Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Communists



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Adolfo Lugo Gaston recalls the worst and longest battle that he experienced, that of Kelly Hill. He explains that allied troops fought an incalculable number of Chinese communist troops. Their mission was to win the hill and help four-thousand marines that were trapped.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón recuerda la batalla de Kelly Hill porque fue la más dura. Explica que las tropas aliadas lucharon contra un número incalculable de tropas comunistas chinas. Su misión era conquistar el cerro y ayudar a los cuatro mil infantes de marina que estaban rodeados.



Alan Guy

Duties Following Cease-fire

Alan Guy recounts returning to Busan to assist with health aspects following the cease-fire and details several duties. Despite the cease-fire, he recalls an incident that involved a rope strung across the road as an attempted means of decapitating drivers. He shares an account of a situation he found himself in within the black market.



Alan Maggs

Early Days in Korea

Alan Maggs recalls arriving in Pusan and then taking the train to Seoul. He describes Seoul as largely devastated, with few buildings still standing. Despite the destruction, he remembers the local people as very welcoming. Maggs also provides details about his duties and the pay he received during his service.



Albert Grocott

Memories of the Front Line

Albert Grocott finds it challenging to discuss his involvement in the Battle of the Hook, as those memories are ones he would rather not dwell on. However, he does remember a prisoner exchange near Panmunjom, specifically the Peace Bridge where Chinese prisoners were exchanged. He emphasizes that the soldiers simply carried out their duties every hour of every day, doing what was necessary without hesitation. He shares his experiences of enduring flashbacks of events he witnessed while in Korea, including the loss of close friends.



Albert McCarthy

Infiltrators Hiding in Barrels

Albert McCarthy recalled an incident that happened when he worked for the security agency. Intelligence came in that there were twelve North Korean infiltrators sneaking into South Korea through the Han River hiding in barrels. Once caught, the infiltrators were killed that night. He also received intelligence of a school bus filled with infiltrators heading to kill the South Korean president. Infiltrators blew up at least two gunboats a week while he served.



Code Names, Signals, and Spies

Albert McCarthy described working with a North Korean spy. He detailed having to use code names and signals. He also elaborated on how this spy helped alleviate a set up from the North Koreans that almost occurred in the Chorwon Valley.



Ali Dagbagli

Battle of Kunu-ri

Ali Dagbagli shares his experience in the Battle of Kunu-ri. He describes the battle lasting for three nights and four days and being surrounded on all sides by the enemy. He recalls being shot multiple times and watching many of his friends fall.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

A Brother's Narrative

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes the Korean War from his brother's perspective, focusing on his brother's service in the Turkish Army during the battle of Kunu-ri. He recalls his brother telling him this battle, primarily a guerrilla war, involved intense close combat with bayonets affixed. The Turkish military engaged the North Koreans in perilous and hard-fought encounters.



Ali Saglik

The Hard Job

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He recounts laying mines in the front and having dogs defending their flanks. He recalls how grisly the battles were and fighting it out with bayonets. He remembers the heaviness of losing soldiers under his command.



A Civilian War

Ali Saglik recalls how enemy forces would hide in civilian houses waiting to attack. He describes an event in which Turkish forces captured a female spy. He explains how some civilians were just trying to survive and would help the soldiers by providing fresh fish.



Gendarmerie Status Denied

Ali Saglik recalls volunteering to be a gendarmerie, a Turkish National Defender, but was refused due to his short stature. He explains how he enlisted in the infantry instead and was sent to Korea to fight in the Korean War. He describes himself as cold-blooded and not afraid of death.



Andrew Lanza

Police Action or War?

Andrew Lanza engages in a debate about President Truman's characterization of the Korean War as a police action, considering how American foreign policy of containment granted Truman leverage to engage in this conflict. He shares his strong belief that it should be classified as a war. As he was still serving in Korea when the armistice was reached, he recalls having mixed feelings about the event.



Ángel David Jiménez Jusino

Worst Experience / La Peor Experiencia

Angel David Jimenez Jusino shares the story of the Battle of Kelly Hill. He explains that as a scout, he was tasked with engaging the enemy to draw them out from their hiding spots. During a scouting mission to Kelly Hill, his team encountered so many troops, that the sergeant screamed at them to retreat and defend themselves however they saw fit. The memory of this mission saddens him, as two within the scout group were taken as prisoners of war, and two others were killed.

Angel David Jimenez Jusino comparte la historia de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Explica que, como explorador, tenía que enfrentarse al enemigo para sacarlo de sus escondites. Durante una misión de exploración en Kelly Hill, su equipo se encontró con tantas tropas que el sargento les gritó que se retiraran y que se defendieran como pudieran. Esta misión lo entristece, ya que dos dentro del grupo dos fueron tomados como prisioneros de guerra y otros dos murieron durante el ataque.



Anil Malhotra

The Stories His Father Told Him

Anil Malhotra reflects on the stories his father, Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra, told him about his experience in Korea. On November 19, 1950, the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit of India moved in to Korea. It was the time when the Chinese army put in a massive counter-attack. His unit was ordered to evacuate because of the Chinese attack. The unit became known as the Bucket Brigade because they carried buckets of water from the nearby river to a steam engine to get it working once again. The steam engine hauled all medical equipment away from the conflict zone and was not lost to the war. The steam engine carried all of the medical equipment to Seoul, across the Han river, just in time because the communists blew up the bridge right after. He expands on other stories about the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit. The goal of the unit was to save as many lives as possible.



Aragaw Mselu

Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Role at the Pusan Perimeter

Arden Rowley offers an account of his role as a jeep driver at the Battle of Yongsan. He provides an overview of the troop movement that led to the North Koreans being pushed back to the Nakdonggang river. He explains his role in helping transport an inexperienced bazooka team to successfully destroy incoming enemy tanks.



Moment of Hesitation Led to Capture

Arden Rowley describes the night of November 30, 1950 and being captured by the Chinese Communist Forces. He describes how his unit was surrounded, which led them to destroy their equipment and leave the convoy. He recalls how he and another soldier became separated from the group and seeing a group of soldiers approaching. He remembers that by the time they could properly identify the approaching soldiers, it was too late. He shares how being captured was a traumatic experience because one minute you are firing at them and then you are at their mercy. He elaborates on his fears while being captured and the twenty-four day march he endured to the first POW camp.



Assisting Others and Incentives

Arden Rowley elaborates on the conditions at Death Valley and the use of tobacco to convince the soldiers to attend indoctrination lectures. A large number of soldiers were suffering and dying from dysentery, yet he shares he was able to stay healthy. Since he was healthy, he remembers helping his comrade acquire clean trousers. In another one of these instances, he recalls attending lectures about communism so that he could bring back tobacco for that same soldier.



Resistance and Letters from Home

Arden Rowley describes the indoctrination sessions conducted by the Chinese. He emphasizes how the communists were focused on converting them to the communist ideology. He outlines the organization of the lectures and discussions. As part of the process, he recalls on being assigned as a monitor for his room and how it was his role to report discussion questions back to the Chinese officials. He remembers the process took a toll on him and he chose to provide the real answers to their questions and not what the officials wanted to hear. He feels that this act of rebellion influenced other monitors to copy his actions. He explains the entire company was eventually relocated, and the lectures reached a point of diminishing returns. He shares that once they received letters from home, their courage grew.



Relief at the Gateway to Freedom

Arden Rowley reflects on the indescribable feeling of hearing the war was over and that he would go home. He recalls being told they would be released after the signing of the armistice and remembers a drastic improvement in how the prisoners were fed. He elaborates on the emotional experience of seeing American soldiers at the exchange point and walking through the gateway to freedom.



Arthur C. Golden

Thoughts on Modern Korea

Arthur Golden and his wife joined a revisit program in 2010. He observes that while the Korean War has largely faded from memory in the United States, the Koreans have not forgotten. Recounting his experiences visiting Seoul and the DMZ, he also reflects on the improbability of a unified Korea.



Arthur H. Hazeldine

Action at Yang-do

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes action aboard the New Zealand Frigate HMNZS Taupo patrolling the east coast of Korea during the warHe recounts his duties in gun direction during an attempted North Korean invasion of the island of Yang-do in North Korea. As a result of Yang-do, his memories of the dead haunt him to this day.



Yang-do and Pirates

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes more of the engagement at Yang-do, resulting in the wounding of thirteen New Zealand navy men and killing one. The North Korean soldiers on sampans, were close enough to fire on the HMNZS Taupo using rifles. However, the firepower of the frigate was too much. He vividly recalls the bloodshed which occurred in the engagement. Arthur H. Hazeldine concludes with a description of an encounter with pirates off the coast of Taiwan.



Asefa Mengesha

Communist Ethiopia

Asefa Mengesha explained how his life changed when communists took over Ethiopia in 1974. He was transferred from the Imperial Guard and eventually imprisoned for a year along with other Korean veterans. He believed the new government was afraid of these veterans.



Asfaw Desta

Two Different Koreas

Asfaw Desta describes the two different Koreas, war-torn and present. He never thought there would be such a significant change. Korea was so broken during the war. However, hard work by the people was able to transform Korea into what it is today. He compares the change between Ethiopia and Korea over the same time period.



Asfaw Teklemariam Habteyes

Korean War History in Schools

Asfaw Habteyes explains why the history of the war is not taught in schools. Ethiopia had a communist government for a time that forbid its teaching. He feels it should be taught now with the help of Korea.



Belay Bekele

So Many Surrenders

Belay Bekele describes fighting conditions in Korea. He explains how the threats were everywhere, because of all of the enemy surrenders. Ethiopian forces took in all people, enemies, and civilians. He also discusses how the winters and mountains were the most difficult things outside of the enemy. Winters were extremely cold and there were so many mountains.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Closure to the Present Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believed that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the US with bombs. It is just like the Cold War the lasted for many years. He would support reunification between North and South Korea since he went back to Korea for a revisit and he saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benito B. Arabe

I Liked to Fight with Communists

Benito B. Arabe describes his units pulling out from the battle at Hill 010. He shares how members of his unit had no idea where the enemy was and states he was not afraid as he "liked to fight with the Communists". He recounts how he remained in Korea until after the armistice concluded the fighting. He offers some detail of his return trip to Korea where he saw many houses and happy people and returned to the boundary between North and South Korea.



Bernard Dykes

More Artillery Fire Than Raindrops

Bernard Dykes describes the constant and random attacks endured from the Chinese soldiers. He did not know where they were coming from or where they were to land. He mentions how putting his life in God's hands in these moments helped him survive.



Bill Chisholm

Leaving Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm recounts leaving the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir following the horrific fighting going on in the region. He shares his unit was able to evacuate to Ko-to-ri following the building of a Bailey Bridge across the river and on to Heungnam. He recalls the massive sea of humanity he saw in Heungnam as the port filled with the Marines, the soldiers, and thousands of refugees.



Bill Chrysler

The Battle of Kapyong

Bill Chrysler remembers hurrying into place from a rest camp, noting his half-track was not fully equipped. Sent to the higher hills while the Australians held the lower hills on their right, he quickly adapted to the situation. The Chinese aimed to gain control of the valley among these hills, which led to Seoul. Observing the Chinese circling them, he recalls immediately recognizing the impending trouble.



Bob Couch

The Eye-Opening Trip to Pusan

Bob Couch discusses his basic training in California and his deployment to Korea. He recounts the "jolt" he experienced upon his arrival in Pusan after seeing the state of destruction and poverty level among civilians. He recalls trucks making rounds each morning to collect bodies of civilians who had died during the night.



Bob Garcia

Daily Life of a Radioman

Bob Garcia talks about his job as a radioman. He describes his specific duties in support of the forward observer, setting up communication lines and gathering intelligence.



Bob Near

Our Guys Did A Great Job

Bob Near describes the importance of Canada's contribution to the Korean War. He describes the time period including the Berlin Wall and the march of Communism. He explains that Canadians were willing to give their lives for the defense of freedom and democracy.



Bryan J. Johnson

Naval Role and Threats

Bryan J. Johnson describes the role of his ship, steering the ship and Captain of the gun. The HMNZS Hawea provided escorts for supplies and patrolled the Han River. He also explains that the main threat was not from land bombardment, rather Russian MIG's flown by North Koreans.



Wrong Shells, Wrong Time

Bryan J. Johnson, Captain of the gun on ship, ordered a shelling of a North Korean supply train. He explains that storage of the shells were switched and he fired "star shells" for illumination, instead of explosive shells. Bryan Johnson later describes two sailors who were swept away by the Han River, but later rescued after being in the water for many hours.



Detaining Smugglers

Bryan Johnson describes life aboard the HMNZS and working 90 hours a week. He describes one incident of detaining a father and son from South Korea who were "smuggling" rice to North Korea. The ship and crew were to hold the father and son until the South Koreans could come and "take them out to sea," assuring death.



Carl B. Witwer

Protection of Taiwan

Carl Witwer described how after his experiences on the destroyer in the Yellow Sea, he was assigned to Taiwan. Taiwan's Nationalist Chinese Party located there was also threatened by Communist China. He detailed his job charting radar positions.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Combat Jump

Carl Jacobsen recounts jump training in Daegu, Korea, and recalls making multiple training jumps in order to receive his wings. He offers an account of his first combat jump and details the related mission. He comments on the destruction he saw during his service.



