Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Incheon



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Alfred Curtis

Thoughts on Service, Memories, and the Korean War Legacy

Alfred Curtis offered his thoughts on service and memories of his brother who served in Korea. He shared his brother was at Incheon and the Chosin Reservoir and that he died from wounds he sustained in battle. He commented on the legacy of the Korean War, sharing what the country of South Korea has done for itself since the war is unbelievable.



Ali Dagbagli

The Pains of War

Ali Dagbagli describes the poor conditions of the Korean people. He recalls how the kids would run through the streets begging for food and cigarettes for their families. He remembers witnessing abject poverty as he traveled across Korea.



Allen Clark

Arriving in Korea and Early Encounters

Allen Clark participated in the Inchon Landing, witnessing the ladders and fighting along the beaches. Throughout Korea, he recalls trucks, troops, and mortars moving into his area. Sleeping on the ground with minimal supplies, Clark and his fellow Marines worked in shifts to protect their regiment around the clock. While establishing observation posts and maneuvering around Gimpo Airport, he shares an encounter with a family who had captured a North Korean soldier. He believed the process of handing the soldier over to the proper authorities went well but worried about the potential for being outnumbered by other POWs.



Alvin A. Gould

Arriving in Korea as Part of the 10th Special Services Company

Alvin Gould recounts his arrival at Incheon in December 1953 and his subsequent journey to Seoul. Upon leaving the ship, he remembers his initial impressions of the capital city was one devastation with one of the few buildings still standing being the Chosin Hotel. Furthermore, he provides an overview of the 10th Special Services Company, detailing its formation, organization, and mission to entertain troops, often performing in dangerous areas near the front lines.



Angad Singh

Korea, 1953

Angad Singh reflects on his impressions of Korea immediately following the war. He remembers arriving in Incheon in 1953 when Syngman Rhee was Korea's President. He noticed devastation everywhere. He arrived at the DMZ and recalls seeing no buildings left. He remembers seeing huts made from mud and next to no industry in the area.



Modern Korea

Angad Singh reflects on his recent trip back to Korea along with the Korean Veterans Association. He shares how he was well-received by the Korean people and recalls his amazement of the Incheon airport. He remembers seeing a sixteen-lane highway, which was impressive to him considering there were few functioning roads there after the war. He reflects on the improvement and progress made in Korea.



Arthur C. Golden

Baptism By Fire (Graphic)

Arthur Golden vividly recalls his initial days in Korea and the fear that gripped him when the shooting began. He recounts his company's movement to set up the perimeter and the rifle company's nearby digging-in process. While digging a foxhole, he distinctly remembers meeting the rifle company's squad leader, only to see the soldier's lifeless body removed the following day. As part of their role with the United States Marine Corps 1st Division, they successfully pushed the enemy back. Following this success, he remembers regrouping for the Incheon Landing. Shortly after the landing, he describes the retaking of Seoul and their subsequent move down to Wonsan



Arthur Gentry

Inchon Landing: 15 Foot Ladders

Arthur Gentry remembers when he and his comrades constructed 15-foot ladders to scale a sea wall at Inchon, their method for landing as the tide receded six miles. Climbing over the ship's side, the Marines boarded boats amidst rocket fire and bombardments as they approached Inchon.



Avery Creef

Basic Training at Fort Polk

Avery Creef, after enlisting in the Army in January of 1951, went to boot camp in Fort Polk, Louisiana. He reflects on his experiences and what he learned. He spent twelve weeks there and recalls countless marching drills and learning to shoot different weapons. He then went to Fort Benning, Georgia, for more training. He landed in Incheon, South Korea, in June of 1952.



Impressions of Korea

Avery Creef shares the image of Korea he has in his mind. He recalls seeing many mountains. He recounts landing in Incheon at dark but remembers the city being destroyed. He also recalls seeing Seoul on his way out of Korea and remembers it being destroyed.



Ayhan Karabulut

Children Helped

Ayhan Karabulut described the despair of Korea when he landed in 1951. He described a train from Incheon to Seoul where it was faster to walk. He also detailed women and children begging soldiers for food. Children would also help. In one instance, a child stood over a wounded soldier so he would not be further injured.



Basilio MaCalino

The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Learning Japanese Headed to Korea and the Army Point System

While on the troop ship going over to Korea, the loud speaker system on the ship was only playing conversational language in Japanese, not in Korean. This showed the soldiers that no one had the opportunity to learn Korean before landing in this combat zone. While stationed in a war zone, the Army gave out 4 points for soldiers at the front lines, 3 for troops farther back, 2 for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and 1 point for troops on the home front. Ben Schrader was earning 4 points a month, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



10 Days and a Much Needed Shower

Everything was provided for the soldiers, so pay was always sent back to the US. Combat fatigues were provided and showers were only provided every 10-12 days. Charcoal was provided for heat and since you had to carry your water for drinking, water was scarce. Ben recalled the trucks carrying large containers of hot water pulled up and they had installed pipes that sprayed hot water to produce a "shower" effect for the men as they stood under in 20-degree weather.



We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembered before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembered while cooking the C-Ration that contained some form of meat, they would eat the whole onion raw and potato uncooked to add flavor. Koreans would have double rations so that they could share with the American military and the meals consisted of rice with fish.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Bernard Brownstein

Everyone Looked Beautiful

Bernard Brownstein describes his arrival in Incheon and drive to his camp. He explains that the soldier driving him whistles at Korean women as they are driving. He explains that initially he didn't find the girl attractive but as time went on, everyone became beautiful.



Bernard G. Kenahan

Route to Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan describes departing for Korea in 1953 via ship. He describes making multiple stops along the way, including stops in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Japan. He recounts the living conditions regarding showering and explains that his duties aboard ship entailed overseeing the sleeping quarters.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



Bob Garcia

A Birthday to Remember

Bob Garcia recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon on January 9, 1952, his birthday. He talks about the "repo depot" and being assigned to the 39th Field Artillery Battalion as a radioman. He describes the mission of this unit that featured 105mm artillery guns.



Bob Wickman

Arriving as a Hospital Corpsman

Bob Wickman shares he arrived in Korea in May 1953 and traveled to Incheon by June 9, 1953. He explains he was attached to the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, I Company in the area north of Ascom City, above the 38th Parallel near the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts. He recalls the words of wisdom his new duty leader told him upon his arrival and offers details about what his duties would be while serving in the region.



Bradley J. Strait

Destroyers during the War

Bradley Strait explains the difference between a battleship and destroyer. He discusses being stationed on the USS Joseph P. Kennedy Destroyer and shares that one of its chief functions was anti submarine warfare. He states that destroyers were used for shore bombardment at Wonsan Harbor and Incheon during the war.



Front Lines and Living Conditions

Bradley Strait explains he was stationed mostly in Wonsan Harbor. He remembers the North Koreans had pushed the Americans back to Wonsan and that a battle was taking place there, and he details the role of destroyers during this battle. He also recalls the living conditions on the ship as being very tight and cannot imagine women being stationed on the ship due to the close conditions.



Burley Smith

Riding the Waves of a Typhoon

Burley Smith provides an account of the hours before the historic landing in Incheon Harbor by MacArthur that cut off the North Korean Army. The SS Meredith Victory was the last ship in General MacArthur's convoy. The night before the landing, he remembers seeing waves breaching the side of the vessel and realizing that they were in a typhoon. Due to the intensity of the waves, he recalls Captain Leonard LaRue having to crawl up to the bridge and giving the orders. He shares that miraculously and with a little luck, they were able to bring the ship back in line and into Incheon Harbor.



Carl Hissman

Evacuating Heungnam, Off to Busan

Carl Hissman describes his experience at the evacuation of Heungnam. He remembers being the last one off of the beach. He recalls seeing many North Korean refugees and remembers the roads were so full of people. He shares they were able to save some but not all. He remembers seeing a blown-up village and two civilians frozen dead. After Heungnam, his unit went down to Busan and began pushing back up north towards Seoul.



Carl W. House

Destruction of Civilian Homes

After Carl House's unit left the Incheon landing site, they headed to Seoul. He said the first time he witnessed the capital, it was gone due to total destruction. When American tanks arrived, they would level the buildings to keep the North Koreans from using them. Carl House said they warned civilians to leave their homes before the soldiers destroyed them. However, recently, Carl House was was surprised at a doctor's office when he came across a magazine in the waiting room describing South Korea's accomplishments since the war.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

A Destroyed Korea/ Una Corea Destruida

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the utter devastation of cities including Seoul and Incheon and other important villages. Amongst the destruction, he remembers the many orphans he saw while he was being sent to the front lines. This occurred while he and others were being sent to support troops from the First Battalion that were fighting with U.N. Forces.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto cuenta sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda la devastación total de ciudades como Seúl e Incheon y otros pueblos importantes. Entre la destrucción, recuerda a los muchos huérfanos que vio mientras lo enviaban al frente por ferrocarril y camión. Esto ocurrió mientras él y otros fueron enviados a apoyar a las tropas del Primer Batallón que luchaban con las Fuerzas de la ONU.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco discusses his first impressions of the war and Korea. He remembers that he and others experienced real fear upon first landing in Incheon. During the first two months he spent in Korea, he recalls that they trained in modern warfare and took care of prisoners of war. He recounts the desperation of the civilian population, in particular, what women were forced to do to survive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco cuenta de sus primeras impresiones sobre la guerra y Corea. Recuerda que él y otros tuvieron miedo cuando llegaron por primera vez en Incheon y vieron lo que es la guerra. Durante los dos primeros meses que pasó en Corea, recuerda que tenían entrenamiento y los asignaron a cuidaron a los prisioneros de guerra. El se acuerda de la desesperación de la población civil, en particular, de lo que las mujeres se vieron obligadas a hacer para sobrevivir.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Carlos Julio Mora Zea describes the voyage to Korea which took over a month. He explains that traveling from Bogota to Cartagena took five days and then they embarked on a boat with other foreign troops including soldiers from the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and other nations. He describes how they were transported to the front lines from Incheon.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea describe el viaje a Corea que duró más de un mes. Explica que el viaje de Bogotá a Cartagena tomó cinco días y luego subieron a un barco con otras tropas extranjeras, incluidos soldados de Filipinas, Puerto Rico y otras naciones. Describe cómo fueron transportados al frente desde Incheon.



Cecil K. Walker

Conditions In and Around Seoul

Cecil Walker described conditions in and around Seoul. He helped bring supplies from Incheon to Seoul and transport Australian forces from the Second Line of Defense. He described Seoul as "flattened" and deserted with the exception of "Street Kids." He described when people did return to Seoul during the war, they used any scrap available to build shelter.



Charles Comer

Korean Civilians

Charles Comer describes the Korean civilians that he saw upon his arrival at Seoul. He explains that the city itself was destroyed. He describes the sad state of the people who had been frequently moved around due to war evacuations. He goes on to describe the children, many of whom had been orphaned by the war and would crowd around the passing trains as the troops would give them their c-rations to eat.



Charles Eggenberger

Journey to the Front

Charles Eggenberger recalls his 1950 arrival in Korea. He describes his journey, from basic training in San Diego, California, to being stationed in both Guam and China, before the Korean War broke out. He describes his participation in the amphibious Inchon Landing, and a combat lesson he learned while fighting the enemy in Seoul.



Charles Fowler

Orders to Korea

Charles Fowler describes returning home on a 30 day leave after being in service a year only to find that he had received orders to serve in Korea as the war had broken out. He recounts arriving in Korea and his unit receiving orders to fight its way to Yeongdeungpo to meet the Marines coming from Incheon. He admits that he his knowledge of Korea prior to being sent was limited.



The Biggest Apples and Frostbite

Charles Fowler describes how the North Koreans used human waste to fertilize their crops and recalls the apples being the biggest he had ever seen due to this fertilizing method. He recounts accidentally eating a cat once as well while trying to stave off hunger. He describes the cold winter and shares his encounter with frostbite. He details being flown to Incheon, put on a ship, and a doctor telling him he could go home if he signed to have his feet amputated.



Charles Francis Jacks

Journey to Korea and Main Line of Resistance

Charles Jacks recounts his journey to Korea. He describes the vessel on which he traveled and recalls enduring a typhoon during the twenty-one day voyage. He remembers stopping in Japan for a twelve-hour break before sailing on to Korea. He describes landing at Incheon in 1952 and moving up the Main Line of Resistance (MLR).



Medical Duties

Charles Jacks recounts bandaging the wounded on the battlefield. He recalls jeep ambulances transporting the wounded to field medical stations. He describes serving with Dog Medical Company (D Company) stationed between Seoul and Incheon and remembers assisting two doctors--one Korean and one American--at a hospital. He shares that they treated minor to more serious wounds which occurred on the front lines.



