Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Chinese



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Abisai González Camacho

The Bronze Medal with Valor / La Medalla de Bronce con Valor

Abisai González Camacho provides an account of the events which earned him a Bronze Medal. He details the way in which he saved the lives of many by jumping into a river and grabbing a rope to help fellow soldiers safely cross. He explains that enemy troops were nearby during the ordeal. He laments that he witnessed the way in which many others drowned during this incident.

Abisai González Camacho relata los hechos que hizo el para que le dieran la Medalla de Bronce. El detalla la forma en que le salvó la vida a muchos cuando salto al río que estaban cruzando para agarrar la cuerda que se había rota para ayudar a sus compañeros a cruzar con seguridad. También explica que las tropas enemigas estaban cerca durante esta terrible experiencia. Lamenta haber visto como muchos otros se ahogaron durante este incidente.



Adam McKenzie

Clearing Sariwon

Adam McKenzie describes clearing the town of Sariwon, North Korea. Although they received no tank support from American aid, his battalion mounted their miniature tanks to make an advance. He recounts capturing roughly three thousand North Korean soldiers as a result of the advance.



Back to the 38th Parallel

Adam McKenzie discusses having to turn around and go back to the 38th Parallel after reaching Pyongyang. He explains that the command to retreat came before Chinese soldiers entered the Korean War, and it was given at the direction of United States military leadership. He expresses frustration at having to retreat, and feels that Korea would be unified today if soldiers could have kept moving northward.



Chinese Troops and a Rare Medal

Adam McKenzie describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers during the Korean War. He goes on to describe and show a rare Presidential Citation Medal that his regiment qualified to earn, yet he cannot wear along side awarded British medals. The rare medal was awarded to him by Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).



Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Adolfo Lugo Gaston recalls the worst and longest battle that he experienced, that of Kelly Hill. He explains that allied troops fought an incalculable number of Chinese communist troops. Their mission was to win the hill and help four-thousand marines that were trapped.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón recuerda la batalla de Kelly Hill porque fue la más dura. Explica que las tropas aliadas lucharon contra un número incalculable de tropas comunistas chinas. Su misión era conquistar el cerro y ayudar a los cuatro mil infantes de marina que estaban rodeados.



Albert Harrington

Second Battle of the Hook

Albert Harrington describes the Second Battle of the Hook between combined elements of British and 1st Commonwealth Division forces and Chinese forces. He acknowledges that the Chinese forces were effective in battle and appeared well trained. He explains the significance of the battle, emphasizing that a Chinese victory would have allowed the enemy a more efficient route to Seoul.



Albert Kleine

Surviving a Chinese and North Korean Attack

Albert Kleine was stationed near the Imjin River during his time in the Korean War. He was very fearful of the flowing river and the sounds it gave off that showed its strength. Later he would realize that the river was nothing compared to the flutes signaling the attack by thousands of Chinese and North Korean troops.



The Cold went Right to Your Soul

Albert Kleine felt that the cold weather was the worst part of fighting in Korea. Even though he was stuck there fighting the Chinese in the terrible weather, he doesn't hate them because they were only told to fight. He wasn't fighting the man, he was fighting the country.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Battle of Old Baldy / Batalla de Old Baldy

Alfredo Forero Parra details the horrors of war as experienced at the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the way in which they were bombed for over eleven days with heavy artillery and mortars. He recounts a painful story in which his friend, Corporal Gonzalez Varela, who commanded the second squad of his platoon was brutally killed as the avalanche of Chinese troops advanced on their company.

Alfredo Forero Parra detalla los horrores de la guerra que el sufrió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe la forma en que fueron bombardeados durante más de once días con artillería pesada y morteros. Además, relata una dolorosa historia en la que su amigo, el Cabo González Varela, quien comandaba el segundo escuadrón de su pelotón, fue brutalmente matado cuando la avalancha de tropas chinas avanzó sobre su compañía.



Congratulatory Message / Mensaje de Felicitación

Alfredo Forero Parra reads the congratulatory note from the commander of the Batallón Colombia to all those that fought in the Battle of Old Baldy. Within this letter, the commander describes Colombian troops not only as martyrs and heroes, but as the quintessential symbol of the virtues of a soldier. This letter captures the soul and valor of those that were lost and those that survived the Battle of Old Baldy.

Alfredo Forero Parra lee la nota de felicitación del comandante del Batallón Colombia a todos los que lucharon en la batalla de Old Baldy. En esta carta, el comandante describe a las tropas colombianas no solo como mártires y héroes, sino como el símbolo por excelencia de las virtudes del soldado. Esta nota fue escrita para que el mundo recuerde el alma y el valor de los que fallecieron y de los que sobrevivieron a la Batalla de Old Baldy.



Ali Dagbagli

Battle of Kunu-ri

Ali Dagbagli describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle of Junu-ri was the first major military engagement for Turkey since WWI. He describes being surrounded on all sides by the enemy. The battle lasted for three nights and four days. Therefore he lost many friends in the battle and was shot four times.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

A Brother's Narrative

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes the Korean War from his brother's perspective. His brother served in the Turkish Army at the battle of Kunu-ri. The battle was largely a guerrilla war. Turkish military fought the North Koreans in close combat with bayonets affixed. The battle was extremely dangerous and hard fought.



Ali Saglik

"Cold Blooded"

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He laid mines in the front, had dogs defending their flanks and men stationed in the rear, with machine guns in the front. At the Battle of Kunu-ri there was continuous fire for two days and eventually the Turkish soldiers defeated the Chinese in close combat with bayonets affixed. Ali Saglik lastly describes the loss of two soldiers under his command.



A Civilian War

Ali Saglik describes how the Turkish forces captured a spy. He also describes how enemy forces, hiding in civilian houses, shot and injured a fellow soldier. Not all Korean civilians were enemies, however, as some would provide fresh fish. Ali Saglik also describes the Battle of Kunu-ri and how the "Americans ran away." Turkish soldiers attached bayonets and killed Chinese for two days.



Too Short for Gendarmerie

Ali Saglik was too short for a Gendarmerie, a Turkish National Defender, and sent to Korea. He achieved a rank of Sergeant while in Korea and served at Hill Sandbag Castle (aka Hill 1220), which was a destroyed front. His company had two cannons that "killed a lot of Chinese."



Alistair S. Rae

Flying the Sabre

Alistair S. Rae details the main missions of the Sabres which included interjection and target bombing. He notes they were also told to shoot down any enemy aircraft they encountered. He shares the dangers he faced while serving in Korea. He recalls having very few close encounters with enemy aircrafts, but recounts "Bed Check Charlie" encounters.



Allen Clark

Highway Through The Danger Zone

Allen Clark described the harrowing scene he experienced coming out of the narrow road while leaving the Chosin Reservoir making them easy targets for the enemy. Allen Clark was sitting in the back seat of a Jeep when the enemy fired a shot that punctured through the gas tank (quickly emptying it), and shooting a hole right through the tire. They jumped out of the jeep and ran behind a small hill that was just beyond some railroad tracks as a parapet while the Jeep driver hooked their vehicle to a truck and pulled it out of Kunwoori.



Evacuation of Civilians after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

South Korean civilians wanted to escape so bad that they were willing to leave behind everything and jump aboard overcrowded ships to leave the war-stricken area. It was estimated that 99,000 civilians were crammed on two boats with the survivors from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir with aid from a Chaplin who convinced the boat skipper to bring all the civilians to safety.



Korean Culture and Ceasefire

Allen Clark worked with and became friends with some South Korean civilians during his second tour in Korea. He observed Korean burials and was invited to eat octopus for the first time with the locals. During the ceasefire, Allen Clark used the help of civilians at the DMZ to find the enemy on the final days of the Korean War in July 1953.



Alvin A. Gould

Sleeping though the Night

Alvin Gould recalls going to sleep one evening near the front lines. The next morning, he awoke to news that several Chinese soldiers had overrun the line the previous night and were captured. He also talks about playing in shows to many UN troops, including Turkish and British units.



Amitava Banerjee

Service in Korea

Asoke Banerjee was a medical officer in Korea from 1950-1953. He used to look after the ADS, the advanced dressing station attached to many of the battalions on the front lines. Amitava shares some correspondence his father wrote. His father recalls Korea being very cold, especially as they moved towards Pyongyang. Once the Chinese began their advance, his father's unit moved south towards Seoul. His father was working in a large hospital associated with the United States MASH hospitals.



Andrew Lanza

Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Andrew M. Eggman

Cold Weather

Andrew M. Eggman describes the bitter cold weather he encountered in Korea. He discusses coming in contact with Chinese soldiers while serving in perimeter security during the Chinese attack at Yudamni. He recalls how the men tried to focus on various conversational topics to keep their minds off the bitter cold.



Tootsie Rolls on the Front Lines

Andrew M. Eggman talks about how code-words were devised by the American soldiers for confusing the Chinese enemy when having to call for supplies. He describes how the use of the term "tootsie roll" was misinterpreted as the actual candy, rather than as the code of a needed supply of weaponry. He explains how nice it is for veterans to receive tootsie rolls in remembrance of when they got them on the front during the Korean War.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Cold Weather and Living Conditions

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes how shocking the cold air of Korea was to him. He shares that on one particular occasion, they were forced to spend the night in a foxhole, and their shelter half froze to the ground. He adds that living conditions for his unit mainly consisted of tents with wooden floors and potbellied stoves to keep warm during the cold months.



Ángel David Jiménez Jusino

Worst Experience / La Peor Experiencia

Angel David Jimenez Jusino shares the story of the Battle of Kelly Hill. He explains that as a scout, he was tasked with engaging the enemy to draw them out from their hiding spots. During a scouting mission to Kelly Hill, his team encountered so many troops, that the sergeant screamed at them to retreat and defend themselves however they saw fit. The memory of this mission saddens him, as two within the scout group were taken as prisoners of war, and two others were killed.

Angel David Jimenez Jusino comparte la historia de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Explica que, como explorador, tenía que enfrentarse al enemigo para sacarlo de sus escondites. Durante una misión de exploración en Kelly Hill, su equipo se encontró con tantas tropas que el sargento les gritó que se retiraran y que se defendieran como pudieran. Esta misión lo entristece, ya que dos dentro del grupo dos fueron tomados como prisioneros de guerra y otros dos murieron durante el ataque.



Anil Malhotra

The Stories His Father Told Him

Anil Malhotra reflects on the stories his father, Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra, told him about his experience in Korea. On November 19, 1950, the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit of India moved in to Korea. It was the time when the Chinese army put in a massive counter-attack. His unit was ordered to evacuate because of the Chinese attack. The unit became known as the Bucket Brigade because they carried buckets of water from the nearby river to a steam engine to get it working once again. The steam engine hauled all medical equipment away from the conflict zone and was not lost to the war. The steam engine carried all of the medical equipment to Seoul, across the Han river, just in time because the communists blew up the bridge right after. He expands on other stories about the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit. The goal of the unit was to save as many lives as possible.



Anthony Vaquero

Finding the Remains of Chinese Soldiers

Tony Vaquero tells a story when he and several of his comrades, while exploring the countryside near his station, found the aftermath of a battle. At the top of a heavily damaged hilltop they found shoes, soon after finding the remains of Chinese soldiers.



Antone Jackim

372nd Bombardment Squadron

Antone Jackim talks about the mission of the 372nd Bombardment Squadron based at Kadena Air base, Japan. He describes the 9-member crew and the typical mission that was carried out on a B-29 Superfortress.



Aragaw Mselu

Ethiopians in Battle

Aragaw Mselu describes fighting conditions. Chinese spies were a constant threat. For example, they would disguise themselves with leaves and move slowly. Also, when attacking a battle the soldiers affixed bayonets for close combat fighting. Enemies were not spared. The Ethiopians were unable to take one hill. However, they were not overrun.



Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Life as a Prisoner of War

Arden Rowley describes his experiences as a Prisoner of War . He explains how they marched 24 nights before arriving at the camp which became known as “Death Valley” or the “mining camp.” He shares their living conditions, losing many of his fellow soldiers, burial detail and the indoctrination they received daily.



Arden Rowley

Moment of Hesitation Led to Capture

Arden Rowley describes the night of November 30, 1950 and being captured by the Chinese Communist Forces. He describes how his unit was surrounded, which led them to destroy their equipment and leave the convoy. He recalls how he and another soldier became separated from the group and seeing a group of soldiers approaching. He remembers that by the time they could properly identify the approaching soldiers, it was too late. He shares how being captured was a traumatic experience because one minute you are firing at them and then you are at their mercy. He elaborates on his fears while being captured and the twenty-four day march he endured to the first POW camp.



Faith and Survival Along the March

Arden Rowley offers an overview of the issues the POWs faced as they marched to the first camp. He explains how they marched during the night and hid in houses during the day. He recalls only thinking about how he would survive after the first few days. He explains how fortunate he was to have multiple layers of protection. He recalls the condition of one Turkish soldier’s feet which were so damaged that he gave his overshoes to the soldier. He remembers a few nights later being forced to give up his new combat boots to a Chinese guard. He believes he is still here because of his faith.



Arrival at Death Valley

Arden Rowley elaborates on the conditions at the POW camp known as Death Valley. He remembers entering the camp on Christmas Day and expecting the conditions to be better than their experience on the march. He provides an explanation for why the camp received the nickname Death Valley. He shares that between two hundred fifty to three hundred men perished during the first two-and-a-half-week period. He notes that ninety-nine percent of the men suffered from dysentery, but he fortunately never personally dealt with the issue.



Assisting Others and Incentives

Arden Rowley elaborates on the conditions at Death Valley and the use of tobacco to convince the soldiers to attend indoctrination lectures. A large number of soldiers were suffering and dying from dysentery, yet he shares he was able to stay healthy. Since he was healthy, he remembers helping his comrade acquire clean trousers. In another one of these instances, he recalls attending lectures about communism so that he could bring back tobacco for that same soldier.



Resistance and Letters from Home

Arden Rowley describes the indoctrination sessions conducted by the Chinese. He emphasizes how the communists were focused on converting them to the communist ideology. He outlines the organization of the lectures and discussions. As part of the process, he recalls on being assigned as a monitor for his room and how it was his role to report discussion questions back to the Chinese officials. He remembers the process took a toll on him and he chose to provide the real answers to their questions and not what the officials wanted to hear. He feels that this act of rebellion influenced other monitors to copy his actions. He explains the entire company was eventually relocated, and the lectures reached a point of diminishing returns. He shares that once they received letters from home, their courage grew.



Relief at the Gateway to Freedom

Arden Rowley reflects on the indescribable feeling of hearing the war was over and that he would go home. He recalls being told they would be released after the signing of the armistice and remembers a drastic improvement in how the prisoners were fed. He elaborates on the emotional experience of seeing American soldiers at the exchange point and walking through the gateway to freedom.



Arthur C. Golden

Never Could Get Used to the Cold

Arthur Golden describes how fighting in the cold weather was the hardest part of his time in Korea. He recalls one experience in which their sleeping bags were never delivered. He remembers continuously walking back and forth all night in order to stay warm. Throughout the night, he recalls hearing people moaning from the frostbite. He states his legs eventually gave out. He explains that he was lucky the enemy was not around because he just laid in the snow.



