being at the Battle of Keum Hwa in January and February of 1952. He served as part of Queens Company which had armaments like machine guns, 81 mm mortars, and Seventy-Five Recoilless. He recalls the weather being very cold which meant there was not much fighting other than covering gun fire. He explains that he would accompany scouting parties as a gun layer.



Injured at Battle of T-Bone Hill

Michel Ozwald recalls being in contact with the Chinese at T-Bone Hill and insults being hurled. He notes that the hill was alternately taken by the Americans and the Chinese resulting in high casualties. He remembers the French forces receiving information regarding an impending attack from a Chinese prisoner, but while preparing for a frontal attack, the French were hit from the rear. Following the battle, someone pointed out that Michel Ozwald was bleeding from his ears.



Battle of Arrowhead

Michel Ozwald recalls his involvement in the Battle of Arrowhead as being the most difficult of his time in Korea. He explains that the North Koreans and Chinese bombarded the hill for 24 hours. He notes it was the most intense fighting he was involved in while serving in Korea.



Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce

Most Difficult Battle / La Batalla Más Difícil

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce discusses the most difficult battle of the war in which many soldiers died. He recounts that they were spotted by Chinese troops because of the fire from their food. During the battle, they were forced to cross a river, but because many were unable to swim, they drowned.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce habla de la batalla más difícil de la guerra en la que murieron muchos soldados. Él cuenta que las tropas chinas vieron sus posiciones debido al fuego que unos compañeros hicieron para calentar la comida. Durante la batalla, se vieron obligados a cruzar un río, pero como muchos no sabían nadar, se ahogaron.



Prior Knowledge of the War / Conocimiento Sobre de la Guerra

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce remembers when he first heard about the war. He shares that he was aware about what was happening in Korea but never imagined he would be drafted. He recalls the way in which his family wept upon hearing of his deployment.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce recuerda cuando escuchó por primera vez que había una guerra en Corea. Él comparte que estaba al tanto de lo que estaba sucediendo en Corea, pero nunca se imaginó que sería reclutado. Recuerda la forma en que su familia lloraba al enterarse de su despliegue.



Mike Mogridge

On the Front Lines

Mike Mogridge details being in combat on "The Hook." He recalls Chinese artillery tactics as well as the Chinese suicide attacks. He recounts being lucky as he was in the rear trenches for most of the battle where they did not receive so much fire or action. He vividly remembers recovering the bodies of the enemy dead and using them as a wall to protect the hutches in which his unit stayed.



Combat

Mike Mogridge speaks about his first experiences in combat at the Hook. He recounts witnessing the deaths of two of his fellow soldiers. He remembers being lucky to survive an occasion when the Chinese dropped five mortars on him and two other soldiers.



Flashback to Korea

Mike Mogridge shares his thoughts about death as well as his views about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). He admits many from his generation are skeptical of PTSD but that this skepticism does not mean people do not suffer from it. He recounts a personal story of having a flashback some fifty years after the war.



Mike Muller

Shot Down

Mike Muller describes his 72nd mission in Korea when he was shot down on Sept. 29, 1951 north of Pyongyang. He was forced to jump from the cockpit of his F-51 Mustang and parachute to safety. He waited four hours in enemy territory before he was rescued.



Mike Scarano

Hungnam Evacuation

Mike Scarano was in Hungnam when, as he describes it, "the Chinese chased us out". He describes how his company emptied out as many supplies as they could, and burned the rest to prevent the Chinese from acquiring them. Then they got on the "Victory Ships" to evacuate to Pusan.



Milton E. Vega

Difficult Choices / Decisiones Dificiles

Milton Vega Rivera explains how unprepared he was for the war. He remembers the tough choice that soldiers were required to make as they had to kill or be killed. He describes the maltreatment of a prisoner of war and attributes his speaking out about it to being denied a promotion.

Milton Vega Rivera explica que no estaba preparado para la guerra. Recuerda la difícil decisión que los soldados debían tomar, ya que tenían que matar o morir. Además, describe el maltrato de un prisionero de guerra y atribuye su denuncia al hecho de que se le negó un ascenso.



Chinese Propaganda / Propaganda China

Milton Vega Rivera details the way enemy troops utilized propaganda to dissuade Puerto Ricans from continuing to fight. He recalls messages being broadcast in perfect Spanish which stated, “What are you doing here?” and “This is not your war; your wife will sleep with others.” He adds that on one occasion he was stalked by a jaguar whilst on patrol.

Milton Vega Rivera detalla la forma en que las tropas enemigas usaban propaganda para desaconsejar a los puertorriqueños de seguir luchando. Recuerda los mensajes transmitidos en perfecto español que decían: "¿qué estás haciendo aquí?" y “esta no es tu guerra, tu esposa se acostará con otros”. También recuerda que en una ocasión fue acechado por un jaguar mientras estaba en una patrulla.



Fear on the Front Line / El miedo en la Línea

Milton Vega Rivera shares the memories of the battle that continue to haunt him. He feels guilty because he and a couple of others were heating up a can and thought that even though there was no smoke, this act revealed their location and led to a mortar attack which killed and injured many troops. He adds that night patrols were terrifying for him.

Milton Vega Rivera comparte los recuerdos de la batalla que aún lo persiguen. Se siente culpable porque él y un par de otros soldados estaban calentando una lata y pensaron que, aunque no había humo, este acto reveló su ubicación y provocó un ataque con morteros que mató e hirió a muchos soldados. Agrega que las patrullas nocturnas eran aterradoras.



Monte Curry

Cruelty of the Turks

Monte Curry felt sorry for the Chinese (Chinks) who were being picked off so easily by the Turks and other UN soldiers that were shooting them. With three waves of Chinese soldiers, the first round, only 1 out of 10 carried a gun, so the second wave picked up the weapons on the ground. The 3rd wave had more weapons and fought using guerrilla tactics hiding behind bushes. Monte Curry described how the Turks carried leather satchels to bring back the ears they had cut off of the enemy.



Kitty Movie Experience

Kitty Curry, Monte Curry's wife, was not told a lot about what her husband was experiencing during the Korean War. Before a movie began, instead of previews of other movies, a black and white news reel would review what was life like for the US soldiers in Korea. This included fighting and bombs dropping on the enemy. Kitty Curry's reaction about the news worried her, but her friends and faith kept her going.



Myron “Jack” Leissler

A “Safe” Foxhole

Myron “Jack” Leissler recalls a “humorous” moment in Korea. While advancing toward a group of Chinese troops in Kotori, he had a chaplain, medical corpsman, and machine gunner join him in the foxhole. They joked that this is the “safest they felt since being in Korea.”



Thankful for Tootsie Rolls

Myron “Jack” Leissler explains how he is thankful for the Tootsie Roll company for sending over the candy. He describes how it was so cold that the C-Rations froze, but that they were able to put the Tootsie Rolls in their parkas and soften them with their body heat. He halfheartedly jokes that Tootsie Rolls kept them alive.



Myron Bruessel

Atomic bomb testing

Myron Bruessel was assigned to the 9677 Technical Service Unit (TSU), a branch of the military that worked on atomic and nuclear bomb testing in the United States to bomb anywhere in the world. He was assigned to a TSU unit in Hawaii because the island had large antennas necessary for the program. This testing was based on earth movement (electromagnetic force) and it used all the radio antennas to monitor radio waves.



Nuclear Fallout and Test Pigs

Myron Bruessel recognized all the United States soldiers who were "guinea pigs" during the nuclear fallout. In 1953, nuclear tests were from the air and balloon to see if buildings could withstand nuclear bombs. Pigs and cows were placed in testing areas and that scientists would subsequently examine their organs to measure the amount of radiation that was present after a nuclear test.



Operation Upshot-Knothole

In 1953, Myron Brussel constructed 4 different antennae systems in Puerto Rico with different frequencies with a mile-long antenna. A portable rhombic antenna was used because it was very accurate to determine if they could find radio waves associated with atomic bombs. These tests were part of a group of nuclear tests and detection called Operation Upshot-Knothole.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor recalls having never given communism a second thought when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He remembers feeling a call to duty and wanting to do the right thing for his country. He describes how far behind the times Korea was when it came to living conditions.



Defusing a Five Hundred-Pound Bomb on a Runway

Neal Taylor recalls having to clear a bomb off the runway at K-9 Air Base near Busan after it fell off a plane. He describes the immense pressure of having to defuse the bomb himself. He shares he was forced to use only a manual as the bomb diffusers on base were both on Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



Under Enemy Sniper Fire

Neal Taylor describes being shot at by a North Korean sniper who fired down into the base from the hills. He recalls him being more of a nuisance than a threat. He remembers the sniper then found a larger gun, therefore requiring the troops to put a stop to sniper.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Vegas Complex

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the conditions of the war at the Vegas Complex. There were a series of battles that took place in May of 1953 in this area. Subsequently, the fighting was fierce. Moreover, negotiations for peace were occurring. Importantly, the battles ended in arguably a stalemate after a Chinese offensive. Further, this helped with negotiations for the United Nations



Fear Cannot Be Explained

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes in detail what a soldier goes through in battle. Firstly, he describes that everything gets quiet. Further, you start to see your wife or parents. Meanwhile, you hear the machine gun. Subsequently, people who have grave wounds "give up the ghost."



Nelson S. Ladd

Operation X-Ray- The Libby Bridge Construction

Nelson Ladd was the surveyor for the bridge constructed over Imjin River known as the Libby Bridge. The high level, steel and concrete bridge that is still intact and in use today was named after Sergeant George C. Libby of the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his self-sacrifice at Taejon, Korea. Nelson Ladd was there during the dedication by Army General Maxwell Taylor on July 4, 1953.



Advancements in Korea: Then vs Today

After having visited Korea in 2013, Nelson Ladd is still amazed by the advancements Korea has made and how ambitious the people have been throughout the years. He had seen images of what Korea looked like before his revisit, however he had feared that Korea would have become like many East Asian countries, disparaged and unable to recover. Nelson Ladd described the Taft-Katusa Agreement (1905) between the US and Japan that led occupation of Korea and the Philippines that created the oppression upon the peoples of those countries.



Nick Cortese

Losing Men Who Were Doing Their Job (GRAPHIC)

Nick Cortese recalls the terrible moments of clearing and laying the mines. He remembers one of his peers who died after making a fatal mistake- he describes in graphic details what happened. He states this that is one of the dangers of that particular job.



Not Knowing What Could Happen Next

Nick Cortese explains that he was horrified watching his friends dying. He often worried that he might be the next one. He explains that he was very religious, and he always carried his Bible and rosary. He again mentions how his company commander died unexpectedly.



Nicolás Cancel Figueroa

Baptism by Fire / Bautismo de Fuego

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa recalls how foolish he was for asking to be a machine gunner. He explains that this was an unwise decision because his commander told him that machine gunners were the first ones killed. He recalls the horrors of his first battle and losing the first machine gun. He laments these experiences and is not willing to fully discuss them.

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa recuerda lo tonto que fue por pedir ser ametrallador. Él explica que esta fue una mala decisión porque su comandante le dijo que los ametralladores eran los primeros que eliminan. Recuerda los horrores de su primera batalla y la pérdida de la primera ametralladora. Lamenta estas experiencias y no está dispuesto a discutirlas mucho.



Contact Patrol at Kelly Hill / Patrulla de Contacto en Kelly Hill

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa presents an overview of the Chinese and North Korean troop positions on the eve of the battle of Kelly Hill which resulted in heavy losses from the 65th Infantry. He explains that he was a member of the contact patrol which was surveying the hill and when they reported on the great number of enemy troops and heavy equipment, his lieutenant did not believe the report. He remembers their lieutenant insisted on the contact patrol capturing a prisoner of war to interrogate him, but they were unable to do so because they were greatly outnumbered.

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa describe sus memorias de las posiciones de las tropas chinas y norcoreanas en vísperas de la batalla de Kelly Hill, que resultó en grandes pérdidas del 65º de Infantería. Explica que él era miembro de la patrulla de contacto que estaba observando el cerro y cuando le informaron a su teniente sobre la gran cantidad de tropas enemigas y equipo pesado, el no creyó el informe. Recuerda que su teniente insistía en que la patrulla de contacto capturara a un prisionero de guerra para interrogarlo, pero no pudieron hacerlo porque el enemigo los superaba en número.



Niconas Nanez

A dangerous Job

Although he didn't see combat, Niconas Nanez explains job was dangerous. Mines could explode if they weren't careful. He recalls praying to God even though others made fun of him. He admits to crying at times. However, he says he is very proud of his service and being able to help the people of Korea.



Noel G. Spence

Dangerous Job

Noel G. Spence recounts the dangers of his job working with artillery where he serviced twenty-five-pound artillery. He explains how repairing the guns meant a shell did not fire correctly which required him to work around live ammunition that could explode at any moment. He describes how there was no fixing a stuck anti-aircraft gun.



Nolasco de Jesus Espinal Mejia

Difficult Moments / Momentos Dificiles

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía describes the most difficult moments of the war. He recounts the story of the Battle of El Chamizo and the triumph of the Batallón Colombia in successfully completing their mission. Within this battle, he remembers how he was shot but continued fighting.

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía describe los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Cuenta la historia de la Batalla de El Chamizo y el triunfo del Batallón Colombia al completar su misión con éxito. Dentro de esta batalla, recuerda cómo le dispararon, pero explica que él continuó con su misión.



Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía discusses his relationship with Allied foreign troops. He recounts that he had a kinship with all troops but was most careful with Koreans because he was afraid that North Koreans could infiltrate their lines. He further explains this fear by sharing a story in which he helped capture prisoners of war who were in possession of the same cigarettes they had, signifying they were spies.

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía habla de sus relaciones con las tropas extranjeras. Cuenta que tenía amistad y compañerismo con las tropas de todos los países, pero tenía más cuidado con los coreanos porque temía que los norcoreanos pudieran infiltrarse en sus líneas. Explica que tenía este miedo porque en una ocasión capturaron prisioneros de guerra que estaban en posesión de los mismos cigarrillos que ellos tenían, y se dio cuenta que eran espías.



Dangerous Moments / Momentos peligrosos

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía speaks of the Battle of El Chamizo. He recalls the way in which North Koreans would infiltrate their lines and use propaganda against them. For instance, he remembers messages directly aimed at Colombian troops to deter them from continuing to fight.

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía habla de la Batalla de El Chamizo. Recuerda la forma en que los norcoreanos se infiltraban en sus líneas y como usaban la propaganda. Por ejemplo, él recuerda mensajes dirigidos directamente a las tropas colombianas para disuadirlas de luchar.



Norman Charles Champagne

Battle for the Berlin's

Norman C. Champagne shares a story about being under attack near the end of the Korean War. When asked to describe a challenging time, he talks about the Battle for the Berlin's and Boulder City. While he and another officer were driving to deliver supplies, they came under attack, experiencing a few terrifying moments that continue to live on in his memory.



Norman Lee

Typhoon Ruth

Normal Lee remembers having to ride out Typhoon Ruth. He describes following protocol and sailing out of the harbor, noting that the Americans would ride it out in the harbor. He describes the high seas and the many fires within the ship as a result of water coming on board.



Norman Renouf

Impressions of Korea

Norman Renouf describes his first impressions of being in Korea. He highlights a sense of fear, but also describes seeing rice paddies for the first time.



First Battle

Norman Renouf describes the fear of his first battle. At one point it was so exhausted that he actually fell asleep and what woke him up was the shooting from fifty caliber weapons.



Prisoner of War

In this clip, Norman Renouf describes the circumstances that led to him becoming a Prisoner of War in April of 1951. He spent several days in a cave without food before surrendering.



Norman Spencer Hale

Preparing to be Captured

Norman S. Hale describes how he and two other men were captured by the enemy.



Ollie Thompson

Destruction of Korea

Ollie Thompson recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon and traveling onward to Seoul by train, which was riddled with bullet holes. He remembers scenes of destruction all along the route. He describes settling in the Chorwon Valley and the sound of his first experience in combat, though it was their own artillery.



Orville Jones

Dangerous Events

Orville Jones recalls having to find the water mines left by the North Koreans. He remembers heading to Japan for rest and relaxation when they almost hit a water mine. He recounts how the ship was traveling at a fast pace and how the captain was forced to make a creative maneuver to avoid being blown up by the mine.



Osman Yasar Eken

Description of War

Osman Eken describes war. He did not feel danger or think about death. The Vegas Battles left many Chinese dead. Osman Eken provides one of the most vivid accounts of the battle. Turkey lost one hundred and forty-seven soldiers in twenty-six hours.



Endless Memories

Osman Eken describes the constant reliving of the Korean War. He cannot shake the memories. People always ask about physical scars. However, Osman Eken's mind is impacted. The real injury is to his mind.