A Dangerous Moment

Carl Jacobsen shares memories of one of the most dangerous moments he experienced in combat. He recalls being given orders to collect ammunition and receiving sniper fire on his return with the ammunition. He recounts stopping the vehicle he was driving to return fire and wondering if he would make it out of the situation alive.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

Fear During the Battle of Old Baldy/ Miedo Durante la Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts the worst action he encountered during the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes being continuously bombarded throughout the night and having to hold the front until American reinforcements arrived hours later. He explains that although their camp was surrounded by landmines and barbed wire, Chinese and North Korean troops pierced their defenses. He marvels at the tenacity of enemy troops as bodies exploded in the air as they marched through the minefield.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto relata la peor acción que vio que fue durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él describe haber sido bombardeado continuamente durante toda la noche y tener que mantener el frente hasta que llegaran los refuerzos estadounidenses horas después que empezó la batalla. Explica que, aunque su campamento estaba rodeado de minas y alambre de púas, las tropas chinas y norcoreanas atravesaron sus defensas. Se acuerda de la tenacidad de las tropas enemigas cuando los cuerpos volaban por el aire mientras marchaban a través del campo de minas.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

The Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros shares his thoughts on the legacy of the War in Korea. He states that he is against wars as they hurt too many people and therefore governments around the world should avoid them whenever possible. He adds that he believes communism will eventually be eradicated from the earth and replaced by freedom.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros comparte su opinión sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Afirma que está en contra de las guerras porque le hacen demasiado daño a la gente y, por lo tanto, los gobiernos de todo el mundo deberían evitarlas siempre que sea posible. Agrega que cree que el comunismo eventualmente será erradicado de la tierra y reemplazado por la libertad.



Cecil Phipps

Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Poyktong POW Camp (#5) and the harsh living conditions he lived through as prisoner, offering remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions he went from one hundred ninety pounds to seventy-five pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



"Always Trying to Escape"

Cecil Phipps talks about a fellow soldier that attempted and failed several times to escape Camp #3. He describes how he tried to aid his friend and what happened when he was captured and returned.



POW Release

Cecil Phipps recalls his released from Chinese captivity on August 28, 1953, at Panmunjeom after thirty-three months as a POW. He describes the trip from Camp #3, taking several days by truck and train and spending a week in another POW camp, before finally reaching freedom at Panmunjeom.



Cevdet Sidal

Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal described intimate details from the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle was the first engagement on foreign soil for Turkish fighters since World War I. He provided details about being surrounded and the heavy losses to the enemy. He also described how there were enemy war planes used in the battle. He nearly lost his life in this battle as the position he was at was fired upon just after he was pulled behind a jeep by a friend.



Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal described conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One master sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. The only defense from aircraft attacks was to turn sideways to make your body a smaller target. He turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face while shaving.



Charles E. Gebhardt

A Day on the Line

Charles Gebhardt describes his duties as a part of the 29th Infantry Regiment. He talks about going on patrols and observing enemy movements as an artillery forward observer.



The Beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the scene at the beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about the KATUSA soldiers assigned to his unit and how he thought they had gotten spooked. In reality, the Chinese offensive had already begun.



"It was Very Scary"

Charles Gebhardt describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers on the first night of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about shooting at enemy soldiers that were within arm's reach.



"You Should Not be Afraid of Some Chinese Laundrymen"

Charles Gebhardt recounts the words the General Edward Almond in a meeting of officers and intelligence personnel on the morning after the first fighting of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Describing the meeting in which he attended, he mentions that several officers present were taken aback by the comment. The comment was "You should not be afraid of some Chinese laundrymen."



Retreat from Chosin

Charles Gebhardt describes his unit's retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about destroying equipment. He also describes loading up the wounded on the slow retreat to Hagalwoori.



Losses, Conditions, and Rescue

Charles Gebhardt talks about the lives that were lost in the retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difficult conditions on the trek. He also tells the story when he and his comrades borrowed Marine vehicles to rescue wounded soldiers.



Charles Fowler

Life After Korea

Charles Fowler reflects on life after Korea, his time in the war, and the change it brought to his way of thinking. He shares he is more appreciative of life and is thankful to be an American. He states that history has proven democracy works and points to South Korea today as a perfect example, sharing that its success would have never happened under a communist type of government.



Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Charles Fowler emphasizes that Korean War veterans should be honored has other veterans have been. He shares that the Korean War should be characterized as an event that proves Communism does not work as it enslaves people and their freedom to act. He also adds that it will take a strong leader to bring both Koreas together in the future.



Charles Gaush

Psychological Warfare with Propaganda

Charles Gaush talks about his time in the US Army's physchological warfare unit. He describes creating, designing, photographing, and printing propaganda leaflets during the Korean War. The leaflets were printed in Russian, Korean, and Chinese to promote democratic values.



Charles Hoak

Last Push by the Chinese

Charles Hoak tells the story of when the Chinese Army were making a last push. He recalls being in the trenches with weapons loaded and U.S. Army airplanes dropping flares on their location so that they could see what was taking place on the battlefield. He remembers how the Republic of Korea (ROK) troops held the line and thwarted the advance of the Chinese Army.



Just Trying to Forget It

Charles Hoak describes his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War and the hope of North and South Korea reunification. He notes the significance of the Korean War as the United Nations stopped the advance of Communism on the Korean Peninsula. He discusses how some servicemen are hesitant to talk about their experiences because they just want to move on with life.



Chester Coker

What Was the Point of War?

Chester Coker talks about how senseless he originally thought the war was. He reports being confused about his purpose and why the U.S. Army was there. He shares how he later understood the great value the war provided South Korea. He mentions stopping the spread of communism and shares he has returned to South Korea five times.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



Clayborne Lyles

Joining the Navy, Basic Training, and Traveling to Show Power

Clayborne Lyles joined the Navy as a 17 year old in order to move away from poverty in Arkansas in 1947. After attending 11 weeks of basic training and Machinist Maintenance (engineer) training, he was sent way on the USS Toledo to travel to a variety of ports across the world to demonstrate the US Navy's strength during the Cold War. He spent all of his time on the ship maintaining boiler operations while working on steam turbines, generators, pumps, air conditioning and refrigeration.



Clifford Allen

The Legacy of the Korean War

Clifford Allen shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is referred to as the forgotten war. He explains that he felt the United States had a duty to go and put up a defense against communist ideas. He also describes the legacy of the Korean War and the people who will never forget it.



Clifford L. Wilcox

A Close Call

Clifford Wilcox describes a time when on duty as a forward observer, an enemy shell exploded in front of his foxhole. He was lucky that the shell fired right over his head, missing him. Thankfully, he was covered with dirt with no shrapnel.



Clyde Fruth

Day by Day

Clyde Fruth talks about the dangers he faced as a forward observer from incoming artillery and snipers. He details about an enemy unit that was always prepared to attack them and would sneak up through the trenches. He describes always have to keep his eyes open for the enemy.



Dan McKinney

An Amazing Coincidence

Dan McKinney describes his capture by enemy forces and the way he was able to let his family know that he was still alive. He talks about telling another POW who was scheduled to be released, to tell his girlfriend and family that he was still alive when he returned stateside. In an amazing coincidence, the Marine told him that he had actually double dated Mckinney's girlfriend back in Texas before the war.



Captured

Dan McKinney describes how he was captured by enemy forces. His entire company was nearly wiped out. He talks about how all the members of the squad he commanded were killed and enduring friendly artillery shelling before he was captured.



The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly sixty-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Food and Living Quarters in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes what he was given to eat during his journey to POW Camp #1. He describes the POW Camp and how it was in a former Korean village. He also details what the prisoners' small living quarters were like.



Day-to-Day Work at POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the day-to-day work of POW's at Camp #1. He describes going to nearby mountains to harvest firewood during the warm months for the upcoming winter. They would hike about four miles to and from, carrying the large logs.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Food, Clothing, and Propaganda in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the food he was given as a POW in Camp #1. He talks about the clothing that he wore during his captivity. He also tells the story of a captured photographer whose photographs the North Koreans used to create propaganda materials.



Infractions and Consequences for POW's

Dan McKinney talks about infractions and consequences for prisoners in his POW camp. He describes the cages that they were sometimes held in. He also discusses his perceptions of North Korean POW camps versus Chinese POW camps.



Life After the Armistice Was Signed

Dan McKinney talks about life in the POW camp during months prior to and days after the Armistice were signed. He mentions that their treatment became better or worse based on the state of the negotiations. He talks about the prisoners' reactions to the news of the Armistice as well as how he and his comrades were transported to be exchanged nearly a month after the ceasefire went in place.



Coming Home

Dan McKinney talks about the two-week journey back to the US by ship after he was released as a POW. He describes being interrogated about his captivity. He also describes finally eating well, gaining 25 pounds during the crossing.



Daniel J. Rickert

Chinese Box Mines

Daniel Rickert talks about Chinese box mines. He describes what these mines looked like and how they operated. He also details how he went about his job to find and disarm them.



Enemy Bunkers and Trenches

Daniel Rickert talks about the many enemy bunkers and trenches. He describes how they were designed and built. They were very hard to find.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez shares his mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so he would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them being rather tall. He believes the prisoner was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



David Simon

I Don't Think the North Koreans Want to Give up Their Little Empire

David Simon shares his thoughts on the transformation of Korea into an economic power. He focuses on current events related to the possibility of unifying the peninsula but expresses doubt that this will happen under the current North Korean regime. He closes by noting that he does not really consider himself a Korean War Veteran, but a veteran who was in the service at the time of the Korean War.



David White

Life as a Platoon Leader

David White talks about his duties as Platoon Leader. His responsibilities included setting up ambushes and relieving his men and the conditions under which they operated. Most of these operations were against the North Koreans and took place at night.



Danger from Mortar Fire

David White talks about the frequent danger of enemy mortar fire. A lot of soldiers would get scared and try to run. However, they would get hit and it was better to lie low to the ground to avoid it.



Kill or Be Killed

David White describes in detail a battle that began when the patrol he was leading came across a North Korean soldier. During the ensuing battle, both sides sustained heavy losses. He was wounded by an enemy mortar.



Delmer Davis

Missions on Gimpo Peninsula

Delmer Davis talks about several missions that his unit participated in on the Gimpo Peninsula. He describes working with other military units and capturing enemy soldiers.



Denis John Earp

"Lenient Policy"

Denis John Earp remembers that, upon capture, he was interrogated by Chinese soldiers. Knowing his rights under the Geneva Convention, he shares he knew his rights under the Geneva Convention and explains how he refused to answer some questions. He recalls how he was quickly informed by the Chinese about their “lenient policy” and soon was placed in a scary situation that was meant to force him to change his mind.



Always Being Watched

Denis John Earp explains what it was like being transferred to a Chinese Camp from the North Korean Camp known as “Park’s Palace." He recalls how the prisoners, himself included, were constantly watched and how there were daily propaganda lectures. He details the unfortunate circumstances that occurred in the winter months for those who were injured.



Park's Palace

Denis John Earp describes the conditions at Park’s Palace, a Prisoner of War (POW) camp in North Korea. He describes a cruel game they would play for the guards’ entertainment. He explains the interrogation tactics, including waterboarding, that were used to gather information.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



War is Hell, Winter is Worse

Desmond Vinten describes spending twenty-seven days in an English military prison. His charge was "firing on the Queen's enemy without the Queen's permission." His sentence reflected the reality that sometimes shooting at the Chinese created more danger due to the Chinese soldiers' skill at firing mortars in retaliation. Besides the challenges of engaging the enemy, the heat, cold, and dust left him with the understanding that "war is hell, but winter is even worse."



Dick Lien

Worth His Service

Dick Lien expresses his thoughts on serving in the Korean War. He shares that he is proud of the development that has taken place in South Korea since the war and feels that his service was worth the effort. He points to South Korea itself and what it is today as the legacy of the Korean War.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

Civil War in Greece

Dimitrios Matsoukas briefly describes the Greek Civil War and offers parallels between fighting communism in Greece and the fight against communism in South Korea.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

Letters from Korea and Digging the DMZ

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls a particular letter from her husband at the developing DMZ. She shares that her husband spoke of the quietened guns after the ceasefire. She explains that her husband described the digging of lines at the present-day DMZ and living on C-Rations.



Don C. Jones

Understanding the Communist Perspective

Don C. Jones arrived in Korea in 1947. He describes the political situation between North and South Korea at that time. He describes how reunification was promoted although it never happened. He elaborates seeing signs intimating reunification would never happen, spurred by the Soviet presence backing the North Koreans. He also describes a conversation he had with a Communist late at night, attempting to understand the other perspective.



Korea as a Symbol of the Cold War

Don C. Jones discusses what he believes the Korean War symbolizes. He details prior events that took place and led up to the conflict in Korea between Communist and Capitalist nations. He elaborates how Korea was a part of that greater conflict in the Cold War.



Donald C. Hay

Engaging North Korea

Donald C. Hay describes engaging the North Korean military. The Royal Marines would land, go ashore, and engage the North Koreans. He describes the New Zealand Navy providing cover to Royal Marines. He recollects on one occasion when the Royal Marines took two North Koreans prisoners. He explains the HMNZS Rotoiti often moved fairly close to the shore to provide support including one occasion where he felt uncomfortably close to the enemy.