Arthur Hernandez

White Horse Mountain

Arthur Hernandez recalls his journey from Japan to Busan, Korea, during the frigid winter. He remembers taking a troop train from Busan north towards the front lines. Upon reaching their destination, he describes being escorted up a mountain which lay on the front line. As they hiked up the mountain, he remembers seeing the remains of the enemy. He provides details of a ten-day battle which took place at the location known as White Horse Mountain.



Life on the Front Lines

Arthur Hernandez shares his experience of serving on the front lines of White Horse Mountain. He recalls facing periodic shelling, aerial bombings, and mortar attacks by the Chinese forces. He mentions meeting a soldier from Puerto Rico who purposely injured his foot to return home from the war zone. However, he recalls the wounded soldier returning to the front lines after healing, only to later become a casualty of enemy fire.



An Attack at Night

Arthur Hernandez describes the intense darkness he experienced while serving on the front lines. He remembers resting in his foxhole one night and a grenade exploding nearby. He recalls firing rounds at a Chinese soldier who was running towards their position. He explains how friendly artillery barraged their position until daylight to counter the Chinese attack. After the attack, he remembers discovering a photograph on the deceased Chinese soldier that depicted him holding a violin.



Asefa Desta

Korean Battle

Asefa Desta describes his Korean service. He describes being trained upon arrival in Busan. The M1 was the weapon he trained with. He also describes battles and rough terrain. Many people died and these memories stick with him. Asefa Desta also describes fighting conditions on Hill 1073, which is near the Iron Triangle.



Korean Service

Asefa Desta describes the details of his service in the Korean War. He describes how Korean civilians were so helpful during the war. American supplies were a necessity. Engagements with the Chinese were frequent. He describes how he did not want to even blink to give his position.



Asefa Mengesha

Chinese Prisoners

Asefa Mengesha describes capturing two Chinese prisoners by himself. He says Ethiopians captured many Chinese but the Chinese never captured any Ethiopians. He and his unit would lie in wait at night for the enemy to pass in front and then they would attack from behind.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Engaging the Chinese

Asefa Werku Kassa describes an engagement with the Chinese that left a deep scar on his forearm. He was stationed along the frontlines and frequent encounters with Chinese infantry. On one occasion a Chinese soldier gave him a deep gash before another Ethiopian soldier came to his aid. Asefa Werku Kassa eventually shot and killed the Chinese soldier. Also, Ethiopian soldiers never surrendered due to instructions. This was for fear of what the Ethiopian military would do to their families.



Battle Experience

Asefa Werku Kassa describes his service in Korea. He cannot remember the exact locations of service due to moving around. The mountains and terrain stick out more than anything. Also, he shares an image of his scar from the Chinese military encounter. He also describes how he was in charge of a unit. He would constantly move them from danger, much to the chagrin of his commanders.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Danger in Korea

Assefa Demissie Belete describes the danger of Korea. For instance, he describes going on patrol at night and facing against the Chinese. But, he describes how the soldier did not have fear. Ethiopian soldiers were following orders. Assefa Demissie Belete describes one incident of a fellow soldier being hit by a heavy bomb. The other soldiers never found his body.



Avery Creef

Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Barry J. McKay

Cold and Rough

Barry J. McKay describes his most dangerous and difficult moments aboard two other ships in his time in Korea, a British destroyer for training and then the New Zealand frigate, the HMNZS Taupo. He describes enemy attacks and his role in escorting landing parties.



Barry McLean

They Kept Coming Back (Graphic)

Barry McLean elaborates on an experience that haunts him after returning home from Korea and the toll of war. While climbing a mountain, he recalls encountering around three hundred Chinese soldiers eating lunch. He shares how, afterward, they began to monitor the routine of the Chinese soldiers. He describes the measures they took a few days later to eliminate the enemy soldiers.



Basil Kvale

Fighting in Ujeongbu and the Taebacek Mountains

Basil Kvale was taken to Ujeongbu (Northern Korea) with an amphibious military group to set up for battle. They moved a lot and were so close that they could see the Chinese right near their location. At a new location in the Taebacek Mountains, Basil Kvale was over 3,000 feel above sea level and it was an important location to give orders of where to bomb.



Chinese POW-Ping

Basil Kvale captured a Chinese POW named Ping who later was sent with other soldiers. As a Marine, Basil Kvale was asked to help give the coordinates for the bombing to aid his commander. He had the cannons and bombs attack from four different sides which led to total disaster for the Chinese.



Basilio MaCalino

The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros

Bleak Aspects of Korea

Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros describes the hardships of Korea. One of the hardest things for Ethiopian soldiers was the weather. Amazingly the heat during the summer months was difficult for Ethiopian soldiers. Further, winters were extreme and caused conditions they were not used to. In addition to weather, mortars were a constant threat.



Belay Bekele

So Many Surrenders

Belay Bekele describes fighting conditions in Korea. He explains how the threats were everywhere, because of all of the enemy surrenders. Ethiopian forces took in all people, enemies, and civilians. He also discusses how the winters and mountains were the most difficult things outside of the enemy. Winters were extremely cold and there were so many mountains.



Belisario Flores

"We Had Our Mission, They Had Theirs"

Belisario Flores describes the Chinese as good fighters, and he really had nothing against them. He adds that he did not have anything against the North Koreans either. All he knew was that he was fighting against communism. He describes the Colombian Infantry Battalion of which he was one of the leaders because he spoke Spanish.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Duties to Ensure Safety

The Combat Chemical Engineer Corps developed smoke screens over the rivers which would allow the battalion to lay the bridges without being attacked by the enemy. The worry was that while placing these bridges, the enemy would lay mines in the river bottoms, so the engineers were hoping they had done their job well without risking the lives their fellow soldiers. Ben Schrader hoped that all the bombs had be deactivated prior to coming so close to these rivers.



Closure to the Present Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believed that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the US with bombs. It is just like the Cold War the lasted for many years. He would support reunification between North and South Korea since he went back to Korea for a revisit and he saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benigno Ramos Perez

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Benigno Ramos Pérez shares some of the most difficult moments he experienced during the war. He explains how an enemy combatant tried to infiltrate their unit and was caught trying to do so. Following that incident, he recounts how a young man in his unit was killed during a forward observing mission. He shares the story in which his clumsiness saved his life as a mortar fell where he should have been if he had not dropped his helmet.

Benigno Ramos Pérez comparte algunos de los momentos más difíciles que vivió durante la guerra. Explica cómo un soldado enemigo intentó infiltrarse en su unidad y fue atrapado al intentar de hacerlo. Después de ese incidente, comparte la historia de cómo un joven de su unidad murió durante una misión de observación avanzada. Por último, comparte la historia en la que su torpeza le salvó la vida cuando un mortero cayó donde debería haber estado si no se le hubiera caído el casco.



Benjamin Allen

Wounded - Sent to a MASH

Benjamin Allen speaks about being wounded and narrowly escaping becoming a prisoner-of-war (POW) like one of his friends. He recalls the cold weather and the frostbite he suffered due to being issued inappropriate clothing for the conditions.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

MIA in the Chosin Reservoir

Benjamin Arriola describes his brother Fernando Arriola's motivation to join the U.S. Army. He recounts his brother's landing in Inchon and journey to the Chosin Reservoir. He shares that his brother, Fernando, went MIA (Missing in Action) during the battle there and is still considered MIA at the time of this interview.



Bernard Dykes

Iron Triangle Strategy

Bernard Dykes details the strategy at his placement within the Iron Triangle. He describes why it was named this and being there with French soldiers. He also mentions battles that happened before and after his time there and the devastation endured.



More Artillery Fire Than Raindrops

Bernard Dykes describes the constant and random attacks endured from the Chinese soldiers. He did not know where they were coming from or where they were to land. He mentions how putting his life in God's hands in these moments helped him survive.



Bernard Lee Henderson

Life as a Soldier During the Korean War

Bernard Henderson would sleep in his foxhole with his clothes on in a sleeping bag in shifts with other Marines. As a Marine, they did not shower often since they were stationed up in the mountains. The most difficult time he had was trying to escape from a Chinese attack by running down railroad tracks since it was not even, but he just wanted to stay alive.



Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago

Infiltrated by the Enemy / Infiltrado por el Enemigo

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago provides an account of a dangerous battle in which enemy troops infiltrated their unit. The problem, he explains, was that the Filipino language sounded like Chinese, and they assumed that it was allied troops returning to the line. He describes the fighting which ensued and resulted in his sergeant being shot.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata una peligrosa batalla en la que tropas enemigas infiltraron a su unidad. El problema, explica el, era que el idioma filipino sonaba como chino, y asumieron que eran tropas aliadas que regresaban. Describe la lucha que siguió y que resultó en su sargento herido.



The Effects of the Winter / Los Efectos del Invierno

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago recounts the living and weather conditions they faced in Korea. He remembers being amazed by the frigid temperatures and describes the effects on both living and deceased soldiers. He further elaborates on the weather by describing how allied troops left North Korea by boat after blowing up the port.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata las condiciones de vida y del clima que enfrentaron en Corea. Recuerda estar asombrado al frio que había y describe los efectos del invierno tanto en los soldados vivos como en los muertos. Da más detalles sobre el tiempo al describir cómo las tropas aliadas se fueron de Corea del Norte en barco después de volar el muelle.



Bezuneh Mengestu

Most Dangerous Moment

Bezuneh Mengestu recounts his most dangerous moment caught behind the lines by the Chinese. His unit was sent to spy on Chinese movements and did not realize they had travelled past their boundaries. The Chinese opened fire on their truck but they refused to surrender.



Bill Chisholm

Replacing Marines in Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm arrived in Korea via Wonsan and was soon sent as part of a unit to replace the 1st Marine Division on the east side of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He recalls almost immediately being surrounded by two divisions of Chinese soldiers. He describes the immense fear he felt in being surrounded by these units.



Conditions at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm recalls four horrific days in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He notes having nothing to eat and basically living in foxholes which had been made using grenades to blast areas of the frozen ground. Furthermore, he remembers not being outfitted for the -70° temperatures. He provides a detailed account of a mixup when an officer requested additional mortars, code named Tootsie Rolls.



Bill G. Hartline

Role in Korea

Bill Hartline shares how arrived in Korea as part of a group known as the 1st Replacement Draft. He recalls how, since none of this group had much experience, they were divided among other units. He ultimately ended up with the 4.2 Mortar Company of the 5th Marine Regiment. He speaks candidly about never having to fire either the bazooka or machine gun assigned to him in action with his company.



Doing My Duty

Bill Hartline speaks about his time in Funchilin Pass and the area around Yudam-ni. He recalls just finishing his four-hour watch shift and crawling into his sleeping bag when "all hell broke loose." He details taking a couple of men with him to hold a bridge on the road while the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir raged all around them. He notes that remarkably despite all the chaos of war around him, he never had to fire his machine gun.



Lucky You Got Lost

Bill Hartline recalls an old farmhouse at the bottom of Funchillan Pass packed full of men from his unit as well as those of a utility company all trying to seek warmth. He recounts how being tasked to look for a missing soldier, prior to his unit departing for Hagaru-ri, saved his life.



Bill Hall

New Equipment and Additional Pilots Leads to Advantage

Bill Hall recalls how with the arrival of additional land-based pilots came additional equipment for his unit. He remembers that their new equipment included a 20mm cannon as well as tracer bullets which allowed pilots to see where shots were being fired. He explains how this served as a great advantage for the American planes over the Chinese ground forces. He notes that his first mission was on August 7, 1950, but that he was soon cut because he was needed as a Landing Signal Officer (LSO).



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



Bill Scott

We Called Them Hoochies

Bill Scott described what it was like on many of the hills he fought and the sand bags filled with dirt and rock used to protect them from the enemy. He described digging into trenches on the hill, and his mortar squad was placed just on the other side of the hill to fire at the enemy. Bill Scott pointed to a shadow box as he's describing the shrapnel that was collected from the battlefield that was fired at them by the Chinese.



Almost hit by the Chinese

Bill Scott described the fighting and living situations on the top of Pork Chop Hill. He recalled the area they were quartered in during their time on the hill.
Bill Scott was resting in his bed in this living quarters when it was hit and mortar barely escaped his head by inches. He said when he woke, the sound was deafening, and the area was heavily damaged. Bill Scott picked up pieces of the shell and stuck it in his pocket.



Billy J. Scott

The Black Moon of Korea

Billy Scott describes the two types of weather in Korea regarding visibility in the moonlight. He shares that the Chinese possessed the ability to adapt to the moonlight more so than the Americans. He recalls rotating watch and only sleeping a few hours in between and explains the danger of falling asleep during war.



Bob Garcia

Daily Life of a Radioman

Bob Garcia talks about his job as a radioman. He describes his specific duties in support of the forward observer, setting up communication lines and gathering intelligence.



Bob Near

Hill 187 Competition

Bob Near describes the yearly competition in Canada commemorating the capture of Hill 187. Royal Canadian soldiers compete against each other in their platoons. The event celebrates the capture of a Chinese Burp Gun.



Bob Wickman

Treating Marines on the Front Line

Bob Wickman recalls some of the very first patients he treated while serving as a hospital corpsman near the front line in Korea. He notes that in addition to providing medical care that corpsmen were frequently mother, father, and chaplain all at once. He describes staying in "crab holes" until his services were needed and then quickly responding before returning to his "crab hole" which was cut from a side of the trench line.



Lived in Constant Fear

Bob Wickman shares he was only in Korea for a bit over a month, but he experienced some severe fighting near the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts in July 1953. He recalls that at twenty-two he was "old" compared to many of the young Marines he was treating. He notes they lived in constant fear, not necessarily of dying, but of being hurt.



Stories of the Wounded

Bob Wickman explains that though he only served a short time in Korea, he was there at the time of the armistice. He recalls what he terms the "fiasco" at the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts as well as the severe hand-to-hand combat in the trench lines near Boulder City. He recalls some of the more severely injured he treated during this time period.



Bradley J. Strait

Animosity towards the North Korean Leadership

Bradley Strait shares the level of animosity he feels towards the leadership in North Korea. He weighs in on the benefits of reunification and suggests that South Korea is a good model of democracy. He highlights the economic gains South Korean has made as well.



Brian Hamblett

An Appalling Situation

Brian Hamblett describes looking into a foxhole and finding a Chinese soldier. He explains that the soldier was just as surprised and pulled his grenade without throwing it. The Chinese soldier was badly injured from his own grenade. He goes on to describe seeing the results of napalm and growing more horrified by the memories of it as he has grown older. He describes the burned bodies and total suffocation of the land.



Prisoner of War

Brian Hamblett describes life at Camp I after the Chinese took him as a prisoner of war. He explains that it was like a Korean village with mud huts and paper windows. He describes how the soldiers would find warmth sleeping on the floor which had flues running underneath it. He goes on to describe the indoctrination the Chinese forced on the men.



Bruce Ackerman

Home for Christmas?

Bruce Ackerman feared being surrounded by the Chinese in the Chosin Reservoir and had to endure the cold Korean winters, frost bite, and a near explosion close to his bunker. He thought that the soldiers would be home for Christmas in 1950, but sadly, he was wrong. Bruce Ackerman remembered the evacuation of 100,000 refugees during the winter of 1950 and that included North Korean civilians who were left homeless due to the invasion of the Chinese to support North Korean troops.