Otto G. Logan

Never Seeing Korean Soldiers

Otto G. Logan describes his experience in Incheon upon arrival. He explains that his days were mainly filled with drills and training. He adds that during his time there, he never saw a Korean soldier as he stayed on base, only venturing out on a bus ride once.



Pablo D. Dones

Submerged from the Enemy

Pablo D. Dones shares he was sent as part of a unit on a surveillance mission near a river in Korea. His son recounts the story in this interview. Dones and about one hundred other men were pinned down near the river and ultimately took to the river and submerged themselves. His son describes how during the daytime, they were completely submerged, breathing only through a pipe. He shares at night they would bring only their heads to the surface. This lasted for nearly a month.



Pablo Delgado Medina

First Day in Korea / Primer Día en Corea

Pablo Delgado Medina describes his first day in Korea after the boat pulled into Busan. He remembers the way in which they were blessed by a Catholic priest and an evangelical minister before disembarking. He explains that after disembarking, they were led to a dock that had long tables full of ammunition and grenades and were told by loudspeaker to carry as much as they were able to because they could never have enough.

Pablo Delgado Medina describe su primer día en Corea cuando el barco llegó a Busan. Recuerda la forma en que fueron bendecidos por un sacerdote católico y un ministro evangélico antes de desembarcar. Explica que después de desembarcar, los llevaron a un muelle con mesas llenas de municiones y granadas y les dijeron por altavoz que llevaran todo lo que pudieran porque nunca les iban a sobrar.



The Battle of Imjin River / La Batalla del Río Imjin

Pablo Delgado Medina provides an account of the Battle of the Imjin River which he considers to be the most difficult of the nine months he spent in Korea. He explains that troop placement created an iron triangle with a valley of death in the middle. He remembers the harrowing way in which they were forced to cross the river and the lack of air support for five days because of the monsoon season. He laments that a friend from his town and so many others lost their lives during those six days.

Pablo Delgado Medina cuenta la historia de la Batalla del río Imjin que él considera la más difícil de los nueve meses que pasó en Corea. Explica que la ubicación de las tropas creó un triángulo de hierro con un valle de muerte en el medio. Recuerda el peligro que enfrentaron cuando se vieron obligados a cruzar el río y la falta de apoyo aéreo durante cinco días debido a la temporada de monzones. Lamenta que un amigo de su pueblo y tantos otros perdieron la vida durante esos seis días.



The Voyage / El Viaje

Pablo Delgado Medina recounts the perilous journey to Korea. He remembers not knowing where they were being sent and only finding out they were going to war once they reached Japan and were asked to fill out paperwork for beneficiaries in case they were killed in action. He explains that the voyage was terrible as the food on board the boat was awful, and the boat encountered a typhoon which forced everyone on deck to wear a life jacket.

Pablo Delgado Medina relata la historia del su viaje a Corea. Recuerda que no sabía a dónde los enviaban y solo se enteró de que iban a la guerra una vez que llegaron a Japón y se les pidió que completaran el papeleo para los beneficiarios en caso de que fallezcan. Él explica que el viaje fue terrible ya que la comida a bordo del barco era horrible, y el barco se encontró con un tifón que obligó a todos en la cubierta con los salvavidas puestos.



Pascual Feliciano

Reconnaissance Mission / Misión de Reconocimiento

Pascual Rosa Feliciano shares an incident in which two squads were on patrol and were attacked by the enemy. As intelligence and reconnaissance members, they were continuously seeking the position of the enemy, and on this occasion, he describes how their sergeant was wounded during battle. Even though they were under fire, he shares the story of how their sergeant was saved by the squad.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano comparte la historia de un incidente en el que dos escuadrones estaban de patrulla y fueron atacados por el enemigo. Como estaban a cargo de inteligencia y reconocimiento, siempre estaban buscando la posición del enemigo, y en esta ocasión él describe cómo su sargento fue herido durante la batalla. A pesar de que estaban bajo fuego, comparte la historia de cómo la escuadra rescato a su sargento.



Horrors of War / Los Horrores de la Guerra

Pascual Rosa Feliciano reflects on how terrible life was for both troops and civilians in South Korea. He describes incidents in which troops burned down small houses to draw out the enemy from hiding in small villages. He compares this suffering with the horrors of a battle in which so many of their troops were massacred after the use of napalm.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano discute lo terrible que era la vida tanto para las tropas como para los civiles durante la guerra. Describe incidentes en los que las tropas quemaban las casas pequeñas para sacar al enemigo de su escondite en los pueblos chicos. El compara este sufrimiento con los horrores de una batalla en la que muchos soldados fueron masacrados con el uso del napalm.



Reconnaissance and Intelligence / Reconocimiento e Inteligencia

Pascual Rosa Feliciano speaks of his time as a patrolman on reconnaissance and intelligence missions. He admits that these missions, which were meant to locate the enemy, were costly in lives. He explains that they were tasked with conducting investigations and capturing prisoners of war.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano habla de sus misiones de reconocimiento e inteligencia. Admite que estas misiones, que estaban destinadas a localizar al enemigo, costaron muchas vidas. Explica que tenían la tarea de realizar investigaciones y capturar prisioneros de guerra.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

All Was Quiet and Then Whoomph!

Patrick Hickey never felt scared, even though he could hear Chinese and North Korean soldiers all around him. Although never wounded, he experienced close calls. He recalls one memory of heading to the toilet behind a tiny Korean house, and while there, he shares that the enemy shelled and destroyed the house. He recounts how he and another soldier climbed into the trench he had dug until the shelling ceased.



Paul Frederick Steen

Polio Prior to Service

Paul Steen shares how he discovered he had polio as a child. He chronicles the story and details what he saw while being treated. He admits that he was worried he would not be accepted when volunteering for the draft years later due to his bout with polio.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Paul Hockla

Fighting on Pork Chop Hill

Paul Hockla describes what combat was like fighting against the Chinese at Pork Chop Hill.



Paul Hummel

Always Have a Backup Plan

Paul Hummel remembered when the enemy forces figured out the weaknesses of United States' planes. Due to this, there needed to be a back up plan created to outwit the Chinese. Mosquito pilots used a variety of maneuvers while in the Hamhung area.



Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Summers

"All Hell Broke Loose"

Paul Summers and his division investigated a village overrun by guerrillas. When a firefight began, he ran toward a mound of dirt to throw a hand grenade into a group of North Korean soldiers. A bullet caught him in the shoulder, and he went down. A corpsman gave him a shot of morphine and some brandy while he awaited rescue.



Friendly Fire on the Pusan Perimeter

Paul Summers was digging into a hillside on the Pusan Perimeter one night. Troops were lobbing artillery over the hillside where the Marines were setting up camp. Hearing the whistling of an artillery round, he suspected it would fall short. The explosion left four Marines dead.



The Costs of War

Paul Summers remembers lying down in a skirmish line and watching a truck dump dead U.S. Marines into a big hole. Tanks filled in the hole. The image still haunts him. Later, his division marched to Hagalwoori but ran into a fortified bunker controlled by the Chinese. As the division pondered their situation, a general up the road announced they would take the hill no matter what.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Destination Unknown

Paulino Lucino Jr. was never sure of his exact location when he was fighting in Korea. Often, he was put on the back of trucks or trains and had no idea where they were headed next. He felt that this was the most troublesome experience of his time in Korea.



Pedro A. Santana

Korean War Army Medic: A day in the life

This clip discusses the life of a medic, and the circumstances that led to Mr. Santana's hearing loss. He describes the events of February 14, 1953 where after 5 pm, in the blistering cold, he encountered Chinese troops. The Chinese were engaging in mortar attacks as Mr. Santana, in his jeep, was diligently evacuating wounded soldiers and taking them to the first aid station for medical help. He received a Bronze and Silver Star for his heroism, and Mr. Santana is still emotional about the events of that day.



First Aid

Pedro A. Santana discusses his thoughts while giving first aid to soldiers. He also shows his Silver Star and Bronze Star and how he received those.



Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández

The Battle of Hill 180 / La Batalla de la Colina 180

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández details the Battle of Hill 180 which he dubbed his baptism by fire. He shares that the battle was especially violent because it resulted in twenty-three dead, thirty injured, and three soldiers missing in action. He describes the troop movement and the way in which they were supported by tanks. He recoils at the memory of the bewilderment in the faces of soldiers from the front lines after the intense combat that day.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández detalla la Batalla del Cerro 180 a la que denominó su bautismo de fuego. Él se acuerda que la batalla fue especialmente violenta porque resultó en veintitrés muertos, treinta heridos y tres soldados que desaparecieron. Él describe los movimientos de las tropas y la forma en que fueron apoyadas por tanques. Retrocede ante el recuerdo del desconcierto en los rostros de los soldados del frente después del intenso combate de ese día.



The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández recounts the events of the Battle of Old Baldy. He shares his thoughts on why enemy troops were relentless in their bombings and attacks for two weeks before the battle. He explains that Chinese troops waited until replacement troops were sent to the allied front before their full-scale attack which resulted in over one hundred casualties and sixty-nine soldiers missing in action. He laments how one of his friends was among those missing in action.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández relata los hechos de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Comparte sus ideas sobre por qué las tropas enemigas fueron implacables en sus bombardeos y ataques durante las dos semanas antes de la batalla. Explica que las tropas chinas esperaron hasta que tropas de reemplazo entraron al frente aliado antes de su ataque más grande, que resultó en más de cien bajas y sesenta y nueve soldados desaparecidos en combate. Lamenta que entre los desaparecidos en combate se encontraba uno de sus amigos.



Pedro Julio Jackson Morales

The Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales explains why the Battle of Kelly Hill was incredibly dangerous. He recounts a sad incident during the battle in which one of his childhood friends was killed in action. He explains that it was especially terrible because they had been friends since the first grade.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales explica por qué la Batalla de Kelly Hill fue tan peligrosa. Relata un triste incidente durante la batalla en el que uno de sus amigos de la infancia murió en acción. Explica que fue terrible porque habían sido amigos desde el primer grado y eran del mismo pueblo.



Battle of Jackson Heights / La Batalla de Jackson Heights

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales describes the incident which led to his court martial. He recounts the difficulty troops had in keeping their position at the Battle of Jackson Heights. He explains that he was following the platoon when they descended and disobeyed orders to take the hill. He never imagined they would be in serious trouble for descending the hill.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales describe el incidente que lo mando a la corte marcial. Él describe la dificultad que tuvieron las tropas para mantener su posición en la Batalla de Jackson Heights. Explica que estaba siguiendo al pelotón cuando descendieron y desobedecieron las órdenes de tomar la colina. Nunca imaginó que estarían en problemas tan serios por descender la colina.



Pell E. Johnson

Guarding Prisoner of War Camps

Pell E. Johnson guarded Chinese and North Korean Prisoner of War camps. It was a rough placement due to the prisoners trying to mutiny. He feared Bay Day, a communist holiday and a possible uprising of prisoners.



Welcome Home

Pell E. Johnson remembers all the details about returning home from his duties in Korea. When he got home, his outlook on life changed. United States civilians did not understand the lifestyle soldiers had lived. He also feared the uncertainty of the future to come.



Per Anton Sommernes

To Stay or To Evacuate

Per Anton Sommernes describes an incident where there was a possibility of being overrun by Chinese soldiers. Evacuating every wounded soldier was not an option. Some nurses and doctors would have to stay. Per Anton Sommernes grew up in China and knew the language and volunteered to stay back.



Pete Arias

Battle of Midway

Pete Arias, during WWII, was deployed to Midway. He recounts an incident where their ship encountered a Japanese submarine while en route to the island. He shares how, upon arriving at the island, their unit was ordered to dig holes to squat in. He remembers the morning when the Japanese forces invaded Midway. He recalls that it was during the Battle of Midway where he witnessed his first dead body.



Battle of Guadalcanal

Pete Arias shares, during WWII, he had a harrowing experience on Guadalcanal. He recalls trudging through the dense jungle with a limited supply of food. He remembers being part of the squadron that led the platoon in a surprise attack on Japanese soldiers. He recounts how, during the maneuver, the enemy fired a machine gun at their squadron. As a result, only two of them survived the attack.



Serving in Korea

Pete Arias shares his experiences of being discharged from the military in 1946 and later enlisting in the United States Reserves. He recounts how his brother was captured while serving in the U.S. Army overseas and spent thirty-four months in a prisoner of war camp. He remembers when the military planned to send him home, but he refused as he wanted to stay and fight for his captured brother. As a result, he was transferred to an outfit in Seoul, which he admits was the best living conditions he had experienced while serving in the military.



Peter Joseph Doyle, Jr.

Supporting the Infantry

Peter Doyle describes his job in a heavy machine gun platoon and the fear of artillery fire on Old Baldy. He explains that his was a supporting role, that he supplied the machine gun with ammunition. After supplying the gun, his platoon would spread out to protect the gun which was a target for the opposition. He describes heavy artillery fire on Old Baldy that lasted for 2-3 nights; that the first night was the worst and "scared the hell" out of him.



Peter Solstad

EC 121 Incident and DEFCON 2

Peter Solstad tells about meeting a beautiful Korean woman named Kim Chun Cha. He married her while in Korea. Peter Solstad speaks of the EC 121 incident where 31 people were killed. He also remembers the 20 minutes of fear, he felt, as he was monitoring radio calls which were calling in artillery. Thankfully, he had actually been hearing radio calls from Vietnam. After that incident, DEFCON 2 was called, and General Yarbough held a briefing, and ordered troops to move up on the line. Interestingly, he recalls, there was a massive number of Iraqi troops that moved up the line with the Americans, perhaps up to a million.



Peter Y. Lee

"God Blessed Korea Through the Americans"

This clip portrays Peter Y. Lee's extraordinary point of view about the Korean War and the soldiers who fought to rid South Korea of communism. As a child, during the Korean War, he recalls "bad war stories" and the gratitude felt by South Koreans for American intervention in the war. Peter Y. Lee conveys the devastation of an impoverished country, in the years after the war, with recollections of hunger, and the constant question of when one's next meal would come. The now thriving contemporary South Korea is worlds away from the Korea he was born into, and he credits the soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the Korean people.



Philip Davis

"I Was Not Afraid"

Philip Davis is recounting his first duties in Pusan. He remembers that the soldiers were young and had a lot of passion- not understanding what was really happening. Philip Davis admits that he wasn't afraid either.



I narrowly escaped death

Philip Davis believes that he and his fellow soldiers at that time were not really ready to fight. He describes the ammunition they were given and how many American soldiers died helplessly in rice paddies in Korea. He was very fortunate to escape with an army captain, but still struggles today knowing that those soldiers were left to die without any help coming.



Philip E. Hahn

The Battle at Hagaru-ri

Phillip Hahn recalls the challenges of the extreme cold and minimal rations while at Hagaru-ri. He shares his feelings of not having any regrets for standing the line with his fellow Marines. He describes feeling protected and secure with his brothers by his side, despite heavy losses all around. He tells of the moment he was pulled from the front lines due to his wounds he suffered from a mortar explosion.



Landing at Inchon

Philip E. Hahn shares his experience of landing as part of the first part of the Inchon Landing. He recalls there being little resistance initially but it became more dangerous as they worked their way inland. He recounts the death of one of his commanding officers who died while trying to destroy a Chinese pill box with a flame thrower. His memories of the people he initially saw were of people living in poor conditions who had nothing.



From Inchon to Seoul and on to Pusan

Philip E. Hahn recalls leaving Inchon and marching to Seoul. He notes they met very little resistance until they were inside the city. He describes Seoul as in terrible condition with nearly everything knocked out. He remembers hiding in a pigpen to avoid being shot at during the night. He admits to not thinking he would survive, but being glad he was a Marine.



Philip Lindsley

The Extent of Their Equipment

Philip Lindsley recalls his outfit lacked combat experience and had limited weapons. Because of their attachment to different groups, he shares how his unit was completely mobile. He describes the position on a mountaintop and finally receiving a .50 caliber machine gun for armament during his last assignment.



Fortunate to Make it

Philip Lindsley shares his experience during extreme cold and rumors of the Chinese surrounding them. He shares how the men were only able to work on connecting coaxial cables for a minute at a time due to the extreme cold. He elaborates on the stressful experience of completing guard duty in complete darkness and his concern that he only had a little gun to fend off the enemy. As rumors began to spread, he recalls his outfit suddenly being told to pack up everything they could and evacuate the area. He explains that since the enemy crossed the Yalu River, they headed south. He emphasizes they were fortunate to make it to Seoul because other outfits were attacked along the way.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



From Inchon to Wonsan

Philip S. Kelly describes the amphibious landing at Inchon. He recalls seeing the extreme poverty of the Korean people and how his life was changed after he saw children fighting for scraps. He explains why he had limited information about his missions before they were carried out.