Action on the Han

Donald C. Hay describes his service aboard the HMNZS Rotoiti. The ship completed three missions up the Han River attacking enemy positions. He recalls one occasion when an Australian ship patrolled further up the Han River. This ship was attacked and received substantial damage. Donald Hay recollects seeing dead bodies floating down river on many occasions.



Donald Campbell

Interrogation Process

Donald Campbell explains how he was interrogated as a Prisoner of War (POW). He explains how the Chinese handled the questioning. He shares how he coped with relentless questions.



Donald Lassere

Conquering Communism and Personal Fear

Donald Lassere shares his personal fear in going to war for a country and a people he did not know. He describes the pride he felt while helping to halt the spread of communism for these very people.



Donald R. Bennett

Moving to the 38th Parallel and Back to Incheon

Donald R. Bennett recalls his unit moved from Seoul to the Han River shortly after his arrival and fought its way to the 38th Parallel. He details their movements toward the 38th Parallel and their return to Incheon and eventually Wonsan Harbor. He notes Bob Hope actually beat his unit into Wonsan because of the delay they faced in landing due to someone, possibly the Russians, mining much of the harbor. He discusses the challenges of being a young tank commander in charge of four other men who had relatively little knowledge or training related to tanks.



Approaching Chosin Reservoir

Donald Bennett recounts moving to the base of the mountain at Chosin (Jangjin). He shares how the tanks were unable to make it up the roads which were too narrow until the engineers fixed the roads in spots. He recalls being awakened early on November 28th and being told the Chinese were attacking everywhere and that they needed to move out. He explains encountering other service members who had encountered Chinese. He finishes this segment by discussing his arrival at Kor'to-ri.



We Were in Big Trouble

Donald Bennett begins this portion of his account of the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir with his unit's departure to headquarters. Along the way, he remembers seeing burning trucks and witnessing American and Chinese units shooting at each other. He recalls their encounter with the Chinese who eventually knocked the track off of the first tank and then shortly thereafter surrounded the American trucks and tanks, including his. He details the night being very cold and dark. His tank was hit by something, which he later would discover was an anti-tank weapon that knocked off his 50-caliber machine gun. He shares the damage that was done to his tank and the destruction of another tank.



Last One Up the Mountain, Last One Down

Donald Bennett recounts living conditions while they were in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He shares a detailed account of a close encounter between the Chinese and his tank. He recalls the challenge of driving the tanks back down the mountain after the snow had been packed down into the ice. He remembers that his tank was the last tank down. He shares how those that remained in his unit were taken by boat back to Busan and were reformed at an airstrip where they conducted foot patrols before fighting their way up the center of Korea across the 38th Parallel in support of the 1st Marine Regiment.



Donald Stemper

FBI Scoured His Home Town Asking Questions

Since Don Stemper and his family had printing skills, he had a huge interest in infrared, aerial, or map-making photography. While at Lackland Air Force Base, they put him into a Casual Squadron which is where the armed forces put you when they don't know what to do with you. He heard from family members that the FBI had scoured the town of Mankato, Minnesota asking questions about Don Stemper in order to receive clearance to do undercover work for the Armed Forces. He learned later that these strategies was standard protocol before giving someone who was working with classified material and map-making technology. While he was in this holding pattern, he pulled duty over trash cans.



Douglas C. Fargo

Heartbreak Ridge

Douglas C. Fargo talks about his assignment as a Platoon Leader on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about serving with South Korean soldiers and the soldiers he lost under his command. He also describes capturing North Korean soldiers during an attack and on patrol.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

Volunteering for Korea / Ofrecerse Para Pelear en Corea

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro knew about the war in Korea because of his military training, but he was unaware of where the country was located. The sentiment in Colombia was that the conflict was foreign and had nothing to do with Colombians. However, this changed when the United Nations, as the defenders of peace around the world, asked Colombia for a battalion. He understood the importance of combating communism and proudly volunteered to fight in Korea when asked. He describes the moment in which more than ninety nine point nine percent of those asked volunteered to fight.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro sabía lo que estaba pasando en la guerra de Corea por su entrenamiento militar, pero no sabía ni dónde estaba ubicado el país. El sentimiento en Colombia sobre la guerra era que el conflicto era extranjero y no tenía nada que ver con los colombianos. Sin embargo, esto cambió cuando Las Naciones Unidas, como defensores de la paz en el mundo, le pidió a Colombia un batallón. El entendió la importancia de combatir el comunismo y orgullosamente se ofreció como voluntario para luchar en Corea cuando el comandante pregunto quien lo acompañaría a Corea. Describe el momento en el que más del noventa y nueve punto nueve por ciento del batallón se ofrecieron como voluntarios para luchar.



Edward A. Gallant

First Weapons Monitory System

Edward Gallant was assigned as a weapons monitoring repairman on a MSQ 28 System (Fort Bliss, TX). This 40 foot computer could provide 6000 miles of microwave radar which was 2 times the distance of the United States. Edward Gallant said they could see all the way to Russia. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Edward Gallant said that the Russians who had pulled their weapons out of Cuba, gave the WMD to China, and the Chinese sold it to North Korea which is why they have access to the materials they claim they have. They gave 3 of these Weapons Systems to Germany, 2 Korea, and Edward Gallant operated one that sent over 256 missiles towards their target (mission led by Howard Hughes).



Military Service, a Family Affair

Edward Gallant followed the military tradition in his family. Some of his brothers fought in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. One of his brothers was a POW that was killed in action during the Korean War and is buried in Hawaii.



Camp Howard (near Osan) during the Cold War

Edward Gallant is a Korean War defense veteran because he protected South Korea starting in 1966. During his time in Korea, he was stationed at Camp Howard near Osan to work on the monitoring system for missiles that could reach across many countries. This 40 foot computer was watched over constantly just in case it needed to be used during the Cold War against communists.



Edward F. Grala

The Korean War and Alaska

Ed Grala talks about the importance of the Korean war and his job helping maintain radar sites to protect the US during the Cold War. He tells a story of when his aircraft strayed into Russian airspace.



Edward Parmenter

Reduced Forces Build Enemy Confidence

Edward Parmenter shares his views on why the Korean War began. He attributes the United States' focus on reducing military forces at the time to the start of the war. He claims that reduced forces in the region gave the Communists confidence which led to the first attack, and he comments on President Truman's reluctance to allow General MacArther to bomb bases in Manchuria to prevent escalation.



Edward R. Valle

Arriving in Korea

Edward Valle notes he arrived in Korea in June 1954. He recalls the chaplain taking photos to send home to families to reassure them their soldier had arrived and that he would keep them safe. He describes the transport from Japan to Korea by plane and hearing rumors of planes being shot down en route.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



Edwin S. Leak

Line Crossers

Edwin S. Leak describes what he called during the war "line crossers". Line Crossesr were North Koreans defecting to South Korea after the war. He discusses reasons he felt they were defecting to the South post-war.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Living Conditions in the Prison Camps

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the long march from the mining camp to Camp 5. He explains that many died of exposure due to the lack of sufficient winter clothing and recalls that within a six weeks period over one thousand men died. He discusses the treatment of POW's by the North Koreans and the Chinese as well as the propaganda campaigns.



Ellsworth Peterson

Alone on a Chinese Outpost Raid

Ellsworth Peterson talks about a mission in which he and others in his unit raided a Chinese Outpost. In the skirmish, he describes finding himself separated from the other members of his party. Surrounded by Chinese soldiers, he laid down and pretended to be dead before making his way back behind friendly lines.



Ernest J. Berry

"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



Basic Training and Meeting Refugees

Ernest J. Berry describes the training as a medic at Waiouru Military Camp and sailing to Korea. He knew nothing of Korea. As he arrived, the communists were penetrating southward. He remembers streams of refugees traveling south as well. He explains his first impressions of Korean people.



Eugene Dixon

Surrounded by the Enemy at Thanksgiving

Eugene Dixon gives a detailed explanation of encountering the Chinese soldiers just after Thanksgiving in 1950. He recalls being prohibited from crossing the 38th Parallel, and recounts his experiences during the landing at Wonsan. He describes having a hot Thanksgiving meal just before providing relief for other soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir, where the Chinese had cut the supply lines.



Eugene Evers

Shot Down in a RB-29 Over North Korea

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being shot down. He explains flying over North Korea during his reconnaissance mission. He describes the Russian MiG that ultimately took him out of the sky.



Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



Isolation in Chinese POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being isolated in a Chinese POW camp. He describes his knowledge of Marine Colonel Frank Schwable. Schwable was a fellow POW in the Chinese prisoner camp.



You Are Going to Die

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being questioned by Chinese soldiers during his time a POW. He explains how a fellow soldier saved his life by telling them that he was an "ABC agent". He describes the feeling associated with being told you are going to die.



A Christmas Feast in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about Christmas in a POW camp. He explains that this was the only time he had eaten meat during his 14 month captivity. This occurred during his captivity as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



28 Hours to Mukden

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses his arduous and physically challenging journey while be transferred to a POW camp in Mukden (presently Shenyang), China.



Living Conditions in Mukden Prison

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult living conditions in Mukden Prison (Manchuria) during his seven month stay there as a Prisoner of War.



This Particularly Mean Guard...

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions and one particularly mean guard he encountered during his seven month stay in Mukden Prison (China) as a Prisoner of War.



On Trial as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being put on trial while being held at Mukden Prison (Manchuria) and his sentence of death by hard labor in the mines.



"Well, Welcome Back!"

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses the details of how he was released after 14 months as a prisoner of war.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Eusebio Santiago

Defense of Democracy

Eusebio Santiago describes the loss of fellow Puerto Rican soldiers who were there to help a country under attack. Sadly, he shares of never knowing what happened to these men. He reflects on his choice to re-enlist in order to continue the defense of democracy. He elaborates on the division of Korea by the United Nations after World War II and emphasizes his wish for the two Koreas to be a free and unified country again.



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



Fekede Belachew

Service After Armistice

Fekede Belachew describes his service after the Korean War. He explains how the thought at the time was the Communists would break the truce. Fekede Belachew patrolled jungle where he frequently encountered Chinese at a distance. He also describes his fondness for injera, an Ethiopian dish, that he missed in Korea.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos más difíciles

Felipe Aponte-Colon describes an incident in which he was walking along a river with other troops when they found themselves surrounded by gunfire in every direction. After the leaders were killed, he directed six others to crouch down for safety and eventually led them back to safety in the middle of the night. He credits God for having saved him that night.

Felipe Aponte-Colón cuenta la historia de un incidente en el que caminaba al lado de un río con otras tropas cuando se encontraron rodeados de disparos en todas direcciones. Este fue el momento de más dificultad en la guerra. Después que mataron a los líderes, él le ordenó a otros seis que se agacharan para ponerse a salvo y, finalmente, los guio de regreso a un lugar seguro en medio de la noche. Le da gracias a Dios por haberlo salvado esa noche.



Fermín Miranda Valle

The Battle of Pork Chop Hill / La Batalla de Pork Chop Hill

Fermín Miranda Valle was assigned to an American unit, as opposed to the Puerto Rican 65th Infantry, and fought during the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He explains that his mission was to move artillery to the top of the hill in a tank. He provides a compelling narrative of the battle and the dangers he faced.

Fermín Miranda Valle fue asignado a una unidad estadounidense, porque habían desbandado la Infantería 65 que era puertorriqueña, y luchó durante la Batalla de Pork Chop Hill. Explica que su misión era llevar la artillería a la cima de la colina en un tanque. El provee la historia de la batalla y de los peligros que enfrentó.



Francis Beidle

To Free You People From the Commies!

Francis Beidle explains what a difficult time he had while in Korea. He recalls being drafted into the military in 1951 and not understanding the reasons and motivations behind the war other than "to free you people from the Commies!" Even all these years later, he still questions U.S. involvement and how the war concluded.



Francis Bidle

Difficulties in Korea

Francis Bidle comments on the most difficult thing he experienced while serving. He shares that it was difficult trying to figure out why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing. He offers an account of the time he asked a colonel why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing in Korea, and the colonel responded, "Son, if I knew the answers to your questions, we wouldn't be here." He adds that he did know he was fighting against Communism.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Traitors in the POW Camp

Franklin Gillreath shares memories of traitors among fellow soldiers in the POW camp. He explains that not being able to confide in some of his own countrymen weighed heavily on him mentally. He recounts fellow soldiers snitching on other soldiers in hopes of receiving more food and better treatment. He recalls one soldier in particular snitching to receive a lapel pin and adds that he suffered for his actions on the way home from Korea.



Fred Liddell

Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Galip Fethi Okay

Korean War Experience

Galip Fethi Okay describes his Korean War experience. He was stationed at three different fronts during the war (Vegas, Elco and Berlin). He was also at Sand Bag Castle. Galip Fethi Okay also describes his injury from shrapnel that hospitalized him for two months. For his service, he earned many medals.



Gary Routh

Listening in on North Korea

Gary Routh describes his job secretly listening to North Korean soldiers on the radio in the 1990s. He explains that occasionally he would hear artillery practice and excitement on the other end of the radio. He describes that spying was mostly boring, hearing the same phrases every day from the North Korean soldiers.