The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



Burnie S. Jarvis

Duties of the U.S.S. Toledo

Burnie Jarvis recalls he and the crew of the U.S.S. Toledo served mainly in the waters off of the east coast of Korea and about ten miles north of where the action was. He remembers spending about two weeks in any one location. He notes there was small arms fire from the shore but that it ended up being little more than splashes in the water. He notes there really was not much resistance from the enemy toward the U.S. Navy in the region. He explains the ship's main duties were to provide artillery fire for whatever the spotter located and even breaking up ice during the cold winters to prevent the enemy from crossing the rivers to resupply troops.



Burt Cazden

Korean War Veteran Clarification and Memories

Burt Cazden recounts enlisting in the Navy in 1953. He provides clarification on the labeling of a Korean War veteran, stating that those who served during the war's time frame--despite location--are Korean War veterans. He states that he has the highest respect for those who served in Korea and shares a memory of a Native American friend who served in Korea and suffered wounds.



Calvin Karram

First Night of Combat

Calvin Karram remembers his first night of combat. They were hit by the Chinese when they were on a hill. The Chinese surrounded them and they were cut off. Calvin Karram and a friend grabbed their rifles and ran down the hill, reporting to the commanders what had happened.



Carl B. Witwer

Part III: Mission Taiwan

Carl Witwer describes how after his experiences on the destroyer in the Yellow Sea, he was assigned to Taiwan. Taiwan's Nationalist Chinese Party located there was also threatened by Communist China. He details his job charting radar positions.



Carl Hissman

Evacuating Heungnam, Off to Busan

Carl Hissman describes his experience at the evacuation of Heungnam. He remembers being the last one off of the beach. He recalls seeing many North Korean refugees and remembers the roads were so full of people. He shares they were able to save some but not all. He remembers seeing a blown-up village and two civilians frozen dead. After Heungnam, his unit went down to Busan and began pushing back up north towards Seoul.



Service Role in Korea

Carl Hissman describes his experience in Korea. His shares how his job was to find new positions where the company could set up its guns. He recalls once bailing out of his jeep with his rifle because he saw some Chinese soldiers. He remembers shots being fired from both sides, but neither side was hit. He remembers seeing the Chinese soldiers use cocaine. At the closest, he remembers being about 100 yards away from the Chinese soldiers. He recalls having two KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers with him.



Protecting Himself from the Chinese

Carl Hissman describes his sleeping arrangements. He remembers trying to find foxholes that were already dug out by the Chinese. He shares that the Chinese were better at digging foxholes than they were. He recalls it being cold but adds that he did not realize it was sometimes colder than sixty degrees below zero. He recounts how his mom sent him an additional gun so he could defend himself if the Chinese tried to take him as a prisoner while he was sleeping. He remembers the Chinese soldiers being very quiet and notes that it was an advantage seeing as they did not have the equipment the Americans had.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Combat Jump

Carl Jacobsen recounts jump training in Daegu, Korea, and recalls making multiple training jumps in order to receive his wings. He offers an account of his first combat jump and details the related mission. He comments on the destruction he saw during his service.



A Dangerous Moment

Carl Jacobsen shares memories of one of the most dangerous moments he experienced in combat. He recalls being given orders to collect ammunition and receiving sniper fire on his return with the ammunition. He recounts stopping the vehicle he was driving to return fire and wondering if he would make it out of the situation alive.



Carl Rackley

Escaping Through Marine Corps Bombs

Carl Rackley reflects on his experiences at the 38th Parallel. He describes being trapped there for roughly ten nights. He also details the amount of Chinese soldiers there. He expresses his gratitude for the Marine Corp troops who bombed the area for him to escape.



Carl W. House

Surrounded at Jangjin: Last Line of Defense

Carl House arrived at Jangjin with his unit and was told no enemy forces were within a fifteen-mile radius. He recalls many soldiers began building fires, drinking coffee, and preparing sleeping bags. He shares that Chinese forces surrounded the U.S. soldiers in a horseshoe-shaped position around three in the morning, making it nearly impossible for them to escape. He remembers fighting for three days and running low on artillery after a failed airdrop landed in enemy territory. He recounts his captain ordering his unit to stand rear guard while fellow soldiers pulled out and recalls doing what he could to hold off the Chinese.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As he was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke his arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When he made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the thirty-degree-below-zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

Cold Patrols/ Patrullas Frías

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describes a typical day on the front lines. He explains that night patrol as a machine gun operator was the most difficult assignment, especially on cold winter nights. Additionally, reconnaissance patrol duty instilled immense fear in him as he could not make a sound which was especially difficult on nights when temperatures were low. He concludes that he and others feared weather conditions more than combat.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describe un día típico en el frente. Explica que la patrulla nocturna como operador de ametralladoras era la tarea más difícil, especialmente en las noches frías de invierno. Asimismo, la patrulla de reconocimiento le daba un miedo inmenso, ya que no podía emitir ni un sonido, y era más difícil en las noches cuando las temperaturas estaban bajo cero. Él y otros temían las condiciones climáticas más que el combate.



Fear During the Battle of Old Baldy/ Miedo Durante la Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts the worst action he encountered during the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes being continuously bombarded throughout the night and having to hold the front until American reinforcements arrived hours later. He explains that although their camp was surrounded by landmines and barbed wire, Chinese and North Korean troops pierced their defenses. He marvels at the tenacity of enemy troops as bodies exploded in the air as they marched through the minefield.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto relata la peor acción que vio que fue durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él describe haber sido bombardeado continuamente durante toda la noche y tener que mantener el frente hasta que llegaran los refuerzos estadounidenses horas después que empezó la batalla. Explica que, aunque su campamento estaba rodeado de minas y alambre de púas, las tropas chinas y norcoreanas atravesaron sus defensas. Se acuerda de la tenacidad de las tropas enemigas cuando los cuerpos volaban por el aire mientras marchaban a través del campo de minas.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

Wounded in the Line of Duty /Herido en La Linea de Combate

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recalls the fear he experienced during the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was injured, and his friend died. He details the way in which he and three others were surrounded in a bunker when Chinese troops infiltrated their camp. He describes the hours that passed in which they had to decide whether to continue fighting and die or risk being caught as prisoners of war. Eventually, he explains, they were rescued by American and Puerto Rican troops, but sadly one of his friend’s injuries were so grave that it was impossible for him to be saved.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recuerda el miedo que vivió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy en la que resultó herido y su amigo murió. Él y otros tres soldados fueron rodeados en un búnker cuando las tropas chinas se infiltraron en su campamento. Describe las horas que pasaron en las tuvieron que decidir si iban a seguir luchando y morir o arriesgarse a ser capturados como prisioneros de guerra. Finalmente, él explica, fueron rescatados por tropas estadounidenses y puertorriqueñas. Desafortunadamente, las heridas de su amigo eran tan grave que fue imposible salvarlo.



Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco details the events which led to the worst battle for the Batallón Colombia in terms of casualties. He explains that tactical errors by the commanders in the United States Army led to Chinese infiltration of their camp. Enemy troops, he remembers, waited until relief troops entered the camp to attack because those that were part of the relief did not know the camp or where the ammunition was stored and thus chaos ensued. He adds that the Colombian commanding officer asked for the relief unit to come in during the day as opposed to the night.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco describe la peor batalla del Batallón Colombia en términos de bajas. Explica que los errores tácticos de los comandantes del ejército de los Estados Unidos fueron la razón por la infiltración china en su campamento. El recuerda que las tropas enemigas esperaron hasta que las tropas de relevo entraron al campamento para atacar porque los que formaban parte del relevo no sabían ni dónde estaban las guardadas las municiones. Añade que el comandante colombiano pidió que la unidad de relieve llegara durante el día y no durante la noche.



Signing of the Armistice / Firma del Armisticio

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco provides an account of the jubilation felt by allied and enemy troops on the day the Armistice was signed. He describes the way in which they cheered and held their helmets high on one hill and could see enemy troops do the same on the other side. He explains that they were elated at the the news of the prisoner of war exchange as there were over twenty Colombians that were being held captive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco da cuenta de la alegría que sintieron las tropas aliadas y enemigas el día de la firma del Armisticio. Describe la forma en que botaban los cascos tanto ellos como las tropas enemigas. Recuerda que lo más eufórico fue la noticia del intercambio de prisioneros de guerra que se produciría porque habían más de veinte colombianos cautivos.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

Difficult Moments / Los Momentos más Difíciles

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He recounts the events which occurred during the Battle of Hill 400 in which, under heavy fire, their battalion lost sixteen soldiers. He was tasked with the difficult mission of transporting the dead and wounded during this battle under heavy mortar fire.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Relata los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla de la Colina 400 en la que, bajo un fuego intenso, su batallón perdió dieciséis soldados. Se le encomendó la difícil misión de transportar a los muertos y los heridos durante esta batalla mientras estaba bajo fuego de mortero.



The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describes some of the most dangerous moments he experienced during the war. He explains the events which led to heavy casualties of Colombian troops during the Battle of Old Baldy. As a driver, he details, he was assigned to move ammunition, artillery, and personnel as they attempted to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describe los momentos más peligrosos que vivió durante la guerra. Él explica los acontecimientos que resultaron en muchas bajas de su batallón durante la Batalla del Old Baldy. Cuenta que como conductor, él tenía que mover municiones, artillería y personal mientras intentaban reconquistar el cerro a las tropas chinas.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

Papasan Hill / La Colina Papasan

Carlos Rivera-Rivera shares his experience in a battle which took place as allied troops tried to gain control of Papasan Hill. As a mortarman, he recalls that the bombing was unending. It was during this battle, he explains, that he became desensitized to the reality of the war as so many perished during the fighting.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera comparte su experiencia en una batalla en la cual las tropas aliadas intentaron controlar la colina Papasan. Como él era mortero, recuerda que el bombardeo era interminable. Él explica que fue durante esta batalla que se volvió insensible a la realidad de la guerra, porque murieron tantos durante la lucha.



Long Nights / Noches Largas

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explains that night patrols were the most dangerous moments of the war. He recalls feeling that the nights would never end as they had to wait in the trenches from six in the evening until six in the morning. He remembers the anxiety he experienced as he waited for orders.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explica que las guardias nocturnas fueron los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra. Recuerda sentir que las noches nunca terminarían ya que tenían que esperar en las trincheras desde las seis de la tarde hasta las seis de la mañana. Recuerda la ansiedad que tenían mientras esperaban órdenes para disparar.



Cecil Phipps

Captured!

Cecil Phipps talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers, becoming a prisoner of war. He describes his initial three-day evasion and a fateful decision that led to his capture. He shares how he and seven fellow soldier were made to march north at night until they reached the Chinese border.



Chinese Houses

Cecil Phipps talks about the Chinese buildings he was housed in as a POW. He describes how these dwellings were built and what materials were used in their construction. He details the heating system that was important for cold Asian winters.



Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Poyktong POW Camp (#5) and the harsh living conditions he lived through as prisoner, offering remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions he went from one hundred ninety pounds to seventy-five pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



"Always Trying to Escape"

Cecil Phipps talks about a fellow soldier that attempted and failed several times to escape Camp #3. He describes how he tried to aid his friend and what happened when he was captured and returned.



POW Release

Cecil Phipps recalls his released from Chinese captivity on August 28, 1953, at Panmunjeom after thirty-three months as a POW. He describes the trip from Camp #3, taking several days by truck and train and spending a week in another POW camp, before finally reaching freedom at Panmunjeom.



Cecilio Asuncion

Panmunjeom Peace Talks

Cecilio Asuncion discusses his belief that the war should not have happened. He highlights the original division of Korea and then the division at the Panmunjeom Peace Talks. While describing the peace talks, he provides an overview of the delegates who were in attendance. Since South Korea did not take part in the peace talks, he clarifies that North and South Korea are still at war.



Cevdet Sidal

Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes intimate details from the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle was the first engagement on foreign soil for Turkish fighters since WWI. Cevdet Sidal provides details about being surrounded and the heavy losses to the enemy. He also describes how there were enemy war planes used in the battle.



Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One Master Sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. Cevdet Sidal turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face.



Chaplain Ralph Lindon Smith Jr.

Outpost Harry (April-July 1953)

Ralph Smith talks about his time at Outpost Harry in 1953. He describes the terrain, logistics, and layout of the encampment. Manned only by one company, he talks about how they dealt with being grossly outnumbered by two Chinese battalions.



The Last Days of the War at Outpost Harry

Ralph Smith talks about the last days of the war at Outpost Harry. He describes the heavy shelling that took place up until the armistice was signed and recalls his memories of Operation Rollback. He tells the story of meeting a Chinese officer out on the battlefield the morning after the armistice.



Charles Blum

Having Trouble All the Time

Charles Blum describes his experiences with PTSD from the Korean War. He explains sitting on a grenade and the shrapnel that entered his body. He then describes sitting with a fellow soldier until he dies then having to quickly kill a Chinese soldier.



Second Time It Was Knees Down

Charles Blum describes his second wounding in the Korean War. He explains his encounter with a Chinese soldier with a fistful of grenades held together by bamboo. He describes jumping into what he thought was safety only to be blown out again by a grenade.



Charles Carl Smith

A Difficult Journey

Charles Smith talks about his journey by train from Pusan to Chuncheon. He describes having to deboard the train several times because they had come under attack.



Charles Connally

Psychological Warfare

Charles Connally describes two psychological strategies utilized during the war. He describes connecting large speakers to the bottoms of B-52s and playing recordings of Korean women compelling the North Korean men to go home to their wives. He goes on to explain how the Chinese would fly planes over their camp at night, occasionally dropping hand grenades and bombs, in order to limit the amount of rest soldiers got. This the troops referred to as "Bed Check Charlie."



Charles E. Gebhardt

Before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the placement of his unit before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He mentions that his unit, the 39th Infantry Regiment, relieved a Marine unit that held the northernmost ground of all US forces.



The Beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the scene at the beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about the KATUSA soldiers assigned to his unit and how he thought they had gotten spooked. In reality, the Chinese offensive had already begun.



"It was Very Scary"

Charles Gebhardt describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers on the first night of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about shooting at enemy soldiers that were within arm's reach.



"You Should Not be Afraid of Some Chinese Laundrymen"

Charles Gebhardt recounts the words the General Edward Almond in a meeting of officers and intelligence personnel on the morning after the first fighting of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Describing the meeting in which he attended, he mentions that several officers present were taken aback by the comment. The comment was "You should not be afraid of some Chinese laundrymen."



Retreat from Chosin

Charles Gebhardt describes his unit's retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about destroying equipment. He also describes loading up the wounded on the slow retreat to Hagalwoori.



Losses, Conditions, and Rescue

Charles Gebhardt talks about the lives that were lost in the retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difficult conditions on the trek. He also tells the story when he and his comrades borrowed Marine vehicles to rescue wounded soldiers.