Philip Vatcher

Destitute Korea

Philip Vatcher's his first impressions of Korea were that of a desolate landscape. He there weren't any trees, roads, and barely any shops. Korea during the war was like slave country when the Japanese ran Korea.



Expendable Resource

Philip Vatcher was most bothered by the murder of a military officer in Korea. He witnessed an officer killed because his life was worth less than the value of a military jeep. Despite the circumstance, he understands that war is war.



Civilian Rescue

Philip Vatcher details a time when they rescued a guy on the road. This man's intestines were outside of his body. They had to clean up his intestines and wrap him up. The man's life was sparred and he kept communications with him after the war.



Pieter Visser

The Dangers of the Mustang

Pieter Visser compares the strengths and weaknesses of the Mustang, Sabre, and the enemy MiG aircraft. Consequently, he shares how the majority of the people they lost were flying Mustangs. He notes he only flew four missions in a Mustang; the majority of his missions were in a Sabre.



Rafael Gómez Román

Training Tragedy / Tragedia durante Entrenamiento

Rafael Gómez Román explains the living conditions he faced while in Korea. As he describes the weather, he includes a story in which Lieutenant Higgins was showing new recruits how to throw a grenade and because of the cold it got stuck to his hand and killed everyone around including three officers. He considers himself lucky as he should have been next to him during the demonstration but was called to a different task at that moment.

Rafael Gómez Román explica las condiciones de vivienda que tenían en Corea. Mientras describe el clima, incluye una historia en la que el teniente Higgins estaba demostrándole a los nuevos reclutas cómo lanzar una granada y, debido al frío, se le quedó pegada a la mano y mató a todos, incluidos tres oficiales. Se considera afortunado ya que debería haber estado a su lado durante esa demonstración, pero en ese momento fue llamado a una tarea diferente.



Lost Brothers / Compañeros Perdidos

Rafael Gómez Román shares the stories of how two of his friends were shot during the war. He still thinks about his friend Ángel Ortiz de Orocovis, whom they called Benny, and how he was killed by a sniper as he was singing unaware of the danger in the vicinity. Additionally, he describes the moment in which another friend was shot and handicapped while he was unable to help as he had to continue firing his weapon.

Rafael Gómez Román comparte las historias de cómo dos de sus amigos fueron disparado durante la guerra. Todavía piensa en su amigo Ángel Ortiz de Orocovis, a quien llamaban Benny, y en cómo un francotirador lo mató mientras cantaba sin darse cuenta del peligro que estaba tan cerca. Además, describe el momento en que otro amigo recibió un disparo y quedó discapacitado, y como él no podía ayudarlo porque tenía que seguir disparando su arma.



Rafael Rivera Méndez

Difficult Moments / Momentos Dificiles

Rafael Rivera Méndez shares the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls the worst part of combat, which was waiting until after daybreak to remove the dead and take their places in the trenches. He reflects on the horrors of war and the degradation of human life.

Rafael Rivera Méndez comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda que la peor parte del combate, era esperar hasta después del amanecer para sacar a los muertos y ocupar sus lugares en las trincheras. Reflexiona sobre el horror de la guerra y la degradación de la vida humana.



Ralph A Gastelum

My First Experience at Inchon Landing September 15, 1950

Ralph recalls being very anxious, had arrived just before nightfall and was circling out at sea for awhile. He remembers watching the beach being heavily shelled (Just like you see in the movies," he said.) which he thought was incredible before they went in. Once they landed they had little resistance but found a large foxhole they stayed in for the night (with no sleep) and something kept crawling around in the hole but he couldn't figure out what it was. The next morning he realized it was a frog, but being in a foreign land he wasn't sure what to expect.



Death Results in PTSD Chosin Reservoir

Ralph describes the number of bodies on the battlefield as far as the eye could see both the enemy and their fallen comrades frozen the way they had fell. The bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up.The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and the bitterness they have. Their wives didn't talk at the time but when they sleep they tell them what they say and their reactions to it. Both Ed and Ralph live with this daily they just learn to cope with it.



Ralph Blum

Dangers

Ralph Blum recalls he was usually a half mile to three miles behind the front lines. He shares that the North Koreans were good at mortars and recalls how difficult it was to ear them coming. He remembers being shelled about every third day. He recounts watching the sky because the North Koreans would zero in with sky bursts, and then they would know there would be incoming mortars. He explains they would hide under the 105 Howitzer when they moved behind the infantry to avoid being shelled until foxholes could be dug.



Ralph Burcham

Weather in Korea

Ralph Burhcam and other soldiers were negatively affected by the weather. The cold winters weren't the worst part, it was also the summer heat and mosquitoes. Soldiers tried to be creative to survive the elements, but their creativity was not always encouraged by military regulations.



Ralph Hodge

Guarding Prisoners at Geojedo

Ralph Hodge shares he soon found himself among the soldiers whose duty it was to guard the one hundred sixty thousand North Korean and Chinese prisoners on Geojedo Island. He offers details of the prison camp. He recalls the inside of the camp being a "beehive of discontent," so much so that the United Nations and the Red Cross encouraged the soldiers not to go into the compounds.



They were Ready for War

Ralph Hodge shares the errors the United States military made in dealing with those held in Geojedo and the dangers which resulted. He recalls a Brigadier General being held for two days. He estimates there were only ten thousand troops guarding the one hundred sixty thousand prisoners. He offers details of how the discontent within the prison led to danger for the guards.



Pork Chop Hill

Ralph Hodge details how he and his unit came under fire on Pork Chop Hill on September 16th, 1953. He recalls the location was key in protecting the city of Seoul. He remembers being pinned down by wave after wave of Chinese descending on the hill and shares American casualties were devastatingly high.



Ralph Howard

The U.S. President Wants You for the US Military!

Ralph Howard recalls being in Alaska when the Korean War started and listed as 1-A (available for military service). He mentions he was disappointed after being drafted because he was making good money. He recounts being sent to training as a paratrooper after having his hair cut, passing the aptitude test, and taking a physical.



U.S. Paratrooper Training

Ralph Howard discusses how he was trained to be a U.S. paratrooper in January 1952 after being drafted into the Army. He emphasizes that a great deal of physical training and practice using the parachute was needed. He recalls how his job was to drop into battles, cut off supply routes for the enemy, and support the U.S. Marines who had been fighting in the war since 1950.



Ramon D. Soto

Life in the Trenches

Ramon D. Soto remembers life on the frontline in the trenches. He discusses the difficulties soldiers faced such as trench foot, frost bite, horrible sleeping conditions, rationing of food, and nightly fear of Chinese soldiers. In this clip, Ramon D. Soto recalls the $75 a month he earned, and sent home each and every month. He also recalls the letters from his wife that he read while on the frontline.



Raul Martinez Espinosa

Most Dangerous Moments / Momentos Más Peligrosos

Raúl Martínez Espinosa remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that Operation Nomad and Hill 400 were among the most dangerous battles in the war. Moreover, he shares the story of how he was almost killed the day he was given his leave to return to Colombia after eighteen months in combat.

Raúl Martínez Espinosa recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que Operacion Nómada y el Cerro 400 fueron las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Además, cuenta la historia de cómo casi no sobrevive el día que le dieron permiso para regresar a Colombia después de dieciocho meses de combate.



Raul Segarra Alicea

Wounded at Pork Chop Hill / Herido en Pork Chop Hill

Raúl Segarra Alicea details the events which transpired at the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He describes the way the allied lines were arranged and explains how he was shot during combat. He shares that he earned the Purple Heart because of his actions during this battle. Furthermore, he notes that there were tactical mistakes made by the United States which may have resulted in more casualties.

Raúl Segarra Alicea detalla los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla de Pork Chop Hill. Él describe como estaban situadas las líneas aliadas y explica cómo lo dispararon durante el combate. Él comparte que obtuvo el Corazón Púrpura por sus acciones durante esta batalla. Además, él se acuerda de que Estados Unidos cometió errores tácticos que pueden haber provocado más bajas.



Tough Decisions / Decisiones Dificiles

Raúl Segarra Alicea shares an anecdote about almost being killed which took place while he was in Alligator Line. He explains that as a machine gunner, he was tasked with protecting others in the front line. During this incident, he remembers that he had to pause from his duties and throw a grenade onto enemy troops which were about to attack him from behind.

Raúl Segarra Alicea comparte una anécdota que ocurrió mientras estaba en Alligator Line en la cual tuvo que decidir cómo protegerse durante una batalla. Él explica que como él era ametrallador, tenía la tarea de proteger a los otros en primera línea. Durante este incidente, recuerda que tuvo que hacer una pausa en sus deberes y lanzar una granada a las tropas enemigas que estaban a punto de atacarlo por la espalda.



Basic Training / Entrenamiento

Raúl Segarra Alicea presents an overview of his military training in Puerto Rico. He remembers how quick the process to enlist was and how he was immediately taken in the same day he took his exams. He provides details about the training in Buchanan and Tortuguero. With pride, he reminisces about his excellent performance during his training as he strived to be the best in the company.

Raúl Segarra Alicea presenta la historia de su entrenamiento militar en Puerto Rico. Recuerda lo rápido que fue el proceso para alistarse y cómo lo aceptaron inmediatamente el mismo día que hizo sus exámenes. Cuenta los detalles sobre la que hizo en Buchanan y Tortuguero. Con orgullo recuerda su excelente desempeño durante su entrenamiento poque quería ser el numero uno de la compañía.



Raymond H. Champeau

The Canadian Mission at Sea

Raymond H. Champeau explains that sailors in the Royal Canadian Navy aboard the HMCS Huron had a mission to patrol the east coast of Korea from September 1952 until the end of the Korean War. He recalls that they never met up with any enemy ships. He explains what conditions were present when the destroyer fired bombs on enemy trains that could be spotted emerging from tunnels with supplies.



Raymond L. Ayon

The War’s Painful Memories

Raymond L. Ayon vividly remembers his deployment to Korea, just two days after news of the war breakout on his base in Japan. Upon arrival in Suwon, he shares he could hear the sounds of artillery in the distance. He recalls how, as soon as he disembarked from the C-47 transport plane, he and other medical personnel immediately tended to the wounded and attended to casualties. He emphasizes he was taken aback by the number of pine boxes he saw, which he later discovered were caskets made by South Korean carpenters. He shares how his experiences treating young soldiers, many of whom were no more than eighteen, nineteen, or twenty years old, left him with painful memories he still carries with him to this day.



Caring for Wounded Enemy POWs

Raymond L. Ayon shares how, during his time in Daegu, he was responsible for the care of wounded enemy POWs for a period of two years. He recalls the conditions of one particular POW who required an inoculation but was afraid of the syringe. As a corpsman, his duty was to provide the necessary treatment and release them once they were fit to go. He remembers a moment when General McArthur passed by in a motorcade while they were waiting to cross the Han River on a pontoon, which was an exciting experience for most of the men. He briefly discusses the numerous medals he was awarded due to his military service.



The Risks of Being at War

Raymond L. Ayon vividly recalls the day when he was in the back of one of the last vehicles in a truck convoy. He recounts how, as they were passing a road raider that was clearing the area, their driver had to swerve to avoid a collision. As a result, he shares he was thrown out of the truck bed and was left suspended in midair. He remembers feeling like his life was flashing before his eyes before hitting the ground which he believed would be unsurvivable. He notes he and the other passengers were injured and remembers applying first aid to himself shortly after the crash. He states the accident impaired vision in his right eye, which is now officially blind.



Raymond L. Fish

Saved by a Canteen

Raymond L. Fish was sent on one-week detachments to provide aid to Chinese prisoners of war who were under supervision by the United Nations. He shares how a little while later, he was injured while running from the Chinese. He shares the story of how his canteen protected him from what could have been a fatal wound during the war.



Raymond Scott

Treacherous Trips as a Navigator

Rayond Scott's job as a Navigator during the Korean War consisted of taking a trip to Japan about every three months to assist Pilots. He recalls that the most difficult flights were landing in and taking off from Shemya Air Force Base in Alaska. He recalls the encounters of difficulty due to the intense fog and high winds.



Flying in the Face of Danger

Raymond Scott had to endure very dangerous moments while being a Flight Navigator. He explains the challenges of having to plot charts around communist islands in the face of the challenges brought by fog, strong winds, and weapons firing across war zones. He recalls a story of how a plane crashed when it hit a cross wind.



Raymond Unger

Captured by North Koreans

Raymond Unger tells the story of how he was captured by five North Korean soldiers.



I Thought My Life Was Over

Raymond Unger describes being interrogated during his first week as a POW.



Raymond V. Miller

The Power of Prayer

Raymond Miller describes a time where the odds were stacked against him, yet he survived. He credits the power of God and the prayers from home with making a difference in his outcome. He struggles to understand why he was spared from the sniper's bullet while both men accompanying him were not.



The Chinese Were Everywhere

Raymond Miller describes feeling no fear most of the time despite being surrounded by the Chinese. He recalls having to take cover in a foxhole during a grenade attack, and when he stepped out the next morning, he could not take a step without stepping on a Chinese soldier, noting that the stacks of bodies were horrendous. He has a recurring nightmare of pulling the trigger and his gun not firing despite squeezing and squeezing it.



Rebecca Baker

Arrival to Korea, Duties, the DMZ and Hiroshima

Rebecca Baker discusses her first assignment on a hospital ship where she would perform medical evacuations from Korea to Japan. She recalls how Korea was the coldest place in the world and describes an opportunity she and the other nurses had on her ship to visit the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). She recounts the area being filled with mines and seeing the eyes of the North Koreans on the other side. She discusses her time aboard the ship and notes a memorable experience when she went to Hiroshima. She reflects on witnessing lasting effects from the atomic bomb and expresses the profound impact this had on her.



Daily Life Aboard the Ship

Rebecca Baker discusses her daily life in comparison to the television show "MASH." She notes how it was important to find humor in the sometimes difficult times. She explains that without something to break the tension they were more likely to make mistakes. She recalls the food aboard the ship as well as recounts a story about a fellow nurse's constant seasickness.



Rene Rodriguez

Crossing a Minefield on the Front Lines

Rene Rodriguez shares he does not remember any encounters with the enemies, but he does recall one scary moment when they had to retreat across a minefield they had laid. He describes what his typical routines was like on the front lines. He recollects earning about sixty to eighty dollars each month but having no real place to spend it.



Just Like a Nightmare

Rene Rodriguez confesses he does not want to remember his time on the front lines. He shares how it is like a nightmare and it is gone. He recalls the whole experience being much like camping where they had little. He notes rations were frequently dropped by helicopter and showers were few and far between when on the front line.



Rex Earp-Jones

Taken Prisoner of War

Rex Earp Jones recounts flying a mission as a four plane squadron. He notes that it was his job as the fourth plane to observe the damage. While flying low to the ground to observe, his plane's engine faltered. He recalls having to make the decision to either eject from the plane or bring the plane down. He chose to eject. He remembers finding himself unharmed but surrounded by Chinese soldiers when he reached the ground.



Treatment as a Prisoner of War

Rex Earp-Jones recalls his treatment as a prisoner of war. He notes the experience was not one of comfort, but the Chinese did not treat him harshly. He shares his experience with Chinese interrogators where he frequently provided them with rubbish answers. He notes occasionally being locked up alone or being forced to stand for a long period of time as a punishment.



Indoctrination and Punishment

Rex Earp-Jones shares that as part of the Chinese indoctrination of the prisoners of war, they promoted Communism something that would rule the world. He notes that the prisoners could be punished if they upset the class. He recalls one occasion when he complained about the Chinese stealing his watch, which was seen as upsetting the program so he was punished. He notes the Chinese ultimately gave up on attempting to indoctrinate the prisoners.



Living Conditions

Rex Earp-Jones recalls being very ill while being captive. He notes that both his parents and his future wife wrote him, but he never received this communication. He describes the living conditions within the school classroom that they were kept in including during challenging winter months.



Ricardo Roldan Jiménez

Difficult Battle / La Batalla Más Difícil

Ricardo Roldan Jiménez remembers the difficulty of the Battle of Kumsong. He recalls that there were very old people in the town which they had to forcibly move out of the combat zone to spare them their lives. He admits that it was difficult to keep fighting while his buddies were killed in action. He explains that he will never forget the terror of hearing bombs before they exploded.

Ricardo Roldán Jiménez recuerda lo difícil que fue la Batalla de Kumsong. El recuerda que había ancianos en la ciudad y los tuvieron que sacar a la fuerza de la zona de combate para salvarles la vida. Admite que fue difícil seguir luchando después de ver a sus compañeros morían en combate. Explica que nunca olvidará el terror que sintió al oír las bombas antes de que explotaran.