Gene Stone

Interrogating Infiltrators

Gene Stone recalls his major duties as a member of the 181st Counterintelligence Detachment included interviewing and interrogating enemy infiltrators. He remembers having eight hours to determine if the person was indeed an enemy infiltrator, complete eight copies of an eight page report, and send them onto 1st Corp Headquarters in Uijeongbu. He recounts one particular incident with what turned out to be an Chinese infiltrator.



Learning Counterintelligence Techniques

Gene Stone recalls several members of his detachment served as part of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II. He notes learning many techniques from sitting in on interrogations with these experienced members of his detachment.



Information Gathered from Counterintelligence Activities

Gene Stone recalls he learned much about the Chinese treatment of prisoners of war. He notes that it often involved electric shock. One of the important questions his detachment asked prisoners of war from both sides was if they wanted to go back to the side in which they were fighting for. He does not recall any Chinese or North Korean prisoners of war declaring a desire to stay in the "free world", but does note that during Operation Big Switch there were 23 Americans who declined to return to the United States.



Operation Little Switch and Operation Big Switch

Gene Stone served in his counterintelligence detachment after the armistice. He assisted in interrogating prisoners of war as part of Operation Little Switch and Operation Big Switch. He notes Operation Little Switch involved the return of injured and sick prisoners of war, while Operation Big Switch led to the exchange of all other prisoners of war. He recalls hearing of the horrific conditions these American prisoners faced while being held by the Chinese and North Koreans.



George A. Edwards

Typical Day as A Reconnaissance Pilot

George Edwards describes the reconnaissance missions on which he would fly. While every day was different, they often had to go out and take pictures of the area. His trips included photographing the Yalu River and much further north in Korea.



George Dixon

Proof the Russians Were Lying

George Dixon was an infantryman regardless of his training as a machinist. As a result, he was given a Burp Gun which was manufactured by the Russians in 1951. He explains that the gun was ultimately taken from him as a way to prove that the Russians were lying about not providing weapons during the war.



George Koustoklenis

Member of the Resistance

George Koustoklenis first experienced military life as a resistance fighter during the Macedonian rebel war. In his account, he recalls sustaining injuries on two occasions: first in Kaimak Tsalan and later in Beles.



George P. Wolf

Flying in the Berlin Airlift

George Wolf was a pilot in the Air Force during the Berlin Airlift after WWII. He provided food, but mostly coal to the people living in West Berlin during the Russian blockade. He flew the same path that the famous, Gail Halvorsen, flew during the 11-month blockade.



George Staples

Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He recalls he was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. He notes he is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. He shares that, above all, the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



George Sullivan

Pushed Back by China

George Sullivan recalls experiencing the push back to Busan by Chinese forces. He remembers hearing that General MacArthur said they were going to push back. During the push back, his tank broke, and he ended up in hand-to-hand combat with a Chinese soldier. He recounts that his arm was cut by a bayonet and had to be treated.



George W. Liebenstein

Daily Life in Battery Supply

George "Bill" Liebenstein details the living conditions during his time serving in Korea from April 1953 through July 1954. He recalls activities during his spare time including playing and coaching softball. He notes that the men in his unit were not provided showers at their location until a few months after their arrival. He explains that there were few Korean people in the area where they were stationed except for a few civilian workers. He tells of the challenges some of them presented when they took supplies, but he further notes that he could not blame them as they had nothing. He offers a story of a young North Korean man, who worked in supply with whom he became quite close.



Georgios Margaritis

Mine Sweeping

George Margaritis explains his role as a mine sweeper during his time in Korea. He notes one occasion on the Inchon Plain where he and another mine sweeper were ordered to search what appeared to be a collection of cables for potential mines.

Note: English translation begins at 21:37



Battle for Outpost Harry

George Margaritis vividly recalls the events of the attack on Outpost Harry, which he references as Hill Harry in June of 1953. He explains his unit was sent to replace the American forces on the hill after devastating fighting. He shares his memories of the brutal fighting that went on at the hill.

Note: English Translation begins at 29:49



Brutal Fighting on Harry Hill (Outpost Harry)

George Margaritis offers vivid details of the devastating fighting at Outpost Harry (Harry Hill). He recalls death and brutal fighting. He concludes by sharing the happiness felt when the armistice was reached.

Note: English Translation begins at 39:36



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Battle of the Hook 1953

Gerry Farmer describes the Battle of the Hook and how he was wounded. He says the Hook was action from the start compared to Hill 159. He recalls there being four or five solders in the bunker which connected to trenches and other bunkers. He adds there were different types of patrols.



Wounded

Gerry Farmer describes being wounded at the Hook after he volunteered to drive a jeep to Area 3. He remembers he was blown forty yards from the jeep, and adds he still has injuries and shrapnel in his back. He recalls being transported to a Norwegian MASH and then to Seoul where he underwent three operations.



Gerald Cavagnaro

Killing Lice

Gerald Cavagnaro describes his days in a POW camp. He shares how everything was covered in lice and how they would try to kill them. He explains how other countries later had POWs added to the camp. He explains the Communist indoctrination sessions he was subjected to when there.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Not Heroic

Girma Mola Endeshaw discusses the challenges Ethiopia faced after the Korean War. In 1974, Communists took control of Ethiopia, leading to the government confiscating the possessions of Korean War veterans. This action was taken because these veterans fought in a war against communism. Interestingly, even now, it is South Korea, not Ethiopia, that continues to provide assistance to these veterans.



Glenn Paige

Tension Building

Glenn Paige talks about what happened after World War II. He describes not only the demobilization, but also the Soviet tension that was building. He explains that there is a lot that we didn’t know about the time, but that the soldiers did what they needed to do.



A Complex Situation

Glenn Paige discusses the politics surrounding the war, including the relationships before the war. He explains some of the actions that occurred in North Korea towards the South Korea that led the US into the war. He breaks down the parties that were involved and their clear goal.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Life Near the Front

Gordon McIntyre transferred to an English unit due to the extensive loss of life in the English outfit. Near headquarters he noted a Canadian field hospital and rows of drums filled with napalm. Throughout his first night he was not afraid despite the explosions from incessant artillery fire. The next morning he left the truck to find an unexploded mortar shell that would have killed everyone at the post had it exploded.



Battle of Maryang-san

Gordon McIntyre describes five to six days of continuous fighting at the Battle of Maryang-san. He camped around eight hundred meters from the front lines. The second and third nights all soldiers stood ready to leave in the middle of the night if overrun. The Battle of Maryang-san featured combat between the Australian Army and the Chinese as the North Korean army had been decimated by that point. The danger did not scare him because he was too busy to think about it at the time.



Graham L. Hughes

Inferiority of the North Korean Navy

Graham Hughes believed that the North Korean Navy was inferior to those in the United Nations (UN). An example of this occurred when his ship fired on a specific target at the 38th Parallel. North Koreans fired in retaliation, but they missed. The great thing about being part of the UN was the cooperation of lots of countries patrolling the West Sea, including Argentina.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Feelings About the Draft / Sentimientos Sobre el Servicio Obligatorio

Guillermo Frau Rullan shares his pride in being an American soldier and his beliefs about mandatory military service. He notes that he was an idealist when he was young and truly believed in the United Nations and its stance that an attack on one was an attack on all. In addition, he admits that he would have felt weak if he had failed the physical exam.

Guillermo Frau Rullán comparte su orgullo por ser un soldado estadounidense y sus creencias sobre el servicio militar obligatorio. Él indica que era un idealista cuando era joven y verdaderamente creía en las Naciones Unidas y su postura de que un ataque contra uno era un ataque contra todos. Además, admite que se habría sentido débil si no hubiera aprobado el examen físico.



H. Douglas Barclay

Public Opinion

H. Douglas Barclay explains how the American public perception of the Korea was very different than during Vietnam. The country was happy, doing well, and glad to have the war over with. The people on the street were all very positive. He explains that they were stopping Communism, a mission everyone agreed upon.



Successful Korean capitalism

H. Douglas Barclay discusses how the war led to capitalism in South Korea and a successful economy. He explains how the principles that were applied to South Korea allowed their system to work. He argues that the capitalist system is a success for quality of life.



Korean Miracle

H. Douglas Barclay argues that Korea places a major role in the history of the United States. He explains that if you saw Korea today, it is a "miracle." He remembers taking a bus through Korea and seeing how built up it was compared to North Korea, recalling that North Korea then looked like South Korea in 1955.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harold Beck

Assessment of Enemy Air Force

Harold Beck argues that the enemy Air Force was weaker than the American plans. He says that when the enemy planes would come to harass the American troops, they would quickly fly back as soon as the US F86 planes engaged. He heard that these plans were a combination of Russian and Chinese crews that originated north of the Yalu River.



Harold Don

Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Redeployed as Machine Gun Squad Leader

Harold Don discusses being redeployed to Korea during the Chinese major offensive. He shares he was unaware, at the time, that Chinese forces had retaken Seoul and that he became a machine gun squad leader. He remembers partaking in Rest and Relaxation, which meant moving back several miles from the front for a hot shower and food. He notes he remembers the country itself when asked what he remembers most from this eleven-month tour in Korea. He describes Korea as being like a third-world country at the time with primitive farming, sanitation, and construction methods.



Harry Hawksworth

Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



Harry Olson

Dangers of Protecting the Retreat

Harry Olson recounts how his extremely depleted battalion protected the line during the retreat from Unsan. He describes his experience returning from protecting the line and experiences in the rice paddies. He shares details about his first near-death experience and the enemy fire just down the hill from his position.



Henri Socquet

Mission was to Stop Communism

Henri Socquet was unaware that he might be deployed to Korea until after he had already enlisted in the military. He explains that his anti-communist beliefs motivated him to volunteer for the Korean assignment, driven by a desire to "stop Communism at the gates of Korea." Before his deployment, he underwent commando training to prepare for the mission.



Most Difficult Time

Henri Socquet describes the Chinese strategy of attacking in waves. He recalls that after one such assault, bodies were piled high near their position, creating an unbearable stench from the heavy casualties. He notes that the most challenging moments were facing intense offensives close to their positions. However, he proudly shares that despite the fierce assaults, the Belgians never retreated.



Herman H. Holtkamp

Capturing a Chinese Soldier

Herman Holtkamp tells how he captured a Chinese soldier. He had to throw a hand grenade into the trench and then carry the prisoner out to officers that were waiting. He received an award for capturing this prisoner.



Howard R. Hawk

Heightened State of Security

Howard R. Hawk recalls being greeted upon arrival at Camp St. Barbara by the 1st Sergeant who offered the new arrivals with words of wisdom as the North Koreans massed across the border. He notes there was an EC 121 shot down over the East Sea/Sea of Japan and that North Korean guerillas attacked the Blue House in an attempt to assassinate the President of South Korea, Park Chung Hee. He recalls these events only heightened the security concerns in the area. He explains that there were nuclear weapons capabilities at this point at Camp St. Barbara.



Legacy of Korean Defense Veterans and Korean War Veterans

Howard R. Hawk pays tribute to the efforts of the Korean War veterans. He notes that everything these veterans faced was every bit as ugly as what American soldiers experienced in Vietnam or World War II. He discusses the important role the Korean Defense veterans and soldiers stationed in Korea still play today in both the security of the region and the development of Korea as a country.



Ian J. Nathan

Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Gulek

Sandbag Castle

Ibrahim Gulek described the conditions at Sandbag Castle. War had stopped briefly due to a ceasefire, while negotiations were occurring. However, the enemy attacked without warning. There was about two months of constant warfare in close combat. He was a sniper and told to fire at a certain location where the enemy was located. He claimed soldiers were told to consume alcohol as a ploy to not fear death.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Iluminado Santiago

Pride and Best Wishes to the Korean People

Iluminado Santiago reflects on the advancements in modern South Korea and the legacy of his service. He is proud to have served in Korea to stop the advancement of North Korea. He wishes the best for the Korean people and hopes the service of the Puerto Ricans in the 65th regiment will continue to be remembered.



Ismael Heredia Torres

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Ismael Heredia Torres offers his views on the war and the toll it had on civilians. He states that he believes that civilians suffered the most as they faced hunger, poverty, and attacks. He is proud that the allied forces stopped the spread of communism and helped save the people of South Korea.

Ismael Heredia Torres ofrece sus opiniones sobre la guerra y lo difícil que fue para la población civil. Afirma que cree que los civiles fueron los que más sufrieron al enfrentar el hambre, la pobreza y los ataques. Él está orgulloso de que las fuerzas aliadas detuvieron la expansión del comunismo y ayudaran a salvar al pueblo de Corea del Sur.



J. Robert Lunney

The SS Meredith Victory Volunteers

J. Robert Lunney discusses the decision by Captain LaRue to volunteer his ship for the evacuation efforts in Heungnam. He recalls the urgency to evacuate the military personnel and civilians. He explicitly breaks down the positions and resources involved in the evacuation and the chaotic scene they encountered in the port. Because of the great leadership exhibited by Captain LaRue, he shares the crew never questioned his decision to assist in the evacuation.



Jack Cooper

An Honor to Serve and Returning Home

Jack Cooper shares that he has no regrets from his time in the service. He emphasizes that the military was good to him as he drew some disability, bought his first house, and used the GI Bill to go to attend university. He states, frankly, that it was an honor to serve and recounts his return home in 1952.