Charles Earnest Berry

Experiences with Chinese Soldiers and Rethinking War

Charles Earnest Berry discusses fighting the Chinese and how quick and mobile they were since they carried less equipment than the American soldiers. He explains how the Chinese would put human waste on their bayonets to increase the chances of wounds becoming infectious. He recounts finding an entire National Guard unit dead and hauling dead bodies from the front. All of this made him rethink war. He shares that when his mom asked what he would like her to package and mail, he requested liquor instead of cookies.



Capture and Escape

Charles Earnest Berry discusses the severe cold weather in Korea and being captured at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes how he was able to escape and safely return to American lines despite the challenging circumstances. He recalls the massive waves of Chinese soldiers and heavy artillery bombardments that he and his fellow soldiers endured during their time in Korea.



The Role of Aircraft at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Charles Earnest Berry remembers witnessing American aircraft attacking the Chinese and North Koreans. He saw pilots dipping their wings to American soldiers. He describes arriving at a bombed bridge and having to wait for the bridge to be airlifted, which rendered a loss of people and equipment during the wait. He describes how the USS Missouri firing on the enemy and how he was evacuated from Korea after being wounded.



Charles Eggenberger

Encountering the Chinese

Charles Eggenberger describes going up a mountain in trucks through Hagalwoori to the Chosin Reservoir area. He recalls how his unit learned that the Chinese had crossed the border near the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the surrounding units of soldiers had taken off out of the area during the initial attack by the Chinese.



Charles Elder

Taking Care of Myself

Charles Elder talks about the cycle of taking care of himself during his time as a wounded prisoner during the Korean War. He had moments of extreme highs or lows. He had to remind himself to have hope of survival.



Charles Fowler

The Biggest Apples and Frostbite

Charles Fowler describes how the North Koreans used human waste to fertilize their crops and recalls the apples being the biggest he had ever seen due to this fertilizing method. He recounts accidentally eating a cat once as well while trying to stave off hunger. He describes the cold winter and shares his encounter with frostbite. He details being flown to Incheon, put on a ship, and a doctor telling him he could go home if he signed to have his feet amputated.



Chinese Torture

Charles Fowler recounts a fellow soldier's torture experience during the Korean War. He shares that the soldier had been captured and tortured by the Chinese. He describes how the soldier endured his eyebrows and eyelashes being plucked out, his finger and toenails being removed, and being buried up to his neck with insects crawling in his ears.



Charles Gaush

Psychological Warfare with Propaganda

Charles Gaush talks about his time in the US Army's physchological warfare unit. He describes creating, designing, photographing, and printing propaganda leaflets during the Korean War. The leaflets were printed in Russian, Korean, and Chinese to promote democratic values.



Charles H. Brown

Becoming a Telegraphist

Charles H. Brown explains he became a basic seaman in the New Zealand Navy following basic training at Motuihe Island in Auckland Harbor. He remembers that after a few months, the New Zealand Navy began looking for communications operators. After taking a test and some training, he became a telegraphist and recalls being stationed aboard the frigate Hawea.



Charles Hoak

Last Push by the Chinese

Charles Hoak tells the story of when the Chinese Army were making a last push. He recalls being in the trenches with weapons loaded and U.S. Army airplanes dropping flares on their location so that they could see what was taking place on the battlefield. He remembers how the Republic of Korea (ROK) troops held the line and thwarted the advance of the Chinese Army.



Charles L. Chipley

Chinese Attacks Against Civilians

Charles L. Chipley Jr. offers his account of providing evacuation aid to the Marines at Heungnam. He recounts that his ship provided gunfire support so that troops could be loaded onto the evacuation ships. He describes the movement of a speculated 100,000 Chinese troops killing civilian Koreans.



Charles L. Hallgren

Back to Korea During the Vietnam War

Charles Hallgren describes being deployed to Japan in 1970 for the purpose of inspecting Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units in Korea. He explains that Korea had tactical nuclear weapons which had to be inspected in various base locations on the peninsula. He describes his impressions of seeing a modernized Korea in 1970.



Charles Rangel

The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Charles Ross

Initial Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross recounts being under the impression that the situation in Korea was under control and in the process of ending during the fall of 1950. He recalls his unit being sent north to help a unit which had run into some resistance and being attacked by the Chinese on the way. He describes an emotional scene once the attack had ended that left a lasting impression on him.



Chemical Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross describes being trapped for three days following the attack at Unsan, near the Nammyon River. He recalls waiting for the 5th Calvary to come to the rescue and overhearing that it had met resistance and would not be able to help. He recounts a strange explosion and shares how a phosphorus chemical attack allowed him and other soldiers to make their escape.



Captured by the Chinese

Charles Ross details the lead-up to his capture by the Chinese following the Battle of Unsan. He recalls searching for food and lodging in an abandoned house until meeting a Korean civilian. He recounts the generosity showed by the civilian prior to his capture. He provides an account of his experience as a POW.



Singing in the POW Camp

Charles Ross describes how the Chinese forced them to learn a particular song. He shares that once he and other fellow POWs found out what the words meant they refused to sing it as it called for the death of Americans. He details going on strike and singing "God Bless America" during his time as a POW.



Charles Stern

Thanksgiving in the Reservoir

Charles Stern describes the evacuation from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. As they started out, he notes how no one told him they were surrounded by the Chinese. Since it was Thanksgiving, he remembers being told they were to have a hot turkey dinner, but they never saw any hot meal. He provides an account of the chaos during the Chinese attack on his unit and holding their position on the hill. After surviving the Chinese attacks, he recalls being promised time in the warming tent but only being allowed a quick walk through the tent.



Surviving the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Stern shares the tactics he used to survive the cold in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. Due to his shoe size being thirteen, he explains how they had to issue him a smaller size boot and he was unable to rely on the rubber shoe packs to keep his feet dry. Lucky for him by continually changing his socks and not relying on the rubber shoe packs, he states he did not lose any toes to frostbite. Along with protecting his feet, he discusses the inability to eat most of the food in the c-rations because they were always frozen and they were unable to build fires to heat them. After not eating for so long, he shares the challenge of keeping food down after he came out of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the fighting at Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang. He describes the enemy forces that his unit faced and being outflanked many times by North Koreans.



Fighting the Chinese at Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about fighting Chinese forces at Pyongyang. He describes eating Thanksgiving dinner before the difficult withdrawal south from Pyongyang. During the withdrawal, he says they often went for days without food and their vehicles ran out of gas.



Chester Coker

The Battle That Got Me

Chester Coker speaks about the battle which impacted him the most. He recalls how he and his unit were just north of Panmunjeom, close to the 38th parallel. He remembers a stalemate had been reached, and negotiations were stalled, and the Army was ordered to push north. He shares how the battle that followed was the most fierce he experienced, pushing the North Korean and Chinese soldiers back north. He recalls how they were able to push forward because many of the enemy troops were asleep. He describes how a grenade landed and blew up on top of him.



Clara K. Cleland

Nursing Wounded Soldiers After Various Campaigns

Clara Cleland describes her nursing duties as various battles were occurring, including taking care of patients from the Jangin (Chosin) Reservoir. She recalls how she and her unit set up various Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH) and remembers witnessing the U.S.S. Missouri firing its guns and heavy fire from other ships as well. She explains how her unit was then moved to assist another unit on a hospital ship and how, from there, they began treating non-emergent patients with illnesses.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Chinese Were Everywhere

Clarence Sperbeck describes when he arrived on the front lines when the Chinese were all over the place they controlled everything. When he came back to the states, counter intelligence asked him how he knew the Chinese were everywhere dominating the region, and he said, "that was easy to detect." When you entered a traditional Korean home, you were supposed to take off your shoes outside and put rubber slippers on. Clarence Sperbeck said most of the houses he saw had Chinese Army Boots at the door, so that's how he knew they were sleeping in the Korean houses.



P.O.W. Capture: Right Into The Lion's Den

Clarence Sperbeck retails the story of being captured as a prisoner of war north of the Imjin River. He was sitting with a group of experienced "ol' timers", who told him that the Chinese were going to come around this valley, but Clarence Sperbeck told them there was no way it was going to happen. The soldiers heard the bugles blow (as a means of communicating with each other from afar) and mass firing ensues as they are given orders to pull back (which he never understood). General Ridgeway devised a trap within this valley to make the Chinese think that we were pulling back giving them the advantage, but when the Chinese made it to the center, General Ridgeway closed the gap which killed over 50,000 Chinese. However, when the original order was given, Clarence Sperbeck's platoon started to retreat and took the wrong turn. Turns out there were captured vehicles and they walked right into a group of Chinese soldiers.



My Capture

Clarence Sperbeck remembered April 25, 1951 because that was the day he was captured by the Chinese. Having been warned not to walk on the ridge line since it made it easy for the Chinese to detect your movement, the US troops walked the ridge line anyway. Clarence Sperbeck made an attempt to shoot in the direction of a sound behind him when a concussion grenade landed near him knocking him to the ground damaging his back. When he came out from under a rock, a Chinese soldier screamed at him to put down his weapon; he jumped behind a pine tree to try to shoot at the enemy, but the Chinese soldier's buddy was pointing his weapon at Clarence and he wouldn't have been able to shoot both. He put his rifle down and spend the rest of his time with the Chinese after walking for 3 months to get to the POW camp.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



Hope This Never Happens to You Too

Clarence Sperbeck commented on how fast the Chinese moved compared to the US troops. It was said that the average number of steps per minute the Chinese took were 140 to Americans' 120. While unable to hear, see, or walk due to his illness (amoebic dysentery), most of the American prisoners bypassed Clarence Sperbeck when he needed help, but a few soldiers helped him up. He was often the last in line (so weak/sick) during the march which would put him at a greater risk of being shot.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



You Dream Just Before You Die

Clarence Sperbeck tells the story of another camp that lost over 1600 men in a period of 2 weeks, and the Chinese brought the survivors of that "massacre" to Camp 1 to merge those survivors with his prison camp. Clarence Sperbeck was already suffering with amoebic dysentery at that time, so when he came upon his old squad leader who had survived the "massacre" (death from other camp), the squad leader demanded the Chinese to provide medical care for Clarence Sperbeck. He said he would have dreams of cooking a full meal, then going back to cook some more. Many men declared that these were the symptoms dying men.



Performing Medical Experiments on the Prisoners

In the 3 month stay in this hospital at Camp 1, the Chinese performed medical experiments on the prisoners by implanting a gland from an animal into POW's bodies. POWs were told that if the gland stayed in their body, they would potentially run a high fever and die from an infection. Clarence Sperbeck said the soldiers wouldn't let the incision heal over and they would attempt to squeeze the gland out to keep it from infecting their body.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clifford Allen

The Unarmed Chinese Decoy

Clifford Allen shares his second-hand knowledge of the Korean War. He details a story he heard from another veteran involving the Chinese. He explains that the Chinese would send up unarmed Chinese decoys to make American forces waste their bullets.



Clifford Bradley Dawson

Cease Fire and Christmas in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson shares his experience of the cease-fire being called in July 1953. He describes watching across the Han River and seeing the final rounds going off that night. Despite the cease-fire, he remembers there being no celebrations and how he felt suspicious of the Chinese and North Koreans. He remembers celebrating Christmas in Korea even though they had no tree. He shares how, to pass the time, they played cards.



Clifford Petrey

Injuries at the Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir

Clifford Petrey describes landing at Inchon. He recounts injuries he received as a soldier both at Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir. He details his subsequent capture by the Chinese and camp movements while a POW.



Living Conditions as a POW

Clifford Petrey comments on the food rations provided by the Chinese. He recalls suffering through cold winters in North Korea as a prisoner of war even after being given Chinese uniforms by his captors. He describes the healing of his wounds he sustained at the Chosin Reservoir despite being a POW with little medical attention.



POW Experience

Clifford Petrey further details his POW experience. He recalls there being little firewood and comments on the close sleeping arrangements. He shares that lice was an issue and how he and other soldiers picked lice off of each other. He details food portions and content and speaks of rampant dysentery.



Letters to and from Home

Clifford Petrey recalls being allowed to write letters home occasionally. He recounts his mother keeping three or four of his letters through the years as a means of assurance that he was alive after having previously been listed as Missing in Action. He shares that he received a few letters from his family during his time as a POW as well.



Clifford Townsend

Radar Operator Description

Clifford Townsend details the duties of a radar operator. He comments on the challenges of using old equipment and shares that the radar team sat as close to the front lines as possible. He shares that his full color vision worked to his advantage as a radar operator.



Conrad R. Grimshaw

The Burning of Chinese Rifles

Conrad Grimshaw briefly shares his thoughts on South Korea in comparison to North Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers being killed by the hundreds. He recounts the burning of Chinese rifles to keep them out of circulation among the Chinese troops.



Curtis Pilgrim

Facing Fear With Courage

Curtis Pilgrim recalls living in a constant state of fear while serving on the front lines, yet finding courage to stand firm. He remembers being in awe of the Chinese soldiers and their determination to survive and how the Chinese often used American weapons against them. He recalls feeling unprepared when it came time to pull the trigger, despite being trained for combat.



Dan McKinney

Captured

Dan McKinney describes how he was captured by enemy forces. His entire company was nearly wiped out. He talks about how all the members of the squad he commanded were killed and enduring friendly artillery shelling before he was captured.



The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly sixty-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Infractions and Consequences for POW's

Dan McKinney talks about infractions and consequences for prisoners in his POW camp. He describes the cages that they were sometimes held in. He also discusses his perceptions of North Korean POW camps versus Chinese POW camps.



Life After the Armistice Was Signed

Dan McKinney talks about life in the POW camp during months prior to and days after the Armistice were signed. He mentions that their treatment became better or worse based on the state of the negotiations. He talks about the prisoners' reactions to the news of the Armistice as well as how he and his comrades were transported to be exchanged nearly a month after the ceasefire went in place.



Fifty Years of Silence

Dan McKinney talks about his reluctance to talk about his POW experience for the first fifty years after the Armistice was signed. He describes how he decided to start talking about the war to graduates of a leadership class at Cannon Air Force Base in 2005. He mentions that he has talked to every graduating class since (over 70 groups).



Daniel Carvalho

Wonsan Landing

Daniel Carvalho discusses his landing at Wonsan and subsequent retreat to Busan after being overrun by North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. He explains how the Chinese had sticks of bamboo. He shares how the LST was the mode of transport. LST stands for Landing ShipTank or tank landing ship.



Daniel J. Rickert

Becoming a Demolition Corporal

Daniel Rickert talks about the jobs he performed as a part of the 3rd Combat Engineering Battalion. Trained as an infantry soldier, he describes assuming his job as Demolition Corporal being given a manual. He set up removing explosives in landmines, etc.



Chinese Box Mines

Daniel Rickert talks about Chinese box mines. He describes what these mines looked like and how they operated. He also details how he went about his job to find and disarm them.



Enemy Bunkers and Trenches

Daniel Rickert talks about the many enemy bunkers and trenches. He describes how they were designed and built. They were very hard to find.



Dangerous Times

Daniel Rickert talks about several times he was in danger while serving as a demolition corporal in Korea. He talks about suffering a concussion and a severe leg injury. He also mentions that because of his attached status, though deserving, he was not written up for a Purple Heart.