A Difficult Voyage / Un Viaje Difícil

Ricardo Roldan Jiménez reminisces about the difficulty he had in bidding his family goodbye before being sent to war. He explains that they were given five days to go home before their deployment, but he feared telling his family where he was being sent so he lied. He admits that he only truly understood the magnitude of his decision when he arrived in Busan and received training on how to kill, what to expect if taken as a prisoner, and how to proceed if he were wounded in battle.

Ricardo Roldán Jiménez recuerda la dificultad que tuvo para despedirse de su familia antes de ir a la guerra. Explica que les dieron cinco días para regresar a su casa antes de su despliegue, pero temía decirle a su familia adónde lo enviarían, así que mintió. Admite que sólo entendió la magnitud de su decisión cuando llegó a Busan y recibió entrenamiento sobre cómo matar, qué esperar si lo tomaban prisionero y cómo proceder si era herido en batalla.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Entering Korea as a Defense Soldier

Ricardo Torres Perez shares he did not want to go to Korea in 1977 since it was so far away. He admits he was nervous about the probability of war rising again. He recalls realizing the possibilities of war were still as high as in 1953 after hearing planes come in and out of Osan Air Force Base where he landed.



Fighting for His Father

Ricardo Torres Perez shares he wanted to represent and work hard for his father since his father served in the Korean War with the 65th Infantry Division from Puerto Rico. He recalls how his father hid under two dead bodies while the Chinese were looking for living soldiers to take as POWs.



Richard A. Houser

The Korean War Draft and Basic Training

Richard Houser was working and got married before he was drafted in 1953. He didn't think that he would get drafted and one month after getting the letter, he was sent to boot camp.



Leaving for Korean War in 1953

Richard Houser took a ship and landed in Inchon in April 1953 after a lonely 20 day ship ride to Korea. While traveling to his base in the Chorwon Valley known as the Iron Triangle, Richard Houser was able to see Seoul leveled, small thatched homes, and dirt roads all around him.



The Korean War Ceasefire

Richard Houser fought until the last second to hold Porkchop Hill in the Chorwon Valley right before the ceasefire. It felt great for him when the war ended because he was able to build new trenches farther off the 38th parallel.



Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



Richard Botto

Duties While in the East Sea Along Korea's Shore

Richard Botto was busy on Quarter Watch because he had to do whatever he was told to do. He could see the mortar shells coming from his ship and landing into the side of Korea's mountains. He was not in danger while he was there, he thought, because Richard Botto was protected by 1,400 sailors. In February 1953, he was done with his time in the East Sea, so he was sent to the Mediterranean Sea to help NATO with a humanitarian mission.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Weekly Sermons Halted After Preacher was a No-Show

Church was usually done every Sunday on the hood of a cloth-draped jeep. The preacher would hold the bible in his hand and deliver the weekly sermon. One Sunday, the soldiers were present to start the service, but the preacher wasn't there. The soldiers saw in the distance a jeep driving about 90 miles an hour up the the soldiers to tell them that the preacher had checkout out a rifle to go pheasant hunting, stepped on a land mine and was killed.



Richard Davey

Working with Americans While Stationed at HQ

Richard Davey recounts being stationed at the Royal Army's Headquarters (HQ) during the May 1953, 3rd Battle of the Hook. Due to bombing and busy telephone lines, he recalls having to hot loop (go around the regular telephone communication system) to communicate with other HQs. During that battle, over thirty-eight thousand shells were used during the fight.



A Bunker and a Radio, What Else Would You Need?

Richard Davey shares that his job in HQ was to man the radio to maintain and assist communication between the frontlines and HQRA. Therefore, he had to store many pieces of equipment to keep the radio running all day and night. He recalls being able to stay in a bunker inside of a trench and adds that he was even able to maintain a bookshelf with books to share with the American soldiers that he was stationed with at the time.



Arrival in Pusan in the Midst of 1952

Richard Davey recalls arriving in Pusan to a band playing in the background and small camps set up with Canadian troops waiting to be shipped out. After a train and truck ride, he was stationed with the Headquarters Royal Artillery (HQRA). While stationed there, he was provided food, summer clothes, and guns.



Richard Donatelli

Remember the Death March North

Richard Donatelli remembers that in spite of the heavy artillery being used, it was no match for the Chinese near Kotori who would over run their unit, forcibly moving them with bayonets north.
He explains that they lost a lot of men on this "death march" due to the rough, cold conditions and lack of water and food. During a few times, Richard Donatelli wanted to give up, but he kept going.



POW Camp-Teaching of Capitalism

Richard Donatelli explains that they tried to teach them about the downfalls of capitalism in the POW Camp. They placed them in a circle sharing stories of the businessmen ruining the country on a daily basis, an argument for socialism and communism. In addition to this, they would have to sing a patriotic song daily while living in the horrible conditions of the camp.



POW Camp 5 Morning Ritual

Richard Dontelli says that they hard a hard time sleeping and medical care was not the best. The Chinese doctors would only give them pills. He remembers that if you didn't eat what they gave you, you died. Richard Dontelli tells the story of one time he was caught stealing wooden shingles off of one of the cabinets and he was punished.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Arriving in Korea

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experience of undergoing an extended leadership training of two months while most of the other trainees were sent ahead to Korea. He vividly recalls the night when he first arrived in Korea via Incheon Harbor where commands were given in low whispers and troops were instructed to load their weapons with live ammo as a precautionary measure. He explains his role and responsibilities as a member of the mortar squad.



Friendly Fire and Casualties

Richard Edward Watchempino recalls his arrival at the front lines at the main line of resistance (MLR) when the forces were preparing for a peace treaty. He explains the context of the situation that led to his injury caused by friendly gunfire. He mentions how his unit had suffered minimal losses, but he lost several friends from basic training who went to Korea two months before he arrived.



Richard Franklin

"Don't Shoot, It's the Major!"

Richard Franklin tells a story from his time working at a medical aid station near the Punchbowl area. One of the few times that kitchen personnel were ordered to carry their weapons, he recalls a major that was afraid of friendly fire.



Richard H. Fastenau

Arriving to the Iron Triangle

Richard H. Fastenau served in the 40th Infantry Division in Korea from 1952 to 1953. He recollects arriving in Kumsong Valley to join a National Guard unit from California which had been federalized to create the 40th Infantry Division. He notes among them were many underaged soldiers who had lied about their ages to join the unit. He vividly remembers the first night at the outpost as a tough night for him.



Richard J. Dominguez

Korea Arrival and Departure

Richard J. Dominguez shares his experience of arriving in Korea during a ceasefire for negotiations among opposing forces. Upon arrival, his unit was sent to replace another division on the front lines. He describes how the previous division had constructed trenches and tents to maximize protection from incoming fire. He recalls his own division losing men on the front lines, including a fellow medic. He reflects on receiving an emergency furlough while in Korea to travel home and visit his ill mother.



Richard L. Boxwell, Jr.

Alcohol on a Naval Ship

Richard Boxwell describes attitudes about beer and alcohol. Beer was not considered alcohol, at that time. Certain on-board personnel were given beer as any flight could be their last flight.



Richard P. Holgin

First Impressions of Korea

Richard P. Holgin describes arriving at Incheon at the beginning of the Korean War. He goes into detail about seeing burnt bodies all over and crossing through cities ravaged by the Chinese. Richard P. Holgin's his job responsibilities changed when he shifted from a rifleman to an infantryman.



Burning Bridges at the Chosin Reservoir

Richard P. Holgin experienced subzero temperatures and fierce fighting at the Chosin Reservoir. After his company's missions, they would have to blow up bridges and roads so that no enemy could follow them. The weather was a major factor in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Persevering through Frostbite

Richard P. Holgin experienced terrible frostbite on his leg. Despite this condition, he continued to serve to the best of his ability, until a superior noticed his injury. Richard P. Holgin was then cared for in Busan and in Japan.



Richard Perkins

Direct Hit

Richard Perkins recalls in late 1950, off the east coast of Korea, when the destroyer he crewed, the USS Charles S. Sperry took three direct hits from enemy shore batteries. He describes where the ship was hit and what happened after the incident.



Downed Pilot

Richard Perkins describes retrieving a downed Navy pilot from the sea after his parachute had not deployed. Unfortunately, the pilot did not survive.



Richard S. Smith

Memories of the Korean War and Coming Home

Richard S. Smith does not recall any really difficult parts of the war, but he notes that this might be because he was such a young man at the time. He remembers there were times he was pretty scared, but he really does not count that as a difficulty. He concludes that the happiest time of his service was the coming home which included a trip through the Panama Canal and an awaiting soon-to-be bride.



Robert “Bob” W. Ezell

Thoughts of Dying

Bob Ezell talks about how he felt after being wounded and how grateful he is to have survived. He also mentions the magnitude of death at Toktong Pass and a friend who was killed there.



Robert Arend

Account of Prison Uprising

While Robert Arend arrived in the camp shortly after the uprising, he tells the story as it was told to him from others who were at the camp at that time. He says it was the General's blunder by walking into the camp, and the prisoners overpowered him. After several days, they sent in some troops and a tank to get him out. The General was not killed, but there were several prisoners and possibly a few American soldiers were killed.



Prisoners Were Happy to Be There

Robert Arend remembers that many prisoners were happy to be there, especially the non-communist ones, happy not to have to return to the Communist North. Those that were "hard core" would do anything to go back. It was Robert Arend's job to keep records of every prisoner including their political affiliation and where they were sent. He states that this was a very "intense time" with a lot of threats.



"So much of the war was terrible"

When asked what was the most difficult part of his time in Korea, Robert Arend said that "so much of the war was terrible." He explains that the deaths were difficult and so was seeing the children in such poor conditions. He also remembers the attacks from guerrillas, but his biggest fear was that the prisoners would break out.



Robert Battdorff

Traveling to the Chosin Reservoir

Robert Battdorff moved through Seoul, Ko do Re Pass, and then went onto the Chosin Reservoir. Using a line of soldiers, 20 feet apart, he made his way to East Hill overlooking the Chosin Reservoir. Without any enemy resistance, Robert Battdorff sent out patrols to check the different possible enemy positions in November 1950.



The Chinese Take Robert Battdorff

Marine engineers were building an airstrip near the Chosin Reservoir when Robert Battdorff moved onto Toktong Pass to set up positions. That's where the Chinese took over the hill and he was taken prisoner while on watch. It was November 28, 1950 and he was on watch in a sleeping bag because the weather was 40 below zero.



A Near Death Experience with the Chinese

The Chinese put Robert Battdorff in a cow shed and then put him in their own foxholes because the sun was coming up, so they assumed the US would be bombing soon from the air. Two other men were captured with him, but no US soldiers came to resume them right away. On the first assault, there were 28 casualties during that attack. The guard that captured the 3 US soldiers had the men kneel near a frozen stream so that he could kill them, but another Chinese soldier stopped the killing.



Marching and Traveling all over the Chosin Reservoir as a POW

After a further search and surviving a shooting, Robert Battdorff had to hide in a foxhole because the Australians were shooting up multiple buildings where the Chinese were hiding. One guard walked the POWs all day to Yudam ni, near Hamgyong, North Korea. He was moved many places to hide throughout December 1950 while the Chinese were picking up additional British POWs.



Travel, Food, and UN Attacks on Chinese as a POW

Robert Battdorff and one other US POW were forced to walk south to the 38th parallel in May 1951 as the US soldiers were pushing the Chinese back in battle. He was told that he was brought down south just in case if the Chinese came across additional prisoners. He would walk at night 6 days a week and then take Sunday off. Since the Chinese were traveling with supplies during the night, UN pilots looked for the headlights of the trucks to know where to hit.



33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert Chisolm

Letters Home and Life on the Home Front

Robert Chisolm shares he married his childhood sweetheart in 1946 and wrote letters to her throughout the Korean War. He notes that she volunteered with the Red Cross. He recalls a time she had to ask the Red Cross to determine if he was alright after the Battle of Pork Chop Hill since their local newspaper wrote a large article about his regiment in that major battle.



Robert Dahms

Training for the Korean War in the US and Cuba

Once Robert Dahms graduated high school, he volunteered for the military. He was sent to the Great Lakes for 16 weeks of basic training. After training, Robert Dahms went to Pensacola, Florida to rescue downed planes by using a lot of different types of technology to aid the rescuers.



Training and Protecting Pilots While Purifying Water

Robert Dahms continued to work on the home front to train and protect pilots while they were learning to become effective soldiers. While doing so, he also ran evaporators to purify salt water in order to turn it into drinking water. Both of these jobs were important for the soldiers during the Korean War.



Robert F. Wright

Bed Check Charlie

Robert Wright shares the story of being bombed by Bed Check Charlie, North Korean aircraft that could fly undetected by radar, in the middle of the night throughout his time in Korea. He describes his sleeping quarters, a Quonset Hut, as being covered with a canvas top and sand bags stacked six feet high. He notes how shrapnel would rip the top of their huts. He recalls how the United States Air Force quickly responded and put a stop to the night raids.



The Wounded Train

Robert Wright recalls the worst part of his experience in Korea as being one of his first moments there. He remembers passing by a train carrying the wounded from the front lines as he was headed in the direction from which they were coming and how uneasy it made him feel. He remembers a seventeen-year-old soldier crying and wanting to go home.



Robert Fischer

Heading to Korea

Robert Fischer explains his trip to Korea via Japan. He explains his fear while being on the ship for eighteen days, but then the awe he experienced when they landed in Yokohama. His description includes the natural beauty of the area, but also the poverty they witnessed as they traveled through Japan.



Heading to the Front Lines

Robert Fischer describes what it was like to head to the front lines. He describes the hills and the fires they saw along the road. On the journey, his company saw a tank that had run over a civilian. Because he did not have an assignment, Robert Fischer became the one who had to carry the radio.



Robert Fitts

Driving to the Front Lines

Robert Fitts was promoted to Motor Sergeant/Staff Sergeant and was in charge of assigning drivers to tasks among other duties. He shares the story of a driver's willingness to carry supplies to the front lines for another driver who returned with a vehicle maintenance issue. He details the outcome of the second attempt.



Robert H. Pellou

Dug in on Outskirts of Hagaru-ri

Robert H. Pellou recalls serving with a heavy weapons unit in Korea. He shares they worked with heavy machine guns and water-cooled Brownings. He recalls how he operated the only weapon of its type in Hagaru-ri. He remembers being surrounded by the Chinese on Dec. 6th and then the heavy machine guns being called forward as others pushed back to Wonsan. He explains how while feeding an ammunition belt into the gun, he was hit by enemy fire, ending his combat career.



Robert J. Rose

We've Got to Get Rid of This Plane

Robert Rose recalls one particular journey across the Pacific as part of a Canadair North Star flight crew. He recalls coming across damaged planes on the trip with preceding and seceding tail numbers to the that of the plane on which he served. He jokes about having to get to Tokyo to get rid of the plane on which he was flying.



Robert Johnson

Paralyzed for Days

Robert Johnson describes the details of his work on a Caterpillar machine in Korea when it becoming stuck. As it was stuck, he describes how he fell off and became paralyzed in the back for five days. He describes his hospitalization and recovery.



A Burning Truck

Robert Johnson recollects on a dangerous experience in Korea when he was in a truck filled with TNT and how it led to a fire. He also describes seeing constant planes fly over his station. Although he didn't engage in combat, he was near much of the fighting.



Robert Kam Chong Young

Injured After Capturing POWs

Robert Kam Chong Young shares his experiences after participating in the Incheon Landing. He recalls suffering from Hepatitis which caused his hospitalization at the 35th Army Hospital in Japan. He remembers being scared when he captured three Chinese prisoners of war (POWs) prior to being injured by Chinese mortar fire.



Robert Kodama

An Unfortunate Surprise at the Prisoner of War Camp

Robert Kodama describes what it was like moving with a company of five tanks which had to stop about every thirty miles to refuel. He shares how, during one of the stops near Taejon, they saw what they thought was an abandoned prisoner of war (POW) camp. He describes the terrible scene when they went into the camp, a scene that would give him nightmares.



Robert L. Jewitt

Concentrate on My Role

Robert Jewitt expands on life in the M4A3E8 Sherman tank and the different jobs in the tank. He provides details about the dangers of being in the tank and the changes they experience during the cold and hot weather. He shares how, during his time in the tank, he concentrated on getting his job done and not being consumed by any fears. With this in mind, he recounts how some soldiers were consumed by their fears and they were ineffective.



Robert L. Wessa

First In, Last Out

Robert L. Wessa describes his time in Korea evacuating wounded soldiers from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. The battle wounded so many soldiers that during the time of the evacuation Robert Wessa never got the chance to leave the temporary airstrip.



Robert M. Longden

Service Conditions, Cold, and Fear

Robert M. Longden constantly feared the Chinese and North Koreans would break the armistice while he was stationed near the DMZ. Winter was brutally cold. At one point, his hand stuck to a frozen chain while he worked with his truck. Soldiers had adequate winter gear and slept in military tents, but food was very basic.