Jack Whelan

To Protect the United States

Jack Whelan states he was well aware of the principle of containment and why the United States became involved in Korea. He discusses how the United States placed itself around the world to protect the U.S. He explains that an American fighting in Korea was fighting as much for Korea as he was for his own country. Because of the connections he made with the Korean people, he shares that the people became more of the focus.



Jacques Grisolet

Fighting Against Communism

Jacques Grisolet shares his decorated military service which began in the Indochina War in 1948-1949. Although injured in this war and uncertain of whether he wished to continue his service, he recalls accepting the opportunity to fight the spread of Communism in Korea.



James Hillier

Secretly Stationed in England

James Hillier describes why his squadron was stationed in England and traveled to Korea. His unit was considered classified. The press believed they were in England to protect the European Alliance from the Soviet Union.



James J. Barden

Making the Bomb Run

James J. Barden describes the conditions when his crew faced enemy aircraft. Each bomb run lasted about six minutes, and were three minutes apart. With the enemy hard to detect or see at night, the missions were stressful. The directives to his crew were to not fire unless they were being hit, a measure to prevent the enemy from seeing the aircraft at night.



James Kenneth Hall

Life as a Prisoner of War

James Hall describes being captured in North Korea by the Chinese and being temporarily placed in a mine. He describes being forced to march all night because the Chinese did not have a place to put prisoners. He shares his testimony of being starved and sleep deprived while in the prisoner of war encampment. He recounts being placed in Compound 39 where prisoners were placed and left to die.



Sending a Letter Home

James Hall recounts how the Chinese wanted the prisoners of war to write letters home after the peace talks began in 1951. He explains how the prisoners were told to write about accolades of the Communist way of thinking and to put down the United States government. He recalls how he refused to write the letters and remembers a Chinese nurse helping him write a letter to his mother to let her know he was alive.



James L. Owen

Strategy in North Korea

James L. Owen details the strategy commanded by General MacArthur when they pushed past the 38th parallel. He remembers how the Chinese surrounded them for 30 days near the Yalu River, the border Korea shares with China. He recalls destruction along the way and recounts sailing around the peninsula to get to North Korea.



James Low

Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



James M. Cross

Proud to Be a Veteran

James Cross comments on his pride as a veteran. He shares that even though he was drafted, he would not like to see his children or others drafted. He commends South Korea for its developments since the war.



James Ronald Twentey

Nuclear War in Korea?

Ron Twentey talks about a harrowing duty he was assigned to perform...plotting targets for nuclear destruction throughout North Korea. He explains that at the time he was given this top secret task, he was told to complete it and then forget about it. He says he can now discuss it because this plan was published in detail in a 2011 edition of "The Graybeards." He explains that he was responsible for plotting several targets for nuclear bombs that would have been delivered by "Atomic Annie," a large cannon that actually made its way to Korea, though never used for its ultimate purpose.



Jesse Sanchez Berain

War on the Korean Peninsula

Jesse Sanchez Berain remembers being stationed close to Seoul during the war. He uses a map to demonstrate how North Korean and Chinese forces attacked and pushed the United States military forces south of the 38th Parallel. He mentions that he spent eighteen months in Korea and Japan.



Jesús María Cabra Vargas

Legacy of the War / EL Legado de la Guerra

Jesús María Cabra Vargas discusses what he believes is the legacy of the war. He explains that it was important for the free world to fight against communism. He implores future generations to protect God and democracy as there continue to be communist leaders that wish to brain wash their people.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas habla de lo que él cree que es el legado de la guerra. Él explica que fue importante que el mundo libre lucho contra el comunismo. En su mensaje para las generaciones futuras les pide que protejan a Dios y la democracia ya que sigue habiendo líderes comunistas que desean lavarle el cerebro a su gente.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Fear of Communism and its Affect on the US

Georgia remembered as a child the reports about Communism and her family built a "basement" that was constructed using directions from the Civil Defense. This "basement" included provisions just in case of attack. This indoctrination was a big part of US entry into the Korean War. The Interviewer mentioned the Kennan Telegram written during this time and they explained how it unveiled the Russian's plans and the Korean War made it clear that Russia and US were not partners at that time.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



John B. Winter

Lessons Learned in Korea from WWII Veterans

John Winter discusses his interaction with WWII veterans he served with, and the lessons he learned from them. He recalls a specific conversation with a Marine from WWII in the mess hall. He expresses how important it was to learn from these men.



John Fischetti

Russian Instigators

John Fischetti comments on whether he holds any animosity towards the North Koreans, Chinese, or Russians to this day. He states that he holds the most animosity towards the Russians, believing that they instigated much of the Cold War. He describes how they supplied weapons to the Chinese and North Koreans in the war.



John G. Sinnicki

Encounters with the Koreans

John Sinnicki reflects on his encounters with the North Koreans in various settings. He describes how on the battlefield, they were dedicated to their Communist cause; however, in a civilian sense, they were very friendly and willing to engage with the Americans. He recalls KATUSA playing an incredibly helpful and important role and regrets they haven't received the credit they deserve.



John Hartup, Jr.

Korean Reaction to the American Soldiers

John Hartup, Jr., recalls the Koreans loving the American soldiers. The American soldiers operated the port of Incheon, so the Koreans depended on them to provide jobs. He recalls there were probably one thousand workers hired to operate the port. He remembers the presidential election of 1948 when Syngman Rhee was elected as the first president of the new Republic of Korea. He remembers being paid roughly fifty dollars a month, saving some of it in a U.S. bank and spending the rest in the base exchange (PX).



John Hilgert

Captured

John Hilgert describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese Army. He explains that after the Spring Offensive, he and two other men were cut off and alone. He recalls how they were found by the Chinese and taken prisoner. He shares that of the seven thousand men taken prisoner, only a little over three thousand survived to be released, partially due to the poor quality of food the Chinese provided.



March to the Camp

John Hilgert details some of the humiliation and perils experienced by him and other prisoners as they were being marched to the prison camp. He explains that in addition to walking, they also were transported by train. He describes the thick, noxious smoke from the train's engine that would waft into the first cars, killing the men on board. He remembers how the Chinese walked the men through towns as a show of force, often times marching the same men over and over.



Camp Conditions

John Hilgert describes what conditions were like in the camp where he spent two years as a prisoner of the Chinese Army. He explains that the Chinese were not as brutal as the North Koreans who would dismember the enemies. He recalls sleeping in dirt floored huts, eight to twelve men to a hut. He describes the terrible lice infestation they experienced that was out of control until they were able to boil their clothes. He describes how he gathered wood to heat their hut during the winters.



John J. Baker

We Knew War Was Going to Happen

John J. Baker recalls being a student in Japan when men were rotating in and out of Korea. He recalls General Hodge coming to Japan in 1949 to see General MacArthur, but the General would not see him at the time. He expands on how he knew the war was coming and remembers having a conversation about how the North Koreans were training with the Russians to prepare for war. He shares about a message he remembers coming from General MacArthur.



Vivid Memories of Murdered Civilians

John J. Baker details movement from east of Taegu to a place called Ulsan. He recollects moving through the region with his company commander when they encountered the National Police and the Korean Army on both sides of the road. He recounts how the commander explained that these people were South Korean Communists. He notes that much of his unit had been wiped out in Taejan leaving only one hundred seventy-nine left in the unit and how they returned to Taegu and onto Kumchon with the 19th and 21st Infantry. He describes how when they arrived, they encountered a gory scene along the roadside.



John O. Every

Close Encounters Under Enemy Fire

John O. Every speaks about being under enemy fire and encountering Chinese soldiers. He was awarded a Marine Corps Commendation Medal for enduring the enemy fire. He explains having to repair ammunition that was not properly operating.



John Pound

Sending and Receiving "Projjies"

John Pound's ship the HMS Charity would fire shells, or "projjies" short for projectiles, towards trains that traveled near the North Korean coastline. He remembers one Easter when North Korean gunners fired back from positions hidden in caves. He also describes assisting in spotting pilots who missed their landings on aircraft carriers.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Memories of South Korea, 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes his experience getting to South Korea in 1957. He recalls seeing meats hanging in the market, honey buckets, and the smell of kimchi. He describes his impression of Korean people and his appreciation for their warm sentiment toward Korean War Veterans.



John Y. Lee

The War Breaks Out

John Y. Lee, a resident of Seoul in 1950, speaks about the day the Korean War began. He describes what he saw and his subsequent flight from the city. He recalls swimming across the Han River to safety.



Becoming an Interpreter

John Y. Lee speaks about how he become a military interpreter in the Korean Army. As he was fleeing south by foot, he recalls seeing a recruiting sign in Daegu and deciding to apply. He explains that he took an an exam, was selected, and was immediately given the rank of Lieutenant.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

Danger in Busan

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recalls the danger imposed by plain-clothes North Koreans in Pusan (Busan). He describes how the North Korean's infiltrated the area, which made it impossible to determine who they were.



Jose E. Colon

The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Most Dangerous Conflicts / Conflictos Más Peligrosos

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez shares his memories of the most dangerous battles that Colombian troops faced. He discusses the perils during Operation Barbula and the bloody nature of the Battle of Old Baldy. Because of the heavy fighting Colombian troops encountered in March of 1953, they nicknamed it the “gory month of March.”

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez comparte sus recuerdos de las batallas más peligrosas que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas. Habla de los peligros durante la Operación Barbula y lo sangriento que fue la Batalla de Old Baldy. Debido a los intensos combates que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas en marzo de 1953, lo apodaron "el cruento mes de Marzo".



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recalls the most difficult moments he faced while fighting in Korea. He details the fighting during operation Barbula and the fighting at Old Baldy. He explains that it was the longest night of his life and remembers having to take the place of a downed machine gunner.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentó durante la guerra en Corea. Detalla los combates durante la operación Barbula y los combates en Old Baldy. Explica que fue la noche más larga de su vida y recuerda haber tenido que tomar el lugar de un ametrallador que habían matado.



Joseph F. Hanlon

Special Assignment

Joseph F. Hanlon talks about his special assignment as a rifleman in an intelligence/reconnaissance platoon. He describes being assigned by his commander to comb through the dead bodies of enemy soldiers in order to gather information.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



Joseph Lissberger

Danger Beyond the Front Lines

Joseph Lissberger talks about the danger of setting up loudspeakers beyond the front lines for psychological warfare. He mentions that five men in his unit were killed while performing this important duty.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez shares his opinions on his participation in the war. He states that he thanked God that the United States got involved in the war because it was better to fight communism in Korea than allow it to enter the United States or Puerto Rico. He believes it was a just war because it saved Korea.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez comparte sus opiniones sobre su participación en la guerra. Afirma que agradeció a Dios que Estados Unidos se involucró en la guerra porque fue mejor combatir el comunismo en Corea que dejarlo entrar a Estados Unidos o a Puerto Rico. Él cree que fue una guerra justa porque salvó a Corea.



Jutta I. Andersson

Treatment of POW's

Jutta Andersson explains her treatment of North Korean soldiers. The United States military did not want to treat these soldiers. However, the Swedish doctors and nurses had to treat injured North Koreans because of the Geneva Convention. The United States had to accept the Swedish treatment of North Korean soldiers.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Wounded During the Battle of Old Baldy / Herido en la Batalla de Old Baldy

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas presents an overview of the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was severely wounded. He explains that the battle was particularly brutal because the enemy offensive was conducted when replacement troops were entering the front. Furthermore, he states that it was an unwinnable fight because they were outnumbered ten-to-one. He remembers how he and others sought refuge in a bunker and describes the way in which they were wounded.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla del Viejo Calvo en la que fue herido gravemente. Explica que la batalla fue brutal porque la ofensiva enemiga empezó cuando las tropas de reemplazo entraban al frente. Además, afirma que fue una pelea imposible de ganar porque los superaban en número diez a uno. Recuerda cómo él y otros buscaron refugio en un búnker y describe la forma en que fueron heridos.



Kaku Akagi

Collecting Intelligence

Kaku Akagi describes the significance of his duties in the 500th Military Intelligence Service Group. He recalls how the unit gathered accurate and helpful information from North Koreans in a POW camp in Koje-do. He explains why most of the detainees spoke Japanese in addition to Korean. He notes he questioned the prisoners in Japanese and mentions that some of them even spoke English.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Kenneth Dillard

Two Trips to Korea

Kenneth Dillard describes his experiences at sea during the Korean War. He was on one of many destroyers that were stationed in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. He recalls chipping ice off the ship, and chasing submarines in the East Sea.



Kenneth F. Dawson

Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



Larry Kinard

Revisiting Korea

Larry Kinard explains how he was able to return twice to see Korea after the war. He shares how he brought his son in 1997 and his whole family in 2009. He shares how he saw the 38th parallel. He shares how he was able to show his family where he was approximately located from the DMZ observation deck. He shares how he was proud to see all the progress that was helped by US soldiers who defended South Korea from Communism. He shares he was one of the finding members of his local Korean War Veterans Charter.



Larry Shadler

What do you think of the War?