Life in the Winter of '51-'52

Daniel Rickert describes life during the winter of 1951-1952. He talks about his duties, frozen food, and "hot bunking." He also details other aspects of bunker life on the front lines.



Darrell D. McArdle

Running the POW Camps

Darrell McArdle explains that his company was downsized and his new role as a coordinator of POW camps. He notes how camps moved, and his role was coordinating movement of POWS and resources. He shares that the majority of the prisoners were equally distributed between Chinese and North Koreans and that many of the Chinese soldiers did not know where they were.



David Carpenter

Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



David Espinoza

Koje-do Prison Camp Riots-1951

David Espinoza speaks about his participation in the combat operations within Koje-do Prison Camp. He recalls having to use flame throwers to help stop the riots incited by North Korean and Chinese prisoners. He remembers that he and the men he served with had to use hand grenades and bayonets to restore order in the camp.



On the Front Lines

David Espinoza recounts being attacked by North Korean and Chinese forces. He recalls carrying five-gallon cans of water on his back while digging trenches. He describes sustaining mortar and sniper fire by night during patrols. He recalls hearing the loud bugles sounded by Chinese soldiers during an enemy attack.



David Lehtonen

Images of Experiences

David Lehtonen shares images of his experiences during the war. He recounts when he switched duties and the individual who took his place was overtaken by guerillas. While continuing to look at images, he offers insight into how it felt being thrown around the back of the B28 airplane during missions. Using maps to identify different types of missions, he reflects on one dangerous mission close to Shanghai.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez shares his mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so he would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them being rather tall. He believes the prisoner was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



Prior Knowledge and First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. He was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Valley

Retreating from Pyongyang

David Valley talks about what happened as his unit retreated from the north into Seoul. He describes burning villages as they moved south and talks about the condition of Seoul upon their return.



Protecting General MacArthur

David Valley describes being part of a unit charged with protecting General MacArthur. He talks about how he was chosen and his duties in Japan where General MacArthur stayed.



David White

A Close Call from an Enemy Mortar

David White tells a story about an incident when he and his sergeant's position was hit by a partially exploded enemy mortar shell. Both he and the his sergeant were not injured. In surprise, they laughed after the situation.



Delcio Rivera Rosario

Battle of Jackson Heights

Delcio Rivera Rosario recalls his unit replacing South Korean troops at the outpost at Jackson Heights. He notes that moving through the Kumwha Valley meant traveling very close to enemy lines. He recounts how, when they arrived to the outpost, there were no trenches or fortifications, only hard rock. He shares that on the third night after their arrival, they were ordered from the mountain as the enemy was approaching. He reflects on the events of that night which led to his own injury.



Injured at the Battle of Jackson Hill

Delcio Rivera Rosario received the Purple Heart for injury suffered during the Battle of Jackson Heights. He recalls the enemy throwing hand grenades in his vicinity which resulted in his injury. He describes despite being wounded in his heel running downhill to escape the enemy advance. He notes that while he still suffers pain from this injury, he does not regret his service.



Delmer Davis

Missions on Gimpo Peninsula

Delmer Davis talks about several missions that his unit participated in on the Gimpo Peninsula. He describes working with other military units and capturing enemy soldiers.



Searching for the Chinese

Delmer Davis talks about the raiders' mission near Wonsan. He describes moving far forward of the front lines in search of enemy forces, eventually locating 10,000 Chinese troops.



Demetrios Arvanitis

The Fog Dissolved

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of the Chinese army, just days before the armistice, attempting to penetrate through the center of the UN lines. He recalls the fog creating more issues for the Chinese than anticipated. As the fog lifted, he comments on the heroism of his men, which led to the capture of fourteen Chinese soldiers and their commanding officer.



He Would Have Surrendered in 1950

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of an altercation he had while the Chinese soldiers were surrendering. He describes a wounded Chinese soldier turning an automatic rifle on him and his quick actions that led to disarming the soldier. Because of his interaction with the prisoner of war, he shares how the prisoner of war tried to give him a service medal and sent a letter to President Eisenhower praising Demetrios Arvanitis.



I Thought I Would Not Survive

Demetrios Arvanitis recounts the battle in which he thought he would not survive. He describes receiving a communication detailing a Chinese attack on the hill in which he was positioned in the Iron Triangle. After being bombarded by the Chinese artillery, he remembers the American artillery successfully pushing the Chinese back.



Danger Remained Before Our Eyes

Demetrios Arvanitis discusses his near death experience shortly before the ceasefire went into effect. He describes how the Chinese seemed focused on removing his unit from their location north of the 38th parallel. During the night before the ceasefire, he remembers shells detonating and cutting down all of the trees surrounding his trench. He reveals how the chaplain held a mass the following morning at the location in which he escaped death.



Denis John Earp

The Moment of Capture

Denis John Earp explains the moment when he was captured. He shares that up to that point, he had never been hit. He recalls how his plane was hit three times and describes the emergency procedures he took as his plane lost altitude.



"Lenient Policy"

Denis John Earp remembers that, upon capture, he was interrogated by Chinese soldiers. Knowing his rights under the Geneva Convention, he shares he knew his rights under the Geneva Convention and explains how he refused to answer some questions. He recalls how he was quickly informed by the Chinese about their “lenient policy” and soon was placed in a scary situation that was meant to force him to change his mind.



Always Being Watched

Denis John Earp explains what it was like being transferred to a Chinese Camp from the North Korean Camp known as “Park’s Palace." He recalls how the prisoners, himself included, were constantly watched and how there were daily propaganda lectures. He details the unfortunate circumstances that occurred in the winter months for those who were injured.



Park's Palace

Denis John Earp describes the conditions at Park’s Palace, a Prisoner of War (POW) camp in North Korea. He describes a cruel game they would play for the guards’ entertainment. He explains the interrogation tactics, including waterboarding, that were used to gather information.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



War is Hell, Winter is Worse

Desmond Vinten describes spending twenty-seven days in an English military prison. His charge was "firing on the Queen's enemy without the Queen's permission." His sentence reflected the reality that sometimes shooting at the Chinese created more danger due to the Chinese soldiers' skill at firing mortars in retaliation. Besides the challenges of engaging the enemy, the heat, cold, and dust left him with the understanding that "war is hell, but winter is even worse."



Dimitrios Matsoukas

Civil War in Greece

Dimitrios Matsoukas briefly describes the Greek Civil War and offers parallels between fighting communism in Greece and the fight against communism in South Korea.



A Brother's Sacrifice

Dimitrios Matsoukas describes two engagements in which his brother, George Matsoukas, fought. The first was at Hill 313, also known as Scotch Hill, where the Chinese and the Greeks took part in hand-to-hand combat resulting the Greeks ultimately recapturing the hill. The second battle happened to the northwest of Hill 313 on an unnamed hill where George would be mortally wounded by a Chinese grenade.



Domingo B. Febre Pellicier

Danger on the Front Lines

Domingo Febre Pellicier describes his experiences on the front lines. He shares that they would often be on patrol watching for the Chinese troops. During the attacks on the hills, there would often be mortar flying around. He recounts a mishap he had with a hand grenade that almost cost him his life.



Lack of Water for Hygiene

Domingo Febre Pellicier explains how scarce water was on the front lines. He explains that they were only able to shower once per month and how brushing one's teeth was a luxury. While some of the hills had a water pipe, using it often meant making oneself a target for the Chinese who were watching.



Domingo Morales Calderon

Wounded in Action / Herido en Batalla

Domingo Morales Calderon details the events which took place during the Battle of Hill 427. He remembers how his friend, who was much stronger, died during the battle while saving his life. He recalls his rage at Chinese forces and shares the fact that he wanted to kill every one of them himself to avenge his friend’s death.

Domingo Morales Calderón detalla los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla del Cerro 427. Recuerda cómo su amigo, que era mucho más fuerte, murió durante la batalla después que le salvo la vida. Cuenta de su ira contra las fuerzas chinas y comparte el hecho de que quería matar a todos ellos él mismo para vengar la muerte de su amigo.



Don C. Jones

Understanding the Communist Perspective

Don C. Jones arrived in Korea in 1947. He describes the political situation between North and South Korea at that time. He describes how reunification was promoted although it never happened. He elaborates seeing signs intimating reunification would never happen, spurred by the Soviet presence backing the North Koreans. He also describes a conversation he had with a Communist late at night, attempting to understand the other perspective.



Don McCarty

The Nevada Campaign: Bloody Nevada

Don McCarty fought North Korean and Chinese soldiers during the Nevada Campaign. He experienced battle fatigue and fear while fighting at the front lines. Don McCarty still thinks about the death of his assistant gunner and ammo carrier.



Don R. Childers

Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Donald Campbell

From Hitchhiker to Prisoner

Donald Campbell describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese on November 2, 1950. He describes being attacked by a hand grenade. He shares how they fought back against the Chinese. He explains how he ended up in that area in the first place.



Interrogation Process

Donald Campbell explains how he was interrogated as a Prisoner of War (POW). He explains how the Chinese handled the questioning. He shares how he coped with relentless questions.



Donald D. Johnson

Almost Prisoner of War

Donald D. Johnson elaborates on his job responsibilities as the Lieutenant's Jeep driver. Three times a week he had to drive to the Division Headquarters to pick up new maps. New maps were made using aerial views of Korea to assist in artillery attacks. He describes the commute he had to take when driving through the roads of the Chosin Reservoir and how cold he found it. He recalls an incident where, by chance, he missed becoming a Prisoner of War.



Donald H. Jones

Both Heels Shot Off

Donald Jones describes a specific night battle when the heels of both of his boots were shot off yet he was uninjured.



Donald J. Zoeller

Defending Seoul

Part of Donald Zoeller's platoon was sent to Seoul when the Chinese tried to retake the city. He describes how his colleague "fell apart" and he was asked to take over leadership. He describes living in a foxhole constantly hearing shrapnel and was called upon at times to open fire.



Donald Lynch

Serving in Korea

Donald Lynch recalls how he landed in Incheon, South Korea, and recalls taking trains through Seoul and seeing many starving children. He shares how he and his unit gave their c-rations to the children. He describes being sent from Seoul to Chuncheon and then on to the frontlines where he served as a unit supply sergeant and was a part of the K Company, 197th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. He comments on how he was wounded, bayonetted in the abdomen by a Chinese soldier and shares how he later served in a medical unit.



Donald R. Bennett

Approaching Chosin Reservoir

Donald Bennett recounts moving to the base of the mountain at Chosin (Jangjin). He shares how the tanks were unable to make it up the roads which were too narrow until the engineers fixed the roads in spots. He recalls being awakened early on November 28th and being told the Chinese were attacking everywhere and that they needed to move out. He explains encountering other service members who had encountered Chinese. He finishes this segment by discussing his arrival at Kor'to-ri.



We Were in Big Trouble

Donald Bennett begins this portion of his account of the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir with his unit's departure to headquarters. Along the way, he remembers seeing burning trucks and witnessing American and Chinese units shooting at each other. He recalls their encounter with the Chinese who eventually knocked the track off of the first tank and then shortly thereafter surrounded the American trucks and tanks, including his. He details the night being very cold and dark. His tank was hit by something, which he later would discover was an anti-tank weapon that knocked off his 50-caliber machine gun. He shares the damage that was done to his tank and the destruction of another tank.



Last One Up the Mountain, Last One Down

Donald Bennett recounts living conditions while they were in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He shares a detailed account of a close encounter between the Chinese and his tank. He recalls the challenge of driving the tanks back down the mountain after the snow had been packed down into the ice. He remembers that his tank was the last tank down. He shares how those that remained in his unit were taken by boat back to Busan and were reformed at an airstrip where they conducted foot patrols before fighting their way up the center of Korea across the 38th Parallel in support of the 1st Marine Regiment.



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Experiences at Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge

Donald Schneider was a participant in several battles while stationed in Korea, including Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge. He provides a firsthand account of what it was like in these two areas, including how hard it was to take them. He explains why they gave Heartbreak Ridge back to the Chinese.



Doyle W. Dykes

Ruined Gloves

Doyle W. Dykes reminisces on a time he wrote his family asking for a new pair of gloves to endure the extreme cold. Upon receiving them that day, he had to bury over two hundred and seventy Chinese soldiers who died after a napalm attack. He shares that his gloves were immediately ruined and that he buried them with the soldiers.



Ed Donahue

The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed M. Dozier

Operation Mouse Trap: Dog Company Used as Bait

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951. He notes that his company, Dog Company, was used as bait to lure the enemy to a mountain near the front line. He recalls the Chinese coming across the valley and being met by a squadron of American Black Widow aircraft. He explains how a few of the Chinese were able to drop in between Dog Company and the tanks in their rear as well as the fighting which ensued.



Eddie Reyes Piña

Witnessing the Horrors of Pork Chop Hill and Then the Armistice

Eddie Reyes Piña served his country as part of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He reflects on how the unit fought back against the Chinese and North Koreans. He notes how he left his position in the rear guard to assist a medic in bringing the dead and wounded back. He further explains that the medic received a Bronze Star for Valor, but he did not in part because he did not know how to advocate for himself to ensure he received the medal. He concludes by sharing his recollections of witnessing the Armistice.



Edgar Tufts

Most Fearful Time in Korea

Edgar Tufts describes his most fearful memories in Korea when the advanced party he was in was heavily shelled by the Chinese Army,



Edmund Reel

Food in the Prison Camp

Edmund Reel describes the food that he and other prisoners received from their Chinese captors during his thirty-four months as a POW. He recalls eating soybeans, cracked corn, sorghum, and millet. He shares that they were fed two meals a day and provides an example of the ration size.



Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Captured by Chinese

Edmund Reel explains the circumstances that led to his capture and imprisonment for thirty-four months. He recalls there being roughly five thousand enemy soldiers advancing towards him. He shares that he had no choice but to surrender.



Edward A. Gallant

First Weapons Monitory System

Edward Gallant was assigned as a weapons monitoring repairman on a MSQ 28 System (Fort Bliss, TX). This 40 foot computer could provide 6000 miles of microwave radar which was 2 times the distance of the United States. Edward Gallant said they could see all the way to Russia. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Edward Gallant said that the Russians who had pulled their weapons out of Cuba, gave the WMD to China, and the Chinese sold it to North Korea which is why they have access to the materials they claim they have. They gave 3 of these Weapons Systems to Germany, 2 Korea, and Edward Gallant operated one that sent over 256 missiles towards their target (mission led by Howard Hughes).



Military Service, a Family Affair

Edward Gallant followed the military tradition in his family. Some of his brothers fought in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. One of his brothers was a POW that was killed in action during the Korean War and is buried in Hawaii.



Edward Brooks

Night Patrol to Apprehend Migun Wianbu

Edward Brooks patrolled at night to catch American soldiers looking for US military comfort women & their pimps. They apprehended them on many occasions.
The comfort women and their pimps were turned into the Korean authorities and then the soldiers were disciplined for their illegal actions.



Edward C. Sheffield

Introduction to the Tiger

Edward Sheffield identifies one of the camps where he was held prisoner for the first year and a half as Camp Seven. He describes meeting the "Tiger", the enemy police force commanding officer who later began the forced death march he would survive. He recalls the "Tiger" ordering the murder of all men in the sick bay prior to the march.