Robert Mitchell

Living with the Guilt

Bob Mitchell recalls being sent to the rear on sick call. He shares that while he was in the hospital, he learned his entire unit had been overwhelmed in an attack by the Chinese. He shares he grappled with this event and eventually reached the conclusion it was just the reality of war; in combat death comes strictly by random.



Robert Mount

North Korean Refugees

On the road to Seoul, Robert Mount describes the devastated landscape and the streams of refugees that he witnessed heading south. He describes how they were carrying as much as they could on their backs, very disheveled and sick-looking. He shows a picture of a refugee in North Korea; he does not remember who took it.



Personal Effects of the War

Robert Mount describes the after effects of the war. "It made me a drunk," he said. He describes having combat nightmares frequently, and also being treated for malaria. Eventually, he got treatment at the VA center for about a month. He received guidance there to attend college on the GI bill.



Robert O. Gray

Say No to Indoctrination

Robert Gray describes his capture by the Chinese. He explains how he and others spoke out against the indoctrination. He also explains why he thinks some POWs won't talk about their imprisonment.



Robert P. Gruber

Close Calls

Robert Gruber describes a few instances in which he was concerned about his safety. While walking home one night, he remembers a Korean soldier all of a sudden yelling at him. He recalls fearing he would not make it home alive. Eventually, he explains the soldier understood he was a GI and he was escorted home. Even though it ended well, he shares how he never went back that way alone again. He provides an account of another close call involving bed check Charlie. He describes a bomb landing on the compound and some soldiers feeling more exposed to danger than the officers.



Robert Stephens

Typical Day: North of the 38th Parallel

Robert Stephens describes a typical day North of the 38th parallel. He describes the extremely harsh weather, living conditions, and a near death experience where he almost drowned. The weather was cold enough to freeze tank tracks. At another point, Robert Stephens had to cross a river that swelled due to rain. The tank retriever stalled in the middle of the river and Robert Stephens almost drowned trying to make it to shore.



Mechanically Inclined

Robert Stephens describes his training to become a mechanic on tanks. He describes being trained on the M46 with a Continental engine, whereas the tanks in Korea were the M4 with a Ford engine. The role of a tank mechanic was to keep the tanks and Jeeps running. His particular unit was support for many different UN forces. Robert Stephens describes how when the tanks broke down in the combat zone and he and his crew would have to go into danger to fix a broken down tank.



Robert Steven Duffy

Right Place, Right Time

Robert Duffy remembers a moment of fear. He talks about being a part of a charge to take a hill and the courage of a certain Lieutenant. He was in the "right place at the right time" to avoid getting shot.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

Wounded

Robert Hammelsmith describes being wounded by machine gun fire while on a scouting patrol near the Manchurian border in November of 1950. He explains that he was carried out on a stretcher and then transported on the second of two ambulances, the first of which was attacked by the Chinese. He goes on to describe his evacuation to a hospital in Japan where the bullet in his shoulder was removed.



Robert Whited

Worst Memory

Robert Whited recalls the Battle of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir was the worst memory of the war. He remembers having very little intelligence when they were hit by one hundred thousand Chinese. He shares how he and the other members of his unit dealt with tragic events such as having to fight their way out of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir, resulting in the death of many men.



Rodney Ramsey

Life as an American Soldier on the Front Lines: From Bunkers to Bullets

Rodney Ramsey was supported by Korean Augmentation to United States Army (KATUSA) and these troops were seasoned fighters by the time Rodney Ramsey entered the war in 1952. While sleeping in sand-bag bunkers at the front lines in Geumgang, North Korea, he was comfortable with his summer fatigues including a field jacket. Some of the most dangerous times were when Rodney Ramsey was going on patrol or raids where the Chinese were dug in. He was shot through the helmet with a minor wound when an African American soldier standing next to him was shot with the same bullet and died.



Rodney Stock

Reenlistment: Above the DMZ

Rodney F. Stock remembers being one of the first to receive a $500 bonus to reenlist. He shares when he returned to Korea in 1954, Seoul looked less war torn than when he had left. He notes that initial recovery was a testimony to the Korean people who had already begun the rebuilding process. Serving above the DMZ, at one point he recalls coming face-to-face with an entire Chinese division.



"That's Just the Breaks of the Game"

Rodney F. Stock shares he knew where Korea was from studying maps. He remembers hearing about the beginning of the war while driving to his parents' house. Citing no fear of dying, he recalls convincing the draft office to speed up his processing. After transferring among multiple training locations in the United States, he recounts boarding a ship for Korea at the end of 1951.



War Wounds and Train Attacks

Rodney F. Stock explains that North Koreans left farms in Yeongdeungpo unmolested since North Korea relied heavily on rice harvests. He notes that the U.S. soldiers were not so fortunate. He remembers a sniper shoting at him while he repaired a wire up a telephone pole. He recounts how the bullet missed him, but wood splinters embedded in his leg. He resents not being listed as wounded in combat since he was not hit by the actual bullet. He recalls other dangerous experiences which included the armored train ride from Yeongdeungpo to Pusan (Busan), with enemy attacks on the train each time they passed through Tegu (Daegu).



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



PTSD Experience

Roland Brown shares his experience with PTSD. He describes being found standing in bed, fighting and yelling, on occasion upon his return home. He expresses that he has learned to manage it through the years with help from his wife, religion, and PTSD group.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Marine Corp Hymn and Japanese Whiskey

Rollo Minchaca talks about spending Christmas and New Years during the Korean War. Many of the men were collapsing due to the stress of being in the extreme cold and living in tents. They evacuated to Pusan and had to regroup because of the extreme temperature.



Two Chinese Soldiers

Rollo Minchaca is describing his interaction during the war with the Chinese soldiers. He witnessed a 17 year old machine gunner crying for his mother during the war when his division was ambushed by the Chinese. As a browning automatic rifle man, he almost died because they were running low on ammunition.



Ronald A. Cole

Remembering Post-War Korea

Ronald Cole served in the U.S. Army following the cease-fire in Korea. He offers details on what he remembers about the people and cities in South Korea while he was there. He talks about people being in poor shape and diseases being widespread. He notes that Seoul was still heavily damaged, but was making progress in rebuilding.



Ronald Bourgon

Sleeping Near the Enemy

Ronald Bourgon describes moving towards the front lines near Jipyeongri. He remembers counting eighty-nine dead American soldiers along the way who had been killed in their sleeping bags or while attempting to run away from the North Korean enemy. He shares that many were African-American soldiers and that they had been stripped of their clothes and equipment. He recalls orders being given to not sleep in their sleeping bags despite the cold February temperature after the incident had been discovered.



Rain of Steel

Ronald Bourgon recalls being completely surrounded by the Chinese for three days. He details the plan to combine weaponry from the US, New Zealand, and Canada to open an artillery barrage on their location. He recalls orders given to his company to get down in foxholes and to not come out as fire would be opened on their location in an attempt to stop the Chinese. He remembers the ravaged scene of dead Chinese soldiers once the barrage had ceased.



A Close Call

Ronald Bourgon shares a dangerous moment memory. He recalls carrying the radio and rounding a big rock to avoid hitting branches where a soldier stood with his gun raised. He remembers the soldier pulling the trigger and the gun misfiring. He recounts the soldier apologizing for the mistake and stating that the guns never work as he pointed it to the ground and pulled the trigger again. He remembers the gun firing and shares he was lucky it misfired the first time.



Worst Memory

Ronald Bourgon details his worst memory while in Korea that has caused him grief over the years. He shares that in one encounter with the Chinese, he received a small shrapnel wound while another soldier was hit in the neck and was bleeding profusely. He recalls holding pressure on the soldier's neck as they made their way down the mountain towards a medical team. He shares that the soldier died due to blood loss, and he adds that he has questioned himself since as to whether he could have done more for him.



Ronald C. Lovell

Hill 355

Ronald C. Lovell recalls landing in Pusan before being sent to Hill 355 (Kowang-san)very near Hill 317 where the Chinese were stationed. He recounts the very cold winters and patrols each night. He offers details of one daylight patrol which came under mortar fire and having to go out into the open to help bring the killed and wounded back to safety. He does not recall being afraid but remembers knowing what was going on and just kept going on with what was expected.



Most Difficult Time

Ronald C. Lovell recalls the cold weather being one of the worst parts of his time in Korea. He explains how they were really not equipped for such cold conditions for much of the time he was in Korea. As a machine gunner, who could have been an easy target for the enemy, he counts himself lucky to never have been wounded during his time in Korea.



Ronald P. Richoux

PTSD

Ronald Richoux transports himself back to a moment on the front lines where incoming rounds wreaked havoc and destruction, wounding himself and a fellow soldier. He describes the fear and trauma of that moment that remain with him to this day. His wound subsequently leads to him coming home and being stationed stateside.



Rondo T. Farrer

Living on the Front Line

Rondo T. Farrer describes the food and living conditions on the front line during the Battle of Kapyong. He discusses how he felt being a part of the Battle of Kapyong. He shares his personal thoughts about the possibility of dying in Korea.



Rose L. Gibbs

Describing Other Duties as a Medical Technician

Rose Gibbs recalls having to spend time in different sections of the lab including the blood bank and in the morgue. She remembers autopsies of patients who had died of fevers and having to take extra precautions. She shares that one point the refrigerator for blood stopped working and blood was being stored in the morgue. She admits that she was scared to go to the morgue and got the blood as quickly as possible.



Roy Aldridge

We Broke Their Will

Roy Aldridge describes how he crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea. He shares how the North Koreans shed their uniforms, put on civilian clothing, and fled. He shares how there wasn't much resistance. He explains how the North Koreans had killed all of the prisoners of war and where they put them.



"An Angel Sitting on My Shoulder"

Roy Aldridge describes their unit being the first airborne unit that was completely self-contained. He explains how they had artillery, trucks, jeeps, ammunition, and medics. He describes the dates and movements of his Batallion. He describes the extremely cold temperatures ranging between 40-50 degrees below zero, and how they were attacked by the Chinese.



Prisoner of War

Roy Aldridge describes his first interrogation with the North Koreans and the Chinese. He explains his experience as a prisoner of war starting April 13, 1953. He explains that many soldiers died in the North Korean prisoner of war camp. He identifies his camp as Pak's Palace.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Maintaining Field Communications in Korea

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares how, after being discharged from the US Marine Corps in 1946, he re-enlisted in the United States Army two years later. He explains how during the Korean War, he served in the infantry and specialized in communications. Despite the sporadic nature of the fighting, he remembers being able to see the enemy on nearby hillsides. His recalls his primary responsibility was maintaining field communications as the enemy aimed to disrupt lines of communication.



Encountering the Enemy

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he has vivid memories of working tirelessly for almost twenty-four hours straight during the Chinese Spring Offensive. He mentions the significant loss of life during this period and the urgent requirement for more soldiers on the front lines. He remembers how on one morning, while passing by a nearby ditch, he came across enemy troops. He shares that he later observed a sudden flash of light which turned out to be caused by enemy mortar fire. He explains he was seriously injured in the attack.



The Road to Recovery

Roy Orville Hawthorne describes the extent of his injuries from enemy fire. He remembers the lieutenant crying as he offered encouragement at the sight of his wounds. While at the MASH hospital, he recalls a nurse taking his hand and saying, “Chief, you’re going to make it.” He describes traveling by bus to a regular hospital in Korea where he underwent surgery. He remembers spending a year at the Walter Reed hospital in Washington, D.C., for treatment and therapy for his wounds, including the amputation of his right leg.



Royal Vida

Most of the Time They were Running

Royal Vida describes the situation in Taejon after the capture of General Dean. He makes note about his assignment to an all black regiment and the drastic shift from being stationed in Japan to their assignment in Korea. During the withdrawal, he discusses one time when the Integrated 159th Field artillery was the only regiment able to hold the position. He briefly reflects on the experience of being assigned to an integrated unit. He recounts the confusion and experience of constantly moving and the sadness he felt while watching the Korean people fleeing from the battle.



No One Knew What Was Happening

Royal Vida provides details about entering a deserted Pyungyang and his perceptions of North Korea. From Pyungyang, he states his unit moved up to the Yalu River and here they met an intense Chinese intervention. As they were retreating, he describes the loss of life he encountered and that no one can prepare for what you will encounter during a battle. Additionally, he shares his diagnosis of PTSD.



Rudolph “Rudy” J. Green

2,000 Riflemen On Board

Rudy Green describes taking a train from Busan that was so heavy with smoke that it was very difficult to breathe. He describes how when they arrive at their destination, there was no way to distinguish the white soldiers from the African American soldiers because they were all covered in soot. He explains his amazement in surviving that train ride.



Rudolph Valentine Archer

Traveling Aboard Ship to Korea

Rudolph Valentine Archer discusses receiving his orders to go to Korea. He recounts the experience of traveling on the General Aultman, a transport ship, and being sea sick. He shares that the trip took longer than thirty days because they took a long circuitous route to avoid submarines. Instead of making it to Korea, he reveals that he was dropped off on Wake Island and eventually found his way to the Marshall Islands archipelago.



Russel Kingston

Evading Capture from the Chinese

Russel Kingston describes how they hid in a perimeter that had been dug for a day and night; however, the Chinese dug trenches by hand to get to them. They retreated, and then swam the Yalu river all the way across. He then explains how he evaded the Chinese that night.



Captured by the Chinese

Russel Kingston describes how he and his group could not stay outside freezing and starving any longer, so they took shelter in the house of a North Korean family. The next morning the family left, and shortly thereafter the Chinese kicked down the door and held them at gunpoint. He believes that the family informed the Chinese that they were there.



Ruth Powell (Wife of John Powell)

Dealing with PTSD after the War

Ruth Powell introduces herself as the wife of veteran, John Powell. She describes her husband's struggles with PTSD after returning from Korea. She comments on John Powell's experiences as a prisoner of war (POW), its effects on him, and the treatments he endured to aid and better his psychological state.



Sahlemariam Wmichaea

Messenger Duty

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes what is was like to be a messenger during wartime. He describes having to run and hide moving between units to deliver messages. Even though it was risky running through enemy fire, Sahlemariam Wmichaea never got injured.



Salvatore R. Conte

Isolation Box

Salvatore Conte explains that he was placed in an isolation box for eight months since he was considered a leader among the POWs. He remembers being in the box from May through December 1952 and was only let out twice a day to use the bathroom. One time he was marched over to a hillside to be killed by the Chinese, but they allowed him to live and he was placed back into the box.



Salvatore Schillaci

Wounded During a Mission

Salvatore Schillaci recounts being wounded in the abdominal during a nighttime reconnaissance mission. While on patrol, he remembers his Sergeant ordering him to investigate what looked like an abandoned enemy machine gun. As they approached, he describes how the enemy began their assault and how he was hit in the abdomen. Shortly after being stitched up in the medical tent, he shares how his wound opened up and that he was evacuated out of Korea. He recounts his experience before a military board and receiving an honorable discharge.



Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr.

Difficult and Rewarding Times

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., talks about being under enemy artillery fire. He recalls making it quickly into a foxhole. He discusses being scared and describes his most rewarding times in Korea and the special experience.



Samuel Stoltzfus

Scary Moment During Service

Samuel Stoltzfus drove officers all around the front lines. Once, while parked at the bottom of a mountain waiting for Colonel Rouse and Lieutenant Ruble, he heard the shouts of a South Korean pinned under a tire he had been changing. As Samuel Stoltzfus went to help, North Koreans began firing white phosphorous shells at him. He retreated and hid under his Jeep. Another time, he was late for Christmas dinner because he drove a colonel up to a bunker that had sustained a direct hit. Because he was with an officer, they returned to find the cooks had saved the best food for them.



Sangmoon Olsson

Life During the War

Sangmoon Olsson describes her life during the Korean War. Her brother had a high position under the Japanese Imperial control and when the communists took over, they wanted to capture her brother. Sangmoon had to go into hiding for a total of eight months, interrupting her nursing studies. When the Allies eventually pushed back the Communists, Sangmoon Olsson was able to complete her nursing studies.



Santos Rodriguez Santiago

Life in the Punchbowl

Santos Rodriguez Santiago remembers not knowing much about the area as they traveled to the Punchbowl. A lot of his time was spent observing the enemy among the hills. He remembers some of his officers being hit by snipers as the two sides often exchanged gun fire. He says that after 2-3 months they began to get used to this lifestyle.



The Hardest Thing

Santos Rodriguez Santiago shares that one of the most difficult things was watching people get killed. He wonders why people are unable to live in harmony. He remembers that he was unsure about whether or not he would come home alive.



Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz

Surviving the Battle of Old Baldy / Sobreviviendo a la Batalla de Old Baldy

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz recounts the dangers he encountered during the battle of Old Baldy. After two soldiers within his post were killed and his machine gun overheated, the only way for him to survive was by hiding for two days. The most difficult part of the battle was escaping as he found a fellow soldier with injured legs begging him for help which he then carried for one-and-one-half kilometers. He courageously carried him to safety while maneuvering through artillery falling nearby.

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz relata los peligros que encontró durante la batalla de Old Baldy. Después que mataran a dos compañeros y su ametralladora se sobrecalentó, la única forma de sobrevivir fue escondiéndose durante dos días en un bunker. La parte más difícil de la batalla fue escapar, ya que encontró a un compañero soldado con las piernas lesionadas que le suplicaba ayuda y camino un kilómetro y medio cargándolo. Lo llevó a un lugar seguro mientras maniobraba a través de la artillería que caía cerca.



Personal Experience in Battle / Experiencia en Batalla

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz reflects on his time at the Battle of Old Baldy. He vividly remembers seeing Chinese soldiers lighting flares to find anyone that was hidden. He describes the recognition he received after his service including his five medals.

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz refleja sobre su experiencia en la Batalla de Old Baldy. Recuerda vívidamente haber visto a los soldados chinos encender bengalas para encontrar a alguien que estuviera escondido. Relata del reconocimiento que recibió después de su servicio, incluyendo sus cinco medallas.



Sergio Martinez Velasquez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Sergio Martínez Velásquez recalls the intense fighting of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that the Chinese were relentless in their attacks, and were it not for American tanks, they all would have perished. He shares the story of how he almost died when he left the bunker for a moment.

Sergio Martínez Velásquez recuerda los momentos más intensos de la guerra que sucedieron durante de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él explica que los chinos fueron implacables en sus ataques y que, si no hubiera sido por los tanques estadounidenses, todos habrían perecido. También comparte la historia de cómo casi lo mataron cuando salió del búnker por un momento.



Saying Goodbye / Las Despedidas

Sergio Martínez Velásquez shares the story of how he informed his parents he had volunteered to fight in Korea. He emotionally remembers the way in which his parents insisted he abandon his plans. He recalls believing he would never see them again as he was certain he would be killed in action.

Sergio Martínez Velásquez comparte la historia de cómo les informó a sus padres que se había ofrecido como voluntario para pelear en Corea. Él recuerda con emoción la forma en que sus padres insistieron en que abandonara sus planes y que se quedara en Colombia. Recuerda haber creído que nunca los volvería a ver porque estaba seguro de que lo iban a matar en combate.



Seymour Bernstein

Playing for the Others

Seymour Bernstein explains how he had trained to originally be an infantryman. He and his colleague had asked to give a piano concert for the soldiers and we allowed even though there was some skepticism. He recalls getting assistance in moving a piano to the theater so that he could play. This was the start of a tour to play for many others.



Shirley F. Gates McBride

Cry Until You Can No Longer Cry

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes the first lesson she received at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania. Shortly after her arrival, she describes walking into a room and a sergeant separating her from the other soldiers. She explains that he instructed her to go cry in a room until she could not cry anymore. After following his orders, she shares how he explained to her that she would see a lot of death, and she acknowledges this helped to train her to deal with death.



Sixto Gil Mercado Valle

Motor Pool Duty / Asignado al Motor Pool

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle explains how his ability to speak basic English saved his life as he was assigned to one of the safer unit during the war. Within fifteen days of his arrival, he was selected to join the motor pool unit to be a driver. He explains that his job was to follow exact directions and be an interpreter for his superiors.

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle recuerda de cómo su habilidad para hablar un poco el inglés le salvó la vida porque fue asignado a una unidad más segura durante la guerra. Dentro de los quince días de su llegada, fue asignado a la unidad de transporte para ser conductor. Él explica que su trabajo consistía en seguir instrucciones exactas manejando y ser un intérprete para sus superiores.



Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle shares his first impressions and experiences from his arrival in Korea. He explains the journey he took to arrive in Korea which included stops in San Francisco and Hawaii. He explains that it was difficult to adjust to the front lines as North Koreans infiltrated during the night, making it difficult to sleep.

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle comparte sus primeras impresiones de la guerra y sus experiencias al llegar a Corea. Él cuenta sobre el viaje que hizo para llegar a Corea, que incluyó paradas en San Francisco y Hawái. Explica que fue difícil adaptarse a las líneas del frente porque los norcoreanos infiltraban las líneas durante la noche y era imposible dormir porque tenían que estar de guardia.



A Fallen Friend / Un Amigo Caído

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle shares the moments which most impacted him during the war. He explains that because he was a driver, he was responsible for delivering supplies and sometimes picking up the wounded. On one occasion, he was driving near the front line and found a friend who had been killed in action. That moment caused him guilt and sleeplessness as it reminded him of the perils of war.

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle comparte los momentos que más lo impactaron durante la guerra. Explica que, como era chofer, era responsable de entregar suministros y, a veces, de recoger a los heridos. En una ocasión, estaba conduciendo cerca de la línea del frente y encontró a un amigo que lo habían matado. Ese momento le causó culpa e insomnio porque le hizo acordar de los peligros de la guerra.



Somdee Musikawan

Arrival in Busan

Somdee Musikawan arrived in Korea as part of the second rotation in 1951. He shares his fear at the time of not knowing when he would die. He notes the special connection between the Korean people and the Thai soldiers. He offers details of the living conditions in Busan when he arrived.

English translations occur at 3:51, 8:00, and 11:45



Stanley Fujii

Night Patrol, the Enemy, and Explosions

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of a fellow soldier who lost his mind during a night patrol. His description also includes going to take a mountain with a company of 160 men. The endeavor to take the mountain began with encountering explosions in the flatland, ultimately causing retreat. He describes his encounter with land mines, enemy flares, mortars, machine guns, and tanks.



Running from Napalm

Stanley Fujii describes the experience of seeing the bodies of young soldiers in Chinese uniforms who were burned from Napalm. His testimony describes being on patrol to look for another location to move his company to and noticing a lot of dead bodies. The bodies were burned to a crisp and the faces were very young. He saw maggots crawling from the flesh and buzzards coming down to eat the flesh.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Moving from Place to Place

Stanley I. Hashiro moved around a lot with his unit in Korea. He had to live in desolate conditions, taking baths in the river, and living in bombed out concrete buildings. Within the desolate mountain valleys was another location that Stanley I. Hashiro had to stay in the extreme weather conditions.



Sterling D. Mestad

Communicating with Pork Chop Hill

Sterling D. Mestad offers his account of the Pork Chop Hill experience on the communications side. He shares that he did not see as much as the men who were on the lines but adds that he was never far from danger. He recounts a soldier right behind him hit in the face suffering a serious wound.



Sterling N. McKusick

Arrival in Korea

Sterling N. McKusick recounts the story of his arrival to Korea from bootcamp in San Diego. He shares the 1st Marine Division landed in Incheon on September 15, 1950, just months after the start of the war. He notes that this was a totally different experience for him, especially seeing deceased people. He recalls his boat was near the U.S.S. Missouri and other large ships which were firing upon the city prior to their arrival. He recalls the taking of Wolmido Island as well as arrival in Incheon and movement to Yeongdeungpo and Seoul.



Little Knowledge About What He was Heading Into

Sterling N. McKusick details the amphibious landing his unit took part in near Wonsan which was delayed to allow minesweepers a chance to clear the heavily mined waters in the area. He remembers when they finally arrived in Wonsan, the city had already been liberated, and Bob Hope was even there entertaining the troops. He recounts how from Wonsan, they were sent to the Hamhueng area for about four weeks before being sent up the mountains toward the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls really having no idea where they were heading and that they were typically told were they were when they arrived. He does remember knowing their mission--to stop Communists from occupying all of Korea.



Leaving Hagaru-Ri

Sterline N. McKusick's unit moved from Hamhueng and Wonson to Hagaru-ri on the south end of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He shares he served as part of the advanced battalion headed into the region. He recalls the Chinese moving into the region right after Thanksgiving 1950 and notes that at that point, things became a matter of survival and getting out of there. He notes that part of the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 31st Regiment were trapped on the east side of the reservoir, and two more Marine regiments were trapped on the left side of the reservoir. He remembers how the U.S. forces were severely outnumbered--one hundred fifty thousand Chinese to fifteen thousand Marines. He recounts the attempts by the convoy to slowly creep back down the mountain.



Injured, Hospitalized, and Returned to Korea

Sterling N. McKusick remembers how during the trip down the mountain from the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir that it got dark quickly, and they were ordered to travel without lights. He recalls how about nine miles down the road, they encountered a Chinese roadblock in the area of a frozen creek bed. He explains his truck was sandwiched between other trucks ahead of and behind his when the Chinese started shooting. He describes how his truck was hit and how part of the engine destroyed. He shares he was wounded during this time and recalls spending a long cold night in a ditch before things subsided as the Chinese did not like to fight in daylight. He eventually spent six or seven weeks in a hospital in Yokosuka, Japan, before returning to his unit to finish out his time in Korea.



The Dead Stick in Your Mind

Sterling N. McKusick states that the dead always stick in his mind. He recounts one occasion near Wonsan in October 1950 when his unit discovered between three hundred to four hundred civilians slaughtered by the North Koreans. He believes he had it easier than many of the infantrymen who were constantly under fire while in Korea. He notes that after a short time, he simply got numb to the stuff. He provides an account of seeing North Korean tank units in Seoul who had died at the hands of napalm deployed by U.S. Marines and the Navy. He concludes that it never really goes away but that he came to see himself fortunate that it was not him.



Stuart Gunn

The Dreaded Capture

Stuart Gunn had a confrontation with the Chinese military at the Battle of Hill 187. The Chinese were very organized. He remembers the moment him and his partners were capture and the pain they all endured. These moments lead to his capture as a Prisoner of War.



Red China: Brainwashing

Stuart Gunn had a very difficult time living in a Chinese POW camp. While at the camp, the Chinese Communist government had educational materials promoting their government for the prisoners that were printed in English. Other POWs at the camp responded to these materials and the mandatory classes in a variety of ways.



Stuart William Holmes

No One Would Dare Attack the Great British Empire

Stuart Holmes describes flying at night over the coasts of Korea, Japan, and China. He explains that he rarely felt scared, which he attributes to the hubris of youth. He elaborates that occasionally it would be reported that someone was following them which gave him a 'twitch' but, otherwise, he felt no fear.



Suwan Chinda

Pork Chop Hill

Suwan Chinda recalls his experience at the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He shares that he was assigned to communications and was sent to repair lines when needed. He remembers receiving orders to repair a line that had been damaged by bombs near the front lines on one particular occasion and recalls members of his team arguing with the officer who assigned them to the job as they were fearful of becoming injured. He shares that he was not scared and was willing to fight. He adds that he sustained no wounds at the battle.



T.J. Martin

Hoengsong Massacre February 1951 (Full Story)

T.J. Martin chronicles the Hoengsong Massacre where he states that approximately 2,400 Americans died. He details the events of the massacre, recalling thousands of Chinese soldiers advancing with hand grenades, rifles, and some even empty-handed, and provides a vivid account of his movements during those two days. He recalls the moments leading up to his capture by the Chinese.



POW Experience

T.J. Martin recalls being turned over to the North Koreans and spending one month in a North Korean POW camp. He compares and contrasts the treatment of American soldiers by the Chinese and North Koreans, stating that the North Koreans were more merciful in a sense as they would simply kill a soldier rather than let him suffer. He details being turned back over to the Chinese and a long march to another camp which resulted in many prisoner deaths.



Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya

Bazooka and Never Leave a Man Behind

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes his experience in Korea. He was a bazooka shooter. For example, one occurrence almost left him dead when a shell did not fire. Importantly, he describes never leaving a lost soldier behind. The Ethiopians never lost a soldier to Prisoner of War.



Ted Bacha

First Thoughts about Korea

Ted Bacha remembers being so young that he wasn't sure what to do or think when he was sent to Korea. The only thing he focused on was keeping his men alive. He said that he must have done a pretty good job because most of his men came back.



Remembering through Photos

Ted Bacha remembers that many people were killed. He uses photos to explain what they did on the front lines and all of the lives that were lost. While he was there, a little boy gave him some film as a gift for helping him during that time- Ted Bacha's father developed the pictures and said that he couldn't show them for years. Ted Bacha even had a shop where he would display his Korean War memorabilia.



The Impact of PTSD

Ted Bacha explains that he is extremely impacted by his PTSD. He takes medicine to help him fall asleep, but when he forgets to take the medication, memories start to come back again. Even though the nightmares impact him three to four nights per week, Ted Bacha does not regret his service because he was glad to help the people over there.



Remembering the Battles

Ted Bacha remembers what it was like in Daegu, Daejion, Pyongyang, Pusan, and other battles. He explains that his friends got captured, and General Dean was captured as well. He states that they were firing their weapons almost daily.



Telila Deresa

Smell of the Gun Makes You Drunk

Telila Deresa describes his experience in battle. He describes how the enemy was like snakes. The Chinese soldiers killed three of the commanders. However, he was not scared. Telila Deresa describes how youth and the smell of the gun makes a young man drunk with power.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Engaging the North Koreans

Teurangaotera Tuhaka fought the North Koreans. One incident entailed firing on a North Korean supply train. His frigate held a record for firing forty-two times in a minute. He was fired upon by the North Koreans, and to get away, his ship had to zigzag out of the way. He shares how lucky they were to escape.



Patrolling the Han River and Frigate Life

Teurangaotera Tuhaka spent a lot of his service patrolling the Han River (also known as the Hangang River) while receiving support from additional United Nations ships. He had to focus on his job so that he did not have fear while fighting the North Koreans. Conditions were rough at sea because he had to break through ice to get the frigate through the water.



Tex Malcolm

Shallow Graves in Wonju

Tex Malcom discusses his experience in the push off offensive against the Chinese and North Koreans in Wonju. He had an "unsettling" experience as they dug into the hills, and realized they were digging into shallow graves where the North Koreans had buried their dead. During this offensive, supplies were air dropped into a valley.



Arriving at Masan

Tex Malcolm arrived at Masan by train and he assisted other Marine Reserves out of their LST, but they looked terrible. In the city, he only saw fox holes and no buildings. After being assigned to Baker Company, 7th Marines, Tex Malcolm volunteered to shoot the 3.5 guns to protect the command staff.



April 1951 Attacks From the Chinese

On April 23, 1951, Tex Malcolm was protecting another hill when the Chinese were trying to take Charlie Company out. By 2am, the Chinese started to attack his hill and the US Marines were running out of ammunition. Sadly, a Marine right next to Tex Malcolm was shot and killed.



Theodore Garnette

Basic Training in Geneva, New York

Theodore Garnette expresses his desire to enlist in the United States Air Force as a means of receiving advanced training to further his education. He discusses his upbringing on an Indian Reservation in South Dakota and how it had prepared him for the physical demands of basic training. He shares how the officers at boot camp were impressed by his marksmanship despite his small stature.



Theodore Paul

Chinese and Napalm in the Chosin Reservoir

Theodore Paul recalls his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes it as disturbing and shares memories of seeing napalm dropped. He recounts fighting the Chinese from all directions.



Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas “Tommy” Tahara

Arrival in Korea

Thomas "Tommy" Tahara describes being aboard a ship in the Pusan (Busan) Harbor for over a week waiting to be called into action in Korea. He recounts seeing dead bodies for the first time and experiencing combat. He speaks of the fear he experienced as an eighteen-year-old while in a combat situation.



Horrors of War (Graphic)

Thomas "Tommy" Tahara shares his experience seeing the use of napalm for the first time. He recounts the horrible effects napalm had on the North Koreans. He describes how he still remembers what he witnessed.



Thomas B. Smith

Bunker Destruction

Thomas B. Smith shares the details of an incident which cost the lives of two American soldiers and wounded others. He recounts Chinese soldiers overshooting their target and hitting a bunker being dug to serve as a warming place during the winter months. He adds that two soldiers were killed; two were wounded; and the other three involved were deeply shaken by the event.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Landing at Incheon and Fighting at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. speaks of landing at Incheon and ending up at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He describes the Chinese weapons and being outnumbered. One night, while he was on watch, he thought a bush was a Chinese unit attacking, but he decided not to shoot. He admits that this incident earned him the nickname "Bush Guy."



Proud to be a U.S. Marine and Korean War Veteran

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. expresses his pride in serving his country as a U.S. Marine during the Korean War. He appreciates the recognition he receives for his service. Despite being injured, he does not harbor any bitterness, considers himself fortunate to have good health, and acknowledges the sacrifices made by all who served. He reflects on the support he has received from the Veterans Administration after being injured and is grateful for their assistance.



Thomas F. Miller

The Job of a Korean Defense Veteran and the Draft

Thomas Miller was a Korean Defense Veteran since he served in Korea after the Korean War from 1965 through 1966. He was drafted even though he was an only child, farmed for his family, and he had only one good eye.