Charles Hoak

The Reality of the Situation

Charles Hoak describes being seasick for three days and his brother being seasick for seventeen days on the way to Korea. He recalls their arrival in Korea and remembers taking a train to their base. He describes how he could see and hear mortar fire on the train and how, at that moment, the reality of war set in.



Charles L. Chipley

The Bombing and Return Fire of Incheon

Charles L. Chipley Jr. describes the USS Rochester bombing of Incheon prior to soldiers landing. He shares that the landing, in his opinion, was very successful. He recounts that return air attacks came from the north while his ship was sitting in Incheon Harbor, and 4 bombs were dropped targeting his ship.



Charles Ross

Inchon Landing and Movement Northward

Charles Ross describes his experience during the Inchon Landing. He recounts an order given to his unit to hold its ground at all costs and shares that it was one of the scariest moments he experienced while in South Korea. He describes traveling north, receiving little resistance along the way, and recalls North Korean soldiers surrendering as his unit crossed the 38th Parallel and made its way to Pyongyang.



Captured by the Chinese

Charles Ross details the lead-up to his capture by the Chinese following the Battle of Unsan. He recalls searching for food and lodging in an abandoned house until meeting a Korean civilian. He recounts the generosity showed by the civilian prior to his capture. He provides an account of his experience as a POW.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the fighting at Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang. He describes the enemy forces that his unit faced and being outflanked many times by North Koreans.



Chong Rae Sok

Inchon Landing and Osan

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Inchon Landing. His unit landed at Inchon on September 18, 1950 and fought their way to Suwon. One day later, he describes moving by foot to Osan and losing soldiers along the way, including a fellow KATUSA.



Clara K. Cleland

Caring for Patients at Incheon

Clara Cleland discusses her arrival in Korea, approximately ten days after the Incheon landing. She describes entering a harbor full of ships of all sizes. She explains how some of the nurses were sent to a Prisoner of War Camp for captured North Koreans and how she went with nurses to an old schoolhouse that was being used as a hospital to treat civilians. She remembers the children, many of which suffered from burns, and how they cried all night. She recounts how she and other nurses came under fire while attempting to help injured servicemen when a headquarters company was attacked.



Nursing Duties and Medical Facilities

Clara Cleland describes her nursing duties prior to the Chinese invasion. She recalls how they received soldiers with all types of wounds but that gunshot wounds were the most prevalent. She explains that one of their jobs was to bathe soldiers who were unable to take care of themselves. She recalls moving to the receiving ward, which included providing care before soldiers went into surgery. She explains how the hospital was a miniature of what might be found at a larger hospital, including laboratories and x-ray machines.



Dadi Wako

Journey to Korea

Dadi Wako recalls not knowing anything about Korea prior to his arrival. He describes traveling by ship for the first time and experiencing unpleasant conditions at sea. He shares his excitement as a teenager upon seeing the shoreline of Korea for the first time.



Darrell D. McArdle

Incheon Landing

Darrell McArdle describes his experience during the Incheon Landing on September 15, 1950. On his way to Korea from Japan, he recalls the men dealing with seasickness and equipment on deck breaking loose during a typhoon. Once the typhoon passed, he remembers stepping on deck and seeing the surrounding vessels ready for the invasion. He explains once Incheon was secured by the United States Marines, his squad went ashore to clear out any remaining enemy snipers or combatants in the area.



Daryl J. Cole

Impressions of Incheon

Daryl J. Cole describes the destruction at Inchon and his transfer from infantryman to artilleryman. He explains that the war torn city of Inchon had been thoroughly devastated by the time he arrived. He recalls the civilians hauling the "honey buckets," the refuse from the toilets to fertilize their crops. He goes on to explain his hasty transfer from infantry to artillery overnight, unbeknownst to him.



David Espinoza

Traveling to Korea

David Espinoza describes his journey to Korea and his arrival on the front lines. He explains having to board a ship in California, and his arrival at Inchon in late 1950. He recalls having to replace other men who were much younger and had been fighting for some time.



David H. Epstein

Drafted, Training, and Starting a Family

David H. Epstein recalls being drafted, going through basic training, and starting a family around the same time. He explains how he came to be in the United States Marine Corps, rather than the United States Army, although he was drafted. He describes his arrival in Korea, and the duties involved in being assigned to Command Post Security for Headquarters Company of the 1st Marine Division.



David Heine

First Impressions of Incheon Harbor

David Heine describes the early morning sight of Incheon Harbor and the feelings he experienced that stayed with him during his time in Korea. As a young man, he remembers being very scared because he didn't know what to expect. He describes how they disembarked the ships and were then sent off to their units.



David Valley

Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles

David Valley talks about his participation the Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles. He describes what happened to enemy soldiers that were captured and tells a story of opening a vault in Pyongyang.



Delbert Ray Houlette

Seasoned for the Incheon Landing

Delbert Ray Houlette recalls being sent to serve at the Incheon Landing. He and his outfit were sent due to being "seasoned" in combat compared to other troops with their experience in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes the tides of the area where he was on Red Beach.



Delmer Davis

Gunsan Landing: Sept. 12, 1950

Delmer Davis talks about the Gunsan Landing, an operation that he and the special operations company participated in on Sept. 12, 1950 while the Inchon Landing was taking place. Delmer Davis describes the operation in detail and remarks that he feels his unit was used as a decoy for the Inchon Landing.



Missions on Gimpo Peninsula

Delmer Davis talks about several missions that his unit participated in on the Gimpo Peninsula. He describes working with other military units and capturing enemy soldiers.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Domingo B. Febre Pellicier

Landing in Incheon

Domingo Febre Pellicier describes what it was like when they landed in Incheon after a month's-long journey to Korea. He talks about climbing down rope ladders to get off the ship. He shares how they then went to the train which took them to the front lines. He remembers how cold it was when they landed. He recalls how friendly the Korean people were.



Don McCarty

Big Muscles were Needed for Machine Gunners

Don McCarty's specialty during the Korean War was a heavy machine gun operator. The tripod was 54 pounds and the gun with water was 40 pounds. He left for Korea in March 1953 and landed in Inchoeon. Once he arrived in Seoul, it was devastated and there were children begging for candy and cigarettes.



Donald C. Hay

Engaging North Korea

Donald C. Hay describes engaging the North Korean military. The Royal Marines would land, go ashore, and engage the North Koreans. He describes the New Zealand Navy providing cover to Royal Marines. He recollects on one occasion when the Royal Marines took two North Koreans prisoners. He explains the HMNZS Rotoiti often moved fairly close to the shore to provide support including one occasion where he felt uncomfortably close to the enemy.



Deployed to Patrol Waters Off West Side of Korean Peninsula

Donald C. Hay recalls several excursions the HMNZS Bellona took including to Australia, New Zealand, and other islands in the region. He notes that when they arrived "home" after one of these trips they learned of the outbreak of the war. He explains he was "drafted" as part of the crew of the frigate the HMNZS Rotoiti. This frigate was the third ship sent to Korea from New Zealand. He details his duties while serving on the Rotoiti.



Donald D. Johnson

No Idea What I'm Doing

Donald D. Johnson elaborates on his job responsibilities in Korea. He had no idea initially how to handle the artillery. He describes having to organize all the vehicles inside the LST, learning as the war continued. He describes becoming First Lieutenant Parrot's personal Jeep driver.



Donald Dahlin

Remembering a Hometown Hero

Donald Dahlin remembers a hometown hero, Noble Nelson. He shares his experience of knowing him most of his life but never knowing he was a prisoner of war. He describes him as being a hero but that he struggled with the recognition he received from his hometown. He proudly recalls his story that was put into a book by Mr. Nelson's loving wife. (This interview ends abruptly.)



Donald L. Mason

Revisiting Korea

Donald Mason discusses revisiting Korea in 2019 with his wife. He compares his visit then to what he remembered from his time in 1950. He remembers Seoul being destroyed during the war, with all the tall buildings gone. There were some huts still standing. But in 2019, he remembers seeing large skyscrapers from his hotel room. He was amazed at how the city was rebuilt to such an impressive scale.



Incheon Landing

Donald Mason discusses his experience during the Incheon Landing. He knew it was high tide and shares that he was in a LST landing craft. His unit, the artillery unit, went in after the infantry landed, and they pushed beyond Incheon to Seoul. He was surprised at all of the destruction he witnessed.



Donald R. Bennett

Enlisted at Fifteen, Sergeant before High School Graduation

Donald R. Bennett, who was part of the US Marine Reserve Regiment in San Diego during the majority of his high school years, recalls the early days of his service from receiving his tank in San Diego to seeing the tank loaded for transport to Japan. He notes that the tank he received was like nothing they had ever trained on. He shares that as a young eighteen-year-old high school graduate, he was put in charge of four other men, most older than he was, who had little to no training in operating tanks. He continues sharing the process of preparing his tank once they arrived in Kobe, Japan.



Moving to the 38th Parallel and Back to Incheon

Donald R. Bennett recalls his unit moved from Seoul to the Han River shortly after his arrival and fought its way to the 38th Parallel. He details their movements toward the 38th Parallel and their return to Incheon and eventually Wonsan Harbor. He notes Bob Hope actually beat his unit into Wonsan because of the delay they faced in landing due to someone, possibly the Russians, mining much of the harbor. He discusses the challenges of being a young tank commander in charge of four other men who had relatively little knowledge or training related to tanks.



Donald Schwoch

Red Cross Nurses and Generator Repair

Donald H. Schwoch arrived in Korea on January 6, 1955, wading ashore to the welcome of Red Cross nurses offering donuts. He changed his wet clothes aboard a railway car and traveled by train to a tent encampment where a Lieutenant McNair assigned him to generator repair. In one case, an officer from his unit needed a generator for the cook house so badly that he cannibalized a new ambulance for parts.



A Close Call

Donald H. Schwoch stayed busy maintaining generators. In one instance, an I Corps general took him with the First Marines to the front lines. During a stop, he left his truck during a smoke break. Fortunately, he remembered his M2, for as he rounded the front of the truck he encountered a young Korean wearing a vest with hand grenades.



Donald Urich

Landing in Incheon

Donald Urich remembers first landing in Incheon which he describes as crowded. From Incheon he recalls heading north and seeing the DMZ. He served as part of the 45th Infantry Division but was later transferred to the 7th Division. He recounts duties as part of the motor pool where he eventually became Motor Sergeant in charge of one hundred seven vehicles and dozens of mechanics. He shares the living conditions in Korea especially living in ten-men tents on cots.



Douglas Koch

Leading the Charge

Douglas Koch describes the 5th Marines' role in the Inchon Landing. He explains that the Inchon Landing was imperative in the cutting off of the rail lines that led to Seoul and fed the North Koreans the supplies they needed to fight in South Korea. He recalls that upon hearing the Marines were headed to Seoul to recapture the city, the civilians fled for the hills.



Duane Trowbridge

Landing at Inchon and Fighting to Seoul

Duane Trowbridge describes nearly non-stop activity after arriving at Inchon. He explains, in detail, coming under mortar attack on the way to Seoul and receiving shrapnel in his knee. He explains how his injury sidelined him for a little while but shares he was soon back in the line of fire. He explains the struggle of a fellow soldier who got trapped in a foxhole and how a friend, Bill, lost his eyesight due to a mortar attack. He shares how he received his Purple Heart.



General MacArthur Gives Korea to Syngman Rhee

Duane Trowbridge discusses the handoff of the key to the city. He discusses the devastation he saw as he went back to Icheon. He explains his trek back to Wonsan and then to a town between Wonson and Seoul where his regiment captured North Koreans. He discusses how he captured one thousand six hundred North Korean (NPKA) soldiers in October and November of 1950.



Dwight Owen

Landing in Korea

Dwight Owen describes landing on the beaches of Wolmido, near Inchon. He mentions the artillery used and his mission once he landed on the beach. He states that it was the worst night of his life and remembers questioning what he had gotten himself into.



Duties and Experiences out in the Field

Dwight Owen discusses leaving Wolmido and heading to North Korea, specifically Wonsan. He remembers crossing the Han River and being assigned to ridding the area of old dynamite due to leaking glycerin. He recounts running out of provisions, especially food, and living on rice for awhile from which he developed dysentery. He offers a description of the Wonsan he saw at the time.



Earl A. House

Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Eddie Reyes Piña

A Change to Trench and Outpost Warfare

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls receiving training with heavy mortars in Hokkaido, Japan, and moving to Incheon and then on to the area of Pork Chop Hill. He notes that by the time he arrived, fighting had transitioned to more trench and outpost warfare. He offers insight into the differences between outposts and listening posts.