Edward Hoth

Battle of the Chosin Reservior

Edward Hoth fought in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the winter of 1950. The weather was 42 below zero and it was so cold that guns became sluggish while oil froze on the guns.



Edward Langevin

The Ever Continuous Battle

Edward Langevin is a Korean Defense Veteran since he was in South Korea to protect it from North Korea. He said that these veterans contributed to the "ever continuous battle" He believes that the tense feeling between these two regions will continue until we stop China from helping North Korea.



Edward Mastronardi

We Were Alone and the Chinese Were Everywhere

Edward Mastronardi described the scene at hill 464 and 467 as two humps on a camel. They lacked communication due to the terrain (mountains), no air support, and overcast caused artillery to shoot without knowing directly what it was going to hit since the visibility was so bad. Edward Mastronardi brought Colonel up to witness several hundred Chinese only yards away, so the Colonel wanted to take out his 9 mm to attack the several hundred Chinese himself! They decided that attempting to attack the Chinese was too much, but they did it anyway and didn't succeed in taking Hill 464.



The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



"Let's Go You Bastards, You Can't Live Forever!"

Within 100+ yards of their objective to attack the Chinese at Hilltop 187 near Samich'on River, Edward Mastronardi described how close the shells were from the tops of their heads, but it didn't stop their advancements since the shrapnel flew forward not putting them in any immediate danger. Edward Mastronardi held his 9 mm gun in his hand and waived it in the air shouting to his men, "Let's go you bastards, you can't live forever!" Bravely charging ahead, breaking the Chinese hold without losing a single man, Edward Mastronardi fought the Chinese at Hill 187.



"Canada boy, tonight you die!"

Before the Battle of Song-gok Spur, a Chinese Company Commander walked straight up to the front line and leaned over and said, "Canada boy, tonight you die!" To which Edward Mastronardi replied, "Come and get us you SOB!" which was documented in the Canadian documentary 28 Heroes. They located the company Commander in Beijing after the war to interview about this event. The battle resulted in only 6 Canadian deaths.



Edward Parmenter

Reduced Forces Build Enemy Confidence

Edward Parmenter shares his views on why the Korean War began. He attributes the United States' focus on reducing military forces at the time to the start of the war. He claims that reduced forces in the region gave the Communists confidence which led to the first attack, and he comments on President Truman's reluctance to allow General MacArther to bomb bases in Manchuria to prevent escalation.



Edward R. Valle

Arriving in Korea

Edward Valle notes he arrived in Korea in June 1954. He recalls the chaplain taking photos to send home to families to reassure them their soldier had arrived and that he would keep them safe. He describes the transport from Japan to Korea by plane and hearing rumors of planes being shot down en route.



Edward Redmond

Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edward Rowny

Why Didn't MacArthur do More About the Chinese?

The interviewer provides some background about the Chinese involvement in early October. As a response, Edward Rowny explains that the numbers began increasing slowly, and his staff reported this as a concern to a skeptical General Willoughby in Japan. He recalls inviting General Willoughby to meet two of the Chinese they had captured. He shares he had studied anthropology and knew from the folds of their eyes that they were Chinese, but he was not believed. He remarks that General Willoughby was mistaken, and, unfortunately, General MacArthur believed General Willoughby instead of him and his corps.



Evacuation from North Korea

Edward Rowny shares was put in charge of the evacuation of the 600,000 tons of supplies, 100,000 troops, and 100,000 refugees at the port at Heungnam, North Korea. He recounts his job also included blowing up the port so that the Chinese could not use it. He recalls he was scheduled to be on the last ship to leave, but that ship was blown up. He recounts how the commander thought he had gone down with the boat, but, instead, he was stranded on the beach with his radio operator and jeep driver. He describes how they were finally rescued by an American plane and made it home by Christmas, despite being shot at.



Edward T. Smith

Becoming a POW during the Battle of Kunuri

Edward T Smith was taken as a POW during the Battle of Kunuri at the beginning of December in 1950. He remembers being with a few stragglers when they ran into a Command Post of Chinese. He states they were told they were not being killed but that the Chinese wanted prisoners.



Life in Camps

Edward T. Smith describes life in the camp. He shares that most of the day focused on whatever work detail there was, often either wood or burial detail. He recalls how the Chinese tried to indoctrinate the prisoners and some believed it enough to move to China. He remembers the cramped sleeping quarters and limited uniforms.



A Letter of Lies

Edward T. Smith recounts only receiving one letter which was from his aunt. He believes that the only reason he even received that letter was because it lied about how terrible Thanksgiving was, making it seem like life back in the US was terrible. This supported the ideas of Chinese propaganda.



Life as a POW

Edward T. Smith describes what it was like being captured, including his treatment by the Chinese. He recalls they were relatively decent but there was the looming unknown of what was going to happen. He remembers the living conditions, including how they were often just fed kernels of corn.



Edwin Durán González

A Difficult Night / Una Noche Peligrosa

Edwin Durán González describes an attack in which North Korean and Chinese troops advanced on their trenches. He and another soldier did not hear the command to retreat from their observation post and were forced to hide while they heard footsteps above them. He recounts the fear he felt that night.

Edwin Durán González describe un ataque en el que las tropas norcoreanas y chinas avanzaron sobre sus trincheras. Él y otro soldado no oyeron la orden de retirarse de su puesto de observación y se vieron obligados a esconderse. Ellos oían los pasos del enemigo por encima de ellos. Cuenta del miedo que sintió esa noche.



Edwin R. Hanson

You're the Guy that Saved My Life

Edwin Hanson recalls his first encounter with Chinese at Kor-'o-ri. Edwin Hanson threw four grenades and two went off, so the following morning he went down and picked up the 2 that didn't go off and threw the remaining grenades at their front lines. Ralph Alfonso Gastelum vividly details the chaos breaking out one evening while he was eating as the Chinese moved near his tent. He remembers grenades going off and it proves to be decades later that he finds out the Hanson saved his life.



First Shots at the Chinese at Chosin Reservoir

Edwin Hansen describes an occasion when a Chinese soldier played dead near an American campfire. He recollects US troops were heating C-rations by the campfire when noticed about 15-20 yards away, the enemy had lifted up off the frozen ground and began firing upon the US servicemen. Hanson shot and killed the Chinese soldier attacking his regiment. He and Ralph Gastelum recall the immediate impact of killing the enemy and its long-term effects.



Elburn Duffy

Engagement at the Battle of Chail-li

Elburn Duffy recalls the Battle of Chail-li as being the first major battle he was involved in once in Korea. He shares how Chail-li was a target because it was a transportation hub in the region and a step along the way in capturing Chorwan's dam and power station. He remembers his company, D (Dog) Company, was ordered to go up one hill with B (Baker) Company taking another and A (Able) Company being held in reserves. He recalls that while the plan was a good one, the weather that day did not cooperate, so the outcome was not as they had hoped.



My Life was on the Line

Elburn Duffy recalls several incidents from his involvement in the Battle of Chail-li where lives were in peril. He explains that as a soldier they never caught enough sleep. He offers details on the daily lives of soldiers serving in Korea.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Entering the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis entered the Korean War in December 1950 and he entered through Pusan. After spending time there, he was sent through Seoul and then went onto the 38th parallel. During this whole time, he didn't have to fight any enemy.



Scars From the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis suffered many injures during the Korean War. A grenade went off right by his face and he experienced pain and scaring to his right cheek. A military artillery shell blew up right by him and he almost lost his right leg and arm.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Living Conditions in the Prison Camps

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the long march from the mining camp to Camp 5. He explains that many died of exposure due to the lack of sufficient winter clothing and recalls that within a six weeks period over one thousand men died. He discusses the treatment of POW's by the North Koreans and the Chinese as well as the propaganda campaigns.



Propaganda and POW Release

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the continued propaganda lectures with the Chinese and the living conditions in Camp 4. He remembers them as not being too terrible as they had wood floors and coal-heated stoves. He recounts his release and shares that he was picked up by a helicopter, taken to Inchon, put on a U-boat, and transported back to the States.



Ellsworth Peterson

72 Days on the Front Line

Ellsworth Peterson talks about the difficulties of being on the front line without rest for 72 straight days. He describes the fear and experience of falling under the attack of heavy shelling. He elaborates on his unit suffering many casualties during these attacks.



Alone on a Chinese Outpost Raid

Ellsworth Peterson talks about a mission in which he and others in his unit raided a Chinese Outpost. In the skirmish, he describes finding himself separated from the other members of his party. Surrounded by Chinese soldiers, he laid down and pretended to be dead before making his way back behind friendly lines.



Epifanio Rodriguez Nunez

Christmas Propaganda / Propaganda en Navidad

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describes the moments of the war that were most impactful. He recalls how during the Christmas he spent in Korea, the Chinese broadcast propaganda over the radio aimed directly at Colombian troops. While he does not know if anyone was dissuaded from fighting, he shares that most of the soldiers laughed at the failed attempt to brainwash them.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describe los momentos de la guerra que más lo impactaron. Recuerda que durante la Navidad que pasó en Corea, los chinos emitieron propaganda en español por la radio dirigida a las tropas colombianas. Si bien no sabe si alguien fue disuadido de pelear, él cuenta que la mayoría de los soldados se reían del intento de lavarles el cerebro.



Ernesto Sanchez

Trench warfare like WWI

Ernesto Sanchez describes how serving in the Korean War was probably similar to World War 1, digging trenches, putting up fences and placing mines. As a result of creating a No Man's Land the forces were probably able to hold off the Chinese. Most noteworthy, Ernesto Sanchez also describes taking the Chinese soldiers as prisoners and how civilians would aid in this effort.



Attacked by 135,000 Soldiers

Ernesto Sanchez describes the night 135,000 Chinese soldiers attacked in an effort to push back UN Forces . The Chinese pushed the United Nations forces back, but with the help of the American Soldiers they were able to hold off the Chinese and no land was ultimately lost. This location was a strategic position because it was a gateway to Seoul.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discusses the most difficult moments of the war and the fear he felt during dangerous missions. He details the Battle of the El Chamizo Hill in which they were under fire for over twenty-four hours and slowly advanced to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops. Furthermore, he remembers the dangers he faced during night patrols and advanced observation missions.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discute los momentos más difíciles de la guerra y el miedo que sintió durante las misiones más peligrosas. Detalla la Batalla del Cerro El Chamizo en la que estuvieron bajo fuego durante más de veinticuatro horas y eventualmente avanzaron para reconquistar el cerro de las tropas chinas. Además, recuerda los peligros que enfrentó durante las patrullas nocturnas y las misiones de observación avanzada.



Eugene Dixon

Surrounded by the Enemy at Thanksgiving

Eugene Dixon gives a detailed explanation of encountering the Chinese soldiers just after Thanksgiving in 1950. He recalls being prohibited from crossing the 38th Parallel, and recounts his experiences during the landing at Wonsan. He describes having a hot Thanksgiving meal just before providing relief for other soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir, where the Chinese had cut the supply lines.



Eugene Evers

Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions as a Prisoner of War. He explains the circumstances of his first seven months in North Korea. He elaborates on how he was treated by the Chinese and North Koreans.



Isolation in Chinese POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being isolated in a Chinese POW camp. He describes his knowledge of Marine Colonel Frank Schwable. Schwable was a fellow POW in the Chinese prisoner camp.



You Are Going to Die

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being questioned by Chinese soldiers during his time a POW. He explains how a fellow soldier saved his life by telling them that he was an "ABC agent". He describes the feeling associated with being told you are going to die.



Details of Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult daily living conditions of being a prisoner of war. He explains what it was like during a seven month period (July 1952-January 1953) as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



A Christmas Feast in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about Christmas in a POW camp. He explains that this was the only time he had eaten meat during his 14 month captivity. This occurred during his captivity as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



28 Hours to Mukden

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses his arduous and physically challenging journey while be transferred to a POW camp in Mukden (presently Shenyang), China.



Living Conditions in Mukden Prison

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult living conditions in Mukden Prison (Manchuria) during his seven month stay there as a Prisoner of War.



This Particularly Mean Guard...

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions and one particularly mean guard he encountered during his seven month stay in Mukden Prison (China) as a Prisoner of War.



On Trial as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being put on trial while being held at Mukden Prison (Manchuria) and his sentence of death by hard labor in the mines.



"Well, Welcome Back!"

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses the details of how he was released after 14 months as a prisoner of war.



Eugene Gregory

Marine Corps Advanced Infantry Training

Eugene Gregory describes training in the Marine Corps Advanced Infantry. He recounts exercises involving barbed wire and training under live fire and in cold weather situations throughout the courses. He shares that this type of training was meant to prepare them to adapt in combat situations and for Korean winters.



The Biggest Threat Support Faced

Eugene Gregory describes the dangers faced by artillery support and how they differ from the front lines of the battlefield. He shares that the biggest threats were not from rifle fire but from martyrs and artillery and recounts having to jump into foxholes often to take cover. He recalls the North Koreans and Chinese being very skillful in artillery weaponry and attributes their skill to their recognition of possessing limited ammunition resources.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



"The Older I Get, The Prouder I Am"

Ezra Frank Williams is very proud of his contribution during the Korean War to fight off the North Koreans and Chinese. He has admiration for Korean immigrants that came to the United States after the war. South Koreans really show that they appreciate everything the UN did to protect their country.



Fekede Belachew

Service After Armistice

Fekede Belachew describes his service after the Korean War. He explains how the thought at the time was the Communists would break the truce. Fekede Belachew patrolled jungle where he frequently encountered Chinese at a distance. He also describes his fondness for injera, an Ethiopian dish, that he missed in Korea.



Felix DelGiudice

Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Felix DelGiudice and his battalion describes how their battalion was ambushed and fourteen people were killed. He explains how the units were divided and argues that the General was in too much of a hurry. He remembers how much of a struggle the units had during that time.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Most Impactful Moments / Momentos Más Impactantes

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares the moments which were most difficult during the war. He explains that while fighting in the North, he ran out of ammunition and felt unprepared for the weather. Moreover, he explains the importance of his job finding sounds from the enemy.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que mientras luchaba en el norte, se quedó sin municiones y no tenía la ropa necesaria para el clima. Además, explica la importancia de su trabajo encontrando sonidos del enemigo.



Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares his thoughts on the legacy of the war. He remembers that even though Koreans were very different, he made friends and learned some of the language. This skill was useful when a group of Koreans burned by napalm were asking for water.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte sus pensamientos sobre el legado de la guerra. Recuerda que, aunque los coreanos eran muy diferentes, se hizo amigos y aprendió algo del idioma. Esta habilidad fue útil cuando un grupo de coreanos quemados por napalm les pedían agua.



Frances M. Liberty

Remembering an Incident on the Train

Frances Liberty recalls an incident where the fireman and stoker on the train ran away when they saw Chinese Soldiers on a nearby hill. She admits she thought she was going to die, but a soldier was able to drive the train back to Pusan. She discusses another experience that occurred while serving in a medical facility. She remembers everyone pulling out overnight and being left behind with a young captain. She recounts they were discovered by U.S. Marines that helped them evacuate.