Lawrence Shadler describes being taken to the headquarters of the Chinese prison camps after 15-18 months and being asked about his impressions of the war. The enemy propaganda papers reported they had been advancing 30-40 miles a day. He asked how they liked Hawaii, since they must have made their way to San Francisco after 15-18 months of advancing so significantly.



Lawrence Elwell

A Bright Spot in the War: Humanitarian Evacuation of North Korean Refugees

Lawrence Elwell, despite all the horrors he witnessed while serving in Korea, describes witnessing the evacuation of ninety-seven thousand North Korean refugees from Korea to the United States. He muses they almost depopulated North Korea in doing so. He recalls meeting some of those refuges who were successfully settled in the Dallas, Texas, area.



Tonight Marine, You Die!

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamri. Among his revelations, he speaks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that, ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured in the United States which resulted in high casualties among American troops.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Daily Reminders

Lawrence Paul Murray describes how he encounters daily reminders of his service in Korea, from the prominence of Korean products to seeing the success of South Korea today. He discusses his pride for his service and how it allows him to participate in an interview with a South Korean today. He goes on to explain how the Korean War was an important step in the effort to neutralize the spread of Communism.



Leandro Diaz Miranda

Battle of Kelly Hill / Batalla de Kelly Hill

Leandro Díaz Miranda explains the difficulty the 65th Regiment encountered at the Battle of Kelly Hill. He details the terrible fighting as they were outnumbered ten-to-one. They suffered many casualties and thus the troops were completely demoralized by the end of the battle.

Leandro Díaz Miranda explica la dificultad que encontró el Regimiento 65 en la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Detalla lo terrible que fue la lucha, ya que fueron superados en número diez a uno. Sufrieron muchas bajas y, por lo tanto, las tropas estaban completamente desmoralizadas al final de la batalla.



Lynwood Ingham

Modern Korea

Lynwood Ingham appreciates all the soldiers today who are trying to end communism on the Korean peninsula. Like many other countries around the world, the US wants to help the people by getting rid of communism. The US and South Korea have a strong friendship and trade-relationship because of the Korean War.



Marcelino C. Nardo

Dangers of Land Mines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls being among the group of Filipino soldiers sent as an advance unit to Christmas Hill. He recalls arriving about 2:00 in the morning and seeing piles of dead bodies. He explains their main mission was to lay landmines to protect the area from further Chinese encroachment.



Challenges of Serving on the Front Lines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls many difficulties of serving on the front lines. He remembers it was often hard to see where the enemy was and could only hear the sounds of incoming artillery fire. He shares the story of a friend being killed while trying to deliver water to the front line. He speaks frequently of the cold and the lack of equipment many encountered when facing Korea's cold winters.



Marvin Ummel

Landing at Incheon, Impressions of Korea

On August 1, 1952, Marvin Ummel's unit made it to Incheon, South Korea. The entry into Incheon was challenging due to bad weather and the fact that the communists had destroyed most of the harbor. The ship captain had to improvise their landing. Shortly after landing, he boarded a railroad car to his first duty station near Seoul. He noticed garbage and destruction all over the landscape of South Korea. He acknowledges not knowing what it looked like prior to the war, but his first impression was a total mess. There was no building that had not been at least damaged by the war. The condition of Seoul was pretty distressing.



Maurice Morby

28 Days for Smoking

Maurice Morby recalls the story of when he and a fellow soldier were caught smoking on guard duty and received a 28-day sentence in a military jail. He talks about the circumstances that surrounded his infraction and describes his experience as a military prisoner.



Maximo Young

Battle of Yultong

Maximo Young recounts being placed in a defensive position on April 22, 1951, in the area near Yultong. He describes the Filipino forces being aided by forces from Puerto Rico and Turkey when they faced down forty thousand Chinese. Ultimately, he recalls the Turks gave way, and the Chinese attacked the other forces in the area. He figures roughly one hundred twelve BCT soldiers were killed in action, but the forces managed to protect Seoul from the Chinese invaders.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Chinese Strategy

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the Chinese strategy during the Korean War, which involved drawing the Allied forces further north. He recalls this tactic complicating the Allies' resupply efforts while benefiting the Chinese, who were closer to their supply lines in Manchuria. Yasar also notes the high level of guerrilla-style training among the Chinese forces.



Melesse Tesemma

Chinese Artillery Barrage

Melesse Tesemma regards the Battle of Triangle Hill as his most perilous experience. He explains his platoon had just arrived and had not yet dug many trenches. Although the Ethiopian soldiers held the high ground, they faced a large number of Chinese troops struggling to climb the steep terrain. Tesemma recalls the lost several comrades, including his closest friend. He notes while the platoon officers communicated in English, the lower-ranking soldiers did not, creating significant language barriers with often only means of communication was through their own system of sign language.



Origins of Ethiopia's Involvement in the Korean War

Melesse Tesemma recounts Ethiopia's involvement in the Korean War, tracing its origins to the Italian invasion and occupation of Ethiopia. He explains that Emperor Haile Selassie's grievances were presented to the League of Nations, which ultimately ignored his appeal. This experience, Tesemma notes, motivated Selassie's decision to commit troops to the Korean War effort.



Michael Daly

What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Michael Fryer

Recollections from the Battle of the Hook

Michael Fryer recalls his experiences as an ammunition carrier for troops during the Battle of the Hook. He explains seeing large amounts of explosions and men who were machine gunned down. He describes watching as the bodies of deceased men were carried down and lain in a road.



Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce

Prior Knowledge of the War / Conocimiento Sobre de la Guerra

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce remembers when he first heard about the war. He shares that he was aware about what was happening in Korea but never imagined he would be drafted. He recalls the way in which his family wept upon hearing of his deployment.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce recuerda cuando escuchó por primera vez que había una guerra en Corea. Él comparte que estaba al tanto de lo que estaba sucediendo en Corea, pero nunca se imaginó que sería reclutado. Recuerda la forma en que su familia lloraba al enterarse de su despliegue.



Milton E. Vega

Chinese Propaganda / Propaganda China

Milton Vega Rivera details the way enemy troops utilized propaganda to dissuade Puerto Ricans from continuing to fight. He recalls messages being broadcast in perfect Spanish which stated, “What are you doing here?” and “This is not your war; your wife will sleep with others.” He adds that on one occasion he was stalked by a jaguar whilst on patrol.

Milton Vega Rivera detalla la forma en que las tropas enemigas usaban propaganda para desaconsejar a los puertorriqueños de seguir luchando. Recuerda los mensajes transmitidos en perfecto español que decían: "¿qué estás haciendo aquí?" y “esta no es tu guerra, tu esposa se acostará con otros”. También recuerda que en una ocasión fue acechado por un jaguar mientras estaba en una patrulla.



The Legacy / El Legado

Milton Vega Rivera shares his message for future generations and discusses the legacy of the war. He states that he does not like war but believes it to be a necessary evil which can help countries, like Korea. He relays the importance of serving one’s country and deems it the highest duty of every citizen.

Milton Vega Rivera comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y discute el legado de la guerra. Afirma que no le gusta la guerra, pero cree que es un mal necesario que puede ayudar a países como Corea. Además, él testifica la importancia de servir a la patria y lo considera el deber más importante de todos los ciudadanos.



Morris J. Selwyn

Patrolling for Communists

Morris J. Selwyn describes his arrival in Korea in 1954 as "bloomin' cold," with not trees of forests. Since the Korean war had ended, the Kaniere patrolled the Han River in 1954 to contain the spread of communism, but he faced no confrontations. During his second tour in 1957-58, patrols were much more intense, but he still encountered no real threats as his ship patrolled the sea.



Myron Toback

North Korean Prisoners of War

Myron Toback served as a guard for several Prisoner of War Camps throughout the war. He explains how the North Koreans were “brainwashed” and what they believed about the life they had under Communism. He states that there were about 4,000 North Korean soldiers in this camp.



Nam Young Park

Captured by Communists

Nam Young Park describes how he was captured and imprisoned by Communists in Korea as a result of his anti-Communist activities as a student. He shares his memory of hiding in a ceiling when they came to find him and how his mother screamed. He recounts his surrender and succeeding twenty-seven-day-long imprisonment.



Nathan Stovall

Never Set Foot on Korean Soil

Nathan Stovall patrolled the East Sea near Wonsan in the summer of 1951. He neither set foot on Korean soil nor saw enemy forces, but the USS Blue engaged in firefights along the coast. Once his unit assisted the ROC by shooting onto the shore while the ROC escaped a tight spot.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor recalls having never given communism a second thought when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He remembers feeling a call to duty and wanting to do the right thing for his country. He describes how far behind the times Korea was when it came to living conditions.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Vegas Complex

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the conditions of the war at the Vegas Complex. There were a series of battles that took place in May of 1953 in this area. Subsequently, the fighting was fierce. Moreover, negotiations for peace were occurring. Importantly, the battles ended in arguably a stalemate after a Chinese offensive. Further, this helped with negotiations for the United Nations



Nick Nishimoto

Communist Indoctrination

Nick Nishimoto describes how the Chinese attempted to indoctrinate the Americans in the prison camp where he was stationed. He recalls twenty-one Americans adopting Communist ideology. He shares that they were called "turncoats" and that they chose to stay in North Korea with additional travel to China.



Nick Ross

The Impact of War on the Civilians

Nick Ross recalls enjoying his time serving his country in Korea. He vividly remembers almost being killed and buried alive, as well as climbing mountains nearly every day. Haunting him still are the memories of innocent civilians being shot, alongside visions of animals killed and crops destroyed.



Nicolás Cancel Figueroa

Contact Patrol at Kelly Hill / Patrulla de Contacto en Kelly Hill

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa presents an overview of the Chinese and North Korean troop positions on the eve of the battle of Kelly Hill which resulted in heavy losses from the 65th Infantry. He explains that he was a member of the contact patrol which was surveying the hill and when they reported on the great number of enemy troops and heavy equipment, his lieutenant did not believe the report. He remembers their lieutenant insisted on the contact patrol capturing a prisoner of war to interrogate him, but they were unable to do so because they were greatly outnumbered.

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa describe sus memorias de las posiciones de las tropas chinas y norcoreanas en vísperas de la batalla de Kelly Hill, que resultó en grandes pérdidas del 65º de Infantería. Explica que él era miembro de la patrulla de contacto que estaba observando el cerro y cuando le informaron a su teniente sobre la gran cantidad de tropas enemigas y equipo pesado, el no creyó el informe. Recuerda que su teniente insistía en que la patrulla de contacto capturara a un prisionero de guerra para interrogarlo, pero no pudieron hacerlo porque el enemigo los superaba en número.



Norman Renouf

School in the Prisoner Camp

Norman Renouf describes the classes that he was forced to take in the prisoner camp. The Chinese used the classes to encourage the soldiers to reject capitalism in favor of communist ideologies. Some of the Chinese interpreters spoke good English because they had lived in New York City.



Ollie Thompson

Lives Lost and Lives Saved

Ollie Thompson describes the overwhelming feeling of being responsible for lives lost in the war due to his position with artillery. He reflects on how taking the life of the enemy meant saving the life of a fellow soldier or civilian. He recalls leaning on his faith to help him through those times.



Othal Cooper

Night Raids

Othal Cooper explains the night raid missions of the B-29 planes on which he worked. He details how the night flyers would drop tinfoil from their planes to deter enemy radar, referring to it as radar jamming. He explains that by doing this it was more difficult for the enemy to shoot the planes down and recalls no planes receiving a direct hit while he was there.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

All Was Quiet and Then Whoomph!

Patrick Hickey never felt scared, even though he could hear Chinese and North Korean soldiers all around him. Although never wounded, he experienced close calls. He recalls one memory of heading to the toilet behind a tiny Korean house, and while there, he shares that the enemy shelled and destroyed the house. He recounts how he and another soldier climbed into the trench he had dug until the shelling ceased.



Writing Home and Killing the Tiger

Patrick Hickey and his wife Joy describe their correspondence as being about everyday topics at home. Patrick shares how he did not want to worry Joy. He recalls that the battles were tough, and he describes the last battle of the war, the Third Battle of the Hook. He remembers that on the third night of the battle, thousands of Chinese attacked. He recalls how the United Nations forces killed one million Chinese soldiers in three nights and how the Chinese withdrew to sign the peace treaty.



Paul Frederick Steen

Reason for Volunteering

Paul Steen explains his reasoning for volunteering for the draft. He shares that he felt he was no better than anyone else and that he had a fondness for the military as a child. He admits that he questioned his decision as soon as he entered the service but adds that he was glad he made the choice to do so.



Paul Hummel

Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Spohn

The Transformation of Korea

Paul Spohn offers his thoughts on Korea's transformation since the war. He shares that it embodies a lot of what is good about Western civilization. He adds that humankind's main emphasis should be that everyone experiences a good life.



Paul Summers

The Costs of War

Paul Summers remembers lying down in a skirmish line and watching a truck dump dead U.S. Marines into a big hole. Tanks filled in the hole. The image still haunts him. Later, his division marched to Hagalwoori but ran into a fortified bunker controlled by the Chinese. As the division pondered their situation, a general up the road announced they would take the hill no matter what.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

The Korean War Armistice and Ceasefire

Paulino Lucino Jr. remembers in detail what it was like to be in Korea when the ceasefire was announced. He continued fighting until the last moments of the war. Since Paulino Lucino Jr. was stationed in Korea until 1954, he saw and felt the change in Korea during the year after the war.