Edward B. Heimann

Life in Korea

Edward Heimann describes life in Korea after his winter arrival at Incheon. He recalls his living conditions, being fed well, and being able to take warm showers most of the time. He explains that he was also able to enjoy leave (rest and relaxation) in Japan and received care packages from home.



Edward L. Kafka

Inchon Landing and Radioman Training

Edward Kafka landed at Inchon in April 1952 and the military switched his MOS (military operational specialty) from surveyor to radioman while being stationed two miles from the front lines. While dealing with severe battles every day, he deciphered messages that were send through Morris Code from the outposts.



Edward Rowny

Inchon Landing

Edward Rowny describes the planning of the Inchon landing in detail. He remembers how his team had to convince the Joint Chiefs of Staff to move forward with the plan, and this ultimately saved the Marine Corps. He remembers explaining some of the logistics of the landing and General MacArther's reaction when the landing was successful. He describes how moving the troops forward across the Han River was a controversial decision.



Edwin Durán González

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Edwin Durán González details his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival in the winter of 1951. He was most shocked by the cold he encountered. Furthermore, he explains that he could not understand how a country could divide itself in the way Korea did. He still remembers the fear he felt upon arriving and the relief that followed periods of rest and relaxation.

Edwin Durán González relata detalles sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea a su llegada en el invierno de 1951. Lo que más le impactó fue el frío que encontró. Además, explica que no podía entender cómo un país podía dividirse en dos como lo hizo Corea. Todavía recuerda el miedo que sintió al llegar y el alivio durante los períodos de descanso y relajación.



Edwin R. Hanson

Incheon Landing, September 15, 1950

Edwin Hanson remembers his boat was supposed to land around 5:00 PM as the 3rd wave, Boat 5, on Blue Beach at high tide. They were delayed when the tracks on the LST was lost resulting in them encircling the area before they could land. He recalls approaching shore in an Amtrack and slogged their way through mud in his last remaining clean pair of Dungarees. Once they made it to shore down the road, they climbed a hill and three Soviet T-34 tanks coming right towards them. The US forces hit the gas tanks located in the back of the tank, watching them blow up right in front of him.



Elbert H. Collins

Incheon Landing

In preparation for the Inchon Landing, Elbert Collins had to stay in a warehouse during a typhoon that came through the area. He remembers all of the preparation that they were given. He describes the instructions that they were given for the landing, but explains that he was so scared that he did not follow the directions.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Propaganda and POW Release

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the continued propaganda lectures with the Chinese and the living conditions in Camp 4. He remembers them as not being too terrible as they had wood floors and coal-heated stoves. He recounts his release and shares that he was picked up by a helicopter, taken to Inchon, put on a U-boat, and transported back to the States.



Elvin Hobbs

Daily Life in Seoul, 1964

Elvin Hobbs describes Seoul after the conclusion of the war in 1964. He talks about the rebuilding of the city and its transformation from total destruction. He expands in detail on descriptions of transportation and Korean daily life.



Ernesto Sanchez

Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Eugene Dixon

Incheon Landing

Eugene Dixon recalls landing at Incheon. He describes how this landing was a gamble on General McArthur's part as it relied heavily on high tide in the evening. He describes the reality of ships being stuck in mud during low tide.



Ezra Franklin Williams

All Marines Were Headed to Korea

Ezra Frank Williams stated that he should have put his duty station as Korea because that's where the US military was sending all their Marines. Everyone laughed at him when he asked where the enemy was while in basic training in 1951. They told him that he'll really get a good look at them while he's in Korea.



Felix Byrd

Ist Marine Division.

In July 1950, Felix Byrd was called from the Reserves to go to Korea, where he participated in the Invasion of Incheon in Sept 1950. He describes himself as lucky because was in communications, behind the infantry, which was not as dangerous. He landed in Incheon and proceeded to Seoul, where he helped run the telephone lines to each military outfit.



Felix DelGiudice

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Felix DelGiudice participated in the Inchon Landing on September 15th and then fought the North Koreans during the Seoul recapture along with his 1st Marines Battalion. He remembers getting injured shortly after arriving in Korea. He also explains that Seoul was covered with sandbags, blown railroad tracks, and exploded glass domes from the railroad station.



Fidel Diaz

A Scary Place

Fidel Diaz describes how scary it was his first few nights in Korea after the Inchon Landing. He said that seeing the other soldiers that had been captured as an effective form of psychological warfare. He explains how close the North Koreans got to his foxhole.



Frank Abasciano

Landing at Incheon

Frank Abasciano describes landing at Incheon. He explains that there was a lot of small arms fire when he was there. He remembers how they dropped the LSTs and that the landing was not ideal.



Frank Churchward

Arriving in Korea Busan to Incheon

Frank Churchward describes his arrival in Korea. He explains how he landed in Busan to Icheon. He shares about a project that was finishing up when he arrived. He also shares how the area has since changed.



Frank Torres

Experiences at the Inchon Landing

Frank Torres describes being part of Inchon landing. He discusses how the group made ladders for the terrain. He shares a story about witnessing the death of his commanding officer. He describes the dangerous situation.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. He remembers one of his friends drowning while clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. He notes another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. He shares the horrific conditions that the soldiers endured in the "Frozen Chosin".



Fred Liddell

POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Frederick Schram

Sheer Devastation and Poverty

Frederick Schram describes arriving in Incheon in 1953 and his first impressions of Korea. He recounts arriving in a city annihilated from shelling. As they began their journey north, he recalls interacting with groups of Koreans who were living in sheer poverty. As they traveled through communities, he remembers soldiers distributing bars of soap from the train and witnessing desperate people fighting over the bars.



Gene Jordan

A Pile of Rubble

Gene Jordan describes what it was like when he landed in Incheon. He describes the horrific scene and the utter despair of Korean children. He describes the shock he experienced from the damage and civilians begging for food.



Night Patrolling

Gene Jordan describes being on the trench line at night for thirty days straight during the Korean War. He describes how the enemy was on one side and they were on the other. He explains that it was a stationary war at this point, and that they lived in the trench lines and bunkers depsite the extremely cold weather.



Incheon Then vs. Now

Gene Jordan describes how hard working the Korean people were during the war era. He discusses how the Korean people have established a united, stable democratic society. He shares how he never thought much about Korea after he left, but when he attended the Marine Corp Reunion, he was amazed to see and hear about the economic growth.



George Drake

The Poverty of War

Dr. George Drake explains how children were rescued from poverty during the Korean War. He recounts his journey to find photos that were taken during the war of orphans in Korea. He shares his concern over the children who became abandoned victims of the Korean War.



George Parsons

Bound for Korea and First Experiences

George Parsons chronicles his departure from the States and arrival in Korea. He comments on the ride over aboard the troop ship USS Anderson and recalls landing in Pusan. He recounts the cold weather as it was January of 1951 and recalls there being no lodging available, stating that he remembers sleeping out in the field and crowding around fires to stay warm. He details his journey to Incheon and through Seoul, sharing that Seoul was completely flattened from the fighting.



George Staples

Service in Korea

George Staples describes is role in the Korean War. He shares how he piloted a Huey B-35 and transported wounded soldiers from the front lines to MASH. He describes how the enemy shot through the helicopter and hit him in the abdomen and leg. He recounts how the helicopter could not make it back to base. He shares he was able to return to U.S. controlled land north of Incheon, though, and was taken to MASH.



Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He recalls he was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. He notes he is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. He shares that, above all, the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



Nightmares of War

George Staples describes the horrors of combat. He details how these events have haunted him, seeing the wounded men. He shares that the events of flying into the frontline and saving men show up in his dreams--images he cannot forget. He describes these events as PTSD.



George Van Hoomissen

Arriving in Korea

George Van Hoomissen shares he was activated as a Marine during the summer of 1951 destined for Korea. He recalls leaving Camp Pendleton for Korea arriving in the spring of 1952. He explains he was stationed near Panmunjeom initially and remembers the Chinese to the the north occupying a high mountain. He notes there were no severe battles near where he was initially stationed but remembers constant artillery air strikes occurring.



George Warfield

Military Reconnaissance

George Warfield was in the reserves when he was called into active duty. He was sent to Fort Campbell for two to three weeks to retrain for war. After training, he was shipped to Japan to set up for the Korean War with the 25th Reconnaissance Company, 25th Division. As a radio operator in a reconnaissance company, he had to find the enemy, go to fill-in the front line if the enemy broke the line, and he was the last unit to retreat.



A Troop Ship Hits a Cyclone

George Warfield did not know anything about Korea before he went over. When traveling on a troop ship with 1,500 soldiers, they hit a cyclone that tossed the ship all over the ocean which made men throw up all over. Luckily, George Warfield did not get sick during any of his travels in the military.



Destruction on Christmas Eve

George Warfield landed in Korea on December 24, 1950 and had Christmas Eve dinner on the ship before he was dropped off at Inchon harbor. He counted 17 tanks that went out to battle from Inchon, but only 1 came back the next morning after fighting. George Warfield passed through Euijeongbu one night and saw the terrible conditions for civilians, but he did not stay in any location longer than a day.



Georgios Margaritis

Mine Sweeping

George Margaritis explains his role as a mine sweeper during his time in Korea. He notes one occasion on the Inchon Plain where he and another mine sweeper were ordered to search what appeared to be a collection of cables for potential mines.

Note: English translation begins at 21:37



Gerald Edward Ballow

Jubilation after Inchon Landing

Gerald Ballow remembered the jubilation that took place after the successful Inchon Landing took place. He also felt that General MacArthur was doing a fantastic job during the Korean War and that it was Generals George Marshal and Omar Bradley's jealousy that flushed General MacArthur out of the Korean War.



GHQ 1st Raider Company

Gerald Ballow describes the book he wrote about the GHQ 1st Raider Company that was made up of the soldiers in General MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. He explains that soldiers fought through the Chosin Reservoir and they helped with the Inchon landing too. He describes their roles and what they achieved during the Korean War.



Grace Ackerman

Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Gregorio Evangelista

Fighting on the Front Line

Gregorio Evangelista remembers his front-line service as extremely dangerous, with gunfire occurring day and night. Although he is unsure of the battle's name, he recalls that they won a crucial battle on a hill shortly before peace talks began.



Harold A. Hoelzer

Experiencing a Whole New World

Harold Hoelzer speaks about his initial experiences with Korea during the war. He offers stark details contrasting what he saw in Korea with the world he was familiar with back in the United States. Coming from a world of cities, roads, and factories, he remembers how "crude" Korea seemed to him at the time.



Harold Barber

Thanksgiving Day at War

Harold Barber describes a Thanksgiving Day that he spent during the Korean War. The soldiers were given a bowl of soup to eat, but they had to leave and return to patrolling their area and became completed surrounded by the enemy. Those who did return after the ambush, only returned to soup that was frozen solid.



Snowballs and Tootsie Rolls

Harold Barber is describing being shot in the leg and being transported to the hospital by a corpsman. The corpsman fed them snowballs and tootsie rolls as they journeyed sixteen miles. It took them eight days to traverse the dangerous terrain, but the injured soldiers ultimately reached the hospital.



Harold Don

Seeing and Experiencing Battle

Harold Don shares that he was apprehensive about arriving to Korea. He recalls witnessing the destruction from prior battles upon landing in Incheon. He remembers how his unit experienced fire from North Korean tanks at Yeongdeungpo and observed the destruction at Seoul. His unit then boarded another ship and attempted a landing at Wonsan but was forced to wait due to mines needing to be cleared.



Harry Burke

Incheon Landing

Harry Burke describes his first days in the orient. He shares how he was surprised with the odor and stench in Japan and Korea. He recalls the initial landing on Incheon happened on the 18th but that he arrived on the 21st to see the devastation that had taken place three days prior.



My Most Difficult Days

Harry Burke is describing how eight men were killed and twelve were wounded is his company. After experiencing this, he was sent back to Incheon and went around from the west side of Korea to the east side to Wonsan. He describes their days in the war.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Training and the Inchon Landing

Harry C. Graham describes his arrival in Korea. He details the circumstances of training Republic of Korea (ROK) soldiers at Mt. Fuji, in Japan, before moving on to take part at the Inchon Landing in September of 1950. He describes his first impressions of Korea.



Harry Castro

Experiences at Incheon in 1945

Harry Castro described experiencing snow for the first time. He shares that he spent Thanksgiving there. He describes the visuals of the area. He shares that they had no weapons and were there due to a typhoon. He shares the destruction he saw in other places as well.