Francis John Ezzo

Just Doing My Job

Francis Ezzo explains that he does not remember specific hills or battles because he was just doing his job. He describes being outnumbered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the Chinese were not well equipped as some did not have rifles or shoes.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Difficult Moments during War - Momentos difíciles durante la guerra

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the first battle he encountered and the trench warfare in which his battalion supported American troops. He remembers patrolling the hills and thinking about how little experience he and his fellow Colombian soldiers had prior to arriving in the north. In order to engage the enemy into battle, they had to cross a narrow ridge as there were landmines surrounding the area and dead Chinese soldiers on the barbed wire. He describes the mortar attacks which were near his platoon they endured and the heroism of his fellow soldiers as they endured a day long battle. He recalls one of his soldiers, while bleeding heavily, asking the rest of his company to leave, but they refused.

Francisco Caicedo Montua describe la primera batalla que enfrentó y la guerra de trincheras en la que su batallón apoyó a las tropas estadounidenses. Recuerda que tenían que patrullar los cerros y en esos momentos Francisco pensaba en la poca experiencia que él y sus compañeros colombianos tenían antes de llegar al norte. Para enfrentar al enemigo en la batalla, tuvieron que cruzar una cresta en la cual habían minas por toda la área y soldados chinos muertos en el alambre de púas. Describe los ataques de mortero que cayeron cerca de su pelotón y el heroísmo de sus compañeros mientras pelearon una batalla que duró un día. Uno de sus soldados, mientras sangraba mucho, le pidió al resto de su compañía que se fueran, pero ellos no estaban dispuestos a dejarlo solo.



Trench Warfare and Faith - Guerra de trincheras y la Fe de los Soldados

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the stories that war writes for each individual soldier. He describes how he survived machine gun fire and mortar attacks by Chinese troops during a fierce battle. He offers a first hand account of a battle in which a Chinese bunker was taken over after intense fighting in which his platoon advanced into enemy lines. He credits this victory, and the fact that none of his men died in the conflict, to the Virgin Mary. The portrait that he carried to battle hangs over his bed to this day.

Francisco Caicedo Montua habla de las historias que la guerra escribe para cada soldado. Durante una feroz batalla, describe cómo sobrevivió al fuego de una ametralladora y a los ataques de mortero de las tropas chinas. Él ofrece un relato de primera mano de una batalla en la que un búnker chino fue tomado después de intensos combates en los que su pelotón avanzó hacia la posición de los enemigos. Él atribuye esta victoria y el hecho de que ninguno de sus hombres murieron en la batalla a la Virgen María. El retrato que él llevó a la guerra todavía cuelga sobre su cama hasta el día de hoy.



Frank Abasciano

The Chosin Reservoir

Frank Abasciano describes how it felt to be in the Chosin Reservoir alongside a WWII Battle of the Bulge veteran. He remembers being trapped there for several nights and that the WWII veteran said their situation in Korea was worse than his prior experience in WWII. He explains how they "didn't even have a chance to be afraid."



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

Most difficult time in Korean War

When asked about the most difficult moment of his service, Frank Cohee says that it was when the Chinese came in. He remembers having to drive down icy mountains and getting separated. He states that they were shot at during this time, but fortunately, didn’t’ get hurt.



Frank Seaman

Arriving in Korea and Bed Check Charlie

Frank Seaman describes his arrival in Korea, ferrying over from Japan to Pusan and then by rail up to Chuncheon. He recalls viewing the aftermath and destruction from the Pusan Perimeter battle on his way to Chuncheon. He offers insight to his regular duties which entailed bringing ammunition up from the south. He also recounts his introduction to Bed Check Charlie following breakfast while washing his mess kit.



Frank Torres

The Reality of the Front Lines

Frank Torres describes defending a pass at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes situations he experienced on the frontlines. He shares the outcomes of his experience and provides insight into the reality of decisions that are made under those conditions.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. He remembers one of his friends drowning while clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. He notes another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. He shares the horrific conditions that the soldiers endured in the "Frozen Chosin".



The Hell of Living in Trenches

Frank Zielinski was stationed at Old Baldy when the Armistice went into effect. He remembers the danger of living in cold trenches filled with water. The enemy would attack at night, so soldiers stayed awake to guard their positions. With no hot food available, C-rations included pork and beans, cookies, cigarettes, and instant coffee. He recalls soldiers leaving part of their rations for the children living in nearby villages.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Surrender and Difference Between Chinese and North Korean Treatment

Franklin Gillreath describes the events leading up to surrendering and the difference between Chinese and North Korean treatment. He explains that the North Koreans were harsh and would hit any soldier who could not understand their directions in Korean. He compares this example to the Chinese approach which involved finding a translator rather than hitting a soldier who could not understand directions.



Barbed Wire Fence along the Yalu River

Franklin Gillreath describes the march north as a prisoner of war (POW) deep into North Korea. He explains that villages would be emptied so that the prisoners could be stowed in the huts of North Korean civilians where there was only enough room to sit up. He describes the camp along the Yalu River where barbed wire used to keep in cattle was the only border between him and escape.



Lice Popping Contests

Franklin Gillreath describes the grass mats they were given to sleep on in the POW camps. He explains that the mats were infested with lice as well as the clothes they were forced to remain in for two years. He describes contests between the captured men to see who could kill the most lice between their fingers.



Daily Life in Camp Five

Franklin Gillreath explains what daily life was like inside of POW Camp Five. He describes the food mostly consisting of millet. He explains the wood and burial detail he was forced to conduct when fellow POWs died.



Traitors in the POW Camp

Franklin Gillreath shares memories of traitors among fellow soldiers in the POW camp. He explains that not being able to confide in some of his own countrymen weighed heavily on him mentally. He recounts fellow soldiers snitching on other soldiers in hopes of receiving more food and better treatment. He recalls one soldier in particular snitching to receive a lapel pin and adds that he suffered for his actions on the way home from Korea.



Fred Liddell

The capture of Fred Liddell: POW

Fred Liddell was captured by the Chinese in May 1951 at Hill 151 (Jirisan Mountain). His regiment was supposed to hold this hill until the US artillery saturated the hill. As Fred Liddell went down a slope around rocks, he met up with the Marines that were milling around near multiple vehicles on fire. The Chinese surrounded the US soldiers even as Fred Liddell was killing some of them in the bushes. Injured US soldiers were burned to death in a hut while over 300 POWs were forced to march to a cave and then onto Camp Suan.



Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Galip Fethi Okay

Korean War Experience

Galip Fethi Okay describes his Korean War experience. He was stationed at three different fronts during the war (Vegas, Elco and Berlin). He was also at Sand Bag Castle. Galip Fethi Okay also describes his injury from shrapnel that hospitalized him for two months. For his service, he earned many medals.



Garry Hashimoto

Experiences on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto talks about his experiences on the front lines. He was originally a rifleman, but because he was more experienced than most after only three months out there, he became a forward observer. He shares how he had to stay one hundred feet ahead of his platoon and keep a lookout for ambushes. He reflects on the dangers he faced, including facing machine gun fire. He remembers being bombarded with artillery shells all the time, especially from the Chinese.



Chinese Soldiers and PTSD

Garry Hashimoto discusses his perspectives on Chinese soldiers. He remembers Chinese soldiers being crazy. He shares how they were often high, and that they would find drugs on them. He believes they took drugs so they would stay awake and fight all the time. He comments on his sleep schedule and shares that he suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He reflects on how one of his replacements was killed soon after taking his post.



Gene Peeples

Delousing the POWs

Gene Peeples describes being sent to Freedom Village as the war was coming to an end. His job as a medic included handling the POWs who were coming in from the Chinese camps. He explains the clothing of the POWs, their vomiting from being fed ice cream, and the thickness of lice on the shower floors.



Gene Spicer

Empathy for the Dead

Gene Spicer recounts his most difficult memories from Korea. The image of a dead Chinese soldier stuck in his mind. It reminds him of the reality of war and its consequences for families and the young.



Gene Stone

Interrogating Infiltrators

Gene Stone recalls his major duties as a member of the 181st Counterintelligence Detachment included interviewing and interrogating enemy infiltrators. He remembers having eight hours to determine if the person was indeed an enemy infiltrator, complete eight copies of an eight page report, and send them onto 1st Corp Headquarters in Uijeongbu. He recounts one particular incident with what turned out to be an Chinese infiltrator.



Learning Counterintelligence Techniques

Gene Stone recalls several members of his detachment served as part of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II. He notes learning many techniques from sitting in on interrogations with these experienced members of his detachment.



Information Gathered from Counterintelligence Activities

Gene Stone recalls he learned much about the Chinese treatment of prisoners of war. He notes that it often involved electric shock. One of the important questions his detachment asked prisoners of war from both sides was if they wanted to go back to the side in which they were fighting for. He does not recall any Chinese or North Korean prisoners of war declaring a desire to stay in the "free world", but does note that during Operation Big Switch there were 23 Americans who declined to return to the United States.



Operation Little Switch and Operation Big Switch

Gene Stone served in his counterintelligence detachment after the armistice. He assisted in interrogating prisoners of war as part of Operation Little Switch and Operation Big Switch. He notes Operation Little Switch involved the return of injured and sick prisoners of war, while Operation Big Switch led to the exchange of all other prisoners of war. He recalls hearing of the horrific conditions these American prisoners faced while being held by the Chinese and North Koreans.



Dangerous First Night on the Front Lines

Gene Stones recalls a dangerous situation the first night he was on the front lines with the 1st Marine Division. He details one of his tent mates returning from the outhouse to alert everyone the Chinese were coming over the concertina wire fence into their camp. He remembers not really recognizing the danger while the event was occurring but later realizing the enemy had shot at him.



Geoffrey Grimley

Recollections of Korea

Geoff Grimley remembers seeing Korea for the first time and observing telegraph lines down and burning T-34 tanks. He speaks about having to sleep in a field and waking up with frost on his things, but he says it was better than school because he would get a beating every day. He briefly recalls the Battle of Kapyong.



George Covel

Armistice Signing

George Covel shares his memories of the day the Armistice was signed. He recalls making bets with fellow soldiers who did not believe it would occur when he predicted, and he recounts their surprise when it actually took place. He also describes the "big switch, little switch" and the release of prisoners following the Armistice.



George Dixon

Death Soon After Arrival

George Dixon was sent two miles into North Korea after landing in Incheon in February 1952. His squad leader kept a close watch on him since he did not have infantry training; George Dixon was shot in the helmet during this time, but his protective squad leader was killed right next time. Shortly after this, George Dixon explains how he captured the first POW for his regiment



George Drake

The Poverty of War

Dr. George Drake explains how children were rescued from poverty during the Korean War. He recounts his journey to find photos that were taken during the war of orphans in Korea. He shares his concern over the children who became abandoned victims of the Korean War.



George J. Bruzgis

Signed To Cease Fire; Look What We Hit!

George Bruzgis vividly recalled on July 26, 1953, a Major approached them with a document they (both US and ROK) had to sign agreeing that at 10 p.m. on July 27, 1953, they had to stop firing their weapons. Shortly afterwards, a two-ton truck arrived taking most of their ammunition away, so they wouldn't shoot. However, at 6 a.m on July 27, 1953, they got a phone call that they were given coordinates to fire 5 rounds on what they thought maybe a cave or a bunker. He later learned in 2000 when he received a battalion pamphlet, his story of that morning was located within it saying his division destroyed a Chinese Observation Post.



Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



George P. Wolf

Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf was a "Mosquito" pilot who flew reconnaissance missions in support of Army infantry. These missions took him very low to the ground. Tanks would hide under foliage and shoot at his plane from the ground.



Scouting Troop Movement During the Battle of Jipyeongri

George Wolf was a Mosquito pilot during the Korean War who located enemy troops and directed fighters during the Battle of Jipyeongri. During the February 1951, he helped provide information from the air to help lead the UN troops to victory. This was a tough battle against the Chinese troops near the village of Chipyong-ni, present time Jipyeong-ri.



The Role of a Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf's role during the Korean War was that he was a Mosquito pilot that provided reconnaissance for UN nations. The Chinese wore dark green uniforms and he only flew 100 feet off the ground. Both the North Koreans and Chinese would hid really well with their camouflage uniforms.



Nobody Believed Us

George Wolf encountered Chinese troops early in the war while performing reconnaissance as a Mosquito pilot in February 1951. He reported many times about Chinese presence, but he felt they were ignored. In late October through early November 1951, George Wolf saw thousands of Chinese cross the Cheonggyecheon River, so he reported this information to the US intelligence officers, but they did not believe that the Chinese were fighting in the Korean War.



George Sullivan

Pushed Back by China

George Sullivan recalls experiencing the push back to Busan by Chinese forces. He remembers hearing that General MacArthur said they were going to push back. During the push back, his tank broke, and he ended up in hand-to-hand combat with a Chinese soldier. He recounts that his arm was cut by a bayonet and had to be treated.



On the Front Lines

George Sullivan recounts his experiences in tanks along the front lines. He shares his tank unit had a direct confrontation with the enemy and recalls being wounded in the leg by gunfire. He comments on his fortune that it did not break any of his bones. He shares he continued to fight after he was mended.



George Van Hoomissen

Arriving in Korea

George Van Hoomissen shares he was activated as a Marine during the summer of 1951 destined for Korea. He recalls leaving Camp Pendleton for Korea arriving in the spring of 1952. He explains he was stationed near Panmunjeom initially and remembers the Chinese to the the north occupying a high mountain. He notes there were no severe battles near where he was initially stationed but remembers constant artillery air strikes occurring.



Duties as a Member of VMO-6

George Van Hoomissen explains he served as part of the Marine Corps's VMO-6 unit from late 1952 until he returned from Korean in 1953. He offers details of what his job was as an observer. He recalls always being in danger because they were constantly flying about 3000 feet over the Chinese lines.



Remembering Devastation

George Van Hoomissen remembers Seoul being absolutely demolished. He notes that the capitol was a shambles. He shares his thoughts on the Korea of today, especially as related to the successful economy of the country.



Georgios Margaritis

Mine Sweeping

George Margaritis explains his role as a mine sweeper during his time in Korea. He notes one occasion on the Inchon Plain where he and another mine sweeper were ordered to search what appeared to be a collection of cables for potential mines.

Note: English translation begins at 21:37



Battle for Outpost Harry

George Margaritis vividly recalls the events of the attack on Outpost Harry, which he references as Hill Harry in June of 1953. He explains his unit was sent to replace the American forces on the hill after devastating fighting. He shares his memories of the brutal fighting that went on at the hill.

Note: English Translation begins at 29:49



Brutal Fighting on Harry Hill (Outpost Harry)

George Margaritis offers vivid details of the devastating fighting at Outpost Harry (Harry Hill). He recalls death and brutal fighting. He concludes by sharing the happiness felt when the armistice was reached.

Note: English Translation begins at 39:36



Gerald Campbell

After the Armistice was Signed

Gerald Campbell discusses being ready to go home after 37 months and many lives lost. He shares how he mainly fought the Chinese. He discusses a Chinese attack just one month before the war ended.



Gerald Cavagnaro

Captured near Pyongyang

Gerald Cavagnaro describes how his unit was cut off during an attack by the Chinese. He describes running out of ammunition. He shares how he along with 100-150 other men were captured in November in 1950. He describes a march he took to what the soldiers named "Death Valley".