Pell E. Johnson

Guarding Prisoner of War Camps

Pell E. Johnson guarded Chinese and North Korean Prisoner of War camps. It was a rough placement due to the prisoners trying to mutiny. He feared Bay Day, a communist holiday and a possible uprising of prisoners.



Percy D. Mohr

Why Did They Miss Me?

Percy Mohr recounts the battle in which Chinese soldiers overran his division, pushing them back to headquarters. He was standing beside a captain who was shot by the Chinese, and he pauses to wonder why he survived. During the battle, Chinese soldiers overran his artillery division. When the U.S. soldiers returned to camp, they were greeted by a surprise.



Parades for MacArthur

Percy Mohr describes parades for General MacArthur. According to him, MacArthur had a particular interest in the cavalry due to his love of horses. MacArthur also wanted to pull the Japanese in to fight in Korea. He describes President Truman's attempts to avoid a war with the Chinese as political maneuvering.



Peter Elliott

Nothing Glamorous

Peter Elliott sheds light on the living conditions around the Battle of the Hook. He recalls how the men lived in dugout habitats with weather conditions that were either very hot or very cold depending on the season. He remembers that there was a lot of activity occurring before the major battle.



Peter Y. Lee

"God Blessed Korea Through the Americans"

This clip portrays Peter Y. Lee's extraordinary point of view about the Korean War and the soldiers who fought to rid South Korea of communism. As a child, during the Korean War, he recalls "bad war stories" and the gratitude felt by South Koreans for American intervention in the war. Peter Y. Lee conveys the devastation of an impoverished country, in the years after the war, with recollections of hunger, and the constant question of when one's next meal would come. The now thriving contemporary South Korea is worlds away from the Korea he was born into, and he credits the soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the Korean people.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



Rafael Gómez Román

Legacy of the War / Legado de la guerra

Rafael Gómez Román explains the necessity of the war in his opinion as stopping the spread of communism was imperative. He shares the belief that his eleven months and twenty-one days were not in vain. While he is not against reunification, he notes that South Korea should never allow the politics of the North to infiltrate its government.

Rafael Gómez Román explica que, en su opinión, la guerra fue necesaria porque era imperativo detener la expansión del comunismo. Comparte la creencia de que sus once meses y veintiún días no fueron en vano. Aunque no está en contra de la reunificación de las Coreas, indica que Corea del Sur nunca debería permitir que la política del Norte se infiltre en su gobierno.



Ralph Blum

Dangers

Ralph Blum recalls he was usually a half mile to three miles behind the front lines. He shares that the North Koreans were good at mortars and recalls how difficult it was to ear them coming. He remembers being shelled about every third day. He recounts watching the sky because the North Koreans would zero in with sky bursts, and then they would know there would be incoming mortars. He explains they would hide under the 105 Howitzer when they moved behind the infantry to avoid being shelled until foxholes could be dug.



Ralph Hodge

They were Ready for War

Ralph Hodge shares the errors the United States military made in dealing with those held in Geojedo and the dangers which resulted. He recalls a Brigadier General being held for two days. He estimates there were only ten thousand troops guarding the one hundred sixty thousand prisoners. He offers details of how the discontent within the prison led to danger for the guards.



We Sensed Something was Wrong

Ralph Hodge remembers sensing something was wrong on May Day. He recalls how the morning started with a parade. He notes how things changed when Brigadier General Haydon L. Boatner took command of Geojedo. He remembers that among the changes were constructing new, smaller compounds and relocating the prisoners to these smaller compounds.



Pork Chop Hill

Ralph Hodge details how he and his unit came under fire on Pork Chop Hill on September 16th, 1953. He recalls the location was key in protecting the city of Seoul. He remembers being pinned down by wave after wave of Chinese descending on the hill and shares American casualties were devastatingly high.



Ramon D. Soto

Life in the Trenches

Ramon D. Soto remembers life on the frontline in the trenches. He discusses the difficulties soldiers faced such as trench foot, frost bite, horrible sleeping conditions, rationing of food, and nightly fear of Chinese soldiers. In this clip, Ramon D. Soto recalls the $75 a month he earned, and sent home each and every month. He also recalls the letters from his wife that he read while on the frontline.



Raul Segarra Alicea

Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Raúl Segarra Alicea explains what he knew about the war in Korea prior to enlisting. He remembers that his father explained that it was a familial war as the North and South Koreans were the same people. A justified war in his opinion, he defends the decision to go to war as it was better to fight communists abroad than at home.

Raúl Segarra Alicea explica lo que sabía sobre la guerra de Corea antes de prestar su servicio. Recuerda que su padre le explicó que era una guerra familiar ya que los norcoreanos y los surcoreanos eran de la misma familia. En su opinión, fue una guerra justificada, y defiende la decisión de ir a la guerra porque era mejor luchar contra los comunistas en el extranjero que en el país.



Raymond L. Fish

Returning Home

Raymond L. Fish recalls the moment his ship approached land, and he saw the lights of the Golden Gate Bridge when he returned home in 1951. He remembers going right to the Army mess hall, and receiving fresh milk for the first time in three years. He explains having to serve additional time in active duty at Walter Reed Hospital, and how he later became a veterinarian.



Raymond Scott

Treacherous Trips as a Navigator

Rayond Scott's job as a Navigator during the Korean War consisted of taking a trip to Japan about every three months to assist Pilots. He recalls that the most difficult flights were landing in and taking off from Shemya Air Force Base in Alaska. He recalls the encounters of difficulty due to the intense fog and high winds.



Flying in the Face of Danger

Raymond Scott had to endure very dangerous moments while being a Flight Navigator. He explains the challenges of having to plot charts around communist islands in the face of the challenges brought by fog, strong winds, and weapons firing across war zones. He recalls a story of how a plane crashed when it hit a cross wind.



Raymond Unger

Captured by North Koreans

Raymond Unger tells the story of how he was captured by five North Korean soldiers.



I Thought My Life Was Over

Raymond Unger describes being interrogated during his first week as a POW.



Life in POW Camp #3

Raymond Unger describes the living conditions in Camp #3 during his time as a prisoner of war.



I Knew I Was Going to Survive

Raymond Unger talks about his will to survive as a prisoner of war.



Rex Earp-Jones

Indoctrination and Punishment

Rex Earp-Jones shares that as part of the Chinese indoctrination of the prisoners of war. He explains the Chinese promoted Communism as something destined to rule the world. Prisoners faced punishment if they disrupted the class. On one occasion, he recalls his complaint about the Chinese stealing his watch was seen as upsetting the program, leading to his punishment. Ultimately, the Chinese gave up on their attempts to indoctrinate the prisoners.



Richald Alfred Lethe

"Hostiles"

This clip discusses the role of an all weather interceptor pilot, and the fact that along with the Soviet Union, China and North Korea were training pilots.

This clip also describes an encounter Richard Alfred Lethe had with a Soviet hostile as he was flying only ten miles from the Soviet Union. The Soviets shot down an American B-29.



Richard A. Houser

The Korean War Ceasefire

Richard Houser fought until the last second to hold Porkchop Hill in the Chorwon Valley right before the ceasefire. It felt great for him when the war ended because he was able to build new trenches farther off the 38th parallel.



Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



Richard Arthur Christopher Hilton

Missiles and the USSR

Richard Hilton recalls the threat posed by the USSR as a reason for the U.S. military focus on missiles. He explains that the Russian support for the North Koreans and their advancement in missile creation led to the U.S. proliferation in missile production. He goes on to explain that his proficient math background earned him a position in the missile department, mostly in Albuquerque and in White Sands, New Mexico.



Richard Donatelli

POW Camp-Teaching of Capitalism

Richard Donatelli explains that they tried to teach them about the downfalls of capitalism in the POW Camp. They placed them in a circle sharing stories of the businessmen ruining the country on a daily basis, an argument for socialism and communism. In addition to this, they would have to sing a patriotic song daily while living in the horrible conditions of the camp.



Richard Franklin

Life in a MASH Unit

Richard Franklin describes life in his MASH unit during his tour in Korea. Specifically, he mentions his experience during the summer of 1952 and the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Richard Preston Vaughn

Picking Up The Dead After A Battle

Richard Vaughn talks about his memories of picking up dead enemy soldiers after a battle near where he was stationed.



Richard V. Gordon

Guarding the Seas Off South Korea

Richard V. Gordon describes patrolling the seas off Korea from the Communists. He describes blowing up a floating mine and provides a picture of the explosion. Richard Gordon describes not really engaging the enemy due to the North Koreans not really having a Navy.



Robert “Bob” W. Ezell

First Experience in Combat

Bob Ezell describes his first experience in combat at Toktong Pass during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir on November 27, 1950



Robert Arend

POW camp life

Robert Arend explains how they housed 70,000 prisoners among different compounds, including one for females. For safety reasons, they tried to separate prisoner based on their political beliefs, i.e. noncommunist or communists. He adds that for the most part, the prisoners were well behaved, but recalls several uprisings and incidences of violence that occurred.



Account of Prison Uprising

While Robert Arend arrived in the camp shortly after the uprising, he tells the story as it was told to him from others who were at the camp at that time. He says it was the General's blunder by walking into the camp, and the prisoners overpowered him. After several days, they sent in some troops and a tank to get him out. The General was not killed, but there were several prisoners and possibly a few American soldiers were killed.



Prisoners Were Happy to Be There

Robert Arend remembers that many prisoners were happy to be there, especially the non-communist ones, happy not to have to return to the Communist North. Those that were "hard core" would do anything to go back. It was Robert Arend's job to keep records of every prisoner including their political affiliation and where they were sent. He states that this was a very "intense time" with a lot of threats.



Robert Battdorff

33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert F. Towns

Fairbanks, Alaska

Bob Towns describes his posting in Alaska. His job was part of the early warning network watching the Soviet Union. He helped intercept Soviet morse code transmissions. His work was top secret and passed on to cryptographers who would work on breaking the code.



Robert M. Longden

Service Conditions, Cold, and Fear

Robert M. Longden constantly feared the Chinese and North Koreans would break the armistice while he was stationed near the DMZ. Winter was brutally cold. At one point, his hand stuck to a frozen chain while he worked with his truck. Soldiers had adequate winter gear and slept in military tents, but food was very basic.



Robert S. Chessum

Battle of Kapyong

Robert Chessum described the Battle of Kapyong. The Chinese were on the offensive until Kapyong. He was part of the 16 New Zealand Field Regiment providing support to the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. He described being on a full offensive prior to the Battle of Kapyong and how his unit became really efficient as an artillery unit. He provided a complete description about the prelude to the battle and ultimate Battle of Kapyong.



Memory of Engagement and Artillery

Robert Chessum described a Chinese threat at one moment. His unit was forced to withdraw because they were too far forward due to a Chinese offensive. He described the New Zealand artillery, providing specific details on the various guns. He then described becoming part of the 1st Commonwealth Brigade.



Hill 355 and Hill 317

Robert Chessum described being a temporary captain on the assault of Hill 355 and Hill 317. He was wounded during the campaign by mortar fire. He was evacuated to a hospital for a week and transferred to Hero Camp in Japan. He eventually came back to Imjin after a six month recuperation and was eventually discharged in 1952.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

Wounded

Robert Hammelsmith describes being wounded by machine gun fire while on a scouting patrol near the Manchurian border in November of 1950. He explains that he was carried out on a stretcher and then transported on the second of two ambulances, the first of which was attacked by the Chinese. He goes on to describe his evacuation to a hospital in Japan where the bullet in his shoulder was removed.



Rodney Ramsey

Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Ronald Rosser

No Longer an Enemy

When he was asked if he would shake hands with Chinese soldiers today, Ronald Rosser explains how he already has. He states that as a teacher, he taught about East Asian history and then went to visit Beijing. He explains how well he was treated by the Chinese and how he does not believe the hate should continue.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Maintaining Field Communications in Korea

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares how, after being discharged from the US Marine Corps in 1946, he re-enlisted in the United States Army two years later. He explains how during the Korean War, he served in the infantry and specialized in communications. Despite the sporadic nature of the fighting, he remembers being able to see the enemy on nearby hillsides. His recalls his primary responsibility was maintaining field communications as the enemy aimed to disrupt lines of communication.



Russell King

The Chinese Military Was Impressive

Russell A. King was impressed the most by the civilian population. He was also amazed by the discipline and the organization of the Chinese military. He remembers taking Chinese prisoners from one prison camp to the other. With ingenuity, and they made their own communist style uniforms out of the clothes they were given.



Ruth Powell (Wife of John Powell)

Dealing with PTSD after the War

Ruth Powell introduces herself as the wife of veteran, John Powell. She describes her husband's struggles with PTSD after returning from Korea. She comments on John Powell's experiences as a prisoner of war (POW), its effects on him, and the treatments he endured to aid and better his psychological state.



Salvatore R. Conte

Propaganda Lectures from the Chinese

Salvatore Conte explains his struggles with his faith and beliefs. He and the other POWs had to listen to Chinese propaganda lectures stating that they were fools for believing in Wall Street and America. He explains that they were also told that they should sign a petition to be released, but they all refused. He shares he became a political activist for the soldiers which led to him being isolated from the rest of the POWs.