Food for Thought

Harry Castro shares how he ate on the ship. He explains that some days he didn't have lunch. He explains that for the most part he was fed.



Henry Kosters

Poverty and Survival

Henry Kosters describes his interaction with some South Korean children who took some of his possessions. He explains that upon landing at Inchon, the city was mostly occupied by US Marines. He recalls how he and another man went off together and came upon a group of teenagers who stole his watch band and camera film from his pockets. He shares that though he was not pleased with his loss, he understood that the children were desperate and needed to take whatever they could.



Henry N. Rabot

Dangers On the Road

Henry N. Rabot discusses the dangers associated with driving the trucks on the roads at night, even after the Armistice. He describes the desperation of the Korean people and their need for food and supplies following the war and their determination to get it. He empathized with their needs and wanted them to have it.



House boys and Mama-sans

Henry N. Rabot describes how the locals would be employed by the Company to help with chores. He recalls a house boy that would help clean the barracks and a Mama-san that would come in and help with the laundry. They would receive pay from the company for their work.



Henry River, Jr.

Korea in the 1950s

Henry River, Jr., recalls the living conditions of Koreans in the 1950s. He remembers life being tough for the Koreans and speaks about a nine-year-old Korean boy who did his clothes in exchange for bags of rice. Additionally, he recalls the human waste fertilizer smell in Incheon.



Henry Winter

Replacement Duty

Henry Winter speaks about his arrival in Korea at Inchon. He was a replacement for injured soldiers and joined a new unit assigned to duty at Heartbreak Ridge.



Herbert Taylor

Chingu (Friend)

Herbert Taylor describes witnessing the destruction of Incheon following his arrival in 1954. He shares how he saw just walls and shells of buildings there. He describes the trees and how they had been shot off and the land was barren in the countryside. He describes the straw huts people were living in. He shares his experiences with local children.



Howard A. Gooden

Landing at Incheon and Traveling to the 38th Parallel

Howard A. Gooden shares his experience of landing in Incheon, Korea. He remembers being on a barge with two hundred to two hundred fifty soldiers, heading to land, and being passed by another landing barge with the same number of soldiers who were ready to go home. He describes taking a Korean train from Incheon and how small the seats were. He explains that guards would ensure nobody was getting on or off at every stop. He recalls how trucks finally met the train and how he was dropped off at the 38th Parallel with the field artillery.



Howard Lee

Landing at Incheon

Howard Lee recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon landing at Incheon. He remembers the early morning journey on a Landing Ship Tank (LST) and walking in waist-deep water towards the shore where he saw a city on fire. He recounts dead bodies floating in the water and the fear he felt as he and his company made land and rallied at the assigned checkpoint.



Bridge Construction Assignments

Howard Lee shares that once their equipment and materials arrived in Incheon, they were given construction assignments. He recalls being assigned to construct bridges at various points and on certain dates. He states that platoons were required to camp out in the area once the bridge was complete until they received another assignment and mission. He comments on food availability and his platoon's mail schedule while in Korea.



Ian Crawford

The Orphans' Christmas

Ian Crawford tells how they mistakenly found an orphanage when they went ashore looking for greenery to help them celebrate Christmas. He describes finding a woman trying to care for twenty orphans in the extreme cold with no water, food, or adequate clothing. He remembers the crew coming onshore to fix her water supply and provide food but also surrendering their own Christmas presents so that the children could enjoy a moment of joy in such a dark time.



Ibrahim Gulek

Desperation of the South Koreans

Ibrahim Gulek described the people of South Korea. South Korea was war-torn. The people were desperate. He described South Koreans as having no clothes and constantly begging for food. The conditions were heartbreaking. He and his fellow soldiers gave food to the people in need.



Ismael Heredia Torres

First Days / Primeros Dias

Ismael Heredia Torres describes his arrival in Incheon and then Seoul. He explains that immediately after he arrived, he was assigned to an observation post and then to a listening post. It was during this second mission that he saw intense fighting which lasted over six hours. He was lucky to survive this attack as he was unable to move or communicate with the rest of the company.

Ismael Heredia Torres describe su llegada a Incheon y luego a Seúl. Explica que enseguida que llego al frente, lo asignaron a un puesto de observación y luego a un puesto de escucha. Fue durante esta segunda misión que vio intensos combates que duraron más de seis horas. Tuvo suerte de sobrevivir el ataque porque no podía moverse ni comunicarse con el resto de la compañía.



Jack Allen

Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Jack Cooper

A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



An Honor to Serve and Returning Home

Jack Cooper shares that he has no regrets from his time in the service. He emphasizes that the military was good to him as he drew some disability, bought his first house, and used the GI Bill to go to attend university. He states, frankly, that it was an honor to serve and recounts his return home in 1952.



Jack Sherts

Retracing My Steps

Jack Sherts retraced the exact locations they traveled during the war the entire time he was in Korea. His work as a radio operator helped him to know the towns they were in at all times. He recorded these names in a Bible that he carried around the entire time he was in the war.



Close Encounters under Fire

Jack Sherts described his closest encounters under enemy fire during the war. Early in his tour, he had to deliver batteries to the soldiers in the infantry line. On the journey, he slipped down a mountain and lost his helmet as it rolled into the valley. Soon thereafter, he came under enemy fire. He also described relaying fire orders for the 18 guns of his unit as radio operator. He would often take mortar and artillery shells but was never injured by them.



Jack Wolverton

Under Fire and Almost Killed

Jack Wolverton recalls the one time he was under fire and almost lost his life. His unit was ordered to pile a bunker with ammunition, but the mission was aborted. His unit came under small arms fire near no man's land, and a bullet, coming very close to his head, only chipped a rock.The rock hit his wrist and scared him, making him think he was shot. He luckily left the incident unharmed.



Living Conditions

Jack Wolverton shares about living conditions, what they ate, and where they slept. He recalls putting up tents and taking them down every time they moved locations. He remembers the tents included fold out bunks and an oil heater. He recounts that his unit had a cook, providing them with regular meals. He recalls his salary and how he spent his money. He shares that he loved playing poker but also sent money home each month.



Communication with Home

Jack Wolverton remembers writing letters home. He was not married and recalls relationships were tough to keep going while he was at war. He would correspond via letters with his mother, updating her on his day-to-day activities. She would return letters with stories from home. He recalls asking his mother, at times, to send back some of the money he forwarded home.



Jake O’Rourke

Destination Unknown & Inchon Landing

Jake O'Rourke shares that he and other fellow soldiers boarded a ship in California, not knowing its destination, in September 1950. He recounts orders not being revealed until they were halfway across the Pacific and adds that he had never heard of Korea let alone where it was located prior. He recalls arriving in Japan and experiencing a cyclone before sailing on and landing in Inchon where their mission centered on cutting off the supply routes of the North Koreans.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



James C. Delong

Contact with the Enemy

James C. Delong describes the activities of the 31st Infantry Regiment from Inchon to Suwon including contact with the enemy. He explains that he landed in Inchon the day after the Inchon Landing. He goes on to explain there was little resistance on the way to Suwon because the North Koreans were trying to evade them, abandoning their tanks and everything along the way.



James C. Siotas

Arriving in Korea

James C. Siotas confesses to having scant knowledge about Korea when he arrived in Incheon in September 1951. He recounts the journey to the front through a devastated Seoul, where only a few walls remained amid the absence of buildings. Serving in an artillery unit near Kumsong, he reflects on his experiences during that period.



James Creswell

Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



James E. Fant

Being Drafted and Basic Training

James E. Fant describes being drafted in 1950. He reflects on his fourteen-week basic training with the first Airborne Division at Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky. He recalls receiving orders to go to Korea and having only seven days to prepare before taking a troop train to Chicago. He shares he was eventually shipped to Japan from Seattle. He remembers landing in Incheon, Korea, and taking a troop train to Seoul before making his way eventually to Hill 355. He comments that the war in Korea was primarily about fighting for high ground.



James Houp

Enlisting in the U.S. Army

James Houp recalls his experience enlisting in the U.S. Army. He graduated in 1949 and enlisted in the Army that same year. He recalls not learning anything about Korea in school. He attended boot camp at Fort Knox and advanced training at Fort Monmouth where he graduated at the top of his class. He describes being sent to Tokyo, Japan, before ultimately heading to Korea for the Invasion of Incheon.



Incheon Landing

James Houp reflects on his experience at the Incheon Landing. He shares how he and his unit went in on the third day of the invasion, on September 18, 1950. He explains that his job was to lay telephone wire. He remembers that Seoul had not been recaptured yet when he arrived. He remembers seeing enemy soldiers sticking their heads outside of the foxholes as he was re-laying wire that had been run over by tanks. He shares how, at that point, he recognized they were actually at war.



James Jolly

The Incheon Landing

James Jolly describes his platoon's experience at the Incheon Landing on Blue Beach from Kobe, Japan. He explains that his platoon was the first to capture one of North Korea's T-34. He goes on to describe the lack of resistance from the North Koreans.



James Kenneth Hall

Finally Released

James Hall tells the story of being released from POW Camp 5 on August 10, 1953. He recalls being placed on a barge and then a train on his journey south to cross the 38th Parallel. He shares his experience of acclimating back into the possession of the United States government authorities. He recalls having his first meal at Incheon after he was released as a POW.



James M. Oyadomari

Arriving in Korea

James M. Oyadomari shares the story of his arrival in Korea and the travels to his station at headquarters, about four miles behind the front lines. He recollects traveling from Busan to Incheon and Seoul on a slow train. From Seoul, he recalls traveling via truck through the West Gate to Chuncheon and ultimately to headquarters near the Kunson River. He recalls building bunkers for the first couple of months before transferring to a radio relay station closer to the front lines at a location referred to as Hill 949.



James P. Argires

"Fearless" at the Inchon Landing

James Argires describes his experience in the Inchon Landing, explaining that there was some controversy around whether it would be successful. He describes the terrain and the struggles he faced. When asked if he was afraid, he explains how being young made him “fearless.”



James Purcell

Retracing my Steps

James Purcell describes the devastation after the war that he witnessed around Seoul. He arrived after the war had ended to an almost devasted airport that has now been transformed into the largest airport in the world. He was so impressed with the Korean people and their industrious nature.



James Sharp

Reflections and View of Korea Today

James Sharp reflects on the the Korean War and discusses the positive outcome. He expresses that his revisit to Korea was a life-lifting experience as he was able to witness the development that has occurred since the war. He shares that soldiers often carry bad memories of war, wondering if their service was of worth, but he expresses that after seeing Korea's development during his revisit, he is certain his service was of worth.



James Shuman

Arriving in Korea

James Shuman remembers what it was like arriving at the beaches in Incheon. He explains having to board landing craft due the ships not being able to make it to the beach. He discusses spending the night on a nearby army base before being sent directly to the front lines the next day.



Jean Paul White

We Trained for It

Jean Paul White describes being a tactical soldier. He explained how he slept in the ground. He describes carrying only a one-day food, ammunition, and gear. He explains that conditions were hard for him and his fellow Marines endured after landing at Inchon, but that he had trained for it.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



Joe O. Apodaca

The USS Henrico in Korea

Joe O. Apodaca discusses his time in Korea while aboard the USS Henrico. He shares he witnessed U.S. Marines disembarking from the ship via nets onto LCMs and other boats which then transported the units to shore. He remembers how the ship traveled roughly one to two miles from the beach near Incheon, Seoul, and Busan. He recalls seeing flashes of light on land throughout the night and passing enemy planes.



John B. Winter

Typhoon During Inchon Landing

John Winter participated in the Inchon Landing in September 1950. He explains that they met other ships near Japan before moving towards Korea. He describes what it was like on the ship since there was a typhoon occurring.



John Beasley

Post-WWII Recruits

John Beasley tells of his experience trying to join the military after WWII, and his father's reaction upon hearing the news of his decision to join the U.S. Marine Corps. He describes how he learned he was being sent to Korea. His recollection also includes information concerning strategical plans on the landing at Inchon by U.S. forces.



Typhoon, Napalm, and a Big Breakfast

John Beasley describes the arduous trip to Inchon from Japan on a Japanese Navy Landing Ship Tank (LST). The voyage took place after a ten-day hold-up in Japan due to a typhoon. He recalls that the continuous large waves caused napalm containers aboard the ship to break loose on the deck. He describes the mood and morale of his fellow Marines as they ate a big breakfast of steak and eggs, and the concern about who would make it back alive from their mission.