Thomas J Dailey

Chosin Reservoir Recollections

Thomas Dailey recalls his arrival in Korea and time spent at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes collecting injured and frozen soldiers and placing them on the back of armored tanks due to the lack of space inside the tanks. He remembers one occasion where he was forced to pull his pistol on a soldier who kept attempting to get inside the tank due to thinking it was warmer.



Modern Korea

Thomas Dailey comments on Korea's progress since the war. He shares his pride for having served there but conveys that he still has many dark memories from that time. He elaborates on the kindness Koreans have shown him over the years.



Thomas Norman Thompson

The Forgotten War

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls seeing small children who were bare feet in the snow as he describes devastation in Korea during the war. He says it seemed that civilians only had the choice of going to the rice paddies or mountains to get away from combat areas. He tells that although a cease-fire was ordered, some people did not realize it, causing him to be ambushed a few times as he attempted to make his deliveries. He tells why the Korean War is the forgotten war.



Thomas O’Dell

Chinese Propaganda Leaflets and Speeches

Thomas O'Dell fought against the Chinese and North Koreans. There was propaganda slogans broadcast over loudspeakers throughout the night to try to brainwash the US troops. Leaflets were shot over the trenches by the Chinese to convince the US troops to surrender or to switch to the Chinese's side.



Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Thomas Tsuda

Typical Day on the Front Lines

Thomas Tsuda remembers what it was like fighting on the front lines. He comments on the cold temperatures he and other fellow soldiers experienced and shares that most of the fighting took place at night. He recalls resting, sleeping, and writing letters during the day while there was little action taking place. He speaks of the wounds he sustained on the front lines and shares his pride in serving to prevent the spread of Communism.



On the Line during the Ceasefire

Thomas Tsuda recalls where he was at the time of the ceasefire. He remembers being on the front line and seeing Chinese soldiers waving white flags. He explains that he and fellow soldiers were hesitant at first to greet them but shares that they slowly began to talk to them and shake hands. He adds that held no anger towards the Chinese as they were merely doing their job like he was. He expresses his pride in serving his country.



Tirso Sierra Pinilla

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Tirso Sierra Pinilla provides an account of the most dangerous moments of the war. He states that patrolling both day and night was extremely dangerous as they engaged the enemy on multiple occasions. Adding to the fear and confusion was the fact that he was unaware where shots came from.

Tirso Sierra Pinilla da cuenta de los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra. Afirma que patrullar tanto de día como de noche era extremadamente peligroso ya que se enfrentaron al enemigo unas cuantas veces. Él no sabía de dónde venían los disparos entonces tenía hasta más miedo.



Tom A. Bezouska

We Were Losing Our Friends (Graphic)

Tom Bazouska remembers returning to the front lines as a part of the medical company. After transferring from infantry to medical company, he thought they would be stationed further back from the front lines. Since the fighting was intensifying, the two brothers went back to their original unit. He elaborates on the fact that as a medic your work begins when the shelling starts and you experience your friends dying in your arms.



Fear of Losing a Brother (Graphic)

Tom Bazouska shares the unique experience serving in the same company as his twin brother. He recalls his side of the control panel receiving heavy shelling; blowing three men, including himself, over the hill to their assumed death. After regaining consciousness, he shares that he immediately tried to help the men around him. While tending to the others, all of a sudden his brother appears. During the struggle to help the other men, his brother,Tony, is wounded. Even though now they were both wounded, they continued to help the others to safety.



Tom Collier

Hill 355 and Military Life

Tom Collier describes the fighting at Hill 355 and said many New Zealand soldiers died in the battle. He was never in imminent danger, but there was a constant threat from Chinese artillery. Tom Collier also fondly recollects a South Korean houseboy who was about fourteen years old that completed chores such as laundry and Tom Collier said the boy lost all his money gambling. He looked for the houseboy upon return to South Korea, but could not find him.



Tommy Clough

Napalm Usage

Tommy Clough recounts the usage of napalm during the war. He recalls one particular battle where United States forces dropped napalm on a nearby hill covered with Chinese soldiers. He offers a historical tidbit on when napalm was developed and shares how it was a terrible explosion to witness. He admits that he can still hear the screams and smell burnt flesh despite how many years have passed.



Value of Life

Tommy Clough chronicles the lead-up to his capture. He details catching up to his assigned officer and advancing towards a hill only to find Chinese soldiers looking down at them with a machine gun. He recalls that he lifted his rifle on instinct and shot one of the Chinese soldiers. He shares that after he and fellow soldiers reached the other side of the hill, they were surrounded by the Chinese. He recounts being taken to the spot where the soldier he had shot earlier lay and of how little the Chinese seemed to value life.



Escape Attempt

Tommy Clough recalls his escape attempt from a Chinese POW camp. He shares that he and his friend, Dave, gathered their kit and waited for the roll call one August night. He recounts making it to the bushes near the river, and right as they were about to cross, he remembers hearing the cock of a gun. He details lights coming on and whistles sounding as they were recaptured. He describes how he was handcuffed and locked in an outhouse for roughly six weeks following the attempt.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



Tony J. Bezouska

Fear of Losing a Brother (Graphic)

Tony Bezouska shares the unique experience serving in the same company as his twin brother. During one specific battle, he is sent to assist the wounded on the other side of the control point because the medic is believed dead. That medic was his brother. He remembers finding his brother alive amid the chaos.



Tony White

Detecting Mines

Tony White shares when he first arrived in Korea, he was placed in a patrol unit. He describes being ordered to use the mine detector when they came across a suspected anti-tank minefield even though he did not even know how to even turn on the device. He remembers being terrified while he was walking and feeling relieved when an armored car of the Royal Engineers arrived and took over.



Trevor Edwards

Hill 355: Shouts From the Enemy

Trevor Edwards describes an unexpected engagement with the enemy on Hill 355. He recalls being assigned to build an observation post and shares he and five others were camped there, working day and night, to get it done. He remembers that one evening there was an explosion followed by shouts in the early morning hours. He continues to explain that when they went to investigate, they found two North Koreans had tripped a mine while setting booby traps. He recalls how he and the others set forth through the minefield to retrieve the grievously injured enemy as they helped guide their steps.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

Impressions of Korea on Arrival

Tsege Cherenet Degn arrived in Korea in September of 1954. He comments on how empty and devoid of plants and green his post was near the DMZ. Even though the war was over, he was not sure peace would continue and was on constant alert.



Vartkess Tarbassian

Returning Home

Vartkess Tarbassian struggled with nightmares once he returned home from Korea. His mother would have to wake him when he was screaming in his sleep. After about a year, the nightmares began to go away.



Veli Atasoy

Captivity

Veli Atasoy describes life after being taken as a Prisoner-of-War (POW). He, along with other prisoners were held near the city of Pyoktong, a city in North Korea near the Chinese border. While a prisoner, the Chinese military tried, unsuccessfully, to use propaganda to convince the Turkish troops to switch sides. There were massive infestations of lice in the camp and even a "fake" Sergeant. Veli Atasoy describes how, above all, even in the most dire of situations he turned to Allah above.



Battle of Kunu-ri

Veli Atasoy describes the fighting conditions at the Battle of Kunu-ri. There were many casualties of the Turkish troops and to evacuate, therefore approximately twenty five men were needed per Jeep. The person in command took a wrong turn into harm's way. The Chinese had surrounded the entire area and eventually killed many Americans, but spared Veli Atasoy and many of his fellow Turkish troops. After that the men walked under armed escort to Pyoktong, near the Chinese-North Korean border.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Armistice Ceasefire

Victor Spaulding details the lead-up to the Armistice ceasefire. He recalls the immense shelling taking place on Heartbreak Ridge for four days prior to 10PM on July 27, 1953. He recounts the uncanniness of deafening silence from both sides at the exact time planned. He comments on the fear of wondering whether or not the enemy would honor the ceasefire agreement.



Víctor Luis Torres García

Impact on his Life / El Impacto de la Guerra

Víctor Luis Torres García shares his pride in being an American and a veteran that raised five boys that also served their country. Additionally, he recounts the personal toll the war took on his psyche as he is unable to shake bad memories of his friends that were killed in action. He confidently states that anyone that has the Third Division badge suffered in Korea as much as he did.

Víctor Luis Torres García comparte su orgullo de ser estadounidense y un veterano que crio a cinco hijos que también prestaron su servicio para el país. Además, relata el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su psique, ya que no puede borrar las memorias de sus amigos que murieron. Afirma con seguridad que cualquiera que tenga el escudo de Tercera División sufrió en Corea tanto como él.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Víctor Luis Torres García shares his memories of the first days in Korea. He recalls being shocked at the destruction and poverty in the country. He speaks about his first mission to search and destroy in Munsan and shutters as he remembers how his friend was killed in the Chorwon Valley.

Víctor Luis Torres García comparte sus recuerdos de los primeros días en Corea. Recuerda que quedo impresionado por la destrucción y la pobreza que encontró en el país. Habla de su primera misión de buscar y destruir en Munsan y con lastima recuerda cómo mataron a su amigo en el valle de Chorwon.



First Day / El Primer Día

Víctor Luis Torres García remembers the first day he arrived in Korea. He states that he wanted to join the war effort but changed his mind once he was there. He shares the story of how a mortar fell a few feet away from him and killed the cooks and those that were waiting to be served.

Víctor Luis Torres García recuerda el primer día que llegó a Corea. Afirma que quería prestar su servicio para la guerra, pero cambió de opinión una vez que llego al país. Cuenta la historia de cómo un mortero cayó a unos metros de él y mató a los cocineros y a los que esperaban ser atendidos.



Victor Max Ramsey

Friend or Enemy?

Victor Max Ramsey recalls his interactions with guerrilla fighters. He describes an incident where he passed two horsemen. The two men later committed atrocities against a United States camp. He discusses how one can't tell who was an enemy and who was just a civilian.



Vincent A. Bentz

Learning to Kill

Vincent Bentz describes being in combat near the Kum (Geumgang) River and doing what he "had to do". He explains how the rows of weapons were set up and how the rows just kept coming. He shares what he was thinking during that time, including how it is hard to shoot someone during that time and how it still bothers him.



KIll or Be Killed

Vincent Bentz talks about the resistance they experienced. He remembers being attacked by young children and having to defend himself. He shares how he honors his buddies who never returned.



Vincent Ariola

The Tank on the Front-lines

Vincent Ariola remembers that South Korean soldiers were present in camps with American soldiers, but not brought north with tanks to prevent them from getting killed by American soldiers who could confuse them with the enemy. He describes fighting against forces atop Hill 266, at the Battle of Old Baldy. He remembers seeing a young American soldier in a foxhole before closing the tank hatch when firing broke out, and then seeing the same soldier dead after the firing stopped. His recollection includes his description of the hot atmosphere inside the tank.



Revisiting Life in a Tank

Vincent Ariola describes his reasons for not wanting to go back to visit South Korea. He explains that although he spent many hours in his tank, he did not sleep in it, but tanker operators slept in tents. He describes his experiences with having guard duty very often and being very tired from not being relieved. He further explains that artillery came very close to his tank and to his astonishment, he was never hit.



The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



Vincent Segarra

The Worst Battle / La Peor Batalla

Vicente Segarra recounts the worst battle he experienced while he was in Korea. He remembers that it was a cold, rainy, and thundering day on which mortars never seemed to cease falling. He shares the story of having jumped into an occupied foxhole and years later finding the soldier that was taking cover with him in a chance encounter.

Vicente Segarra relata la peor batalla que vivió mientras estuvo en Corea. Recuerda que era un día frío, lluvioso y con relámpagos y los morteros caían uno atrás del otro. Él comparte la historia de haber saltado a una trinchera ocupada por otro soldado para escapar los morteros y años después se encontró con el soldado que se estaba refugiándose con él.



Terrible Memories / Recuerdos Terribles

Vicente Segarra describes an incident in which he was almost killed. He explains that he and about twelve others were in a bunker and were ordered to attack Chinese forces across the hill. He shares the fact that he hesitated to go out and was lucky that he did not as the machine gunner was killed by a mortar attack and three others were injured.

Vicente Segarra describe un incidente en el que casi muere. Explica que él y otras doce personas estaban en un búnker y teniente les ordenó atacar a las fuerzas chinas del otro lado de la colina. Comparte el hecho de que dudó en salir y tuvo suerte de no hacerlo, ya que el artillero murió cuando cayó un mortero y otros tres resultaron heridas.



Memorable Experience / Experiencia memorable

Vicente Segarra recalls the most impactful moments of the war. He explains that the most vivid memory he has is of the day he arrived in Korea and crossed a field while the enemy fired at them. He details the sounds of the bullets whistling by them and how they were able to escape without any injuries.

Vicente Segarra recuerda los momentos más impactantes de la guerra. Explica que el recuerdo más vívido que tiene es el día que llegó a Corea y cruzó un campo mientras el enemigo les disparaba. Detalla los sonidos de las balas silbando a su lado y cómo pudieron escapar sin heridos.



Virbel Trotter

Fear of the Frontline

Virbel Trotter responses to a question about whether or not he was nervous heading to Korea. He explains that it was an unknown to him. The people who trained him at served in Korea at the early part of the war and shared stories about how rough it was.



"Get Through and Get Out"

Virbel Trotter was attacked by mortal 2-3 times during the war. He describes how you would need to get into a ditch to try to get away from it. He remembers thinking wanting to “get through and get out.”



Virgil Julius Caldwell

Landing at Incheon

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes his experience of landing at Incheon. He recalls being informed on his first day that the bones of the previous unit were found on a nearby hill, which made him feel uneasy. He remembers being attacked by mortar and artillery while he served as an anti-aircraft gunner.



Reflections on Combat

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes the terrain of Korea and his job firing on locations identified by a forward observer. He comments on the fear caused by the whistling sound of mortar shells. He details the feeling of being out in the open during an attack, lying on the ground, and hoping to not get hit.



Virgil Malone

A Typical Day of an Air Policeman

Virgil Malone explains a typical day in Daegu included riding shotgun to protect the military vehicles. from guerilla warfare activity along all the roads. He shares there were three shifts each day in the two compounds surrounding 5th Headquarters which members of the Air Police took turns standing guard the best they could.



Wallace Stewart

I Think They Could Hear My Heartbeat.

Wallace Stewart explains a typical day on the main line of resistance as consisting of long periods of boredom punctuated by moments of sheer terror. Soldiers often stayed awake and on alert all night. They cleaned and maintained their weapons, updating their fire direction cards. Wallace Stewart preferred patrolling at night due to his excellent night vision, but sometimes the soldiers hid in rice paddies to hide from Chinese patrols.



Walter Dowdy, Jr.

First Experiences in Combat

Water Dowdy, Jr., recounts how his White officers were replaced with Black officers while preparing for shipment to Korea. He remembers being hopeful that President Truman had integrated the military. He describes the tense moment of waiting to be loaded for combat with ammunition and his radio and the fear of anticipating the combat that awaited him.



Crossing the International Date Line

Walter Dowdy, Jr., recalls his voyage to Japan in 1950 on a merchant marine ship that crossed the Pacific Ocean. He remembers feeling seasick throughout the fourteen-day journey. He shares his experience crossing the International Date Line and being initiated into the "Domain of the Golden Dragon." He remembers being re-assigned to cook on a US Army base in Japan.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Landing in Korea and Military Entry

Walter Kreider, Jr., recounts landing in Korea. He shares that he was greeted by soldiers waiting to return home and recalls how they shouted words in an effort to frighten the arriving soldiers. He details riding a train up to the front lines near Panmunjeom. He backtracks and describes how he was drafted and his placement in artillery.



Warren Housten Thomas

The Punch Bowl

Warren Thomas describes being stationed near the infamous "Punchbowl" area in Korea. He remembers the Punchbowl being an area surrounded with mountains and the difficulties it created in trying to climb those mountains in the winter. He recalls one event in which he was ordered to take his tractor and clear a road for the troops, having to crawl at times and work around twenty-foot-high snow drifts.



Warren Nishida

Fearlessness of Youth

Warren Nishida elaborates on life as a soldier during reconnaissance and ambush control missions. During this discussion, he shares details about one dangerous encounter when he and his comrades capture two Chinese soldiers. When asked if he was afraid during these experiences, he reflects on the innocence and fearlessness you have during your youth. He expands on this reflection with details about the time he unintentionally became a target of the enemy.



Warren Ramsey

A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Wayne R. Uptagrafft

Kill and Destroy

Wayne Uptagrafft describes his mission in Korea simply as to kill and destroy. He recalls training and leading guerrilla troops on night missions through the DMZ and being the only American in the raids. He recounts the night he was injured and the treacherous journey back to safety, having to spend the night in a bunker while injecting himself with morphine shots.