Salvatore Schillaci

Wounded During a Mission

Salvatore Schillaci recounts being wounded in the abdominal during a nighttime reconnaissance mission. While on patrol, he remembers his Sergeant ordering him to investigate what looked like an abandoned enemy machine gun. As they approached, he describes how the enemy began their assault and how he was hit in the abdomen. Shortly after being stitched up in the medical tent, he shares how his wound opened up and that he was evacuated out of Korea. He recounts his experience before a military board and receiving an honorable discharge.



Sangmoon Olsson

Life During the War

Sangmoon Olsson describes her life during the Korean War. Her brother had a high position under the Japanese Imperial control and when the communists took over, they wanted to capture her brother. Sangmoon had to go into hiding for a total of eight months, interrupting her nursing studies. When the Allies eventually pushed back the Communists, Sangmoon Olsson was able to complete her nursing studies.



Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz

Surviving the Battle of Old Baldy / Sobreviviendo a la Batalla de Old Baldy

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz recounts the dangers he encountered during the battle of Old Baldy. After two soldiers within his post were killed and his machine gun overheated, the only way for him to survive was by hiding for two days. The most difficult part of the battle was escaping as he found a fellow soldier with injured legs begging him for help which he then carried for one-and-one-half kilometers. He courageously carried him to safety while maneuvering through artillery falling nearby.

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz relata los peligros que encontró durante la batalla de Old Baldy. Después que mataran a dos compañeros y su ametralladora se sobrecalentó, la única forma de sobrevivir fue escondiéndose durante dos días en un bunker. La parte más difícil de la batalla fue escapar, ya que encontró a un compañero soldado con las piernas lesionadas que le suplicaba ayuda y camino un kilómetro y medio cargándolo. Lo llevó a un lugar seguro mientras maniobraba a través de la artillería que caía cerca.



Stanley Fujii

Fight the Aggressors!

Stanley Fujii describes the big picture of why he was deployed to fight in the Korean War. He knew he was there to fight against communist aggressors to free Korea. His testimony includes his discussion on why he was thankful to have a role in helping Korea to be free. His description includes reflections on two Korea's, one he saw from the frontlines, and modern Korea he was able to return to see in 2010.



Sterling N. McKusick

Little Knowledge About What He was Heading Into

Sterling N. McKusick details the amphibious landing his unit took part in near Wonsan which was delayed to allow minesweepers a chance to clear the heavily mined waters in the area. He remembers when they finally arrived in Wonsan, the city had already been liberated, and Bob Hope was even there entertaining the troops. He recounts how from Wonsan, they were sent to the Hamhueng area for about four weeks before being sent up the mountains toward the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls really having no idea where they were heading and that they were typically told were they were when they arrived. He does remember knowing their mission--to stop Communists from occupying all of Korea.



Steven G. Olmstead

"High Diddle Diddle, Right up the Middle"

Steven Olmstead describes his unit's movement through "Hellfire Alley" on its way to Hagaru. He talks about being engaged by enemy Chinese soldiers and the esprit de corps among the marines in his company. He recalls the actions of Rocco Zullo, the first sergeant in his marine unit, during the movement to Hagaru. He describes Sergeant Zullo's heroic actions which were thought to have led to his death and shares surprising news about the first sergeant.



The Importance of Hagaru

Steven Olmstead describes the importance of three positions that were held during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, including the hill at Hagaru. He emphasizes that the 1st Marine Division would have been annihilated had control of the positions he describes not been maintained. He recounts the retreat of US forces.



"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Stuart Gunn

Red China: Brainwashing

Stuart Gunn had a very difficult time living in a Chinese POW camp. While at the camp, the Chinese Communist government had educational materials promoting their government for the prisoners that were printed in English. Other POWs at the camp responded to these materials and the mandatory classes in a variety of ways.



Svend Jagd

Jutlandia Converted from Supply Ship to Hospital

Svend Jagd recounted Denmark’s desire to help South Korea but was concerned about their proximity to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Instead of providing the military, they converted the Jutlandia supply ship to a hospital. The ship became the most modern hospital in Denmark and was sent to support the wounded in Korea.



T.J. Martin

Hoengsong Massacre February 1951 (Full Story)

T.J. Martin chronicles the Hoengsong Massacre where he states that approximately 2,400 Americans died. He details the events of the massacre, recalling thousands of Chinese soldiers advancing with hand grenades, rifles, and some even empty-handed, and provides a vivid account of his movements during those two days. He recalls the moments leading up to his capture by the Chinese.



A Typical Day in a POW Camp

T.J. Martin shares memories from his experiences as a POW for over two years. He details a typical day in a POW camp and discusses the indoctrination program the Chinese implemented in their camps. He recalls how he tried to outsmart the Chinese which eventually led to him being separated from other prisoners.



Korean War Experience Impact

T.J. Martin reflects on what Korea means to him. He speaks of his experience with pride and appreciation. He shares that he developed a deeper and stronger urge to defend freedom following his service than he possessed before the war.



Tawil Boonyawiwat

Global Implications of War

Tawil Boonyawiwat discusses the global implications of war. He explains how powerful nations, such as America and Russia, often pull brothers and sisters into war where they must fight each other. He conveys the sorrow he feels for the Korean people for what they suffered during the Korean War.



Resist Communist Power

Tawil Boonyawiwat discusses that Thailand was the first Asian country to send troops to fight in the Korean War. He emphasizes the importance at the time to resist the spread of communist power. He gladly recalls wanting to do his part to help.



Tereda Mersha

Recovery, Return, and Rejection

Tereda Mersha discusses recovering in a division hospital and returning wounded to Ethiopia. He struggled to move due to his wounds and spent time in the hospital back home. When the communists took power, he was denied medical care. Tereda Mersha describes being deprived of care and being seen as the enemy by the communist government.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Engaging the North Koreans

Teurangaotera Tuhaka fought the North Koreans. One incident entailed firing on a North Korean supply train. His frigate held a record for firing forty-two times in a minute. He was fired upon by the North Koreans, and to get away, his ship had to zigzag out of the way. He shares how lucky they were to escape.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Landing at Incheon and Fighting at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. speaks of landing at Incheon and ending up at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He describes the Chinese weapons and being outnumbered. One night, while he was on watch, he thought a bush was a Chinese unit attacking, but he decided not to shoot. He admits that this incident earned him the nickname "Bush Guy."



Thomas Parkinson

Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



Thomas W. Stevens

Hot Cold War to Driving Off in the Sunset

Thomas Stevens describes the military aircraft advances from B-29's, a WWII aircraft which had limited distance, to B-50's that could be air-refueled and travel to the Soviet Union if needed. He describes his training to load atomic bombs on planes in case the U.S. wanted to drop one on the Soviet Union. Air advances, like the B-47 made Thomas Stevens obsolete without more training. This led Thomas Stevens to be discharged from the Air Force.



Tom Collier

Contemporary Seoul

Tom Collier returned to South Korea in 2004 and was amazed at the different place Seoul had become. He tried to locate landmarks from his days fighting in Korea and could find nothing that was similar because of the transformation. Tom Collier is also proud of his service and how South Korea has turned out.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



Veli Atasoy

Battle of Kunu-ri

Veli Atasoy describes the fighting conditions at the Battle of Kunu-ri. There were many casualties of the Turkish troops and to evacuate, therefore approximately twenty five men were needed per Jeep. The person in command took a wrong turn into harm's way. The Chinese had surrounded the entire area and eventually killed many Americans, but spared Veli Atasoy and many of his fellow Turkish troops. After that the men walked under armed escort to Pyoktong, near the Chinese-North Korean border.



Vincent Segarra

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Vicente Segarra reflects on the legacy of the war and his participation in it. He believes that people should remember that Puerto Ricans fought bravely and helped defend the United States and allowed democracy to triumph in South Korea. He urges future generations to join the military as wars are necessary to stop evil dictators from destroying the planet.

Vicente Segarra refleja sobre el legado de la guerra y su participación en la misma. Él cree que la gente debería recordar que los puertorriqueños lucharon con valor y ayudaron a defender a Estados Unidos y permitieron que la democracia triunfara en Corea del Sur. Insta a las generaciones futuras a unirse al ejército, ya que las guerras son necesarias para evitar que dictadores destruyan el planeta.



Virgil Julius Caldwell

Landing at Incheon

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes his experience of landing at Incheon. He recalls being informed on his first day that the bones of the previous unit were found on a nearby hill, which made him feel uneasy. He remembers being attacked by mortar and artillery while he served as an anti-aircraft gunner.



Wallace Stewart

I Think They Could Hear My Heartbeat.

Wallace Stewart explains a typical day on the main line of resistance as consisting of long periods of boredom punctuated by moments of sheer terror. Soldiers often stayed awake and on alert all night. They cleaned and maintained their weapons, updating their fire direction cards. Wallace Stewart preferred patrolling at night due to his excellent night vision, but sometimes the soldiers hid in rice paddies to hide from Chinese patrols.



Werner Lamprecht

Modern Day Korea

Werner Lamprecht discusses reading the book "Korea Reborn" in one night, and he describes his amazement of the progress South Korea has made since the end of the Korean War. He blames Stalin for extending the war by two years because Stalin wanted North Korean prisoners of war (POWs) to be returned even though the POWs did not want to return to North Korea to live under communism. He supports reunification as long as North Korea agrees to our terms.



Willard Maktima

Discrimination in the Southeast U.S.

Willard Maktima explains that during the war, his squadron was split in half with one half being sent to Korea and the other half (to which he belonged) being stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, to prepare for the Cold War campaign. He shares how he, unfortunately, experienced discrimination while stationed in the southeastern region of the United States due to being an American Indian. He recounts how this discrimination was enforced by the Jim Crow laws which required him to use separate bathrooms and drinking fountains from White people. He recalls how, on one occasion, he informed a bus driver he was an American Indian, not White, and chose to sit in the back of the bus where African Americans were also segregated.



Submarines and Hurricanes

Willard Maktima shares a story about his squadron's mission to transport a detachment of United States Marines from Hamburg, Germany, to Sweden, in order to participate in the funeral procession of the Swedish king. He recounts how, during their journey, the ship's sonar detected submarines in the Baltic Sea, forcing the crew to be on high alert until they left the region. He recalls the ship encountering two hurricanes while sailing through the Atlantic Ocean. He describes the harsh conditions below deck and the ship's violent impact against the waves which he found to be a very frightening experience.



William Alli

Raining Flares and Mistaken Identity

William Alli describes his experience with retreating a major combat zone. He recalls helping his foxhole buddy who was wounded in combat. He further describes a unique experience in Korea where he reconnected with his father's cousin, who was fighting as a part of the United Nations forces with the Turkish troops. While on route to visit his cousin, he was mistaken for a Communist spy. He describes how he was arrested and had to get out of this situation.



William D. Freeman

Life at Camp One

William Freeman elaborates on his experience as a prisoner of war at Camp One. He shares that Camp One was managed by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he purposely acted "crazy" at the camp because the Chinese would treat him better due to their superstitions of people with mental illnesses. He recalls acquiring roughly forty-two dozen eggs over a period of one and a half years which helped keep him and his comrades alive.



William Edwards

Moby Dick Project

William Edwards describes his job with the Moby Dick Project, a reconnaissance program based in New Mexico tasked with monitoring North Korea and Russia with high altitude balloons.



The Cuban Missile Crisis

William Edwards talks about the only time he was truly scared during his military service and his experience at Biggs Air Force Base during the Cuban Missile Crisis.



William F. Borer

Maggots Covered My Face I Was Pronounced Dead

William Borer describes being moved to Camp 5 where he spent over a month and became ill with pneumonia. He describes the school house that cared for the sick as an an "ant-hotel" where you check in but don't check out. He recalls after being pronounced dead, he awoke among stacks of bodies and maggots encrusted on his eyes and nostrils. He explains that the Chinese were superstitious and when they saw him as he left the morgue, they ran the other direction thinking he had been resurrected.



William F. Honaman

The Real Reason We Were There

William Honaman notes the official reason for fighting the Korean War was stopping the advancement of Communism. He elaborates, however, that as he grew older and learned more, he began to understand the conflict between Korea and Japan that influenced Korea's need for freedom. He states that many people do not fully understand the segregation that Korea experienced because they have not lived under similar circumstances.



Purple Hearts

William Honaman describes earning his first Purple Heart after being wounded during a patrol. He explains that the point man he was accompanying stepped on a land mine, losing his leg but not his life in the process. He recalls wearing an armored vest at the time, but had unzipped it due to the heat, an action that allowed the shrapnel to pierce his chest. He describes receiving his second Purple Heart in June of 1953 after five grenades exploded around him.



William Jacque

Rather Fight Communism There Than Here

William Jacque shares the reasoning for his willingness to serve in Korea. He explains that he wanted to fight for the Korean people as he was familiar with Communism and it's movement into Korea. He shares that he would rather fight Communism somewhere else than in his own country.



Yilma Belachew

Ambush Patrol

Yilma Belachew describes his command of the Ambush Patrol. He describes how he would encounter Chinese on the front with just fourteen other soldiers. His platoon did not lose a single man. The patrols were very dangerous and difficult. Ambush Patrols were carried out in the dark with no lights and then waiting for the enemy with a small number of soldiers.