Sights and Sounds of the Incheon Landing

John Beasley recalls the sights and sounds of 5:00 in the evening on September 15, 1950, the first day of the Inchon Landing. He describes only having rifles and mortars to use against Russian tanks that were coming in the next day after the landing. He recalls that other soldiers who had come off a carrier came in to assist with use of napalm. He gives a first-hand account of the heroic efforts of fellow Marine, Walter C. Monegan Jr., during the Inchon Landing. Monegan posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his valor.



John Burton Forse

Traveling to Inchon by Ship

John Burton Forse describes the journey from the east coast of Korea to Inchon on a tank landing ship (LST). It was much better than the conditions he had prior. They had access to better food, showers, etc. While at sea on the ship, he experienced a bad storm and one of the tanks became loose on the ship.



John C. Delagrange

Identifying Targets During Korean War

John Delagrange shares he was trained as a photo interpreter and had difficulty identifying targets in North Korea. Using reconnaissance photos of battles throughout the mountains and hills, the United States Army Aerial Photo Interpretation Company (API) Air Intelligence Section pieced together maps in order to create a massive map of Korea. Every ravine, elevation, mountain, and hill was labeled by this photo analysis company.



John E. Gragg

Segregation in Korean War Units

John Gragg was in a segregated unit even though the 1948 desegregation law were supposed to be enforced. The only white person in his group was the commander who often mistreated the African American men. John Gragg mentions his experiences with white officers as well as how life in the South prepared him for the experience.



Invasion of Inchon and Life as an amphibious vehicle soldier

John Gragg's amphibious (duck) company was in charge of unloading supplies, food, and ammunition during the Inchon Landing using his ducks. His unit would follow troops to Seoul with all the supplies until the trucks were brought to Korea. John Gragg's unit also supported the troops by bringing soldier across the Han and Nak Dong Rivers.



John Funk

First Impressions of Korea

John Funk shares how he saw sadness the first time he laid eyes on Korea and the Korean people. He recalls people being hungry, sad, and poor, and he offers an account of their impoverished living conditions at the time. His adds that his time in Korea made him and other soldiers realize that they needed to help the Korean people.



John Hartup, Jr.

Korean Reaction to the American Soldiers

John Hartup, Jr., recalls the Koreans loving the American soldiers. The American soldiers operated the port of Incheon, so the Koreans depended on them to provide jobs. He recalls there were probably one thousand workers hired to operate the port. He remembers the presidential election of 1948 when Syngman Rhee was elected as the first president of the new Republic of Korea. He remembers being paid roughly fifty dollars a month, saving some of it in a U.S. bank and spending the rest in the base exchange (PX).



Stories of His Experience in Korea

John Hartup, Jr., recalls his experiences in and around Seoul when he and his friends had time away from work. He remembers USO (United Service Organizations) shows would happen about once a week. He recalls renting a jeep on the weekends for cheap to go sightseeing and mentions staying in a nice U.S. Army hotel in Songdo to get away from work. He remembers Songdo being very nice.



Comparing Korea: Before, During, and After the War

John Hartup, Jr., compares the Korea he witnessed in 1946-1947 to the Korea he experienced in 1951. He recalls seeing many refugees going south in 1951. He remembers the city of Incheon as a bustling metropolis in 1947, and in 1951, it was completely leveled and destroyed. He remembers the same about Seoul. He recounts how there was no farming or agriculture taking place in 1951. He shares that he revisited Korea three times after the war and emphasizes that he was very impressed by modern Korea. He notes that it is difficult to compare modern Korea to the devastation he witnessed during the war.



John L. Johnsrud

Special Services

John L. Johnsrud shifted from the Intelligence and Reconnaissance group to Special Services with the help of a friend from boot camp. He was supposed to take care of movie stars, but none came, so he was in charge of transporting food and beer rations for the US soldiers.



John O. Every

From the Mediterranean to Korea

John O. Every describes the journey to Korea from his location of deployment in the Mediterranean. He explains having to go through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, en route to Korea, for the amphibious landing at Inchon in 1950. He discusses other battles as well as what he had to eat for Thanksgiving that year.



John R. Stevens

Experience at Incheon

John R. Stevens recalls various experiences while at Incheon. He describes an incident when his friend, Lt. Lopez, attempted to throw a grenade into a pill box that was holding up the rest of the unit. He explains that Lt. Lopez was hit by machine gun fire and dropped his grenade, upon which he smothered with his own body to protect the other men around him. He goes on to explain the capture of fifteen North Koreans and the success of Lt. Lopez' sacrifice.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



John Turner

Prepping for War

John Turner discusses the process he went through from enlistment to arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He enlisted in the Marines and attended Parris Island for bootcamp. After he graduated from basic training, he attended advanced training at Camp Pendleton in California. After advanced training, he departed from San Diego for Inchoen.



What was Korea like when you were there?

John Turner discusses what Korea looked like on his journey north towards the 38th parallel. He recalls the destruction he witnessed in Incheon, Seoul, and Panmunjeom. He recalls starving people begging for food. He would give them some of his rations, as would other soldiers. His unit went on patrol near the 38th parallel, walking along deep trenches, and spying on North Koreans at Outpost Kate, about five hundred feet beyond the front lines .



Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describes the destruction he encountered in Korea. He explains that it is difficult for anyone that lived through a war to explain what happened. He recalls being saddened by the fact that Koreans, including professionals from universities, were forced to take menial jobs.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describe la destrucción total que encontró en Corea. Explica que es difícil para cualquiera que haya luchado en una guerra explicar lo que vio. Recuerda que le entristeció el hecho de que los coreanos, incluidos los profesionales de las universidades, se vieron obligados a aceptar trabajos manuales ayudando a los soldados.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

Inchon Landing

Joseph Dunford, Sr. participated in the Inchon Landing. He describes his objective was to take Observatory Hill (also known as Cemetery Hill). He explains how he and his regiment did this at 5:30 PM and took the hill once it became dark. He explains how the North Koreans were fighting lightly. He shares all he could see was the dead and fires around him.



Joseph Gruber

The Bitter Cold of War

Joseph Gruber shares he was assigned to the 958 Ordinance Company. He recalls an old locomotive near their compound on which the company had guards. He notes that it, one day, disappeared. He vividly remembers the cold weather and describes how he sent a letter to his mother begging her to buy him warmer clothing.



Daily Life in War

Joseph Gruber describes his illness during the war. He suspects that he contracted hepatitis from contaminated water. He offers details regarding a minor altercation during his hospitalization when he threw a bed pan at a higher-ranked officer for demanding that he clean the hospital.



Most Dangerous Moment

Joseph Gruber's responsibilities during the war included delivering mail from Busan to Incheon. He recounts being shot at by enemy forces one day which resulted in two of their tires being hit. He credits a detachment of GI's following them with running off those who had shot at them and getting them back on the road with repaired tires.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Joseph Quinn

Arriving in Incheon

Joseph Quinn recalls what he saw when he first landed in Incheon on April 4, 1952. After landing on barges that took them to the beach, he noticed that nothing was there. He remembers that they then got aboard a train, but there were no lights, no water, and no food.



First Thoughts in Korea

Joseph Quinn describes that he was thinking when they first arrived in Korea. He remembers that they arrived at the staging camp and were given their mail, a meal, and some blankets. He then explains his first wakeup call.



Memories of a Medic

As a medic, Joseph Quinn saw a lot of injuries. He describes one of the worst injuries he saw, but is thankful that the man survived. It was his treatment that helped the soldier make it to MASH and get the proper care.



Joseph R. Owen

Lack of Preparation

Joseph R. Owen details the lack of experience his outfit had before being sent to Korea. They were trained for only two weeks at Camp Pendleton in California. He taught them the rest of their skills on the ship heading towards Korea. He describes how their lack of preparation showed once they had their first combat in Incheon.



Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado

Devastation in a Tranquil Place / Devastación en un Lugar Tranquilo

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado describes Korea as quiet upon his first arrival as troops were no longer engaged in combat. While there was no fighting, there was destruction and human misery everywhere. He shares that it was difficult witnessing the poverty and hunger in Korea, especially seeing children rummage for food in the debris.

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado describe a Corea como un lugar tranquilo al llegar por primera vez porque ya se había terminado el combate. Si bien no hubo lucha, hubo destrucción y miseria humana en todas partes. Él comparte que fue difícil ver la pobreza y el hambre en Corea, especialmente ver a los niños rebuscar comida en los escombros de sus pueblo.



Ken Thamert

Reimagining the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert recalls traveling to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers, learning not to take the bottom bunk due to all of the vomiting. Upon arriving in Incheon, he describes the overwhelming feeling when imagining what other soldiers experienced during the infamous Incheon Landing at the start of the war. He remembers seeing devastation all around.



Kenneth D. Cox

Korea Past and Present

Kenneth Cox shares memories of Korea past and present. He comments on the major changes made in South Korea since the time of the war he noticed while on his revisit and recounts a story centering on firewood. He adds that he is proud of the outcome.



Kenneth E. Moorhead

Casualty Reporting

Kenneth E. Moorhead describes his job responsibilities in Korea as a Battle Casualties Reporter. He explains the details of this job included accounting for anyone who was killed, wounded or injured in action and prepare reports and statistics on these soldiers. He goes on to explain that this job was very shocking and caused him to reflect upon who was fighting in war.



Kenneth Newton

Unaware Why We Are Here

Kenneth Newton describes his arrival in Korea during the Inchon Landing. He details being sent to Wolmido first to secure the location before moving into Inchon. He shares his first impressions of Korea and explains that he and other fellow soldiers were unaware of the political reasons for initially being there.



Kenneth Oberstaller

MacArthur at Inchon Landing

Kenneth Oberstaller describes MacArthur's strategy for aircraft at Inchon. Since it was the only carrier in the Pacific at the time, the USS Valley Forge had to sail around both sides of Korea to launch aircraft. He explains how launching aircraft from both sides of the peninsula was an attempt to confuse and intimidate the North Koreans, leading them to believe there were two task force at sea.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Retrofitted Ships and Bombed-Out Cities

Kenneth Shankland recalls how his ship, The HMNZS Royalist, had been modified for atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. He shares how the ship sailed all over the Pacific Ocean, eventually landing in Incheon and Pusan in 1957 to enforce the peace. He recounts how Korean civilians were living in terrible conditions among piles of rubble. He remembers naked and hungry children begging for food.



Kevin R. Dean

Return to Korea

Kevin Dean comments on his return visit to Korea. He recalls the physical destruction of Incheon during the war and compares it to the modern city into which it has blossomed. He describes Seoul and Busan's progression and shares that the transformation is mind boggling to him. He states that South Korea is one of the only countries in the world that thanks those who helped secure its freedom.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea participated in the Incheon Landing. He was part of "D+2." Lacy Bethea was a member of the 4th or 5th wave of troops that landed on Incheon. When the Marines landed that day, it was their first combat exposure since WWII.



Food Rations and Ammunition Delivered Daily

Lacy Bethea helped distribute food and ammunition to soldiers who landed at Incheon after the initial landing in 1950. Company trucks came up with their platoon guides and then Lacy Bethea would pass out only enough rations for that day. The suppliers would always be one day ahead, so that each soldier has 2-days worth of food. Ammunition was also rationed out to each regiment of soldiers.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Inner Thoughts Once in Korea

Lawrence Paul Murray describes his inner thoughts while on his first assignment in Korea at Incheon Landing. He explains feeling conflicted over having to kill other human beings. He goes on to explain how he overcame this mindset when his defense mechanisms kicked in.



Lee A. Smith

Raining Fire

Lee Smith describes his experience with raining fire. He shares how while serving as a fire fighter in the Army at the port of Incheon, one of his main jobs was to protect the petroleum storage area. He explains the danger of fifty-five gallon drums of fuel being hit by mortar fire and how the fuel would rain down as fire.



Service as a Firefighter

Lee Smith describes his service in the US Army as a firefighter. He speaks about how his duties not only pertained to the military instillation but to the community as well. He shares how their role was to help battle fires within the community by sending tankers and manpower when available. He recalls there being many such fires to assist with.



Leland Wallis

Reflecting on Korea

Leland Wallis discusses his feelings about Korea's progress since the war. Leland discusses how great the country of Korea has become since what he saw in the war. The only big city he saw was Seoul and part of Incheon. Leland Wallis discusses his pride in serving the country in Korea.



Leo Ruffing

Missionary Work in Korea

Leo Ruffing shares how he became a minister after retiring from the military. He changed his mind about his future plans after helping friends and even himself with alcoholism. He would later return to Korea for ministry, including helping young children.