Wendell Murphy

Living Conditions in Korea

Wendell Murphy describes what they ate in Korea, including listing some of the C-ration options. He recalls not being able to sleep much because the Forward Observer team was understaffed. Additionally, he said that he couldn't sleep at night because he was too scared.



Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar

Most difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar shares the most difficult moments that he experienced during the war. He explains how he lost his hearing after a mine exploded near his ear. Additionally, he shares the story of an attack in which he was transporting goods when they were bombarded with mortars. He explains that he was able to escape, but lamented the fact that all their Korean civilian workers were killed during the attack.

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar cuenta los momentos más difíciles que vivió durante la guerra. Explica cómo perdió la audición después de que una mina exploto cerca de su oído. Asimismo, comparte la historia de un ataque en el que transportaba mercancías cuando fueron bombardeadas con morteros. Cuenta que él pudo escapar, pero lamentó el hecho de que los coreanos civiles que trabajaban con ellos fueron matados durante el ataque.



Transportation Disaster / Desastre de Transporte

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar explains the catastrophic start to his deployment in Korea. He recounts the way in which everyone on his truck convoy was hurt following an accident with a train. While everyone on the truck wanted to be taken to the hospital, he insisted on boarding the train that led him to the boat he would take for Korea.

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar explica el catastrófico inicio de su despliegue a Corea. Relata la forma en que todos en su camión fueron heridos tras un accidente con un tren. Mientras todos los heridos en el camión querían que los llevaran al hospital, él insistió en abordar el tren que lo llevó al bote que tomaría para Corea.



Wilfred Lack

Big Prison Break

Wilfred Lack describes the big prisoner break in 1953, that resulted in the escape of over 600 Korean prisoners. Wilfred Lack suspects that there was cooperation between the prisoners and Korean guards that resulted in the loss of 80% of the prison population.



POWs Cross the Bridge of No Return

Wilfred Lack recalls American POWs crossing the Bridge of No Return and his initial interactions with the shocked soldiers. He remembers the expressions on the soldiers faces as they were released. During the prisoner exchanges, Wilfred Lack was there to tell the soldiers that they were home and safe, which he regards as a rewarding experience.



Willard L. Dale

Duty to Serve

Willard L. Dale confesses there was not a soul serving in Korea that was not scared. He explains he and his brother, Martin, both served in the same area while they were in Korea, and he recounts being able to share Christmas dinner together in 1952. He believes it was his duty to serve his country's mission to assist the Korean people.



Dangerous Night

Willard L. Dale believes soldiers in Korea faced danger every day until the armistice was agreed upon. He shares an account of one of the potentially most dangerous events during his time in Korea.



Willard Maktima

Submarines and Hurricanes

Willard Maktima shares a story about his squadron's mission to transport a detachment of United States Marines from Hamburg, Germany, to Sweden, in order to participate in the funeral procession of the Swedish king. He recounts how, during their journey, the ship's sonar detected submarines in the Baltic Sea, forcing the crew to be on high alert until they left the region. He recalls the ship encountering two hurricanes while sailing through the Atlantic Ocean. He describes the harsh conditions below deck and the ship's violent impact against the waves which he found to be a very frightening experience.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Up To My Knees In Mud

William "Bill" Beasley describes his Unit arriving in Inchon in September 1950. He describes the troublesome deboarding of the Amtrak due to his equipment. He describes that because of the weight instead of just getting mud on his feet like the others when he jumped off, he sank into the mud up to his knees. He describes three unknown men that helped him get to the shore.



William Alli

Land of the Morning Calm

William Alli describes his arrival to Korea at Busan. As he was leaving the ship, there was a morning calm that quickly disappeared with a horrible stench, people in rags, and the anxiety of not knowing what comes next. He describes travelling deeper into Korea by trains and trucks, and his realization of his being a part of the sixth replacement draft. He describes his experience with being a machine gun ammo carrier and his first encounters with tracers and sniper fire from the surrounding hills.



In the Midst of Combat

William Alli explains the details of getting sick while in a fox hole. After his recovery, he went back to the line to face combat with North Korean and Chinese enemy fire as a part of the stretcher crew, carrying bodies of the wounded out of the combat area. He describes having to find his way to safety in the dark, with only the light of flares that were being dropped by planes from above.



Raining Flares and Mistaken Identity

William Alli describes his experience with retreating a major combat zone. He recalls helping his foxhole buddy who was wounded in combat. He further describes a unique experience in Korea where he reconnected with his father's cousin, who was fighting as a part of the United Nations forces with the Turkish troops. While on route to visit his cousin, he was mistaken for a Communist spy. He describes how he was arrested and had to get out of this situation.



William Arnaiz

Under Siege

William Arnaiz remembers a time when they all got alerted there was to be a mass attempt to overrun the "Punchbowl". During this time, he was assigned to a self propelled vehicle with Quad 50 machine guns. All remained on heavy alert for a 54 hour siege, but it ended up being a small skirmish fortunately.



William Burns

Conditions in the Korean War

It was trench warfare in 1952 and it was hit or miss fighting because the Chinese were very savage. The United States fire power is what saved William Burns' troops. The soldiers slept in the ground during the winter and it was just as cold as New York because it was not as bad as the winters of 1950-1951. Hill 1062 was a huge hill that was located near William Burns' trench and the Chinese had hospitals built into the hill along with military weapons.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Landing in Pusan

William Coe explains that he left for Korea from Japan on the July 1, 1950. He shares that they took a C-54 with Company B. He was remembers that they got right on a train and that they were ready to “fight” and tried not to be afraid. not to be afraid.



William D. Freeman

Recaptured as a POW

William Freeman details his experiences being recaptured as a POW after his release in Panmunjeom. He recalls the rough march to the camp and being buried alive after US forces blew up the camp. He discusses the differences in treatment by Chinese soldiers versus North Korean soldiers, describing the North Koreans as being the most brutal.



William Duffy

Life as a Marine

William Duffy describes his boot camp experience as a rude awakening. He recalls having to be up very early in the morning for drills and shares how it was the hardest thing he ever went through. He describes his journey from San Diego to Japan and then eventually to the east coast of Korea.



A Episode to Remember

Wiliam Duffy talks about a time when he went to NCO (non-commissioned officer) school. He shares how the experience was like a different world from the front lines. It had warm food, barbershops, showers, a pub, etc. While there, he recalls how his officer offered him multiple drinks. He shares that he suspected there was some bad news and learned that his squad was attacked. He recounts how only four of the twelve men survived.



William Dumas

Loss of a Friend

William Dumas describes his second injury in 1951. He describes the incident in Korea and losing his radioman. He describes how difficult it was.



William Edwards

The Cuban Missile Crisis

William Edwards talks about the only time he was truly scared during his military service and his experience at Biggs Air Force Base during the Cuban Missile Crisis.



William Eugene Woodward

Importance of the U.S. Air Force

William Eugene Woodward discusses the significant impact the United States Air Force had during the wars of the twentieth century. He recalls a personal experience where he had a near miss with a U.S. fighter plane in Korea. He expresses his patriotism and pride in serving his country during the Korean War.



William F. Borer

"Made me reappraise my opinion of the American Army Officer"

William Borer describes his capture by the North Koreans and their executing about two-dozen men simply because they were American. After marching north, they arrived at a large village and were placed in a compound dividing officers and enlisted men. He recalls one particular night when two enlisted POWs were placed in the not-so-crowded officers quarters but the officers quickly sent them to the very crowded enlisted side. Sergeant Estrada, who was in the same room as William blocked the door and wouldn't let the men in, saying the room was too crowded. Both men froze to death that night, and though Bill reported Estrada, the Army's criminal investigation said there was nothing they could do.



Maggots Covered My Face I Was Pronounced Dead

William Borer describes being moved to Camp 5 where he spent over a month and became ill with pneumonia. He describes the school house that cared for the sick as an an "ant-hotel" where you check in but don't check out. He recalls after being pronounced dead, he awoke among stacks of bodies and maggots encrusted on his eyes and nostrils. He explains that the Chinese were superstitious and when they saw him as he left the morgue, they ran the other direction thinking he had been resurrected.



William F. Honaman

First Experience with Death

William Honaman describes what his living conditions were like when he first encountered the death of other soldiers. He explains that he was encamped in ditches surrounded by barbed wire with only one entrance from the back. He recalls how homemade alarms were fashioned out of empty beer cans filled with rocks. He remembers the entrance was adorned with the bodies of the dead who had tried to get in.



Purple Hearts

William Honaman describes earning his first Purple Heart after being wounded during a patrol. He explains that the point man he was accompanying stepped on a land mine, losing his leg but not his life in the process. He recalls wearing an armored vest at the time, but had unzipped it due to the heat, an action that allowed the shrapnel to pierce his chest. He describes receiving his second Purple Heart in June of 1953 after five grenades exploded around him.



William Hall

Dangerous Situations in Korea

William Hall recalls his experience as one of the first troops to land in Korea in 1950. He shares he lost a close friend in an ambush during the early days of their arrival. He discusses his role in the mortar company when his unit took over from other soldiers at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes the dangerous situation they faced and how he felt his survival was uncertain.



Wounded but Alive

William Hall recognizes how lucky he was to have survived the Korean War without being captured or killed. He vividly remembers the harsh conditions of the Korean landscape and the poverty-stricken state of the local population. He shares how, after being wounded in Korea, he was sent to a hospital in California where he received medical attention.



William Herold

Wounded at the Chosin Reservoir

William Herold recounts his Thanksgiving meal experience before heading up into the mountains of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes being outnumbered by the Chinese 36 to 1 and a fire fight commencing. He remembers silence that followed except for one round sounding out, adding that it was the round which wounded his right leg. He recalls being transported via jeep out of the mountains and eventually to the hospital ship, Consolation.



William Jacque

Guarding A Truck Under Chinese Fire

William Jacque details a supply route mishap while on a truck carrying ammunition. He recounts the route being under fire by the Chinese and describes his truck hitting a hole and tipping over. He shares that he was forced to guard the truck until a wrecker could recover it, and he adds that he hitchhiked a ride back to his unit.



William MacSwain

Horrors of War

William MacSwain describes some of the horrors of war experiences. He portrays a vivid image of scenes of war that illustrate the hardships Korean War soldiers faced. These first-hand accounts show the fear in every soldiers' mind.



Military Leadership Training

In September 1950, William MacSwain reported to a military leadership school that was led by WWII veterans. Since he was already trained on a variety of weapons, William MacSwain felt that psychological warfare treatment was important lessons that he learned. Once he returned to Fort Polk, he was in charge of 4th platoon (an infantry division) who were all older than him.



Training for War in Japan

In May 1951, William MacSwain was sent to Japan to train with his platoon on terrain that was similar to Korea. General Ridgway said that the US National Guard should not be sent to Korea because they were not trained well enough. After watching William MacSwain's platoon in Japan practicing a maneuver, he was impressed with what he saw, so the National Guard was free to fight in the Korean War.



William McLaughlin

Events in Korea

William McLaughlin discusses his responsibilities while in Korea as well as his training. He also discusses some dangerous events, including when two drunk Korean soldiers stole a cab and were eventually killed by his brigade. A Korean newspaper, though, called it a suicide. This made him question what he was reading in the newspapers. He also witnessed the Rangoon bombing in October of 1983. He recounts his experience.



William McLenahan

Torpedo Practice

William McLenahan recounts the uneasy feeling that accompanied him during torpedo practices. He shares that in order to prepare for battle, the submarines would practice firing on each other with dummy torpedos. Despite knowing they were dummies, he recalls the fear of seeing that torpedo coming at him in the water, knowing the damage that could be done should it hit the ship.



William Puls

Trench War and Stretcher Duty

William Puls describes his experience on trench patrol during the last part of the Korean War just before the Armistice. He describes fighting from a position at an outpost, then having to pick up dead bodies from the trenches, which were about three-hundred yards away. He shares the repercussions of having to fire massive amounts of ammunition during the fighting.



William Whitley

Whitley's PTSD

William Whitley shares the names that many of the Korean War soldiers were called when they returned home following their time in Korea. He notes that many of them were ashamed to even share they were part of the military for fear of people's reactions. He recollects occasions when he would be out with his wife and recalls feeling like everyone was staring at him and wanting to do him harm. He recalls it taking over a year home before he could overcome this feeling.



Willie Bacon, Sr.

Moving Water Purification with the Troops

Willie Bacon, Sr., describes how his unit would move with the troops. He explains they made a deliberate effort to remain close to rivers and dams to have access to clean water. He recounts the tragic loss of a friend in Korea who was shipped there two months before him and was killed on an artillery firing line. He mentions another friend who survived the same attack because he was on the other side of the firing line.



Willie Frazier

Serving in Korea

Willie Frazier remembers arriving in Korea at Incheon, where he noticed General McArthur was stationed. Later, he relocated to Seoul and Wonsan. He speaks about his friends who served in "Graves Restoration," which involved retrieving fallen soldiers. He discusses his thoughts on serving in the laundry unit instead of being on the front lines.



Enemy Fire and Life Near the Front

Willie Frazier describes the challenging conditions he faced during an enemy fire, such as digging foxholes. He remembers the loss of two of his closest friends during this attack, which he considers the most frightening event he experienced while serving in Korea. On a more positive note, he reflects on Rest and Relaxation (R&R), which involved music and the food he ate, which consisted mainly of C-Rations.



Willis Remus

Food

Willis Remus describes how difficult it was in prison camp to make sure that the other soldiers were eating their rations and what he did to try to encourage soldiers to eat the food they were rationed by the Chinese.



Captured

Willis Remus describes how he and his whole platoon were captured by the North Koreans and marched to Chongsong. He said they were captured without a fight because they were sleeping and surrounded when they woke up.



Wistremundo Dones

Remembering Terrible Battles / Recordando Terribles Batallas

Wistremundo Dones provides an account of the tactical operations which were aimed at sweeping the South of North Koreans. He explains the change in troop movements from the South and how entire platoons were sent to Incheon in the North which prompted the Chinese to get involved. He admits that they needed much courage to withstand the bombings that continuously took place.

Wistremundo Dones da cuenta de las operaciones tácticas que tenían como objetivo barrer el sur de los norcoreanos. Explica el cambio en los movimientos de tropas del Sur y cómo se enviaron pelotones enteros a Incheon, en el Norte, lo que llevó a los chinos a involucrarse. Admite que necesitaban mucho coraje para sobrevivir los bombardeos que siempre continuamente.



Getting to Korea / Como Llegó a Korea

Wistremundo Dones describes how he arrived in Korea in 1950. He details the long voyage which included stops in Panama and Japan. He remembers the way in which the boat swayed during a typhoon over the Pacific Ocean.

Wistremundo Dones describe cómo llegó a Corea en 1950. Detalla el viaje largo que incluyó escalas en Panamá y Japón. Recuerda cómo se balanceó el barco durante un tifón sobre el Océano Pacífico.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Wistremundo Dones relays his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he did not understand how a civilian population which was so impoverished was able to withstand the cold winters. He provides details of the guerrilla attacks from North Korean which ensued early in the war.

Wistremundo Dones cuenta de sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no entendía cómo una población que estaba tan empobrecida podía soportar los inviernos tan fríos. Proporciona detalles sobre los ataques de la guerrilla norcoreana que se produjeron a principios de la guerra.



Overview of Service / Descripción de su Servicio

Wistremundo Dones describes his tour of duty in Korea in English. He explains how the war changed resulting from the involvement of Chinese forces. Furthermore, he shares how the commanding officers altered the war strategy.

Wistremundo Dones describe en inglés su período de servicio en Corea. Explica cómo cambió la guerra cuando entraron las fuerzas chinas a la guerra. Además, comparte cómo los oficiales al mando cambiaron la estrategia de la guerra.



World War II / La Segunda Guerra Mundial

Wistremundo Dones offers an account of his service during World War II. He explains that he landed in North Africa in 1944 and made his way north into Europe. He describes the way in which he fought in the Alps, France, and eventually Germany.

Wistremundo Dones ofrece un relato de su servicio durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Explica que desembarcó en el norte de África en 1944 y se dirigió al norte de Europa. Él describe la forma en que prestó su servicio en los Alpes, Francia y, finalmente, Alemania hasta 1945.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.



Dangers of a Sniper

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes being a sniper during the war. On one occasion a mortar exploded near him. The explosion covered him in dirt and took the life of the man beside him. Events of the war, however, made him stronger, not scared. He also describes Chinese were good at karate.



Engagement with the Chinese

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes engaging the enemy. He describes how he sniped and killed seven Chinese soldiers. The incident occurred at night. The Ethiopians waited to be given orders to fire. Firing at night would give your position away. He also describes being so cold that he put his leg in a fire to keep it warm. His leg ultimately ended up being damaged from this incident.