Leonard R. Stanek

Welcome to Korea

Leonard Stanek describes arriving in Incheon Harbor in 1952. Incheon, secured by the US military, however, Leonard Stanek could still hear artillery being fired 30 miles away. Soon after arrival, he was sent to the front lines, due to his company having many losses, both death and wounded. Leonard Stanek also describes the food on the frontlines, C-Rations, and SPAM and Eggs with a cracker being his favorite meal.



Leslie Peate

Landing in Korea and Train to Pusan

Leslie Peate describes landing in Korea at Incheon and recalls the devastation he witnessed when he first arrived. He recounts sleeping on wooden planks aboard a train, describing the experience as something from an old "Wild West" movie. He remembers there being nothing for miles and being served American C-Rations at mealtime.



Lester Ludwig

Arriving and Setting Up Camp

Lester Ludwig describes arriving on New Years Eve in 1952. He describes first arriving at Inchon and continuing on to just east of the Punchbowl. Upon arrival, his duties included setting up the bivouac which required digging in the frozen ground in order to erect the tents. He goes on to describe various experiences such as another soldier building a snow woman and later moving to just west of the Punchbowl.



Lewis Ebert

Preparing For and Entering the Korean War

After the Korean War started in June 1950, Lewis Ebert traveled to San Fransisco to prepare to leave for Japan and arrived there the middle of July. In September 1950, he was put on a train to travel to the south-end of Japan and then flew into Taegu, South Korea (September 16, 1950, the day after the Incheon Landing). The ROK (Republic of Korea) were flying out of Taegu which had a steel mat runway.



Lloyd Pitman

Landing In Inchon

Lloyd Pitman describes his first night in Korea. He arrived in Inchon on September 19, 1950. He and his fellow soldiers engaged the enemy and took the airfield at Suwon. He describes the enemy counterattack that overran their headquarters killing many.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

First Impressions and Religion / Primeras impresiones y religión

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recalls his first impression of a devastated Korea. He expresses the sorrow he felt given the terrible conditions that civilians were forced to endure. Furthermore, he shares a story of how he heard a calling from God when one of his friends needed help on the battlefield.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recuerda su primera impresión de Corea cuando recién llego. Lamenta las terribles condiciones que los civiles se vieron obligados a soportar como la tristeza y el hambre. Igualmente, comparte una historia de cómo escuchó un llamado de Dios cuando uno de sus amigos necesitaba ayuda en el campo de batalla.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

The Voyage / El Viaje

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa remembers the fear and happiness he felt on his voyage to Korea. He explains that they enjoyed themselves during a stop in Puerto Rico as they were entertained by Celia Cruz but suffered terrible seasickness on the boat. He recalls the fear and nerves they experienced as they landed and were being attacked on the first day.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa recuerda la tristeza y la alegría que sintió en su viaje a Corea. Explica que se divirtieron durante una escala en Puerto Rico porque Celia Cruz los entretuvo, pero sufrieron por el mareo del barco. Recuerda el miedo y los nervios que tenían cuando llegaron y fueron bombardeados el primer día.



Luther Dappen

Impressions of Korea and Withdrawal from Seoul

Luther Dappen describes his arrival in Korea and his transfer north from Inchon. He describes his unit's experiences during the withdrawal before Seoul was taken over by the Chinese. He recalls seeing not only the troops retreating but also lines of civilians carrying everything they could carry away from their homes. He goes on to explain that his company was the last to cross the bridge at the Han river, leaving them with the responsibility to blow the bridge up in order to slow the Chinese' progress.



Manuel A. Bustamente

Operation Platform

Manuel Bustamante participated in Operation Platform. This was the exchange of North Korean soldiers for American and South Korean Soldiers after the Korean War. It took place at Incheon Harbor in August 1953.



Rescued Baby

Manuel Bustamante said that a little white baby was found in a Korean Orphanage. The baby was kept in the sickbay on the ship and it kept the moral high for months. Sailors all took turns caring for the baby. The doctor and his wife adopted the baby once he arrived in America. They named him Daniel Keenan and he went to many of the Korean War reunions in order to see his rescuers.



Manuel Carnero

Like Being in New York City

Manuel Carnero describes the difference between Korea during the war and its appearance when he traveled back for the Revisit Program. He describes landing at the Inchon airport which is on an island which he had not seen during the war. He describes the beauty of the mountains and the country, how it reminded him of New York and Houston. He also describes how the Korean children were very appreciative of the American veterans and chanted "America number 1!" He says that the appreciation of the Korean people for the American sacrifice and the growth of South Korea makes it worth while.



Max Sarazin

Incheon Harbor, 1953

Max Sarazin describes his visit to Incheon harbor. He recalls helping a young Korean man dock his nine-foot-long boat and afterward, the young man allowed him to take the boat to try it out on his own. He goes on to describe the beautiful sampans and junk boats in the harbor. He recalls boarding a beautifully painted junk boat and being in awe of its copper and brass steam engine.



Mayo Kjellsen

Enlisting in the US Marine Corps

Mayo Kjellsen joined the US Marine Corps at the age of 20, anticipating an imminent draft, a common practice at the time. He underwent training at Camp Pendleton in California. With no prior exposure to Korea, Kjellsen was taken aback when he witnessed a Korean woman openly nursing her baby near Inchon.



McKinley Mosley

Life of a private during War

McKinley Mosley remembers leaving home as a 16-year-old to embark on his military journey, starting with basic training. Transitioning from Fort Riley, Kansas, where he learned infantry skills, to Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, for artillery training, Mosley recalls gaining valuable expertise. From there, his journey continued to Fort Custer in Michigan, then California, followed by deployment to Japan, and finally to Korea for the war.



Mehmet Copten

Vegas Front

Mehmet Çöpten describes the Vegas Front. He describes how the Chinese used howitzers on one hill, while simultaneously attacking another. The Turkish fighters lost one hundred and fifty-three men. The fighting took place over thirty-six hours. They eventually won the battle and the front. The Turkish fighters then turned over the front to the American forces.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Incheon Destruction

Melvin D. Lubbers talks about the physical destruction he saw in Incheon upon his arrival in Korea. He explains that they didn’t get to a see a lot because it was nighttime, and they had been loaded up to move to another part. He remembers thinking “how could anyone even survive?”



Merl Smith

Serving as a Merchant Marine

Merl Smith discusses his role as a merchant marine in the Korean War. Merchant Marines were a civilian unit supplying troops with whatever they needed. He recounts his time at the Incheon Landing. He remembers taking on four North Koreans who wanted to surrender. He also recalls seeing the invasion from afar on his boat. He, alongside a friend, rode up to Seoul, following the American troops.



Merlin Mestad

Life as a Truck Driver in Chinchon

Merlin Mestad describes arriving in Inchon Harbor in October 1952. He explains that he was assigned to the 540th Trucking Company and drove trucks until the war was over. He describes hauling ammunition, fuel oil, troops, POWs, barbed wire, etc., day and night. He goes on to describe living in a province of Inchon called Chinchon in a tent with an oil burner and a wooden floor and experiencing cold winters.



Merlyn Jeche

Life as a Radioman

Merlyn Jeche describes landing at Inchon and being sent to work in Chorwon City, which was in rubble. He recalls the terrain in Korea was much like Minnesota, though with more hills. He explains his duties as a radioman for the Army included maintaining 24-hour communication, keeping the generators going and basic maintenance.



Michael Berardi

Experience in Incheon

Michael Berardi describes what he remembers about landing in Incheon, which was already occupied by the United States. As a member of the Headquarters and Service company, he said that his job was to supply the telecommunication needs to those on the front lines. As a corporal, he said he often did not have first-hand experience of what was going on in the field.



Michael Corona

Sheer Strength

Mike Corona honors the strength of both the US soldiers and the Koreans loading 1-ton jets onto the Landing Ship Tank (LST). South Korean soldiers harnessed wooden boards to their shoulders and connected chains to the jets. Together, four South Korean soldiers sang a song while they dragged the 1-ton jet onto the LST.



Korea: A Huge Empty Lot

When Mike Corona first arrived in Korea, he said it was just a huge empty lot without big buildings, sidewalks, and streets.
Now, Korea looks like Las Vegas, NV because of the beautiful streets, landscapes, and multi-story buildings. After going back for the third revisit, Mike Corona experienced the Korean government's reenactment of the Inchon Landing.



Michael Fryer

Finally Some Rest

Michael Fryer describes rest and relaxation at Inchon and Tokyo. He recalls that the Red Cross ran a center which allowed for both men and women from the British Commonwealth of Nations. He describes the Kookaburra Club, a recreation center located near Tokyo, Japan. He talks about food, the duration of the stay, and what they did while off duty.



Michael White

Rest and Relaxation

Michael White speaks about being on leave from the duties of the front line and how it was necessary in order to keep going. He describes the toll of sleep deprivation on the body, as well as the consequences of unclean living from lack of bathing, such as lice infestations. He recalls the importance of simple pleasures, such as sitting at a proper table to eat.



Milton W. Walker

Pusan Perimeter and Inchon Landing

Milton Walker describes his Marine regiment's participation in the securing of the Pusan Perimeter for thirty days in August of 1950. He explains that they were known as the Fire Brigade. After thirty days, they left Busan for Inchon and participated in the Inchon Landing.



Nicolás Cancel Figueroa

Preparing for Combat

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa explains why he believes his basic training experience was not enough to prepare him for the realities of the war. He notes that while he learned how to be an expert rifleman, he was not trained in how to conduct an amphibious landing and would have drowned were it not for his friend helping him. He shares he was not prepared for the brutal Korean winter.

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa explica por qué cree que su entrenamiento no fue suficiente para prepararlo para las realidades de la guerra. Explica que, si bien aprendió a ser un experto en rifle, no estaba preparado para realizar un desembarco anfibio y se habría ahogado si no fuera por la ayuda de su amigo. Además, no estaba preparado para el invierno coreano.



Norman Charles Champagne

Beautiful Korea

Norman C. Champagne speaks fondly of his opportunity to revisit Korea, and his pleasure at physical changes that have occurred since his time in the country. He describes coming in by airplane into Seoul, and his surprise at the beauty of the country. He discusses frustration at the political challenges that keep the Koreans from fully enjoying a unified country.



Ollie Thompson

Destruction of Korea

Ollie Thompson recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon and traveling onward to Seoul by train, which was riddled with bullet holes. He remembers scenes of destruction all along the route. He describes settling in the Chorwon Valley and the sound of his first experience in combat, though it was their own artillery.



Otto G. Logan

Never Seeing Korean Soldiers

Otto G. Logan describes his experience in Incheon upon arrival. He explains that his days were mainly filled with drills and training. He adds that during his time there, he never saw a Korean soldier as he stayed on base, only venturing out on a bus ride once.



Tornado Devastation in Incheon

Otto G. Logan shares his memories of Incheon. He likens the sights he saw to the damage from a tornado and expresses that it was devastating as he had never seen anything like it. He adds that he would like to return to see its transformation as he has heard it is rebuilt and beautiful.



P. Stanley Cobane

Taking Wolmido

P. Stanley Cobane explains that Wolmido is an island in the Inchon harbor which has a causeway connecting the island to the mainland. He explains that it was the job of his platoon to protect the causeway so that a mainland landing could be made without any interference from the island. There was resistance but nobody was killed. He describes an explosion near him by what he later thought to be a WWII Japanese concussion grenade.



Pablo Delgado Medina

The Voyage / El Viaje

Pablo Delgado Medina recounts the perilous journey to Korea. He remembers not knowing where they were being sent and only finding out they were going to war once they reached Japan and were asked to fill out paperwork for beneficiaries in case they were killed in action. He explains that the voyage was terrible as the food on board the boat was awful, and the boat encountered a typhoon which forced everyone on deck to wear a life jacket.

Pablo Delgado Medina relata la historia del su viaje a Corea. Recuerda que no sabía a dónde los enviaban y solo se enteró de que iban a la guerra una vez que llegaron a Japón y se les pidió que completaran el papeleo para los beneficiarios en caso de que fallezcan. Él explica que el viaje fue terrible ya que la comida a bordo del barco era horrible, y el barco se encontró con un tifón que obligó a todos en la cubierta con los salvavidas puestos.



Paul E. Bombardier

Planes, Trains, and Automobiles

Paul E. Bombardier describes his long journey North from Incheon to his unit, the aviation section of the 159th Field Artillery Battalion. He rode on a truck on dirt roads to get to his unit headquarters. He remembers having a rough first night with cold, hunger and unknown feelings.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



Paul Summers

Friendly Fire on the Pusan Perimeter

Paul Summers was digging into a hillside on the Pusan Perimeter one night. Troops were lobbing artillery over the hillside where the Marines were setting up camp. Hearing the whistling of an artillery round, he suspected it would fall short. The explosion left four Marines dead.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Destination Unknown

Paulino Lucino Jr. was never sure of his exact location when he was fighting in Korea. Often, he was put on the back of trucks or trains and had no idea where they were headed next. He felt that this was the most troublesome experience of his time in Korea.



PD Sharma

Revisiting Korea

Rajeev Sharma recalls his visits to Korea. His father, a Korean War Veteran, was able to accompany him on the first of his two trips. He remembers his father noticing the huge transformation Korea has made over the years. He compares Korea's rise to India's and believes Korea has surpassed India in development. He was very amazed at the infrastructure in Korea. He also mentions how hardworking the Korean people are.



Phanom Sukprasoet

Didn't Recognize Where He Was

Phanom Sukprasoet describes struck by how unrecognizable the landscape was as he traveled between Incheon and Seoul during his return trip to Korea for the 70th Anniversary commemoration. He marvels at the incredible development of Korea, particularly the cities, which he found to be bigger and more developed than Bangkok. He expresses immense pride in his role in the Korean War.



Philip E. Hahn

Landing at Inchon

Philip E. Hahn vividly describes his experience as part of the first wave of the Inchon Landing. Initially encountering little resistance, the situation grew more perilous as they advanced inland. He recounts the tragic death of one of his commanding officers, who perished while attempting to destroy a Chinese pillbox with a flame thrower. His initial memories are of people living in abject poverty, with nothing to their name.



From Inchon to Seoul and on to Pusan

Philip E. Hahn remembers encountering minimal resistance leaving Inchon until they entered Seoul. Describing Seoul as severely damaged, with nearly everything destroyed, he recalls taking cover in a pigpen to avoid gunfire during the night. Though he didn't expect to survive, he expressed gratitude for being a Marine.



Philip S. Kelly

From Inchon to Wonsan

Philip S. Kelly describes the amphibious landing at Inchon. He recalls seeing the extreme poverty of the Korean people and how his life was changed after he saw children fighting for scraps. He explains why he had limited information about his missions before they were carried out.



Rahim Gunay

Brothers and Relatives

Rahim Günay shares his amazement of the thirty to forty-story steel buildings he saw during his revisit to South Korea in 2008. He expressed appreciation of how Korean textbooks acknowledged Turkish involvement. Rahim Günay feels a strong connection with Koreans, considering them as relatives and brothers.



Being Drafted and Going to Korea

Rahim Günay recounts being part of the Bergama Regiment which was drafted to go to Korea, where he would serve as a cryptanalyst. He reminisces about upon his arrival in Korea, he was struck by the widespread destruction throughout the country and the dire living conditions of the people.



Ralph A Gastelum

My First Experience at Inchon Landing September 15, 1950

Ralph recalls being very anxious, had arrived just before nightfall and was circling out at sea for awhile. He remembers watching the beach being heavily shelled (Just like you see in the movies," he said.) which he thought was incredible before they went in. Once they landed they had little resistance but found a large foxhole they stayed in for the night (with no sleep) and something kept crawling around in the hole but he couldn't figure out what it was. The next morning he realized it was a frog, but being in a foreign land he wasn't sure what to expect.



Ray D. Griffin

A Cook for the Army

Ray D. Griffin was trained to be a Cook and Baker after he finished basic training in 1960. He had to monitor the military rations and supervise the functioning of the military mess hall. He recalls having to be prepared to feed troops and other military personnel around the clock. Military trash was required to be guarded from hungry Korean orphans, but he was able to bring surplus milk to the orphanages.



Military Camaraderie

Ray D. Griffin formed important bonds while in the military. He recalls that learning to make pizza while in Korea was a landmark moment for him. He gives credit to the military for causing him to be more mature and to develop more realistic perspectives of the world.



A Cook's Journey

Ray D. Griffin saw a lot of poverty when he was stationed in South Korea. Although the fighting was over, he found that it seemed life expectancy was not very long for the people due to severe poverty. He recalls multiple opportunities he turned down in the process of becoming a Military Cook and Baker. He describes the long journey he had to take to get to Korea.



Rene Rodriguez

Arriving in Korea

Rene Rodriguez recalls arriving in Incheon before being taken by train for more training in Seoul. He remembers Seoul as being very cold as winter had set in. He notes how, upon transfer to the front lines, he was instructed to make a sketch of where he was as no maps were available. He shares what life on the front lines was like.



Richard A. Houser

Leaving for Korean War in 1953

Richard Houser took a ship and landed in Inchon in April 1953 after a lonely 20 day ship ride to Korea. While traveling to his base in the Chorwon Valley known as the Iron Triangle, Richard Houser was able to see Seoul leveled, small thatched homes, and dirt roads all around him.



Korea Revisit

Richard Houser went back to Korea with his wife a few years before the interview was taped. The bright lights, huge buildings, and prosperity of the Korean people made him proud for fighting to free the Korean civilians.



Richard Carey – Part 1

Incheon Objective

Richard Carey discusses the landing on Incheon. He shares how his platoon landed. He shares his platoon's objective.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Arriving in Korea

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experience of undergoing an extended leadership training of two months while most of the other trainees were sent ahead to Korea. He vividly recalls the night when he first arrived in Korea via Incheon Harbor where commands were given in low whispers and troops were instructed to load their weapons with live ammo as a precautionary measure. He explains his role and responsibilities as a member of the mortar squad.



Richard Faron

Basic Training

Richard Faron describes arriving at Fort Chaffee in Fort Smith, Arkansas. He explains his time in 1952 preparing for infantry and artillery training. He shares that after four months their for basic training, he was sent to Ft. Lewis in Tacoma, Washington, then on a boat to Japan and finally landing in Incheon in 1953.



Richard Knoebel

Revisiting Korea

Richard Knoebel revisited Korea in 1987 with a Chosen Few group. He particularly remembers the drive from Incheon to Seoul. He mentions trying to go back to Korea the year of the interview but had to decline due to the physical nature.



Richard Miller

Return Trips to Korea After the War

Richard Miller shares he returned many times to Korea on business, including visits to Pusan and Incheon. He speaks of how he worked for a company that did petrochemical refinery work. He recalls how the Korean government mandated half the material had to be from Korea. He adds he received a job offer from Hyundai manufacturing.



Richard P. Holgin

First Impressions of Korea

Richard P. Holgin describes arriving at Incheon at the beginning of the Korean War. He goes into detail about seeing burnt bodies all over and crossing through cities ravaged by the Chinese. Richard P. Holgin's his job responsibilities changed when he shifted from a rifleman to an infantryman.



Richard V. Gordon

Guarding the Seas Off South Korea

Richard V. Gordon describes patrolling the seas off Korea from the Communists. He describes blowing up a floating mine and provides a picture of the explosion. Richard Gordon describes not really engaging the enemy due to the North Koreans not really having a Navy.



Life on the Ship and in the Navy

Richard V. Gordon describes life aboard the HMS Tutira. He describes making his hammock and putting it up every morning and the food. He also describes the pay in the Navy and sending money home to his new wife. Richard V. Gordon also describes the waves on the ship, even in a frigate.



Lasting Memory and Pictures from the Ship

Richard V. Gordon describes his one lasting memory, the loss of a fellow shipmate in the China Sea. He, also provides pictures of the USS Missouri and cold conditions aboard the ship. Richard V. Gordon provides a picture where people are covered in snow while on the ship during the winter.



Robert “B.J.” Boyd Johnson

"Why are we even here?"

Robert Johnson reflects on his first impressions of the Korean War. He talks about his journey to Korea and what he was thinking when he stepped foot on Korean soil for the first time. He remembers his participation in the Battle of Seoul and his reaction to all the destruction.



Robert Boyd Layman

First Impressions of Icheon

Robert Boyd Layman describes his first impressions of landing at Incheon. He explains that he had trouble understanding why Americans would be in Korea to fight. He also describes the immediate reminder that he was in a war zone from the stacked bodies he saw and the wounded being taken to hospitals.



Unprepared for War

Robert Boyd Layman describes arriving in Korea already as a Platoon Sergeant. He explains how he felt unprepared to take command of soldiers who had already seen action. He describes his interaction with a regiment commander at Icheon who asked if he had any experience and upon discovering that he didn't, the commander advised him to "learn fast".



Robert D. Davidson

First Impressions of Seoul

Robert Davidson recalls landing in Incheon and his first impressions of Seoul. He describes the devastation and damaged buildings he witnessed. He shares that civilians lacked housing and food and adds that the city of Chuncheon was leveled. He comments on Korea's weather, comparing its similarities to the weather of Wyoming.



Robert Fitts

Seasickness En Route to Korea

Robert Fitts details his journey to Korea aboard a ship. He experienced sea sickness and as did other servicemen on board. He recounts his arrival in Japan and narrates his transport from there to Korea and to his post in Korea via train.



Robert H. Pellou

No Real Training

Robert H. Pellou shares he wanted to join the U.S. Army but failed the physical. He explains how, with a little luck and a less than competent person administering the physical, he did pass the U.S. Marine Corps physical and became a member. He notes how there was very little training as a reservist before he was sent to Korea. He estimates he was one of between three hundred to four hundred reservists who did not even go to bootcamp before being deployed to Korea.



Walk, Walk, Walk

Robert H. Pellou remembers Korea, in the Incheon area, as a very poor country. He recalls daily life involved lots of walking and that the winters were very cold. He notes his unit's mission was to find North Koreans fleeing the north but that they did not encounter any.



Robert I. Winton

Patrolling the Waters Around Korea

Robert Winton describes his jobs as a signalman. He recalls his responsibilities for coding and decoding messages during his service time. He remembers looking for spy ships and coming across a suspected Russian submarine.



Robert Kam Chong Young

Injured After Capturing POWs

Robert Kam Chong Young shares his experiences after participating in the Incheon Landing. He recalls suffering from Hepatitis which caused his hospitalization at the 35th Army Hospital in Japan. He remembers being scared when he captured three Chinese prisoners of war (POWs) prior to being injured by Chinese mortar fire.



Arrival to Korea and Incheon Landing

Robert Kam Chong Young recalls he was still training at Ft. Belvoir, Virginia, when the Korean War broke out. Unable to finish his training because of need of soldiers in Korea, he shares his experience of arriving in Korea. He recounts taking part in the Incheon Landing as an acting squad leader.



Robert Mount

Inspecting Dead Corpses

After the Inchon invasion, Robert Mount's company headed North to river just beyond Daegu where there was a flat bridge. His platoon leader left Robert Mount and a detail there to defend the bridge. Only eighteen years old, he spotted a dozen apparently dead North Korean soldiers across the bridge and went over to inspect the corpses.



Robert Talmadge

Incheon Landing

Robert Talmadge describes the initial ground attack of Wolmido Island before the artillery assault during the Inchon Landing. He shares some of the rationale behind the attack and when it occurred. He then explains what happened right before the landing.



Robert Whited

One of the Greatest Things We Ever Did

Robert Whited recalls movement of his unit from Seoul to Incheon and later Wonsan. He explains the 5th Marines did not immediately go up to the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir but, instead, ran patrols out of Heungnam where he remembers encountering their first Chinese. He describes how when they were establishing a roadblock they were hit by the Chinese and pushed back to Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri and ultimately to the seashore. He describes how, during the retreat, they were protecting thousands of Korean refugees who were ultimately loaded on a cargo ship and taken to Busan.



Roger S. Stringham

Introduction to Korea

Roger Stringham comments on his knowledge of Korea prior to the war and draws attention to the fact that Korea had been awarded to Japan following the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. He shares how he held a great deal of respect for the Korean people, acknowledging they had endured a difficult life under Japanese rule. He describes landing at Incheon and his first impressions of Korea.



Roland Kleinschmidt

Arriving in Korea

Roland Kleinschmidt describes what it was like when he first arrived in Incheon. He mentions see the Koreans use human waste on the rice paddies, something that was very interesting to him. He explains that he was not in Incheon for long before being placed on trucks that shipped them to the front lines.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Marine Corp Hymn and Japanese Whiskey

Rollo Minchaca talks about spending Christmas and New Years during the Korean War. Many of the men were collapsing due to the stress of being in the extreme cold and living in tents. They evacuated to Pusan and had to regroup because of the extreme temperature.



Roy Aldridge

We Broke Their Will

Roy Aldridge describes how he crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea. He shares how the North Koreans shed their uniforms, put on civilian clothing, and fled. He shares how there wasn't much resistance. He explains how the North Koreans had killed all of the prisoners of war and where they put them.



Russell King

Suffering Civilians

Russell A. King explains how the Korean civilians suffered. He remembers that people did not have a lot of food, especially in Incheon which had been badly damaged. However, the civilians were extremely grateful for what they received. He states that he thought it seemed senseless that the civilians suffered.



Salvatore R. Conte

Incheon Landing

Salvatore Conte participated in the Inchon Landing on September 16, 1950 in the second wave of soldiers. The Marines had already cleared the beaches, so it was a lot easier than what he thought it was going to be. After he participated in the Wonsan Landing in October of 1950, he was able to see Bob Hope and the USO tour perform for the soldiers in a large stadium.



Sanford Epstein

"Captain" Sanford Epstein

Sanford Epstein, an Army Staff Sergeant during his time in Korea, shares a story of when he took advantage of a trip to Seoul. He recounts being the only soldier from his outfit who wanted to participate in the Passover service held in Seoul and remembers traveling alone in a jeep with a driver which is generally only reserved for officers. He recalls being saluted along the route as soldiers thought he was an officer.



Stanley Fujii

Enlistment, Station, and Promotion: Arrival at Incheon

Stanley Fujii describes arriving in Korea, his station, and military promotion. He describes his training for infantry, reflections on war preparation, and his arrival to Incheon during a storm that resulted in many men getting motion sickness. His testimony includes climbing the mountain to reach his station where he would feed ammunition to machine guns to keep the mountain secure.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Stanley Jones

Experiencing the Front Lines

Stanley Jones describes the differences he saw between the National Guard and the traditional Army. He shares an experience he had where officers were relieved and chaos and mistreatment ensued. He describes where the ballistic stations were located as well as a situation concerning a fuel dump in Busan.



Sterling N. McKusick

Arrival in Korea

Sterling N. McKusick recounts the story of his arrival to Korea from bootcamp in San Diego. He shares the 1st Marine Division landed in Incheon on September 15, 1950, just months after the start of the war. He notes that this was a totally different experience for him, especially seeing deceased people. He recalls his boat was near the U.S.S. Missouri and other large ships which were firing upon the city prior to their arrival. He recalls the taking of Wolmido Island as well as arrival in Incheon and movement to Yeongdeungpo and Seoul.



Theodore Paul

Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas “Tommy” Tahara

Arrival in Korea

Thomas "Tommy" Tahara describes being aboard a ship in the Pusan (Busan) Harbor for over a week waiting to be called into action in Korea. He recounts seeing dead bodies for the first time and experiencing combat. He speaks of the fear he experienced as an eighteen-year-old while in a combat situation.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Landing at Incheon and Fighting at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. speaks of landing at Incheon and ending up at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He describes the Chinese weapons and being outnumbered. One night, while he was on watch, he thought a bush was a Chinese unit attacking, but he decided not to shoot. He admits that this incident earned him the nickname "Bush Guy."



Heavy Fighting and British and Turkish Marines

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. discusses heavy fighting in Korea and how the Chinese would play bugles and would fire heavy air bursts of artillery to keep the Americans awake and on edge. He recalls running into British and Turkish Marines as they headed south. He describes how the British and Turkish soldiers made sure to identify themselves as allies, and not Chinese or North Koreans. He observed that both the Turkish Marines and the Chinese soldiers did not wear helmets.



Thomas F. Miller

The Job of a Korean Defense Veteran and the Draft

Thomas Miller was a Korean Defense Veteran since he served in Korea after the Korean War from 1965 through 1966. He was drafted even though he was an only child, farmed for his family, and he had only one good eye.



Basic Training and Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller went to basic training in Georgia and then he was shipped to Inchon Harbor to start his tour of duty. After landing, he noticed poor living conditions of the civilians which looked like America in the early 1800s.



Thomas J Dailey

Chosin Reservoir Recollections

Thomas Dailey recalls his arrival in Korea and time spent at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes collecting injured and frozen soldiers and placing them on the back of armored tanks due to the lack of space inside the tanks. He remembers one occasion where he was forced to pull his pistol on a soldier who kept attempting to get inside the tank due to thinking it was warmer.



Thomas Parkinson

Korea: Unbelievable Differences Between 1952 to 2000

Thomas Parkinson shares how he saw unbelievable differences between the time he was stationed in Korea in 1952 to 2000 during his first revisit. He describes going back four times since 2000 and recalls how the advancements in buildings, technology, and bridges was astounding. He shares how the changes from the Korean cardboard houses to the multi-stored houses was a visible difference.



Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Thomas Tsuda

Journey to Korea

Thomas Tsuda recalls his journey to Korea and landing in Incheon in September of 1952. He speaks of the destruction he witnessed and shares that he felt sorry for the Korean people. He adds that he soon found himself on the front lines fighting the Chinese.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



Ulises Barreto González

Destruction Everywhere / Destrucción en Todas Partes

Ulises Barreto González recounts the destruction he saw in Incheon and Seoul. He could not believe that beautiful five story buildings were leveled by the bombing. He also speaks about the carnage of Kelly Hill. He explains the fact that this battle is the most vivid in his mind because the mountain was so high and because it was lost to Chinese forces.

Ulises Barreto González habla sobre la destrucción que vio en Incheon y Seúl. No podía creer que tantos hermosos edificios de cinco pisos fueron destruidos por el bombardeo. También habla del peligro de Kelly Hill. Esa batalla es la más vívida en su memoria porque la montaña era muy alta y porque las fuerzas chinas ganaron y ellos perdieron.



Vern Rubey

Supporting Infantry behind the Front Lines

Vern Rubey comments on his branch change from infantry to artillery which he was pleased with and recalls landing at Incheon. He describes the role of the service battery that he was assigned to as a First Sergeant in the Army. He shares memories of the scenery he saw while traveling throughout Korea supporting differing artillery units.



Harsh Weather

Vern Rubey recalls the harsh weather he experienced during his time in Korea and likens the cold conditions to Minnesota weather. He shares how a monsoon delayed his rotation back home. He recalls his journey home aboard ship.



Victor D. Freudenberger

Race against the Tide at Inchon

Victor Freudenberger describes the logistics of Inchon Landing. He shares that his role as an officer with a speciality in ammunitions was to prepare munitions for the first major battle of the Korean War. He adds commentary on how the tide played a crucial role in the timing of the landing.



Vincent Segarra

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Vicente Segarra shares his first impressions of Korea and its people. He recalls the poverty and cold he witnessed while there. Moreover, he remembers the joy he felt when he found a friend from his town who helped him by giving him a sleeping bag.

Vicente Segarra comparte sus primeras impresiones sobre Corea y su gente. Recuerda la pobreza y el frío que presenció mientras estuvo allí. Además, recuerda la alegría que sintió cuando encontró a un amigo de su pueblo que lo ayudó el primer día y le dio una bolsa de dormir.



Virbel Trotter

Fear of the Frontline

Virbel Trotter responses to a question about whether or not he was nervous heading to Korea. He explains that it was an unknown to him. The people who trained him at served in Korea at the early part of the war and shared stories about how rough it was.



Virgil Julius Caldwell

Landing at Incheon

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes his experience of landing at Incheon. He recalls being informed on his first day that the bones of the previous unit were found on a nearby hill, which made him feel uneasy. He remembers being attacked by mortar and artillery while he served as an anti-aircraft gunner.



Wallace Stewart

"I Thought We Had Landed in the Wrong Place."

Wallace Stewart returned to Incheon in 2010 and could not believe the phenomenal growth that had occurred since 1950. Korea had been an agrarian economy, with farmers plowing fields with mules and fertilizing with night soil. No paved roads left Seoul, and only one bridge crossed the Han River. The infrastructure and tall buildings of 2010 demonstrated phenomenal growth.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Landing in Korea and Military Entry

Walter Kreider, Jr., recounts landing in Korea. He shares that he was greeted by soldiers waiting to return home and recalls how they shouted words in an effort to frighten the arriving soldiers. He details riding a train up to the front lines near Panmunjeom. He backtracks and describes how he was drafted and his placement in artillery.



Warren Middlekauf

The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Up To My Knees In Mud

William "Bill" Beasley describes his Unit arriving in Inchon in September 1950. He describes the troublesome deboarding of the Amtrak due to his equipment. He describes that because of the weight instead of just getting mud on his feet like the others when he jumped off, he sank into the mud up to his knees. He describes three unknown men that helped him get to the shore.



William Beals

Thankful for Thankfulness

William Beals discusses how much it meant to him to receive a letter from the President of Korea thanking him for his service in the war. He truly was honored by this gesture and even hoped that his granddaughter, who is currently in the service, would be able to thank the president for this. He explains how much gratitude he has seen from Koreans for his service.



Brothers in Korea at the same time

Beals describes a time he was able to meet up with his brother while they both served in Korea. He doesn't remember what they discussed, but they were able to meet up briefly. They shared stories about their experiences.



William Duffy

Comparing Korea, Then and Now

William Duffy recalls Seoul being in rubble. He remembers Korea being totally destroyed and adds that he could touch the top of any building that was still standing. He remembers going back to Korea years later and seeing a beautiful and impressive Seoul; the skyscrapers were numerous, and the traffic around the city was heavy. He shares that the Korea today is not the Korea he left in 1952 and adds he never would have imagined Korea would look like it does today. He recalls the South Korean people being exceptionally nice.



William Gortney

Inchon Landing

William Gortney's first mission was to take out oil tanks at the Inchon air field before the Inchon landing started. During the landing, William Gortney provided air cover for soldiers who were landing. He explains that the biggest problem in that area was the tides.



Life on a Korean War Carrier

William Gortney explains what life was like on the aircraft carrier. He shares that they used a straight deck in order to land on the carrier, which varies from how it is done today. There were 5 barrier cables that were used to catch planes that missed the deck hook.



William Herold

Inchon Landing & Seoul Recapture

William Herold describes landing in Inchon around amid Korea's heavy rain. He recounts having to wait the night out by himself until daylight when his company could regroup. He adds that there was little resistance other than sniper fire. He explains that he did not have a chance to really look around Inchon as he and his platoon members had no opportunity to get out. William Herold describes the march to Seoul following the Inchon Landing, adding that there was resistance.



William Puls

The Impact of the Forgotten War

William Puls describes his revisits to South Korea in 2000 and 2010. He explains his amazement at the cleanliness and modernization of the cities in South Korea. He praises the South Koreans for their admiration and respect toward Korean War veterans. He shares his opinion on what can be done to resolve the continued division between the countries of North Korea and South Korea.



Nightwatchman and No Bath

William Puls describes arriving in Korea, and recalls a number of soldiers who were sick from the journey at sea. He tells of the landing at Incheon, and being transported to the front on Christmas Hill. He describes the circumstances of fighting for twenty-one consecutive days without being able to stop to shower because of the intensity. His references are in reflection of the fighting shortly before the Armistice.



Willie Frazier

Serving in Korea

Willie Frazier remembers arriving in Korea at Incheon, where he noticed General McArthur was stationed. Later, he relocated to Seoul and Wonsan. He speaks about his friends who served in "Graves Restoration," which involved retrieving fallen soldiers. He discusses his thoughts on serving in the laundry unit instead of being on the front lines.



Wistremundo Dones

Remembering Terrible Battles / Recordando Terribles Batallas

Wistremundo Dones provides an account of the tactical operations which were aimed at sweeping the South of North Koreans. He explains the change in troop movements from the South and how entire platoons were sent to Incheon in the North which prompted the Chinese to get involved. He admits that they needed much courage to withstand the bombings that continuously took place.

Wistremundo Dones da cuenta de las operaciones tácticas que tenían como objetivo barrer el sur de los norcoreanos. Explica el cambio en los movimientos de tropas del Sur y cómo se enviaron pelotones enteros a Incheon, en el Norte, lo que llevó a los chinos a involucrarse. Admite que necesitaban mucho coraje para sobrevivir los bombardeos que siempre continuamente.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Wistremundo Dones relays his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he did not understand how a civilian population which was so impoverished was able to withstand the cold winters. He provides details of the guerrilla attacks from North Korean which ensued early in the war.

Wistremundo Dones cuenta de sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no entendía cómo una población que estaba tan empobrecida podía soportar los inviernos tan fríos. Proporciona detalles sobre los ataques de la guerrilla norcoreana que se produjeron a principios de la guerra.



Overview of Service / Descripción de su Servicio

Wistremundo Dones describes his tour of duty in Korea in English. He explains how the war changed resulting from the involvement of Chinese forces. Furthermore, he shares how the commanding officers altered the war strategy.

Wistremundo Dones describe en inglés su período de servicio en Corea. Explica cómo cambió la guerra cuando entraron las fuerzas chinas a la guerra. Además, comparte cómo los oficiales al mando cambiaron la estrategia de la guerra.