Killing Lice

Gerald Cavagnaro describes his days in a POW camp. He shares how everything was covered in lice and how they would try to kill them. He explains how other countries later had POWs added to the camp. He explains the Communist indoctrination sessions he was subjected to when there.



Gerald Edward Ballow

Crossing the Yalu River

Gerald Ballow expresses his opinions about what he considers an “intelligence disaster” at the Yalu River. He believes that the officers knew that the Chinese were amassing across the river before they got there. He explains how the US was completely outnumbered by the Chinese and there were not any additional troops to send up there to help fight the Chinese.



Gerald Harbach

Just Keep Running

Gerald Harbach describes scenes of intense battles that he witnessed at Outpost Harry and Pork Chop Hill, as well as the Battle of White Horse. He recalls moments where all he knew to do was to try and keep running. He vividly remembers the sound of the bullets as they whizzed past his head.



Gerald Land

Bayonet Checks "Across His Neck"

Gerald Land admitted he had never heard of Korea before he was sent and he described his Marine friend, Bill Carroll, of Fox Company, who Gerald Land thought had been wiped out at the "Frozen Chosin." Bill Carroll managed to survive after being shot by laying on the ground pretending to be dead during "bayonet checks". His friend recalled the bayonet sliding across his neck, but he survived and woke up on the hospital ship even though he wanted to go back with his Company. A soldiers' best advice was, "don't get captured!"



Gerald Land's First Encounter with North Koreans

Gerald Land described how his Company Commander and his Sergeant were at an Outpost at Kumwha Valley for 3 days for 3 nights with no sleep. They barricaded themselves with barbed wire and hung C-ration containers so if anything hit the wire, it would make a sound, and the men knew where to shoot. Gerald Land spoke often of rats crawling around touching the C-rations, but it did alert him when the North Koreans were near.



War Is Hell: My First Kill

Gerald Land recalled when he was shot by North Koreans for the first time, and how terrible he felt knowing that he was tearing the enemy to pieces with his gun. As a Methodist, he carried a prayer book around and prayed for guidance/forgiveness for his time in the war. He also hoped and prayed that he would make it home safe to his family.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Shooting Chinese from Hidden Vantage Points

Germaye Tesfaye was a heavy machine gunner for the Third Battalion. While manning the front lines, he and his battalion hid under heavy cover to avoid being discovered and killed. Using heavy weaponry to shoot the enemy from a distance, he and his fellow Ethiopians killed numerous Chinese. At one point he was shot in heavy fighting.



Gilberto Diaz Velazco

Most Difficult Night of the War / La Noche Más Difícil de la Guerra

Gilberto Diaz Velazco explains why the Battle of Old Baldy was the most difficult fighting of the war. He recounts that the Chinese took advantage of the fact that Company A was being relieved by Company C and attacked UN troops in the midst of this confusion. The Chinese and North Koreans were relentless, and the fighting seemed never-ending. He and others would be relieved for a while and then were reintroduced to the battlefield. He recounts walking over dead fellow soldiers and the measures he had to take to find a fallen friend.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco explica qué la Batalla de Old Baldy fue la lucha más difícil de la guerra. Él cuenta que los chinos aprovecharon del hecho que la Compañía A estaba siendo relevada por la Compañía C y atacaron a las tropas en el medio de esa confusión. Los chinos y los norcoreanos sequian atacando toda la noche y la lucha parecía interminable. Lo relevaron a él y otros por un tiempo y luego serían reintroducidos a el campo de batalla. Cuenta haber caminado sobre compañeros muertos y las medidas que tuvo que tomar para encontrar a un amigo que había muerto.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

Losing a Brother / La Pérdida de Un Hermano

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama remembers the painful events which resulted in the death of one of his best friends. He recounts how his friend was an amazing athlete and expert rifleman and because he was an excellent soldier, he was in the first line. He laments the way in which his friend and so many other young men died during that battle.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama recuerda la batalla que resulto en la muerte de uno de sus mejores amigos. Cuenta que su amigo era un atleta increíble y un fusilero experto y, como era un excelente soldado, estaba en la primera línea. Lamenta la forma en que murió su amigo y tantos otros muchachos jóvenes durante esa batalla.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama shares the most difficult moments of the war. He discusses an incident in which their platoon was in trouble as they were forced to fight Chinese troops into the night. He remembers that air reinforcements helped save them after the intense fighting.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Habla de un incidente en el que su pelotón estuvo en problemas al verse obligados a luchar contra las tropas chinas hasta la madrugada. El recuerda que los refuerzos aéreos ayudaron a salvarlos después de horas y horas de combate.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes being a Medical Assistant. The Ethiopian soldiers did not have a doctor assigned to them. Instead, there were six medical assistants assigned per shamble (two hundred fifty men). He does have nightmares about the wounds he witnessed. Someone with their stomach "out" is terrifying.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes his Korean War experience. Men lived in bunkers. There was no hot food. Men did not sleep, due to constant attacks. Mortar shells would shake the ground at all hours. Soldiers showered every ten days because the Americans made them. Girma Mola Endeshaw still describes his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Glenn Paige

A Complex Situation

Glenn Paige discusses the politics surrounding the war, including the relationships before the war. He explains some of the actions that occurred in North Korea towards the South Korea that led the US into the war. He breaks down the parties that were involved and their clear goal.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Life Near the Front

Gordon McIntyre transferred to an English unit due to the extensive loss of life in the English outfit. Near headquarters he noted a Canadian field hospital and rows of drums filled with napalm. Throughout his first night he was not afraid despite the explosions from incessant artillery fire. The next morning he left the truck to find an unexploded mortar shell that would have killed everyone at the post had it exploded.



Battle of Maryang-san

Gordon McIntyre describes five to six days of continuous fighting at the Battle of Maryang-san. He camped around eight hundred meters from the front lines. The second and third nights all soldiers stood ready to leave in the middle of the night if overrun. The Battle of Maryang-san featured combat between the Australian Army and the Chinese as the North Korean army had been decimated by that point. The danger did not scare him because he was too busy to think about it at the time.



Gregory Garcia

Jumping into Combat

Gregoy Garcia spent time in Pyongyang trying to stop the infiltration of Chinese and North Koreans in the fall/winter of 1950. He remembers his most dangerous moment was jumping into combat and landing while shooting. He explains that his griswold bag with his knives fell off due to their weight.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Earning the Bronze Star / Como se Gano la Estrella de Bronce

Guillermo Frau Rullan discusses one of the worst battles he experienced while in Korea. He explains that he was conducting a patrol in the area near Panmunjeom with brand new soldiers the day before he was to leave the war. He remembers that he did not want to go on the mission because he did not want to be killed a day before the end of his tour. He details the battle which ensued and resulted in his earning a Bronze Star for bravery.

Guillermo Frau Rullan habla de una de las peores batallas que vivió mientras presto su servicio en Corea. Explica que estaba realizando una patrulla en la zona cercana a Panmunjeom con soldados nuevos el día antes de irse de la guerra. Recuerda que no quería ir a esa misión porque no quería que lo mataran un día antes de irse. Él describe la batalla y lo que hizo el para que le dieran la Estrella de Bronce por su valentía.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harold Beck

Assessment of Enemy Air Force

Harold Beck argues that the enemy Air Force was weaker than the American plans. He says that when the enemy planes would come to harass the American troops, they would quickly fly back as soon as the US F86 planes engaged. He heard that these plans were a combination of Russian and Chinese crews that originated north of the Yalu River.



Harold Bill Christenson

The Loss of Friends

Harold Christenson describes moving towards the fronts lines, escorted by ROK soldiers, and the fear he felt hearing small arms fire and artillery and seeing the flashes associated with the weapon fire as his company pressed inland near the mountains. He shares that within the first two months of arrival, the friends he went to Korea with were gone. With sorrow, he recounts the loss of one friend when his company was overrun by the Chinese at Gibraltar and remembers the injuries another friend sustained from a landmine.



Stealthy Chinese

Harold Christenson describes the location of bunkers near the front lines and communicating with them each night. He explains guard duty rotation and his role in making sure someone was awake and alert throughout the night at each bunker to avoid being overrun. He details the stealth of the Chinese and recounts instances where men out on patrol who had fallen asleep were found dead in their sleeping bags.



Harold Don

Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Redeployed as Machine Gun Squad Leader

Harold Don discusses being redeployed to Korea during the Chinese major offensive. He shares he was unaware, at the time, that Chinese forces had retaken Seoul and that he became a machine gun squad leader. He remembers partaking in Rest and Relaxation, which meant moving back several miles from the front for a hot shower and food. He notes he remembers the country itself when asked what he remembers most from this eleven-month tour in Korea. He describes Korea as being like a third-world country at the time with primitive farming, sanitation, and construction methods.



Harry Burke

Entrapment by the Chinese

Harry Burke describes how the Chinese knew where they were on the morning of November 3rd. He recalls how their entire division was attacked and suffered tremendous losses. He adds he did sustain some injuries as well.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Frostbitten and Wounded

Harry C. Graham talks about his experience during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes suffering frostbite and being shot through the shoulder while performing his duties as a Radio Operator. He was evacuated on a truck convoy, narrowly escaping the heavy fighting against the Chinese.



Escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Harry C. Graham talks about his escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes having to wait until dark to traverse a mountain by foot because of being stranded in trucks on the mountainside. He recounts how after hours of walking, he and seven fellow soldiers found themselves in a minefield before being rescued by United States Marines.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River on Hill 144

Harry Hawksworth shares how he and the rest of his company were forced to retreat back to a village near Choksong along the Imjin River in late 1950 due to the Chinese entering the war. After digging into trenches, performing reconnaissance trips, and guarding Allied trenches, he was startled by a possible Chinese invasion of Hill 144.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment, fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. He shares how most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below due to the quick retreat. He describes how he used six crates of two-inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, he recalls that Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth recalls knowing that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. He shares how this helped him fatten up after being held captive since May 1951 and weighing only ninety-five pounds. He explains that once the Armistice was signed in July 1953, he and other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. He recalls that it was there where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Olson

Dangers of Protecting the Retreat

Harry Olson recounts how his extremely depleted battalion protected the line during the retreat from Unsan. He describes his experience returning from protecting the line and experiences in the rice paddies. He shares details about his first near-death experience and the enemy fire just down the hill from his position.



Hartwell Champagne

Life in a POW Camp

Hartwell Champagne describes time spent in a Chinese POW camp during the war. He shares how he would pick up injured men and what he had to do with the dead. He describes the harsh realities he faced while in Camps 3.



This Was My Life

Hartwell Champagne describes his experience living in Chinese POW Camp 5. He shares his responsibility for gathering firewood for the camp. He also shares how he would gather water, which provided him much needed strength. He explains how this gave him a sense of purpose when many of the other prisoners of war experienced hopelessness and despair.



Henk Bos

Pulling Himself Together

Henk Bos recalls the fears he experienced in Korea. He explains that the most frightening thing was facing the enormous Chinese bayonets and the man-to-man fighting that often occurred at night. He recollects his unit coming under major attack by the Chinese and seeing nearly everything covered in blood and flesh the following morning. He notes that the area was called "Stinky Hill" from that point on because of the decomposing bodies. He shares that these experiences led to nightmares and attempts to suppress these memories with alcohol. He adds, however, that one day he simply decided he needed to pull himself together.



Henry Martinez

Unable to Deliver to the Chosin Few

Henry Martinez remembers what it was like delivering supplies during the war. He describes one particular event when he was going to deliver supplies and a Thanksgiving meal to the Chosin Few. However, he and the men had to turn around because not only were the mountains frozen, but the Chinese were quickly approaching.



Henry T. Pooley

First Patrol and the Chinese

Henry T Pooley describes his first patrol near Hill 355 on the front lines. He describes the geography of the area including a nearby minefield. He discusses the respect shown between the Chinese and the Australian soldiers on the battlefield.



Herbert Neale

Close Call on the Front Lines

Herbert Neale recounts a close call with incoming artillery fire on the front lines. He remembers waking up, lying over the artillery, from a concussion and hearing a friend call out that he had been hit. He details his friend's wound and the effort made to transport him safely to an evacuation site. He reflects on his friend's healing process after losing a lung and on how one never really recovers from the wounds of war.



"Tattoos on the Earth" (Gore of War)

Herbert Neale describes the massive number of Chinese casualties during his time in Korea. He discusses how the fast pace of war left no time to properly dispose of dead bodies and the images of moving on that have stuck with him through the years. He recounts numerous bodies covering the roads and floating in the river that they would later draw water from to drink and relates a particular childhood memory to the gore of war.



How to Deal with the Memories

Herbert Neale discusses how he deals with the memories of war. He shares that he closes his mind to the visuals as dwelling on them, he insists, would drive one crazy. He admits that even after several decades since the war though, visuals of dead Chinese soldiers enter his dreams and, every now and then, wake him up in the middle of the night.



Called to Serve and Sent to Korea

Herbert Neale explains how he ended up serving in Korea after being fully discharged from the Marine Corps following World War II. He recounts his arrival in Korea and recalls being sent to the front lines as there was a need at the time to fill holes in the lines left by casualties. He also describes the weaponry, the 155mm howitzer, he used while there.



Herbert Werner

The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Herbert Yuttal

On The Frontlines

Herbert Yuttal talks about being on the front lines as a Forward Observer at an outpost near Kaesong. He explains that they fired a lot of artillery rounds, destroying a lot of the landscape at Old Baldy and Pork Chop Hill. He remembers seeing his friends dying during these battles.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Herbert Yuttal speaks about the benefits of serving with reservist soldiers that had already served in World War II. Their experience was very beneficial because it prevented mistakes from occurring. He explains how none of them knew what to expect in Korea whether they were new or WWII veterans.



Herman F. Naville

Prison Camp after Peace Talks

Herman Naville describes when the prisoners were turned over to the Chinese, moving from Apex Camp to Camp 5. He remembers that he had dropped from 225lbs to about 98lbs, becoming so weak that he could barely stand up. This change occurred because the Chinese wanted to make the conditions look better for negotiations.



Herman H. Holtkamp

Losing a Friend on Your Shoulder

Herman Holtkamp explains how difficult life on the front lines could be as you could be shot at very quickly by the Chinese who were “much quicker than the Koreans.” He says that they lost a lot of lives, including two medics. He recalls how he carried on of his comrades on his shoulders, but he didn’t survive and passed away as Herman Holtkamp was carrying him.



Capturing a Chinese Soldier

Herman Holtkamp tells how he captured a Chinese soldier. He had to throw a hand grenade into the trench and then carry the prisoner out to officers that were waiting. He received an award for capturing this prisoner.



Homer M. Garza

North Korean Brutality

Homer M. Garza describes the treatment of U.S. causalities and prisoners of war by the North Koreans.



Homer W. Mundy

Wounded in Combat

Homer Mundy describes being wounded in Korea only 13 days after arriving in Korea. He also talks about the withdrawal of his unit from the Yalu River area when the Chinese crossed into Korea.



Enemy Attacks

Homer Mundy talks about what it was like being under enemy attack. He also talks about fighting the enemy during withdrawal and encirclement near Gotori. He also recounts his second major injury.



Hong Berm Hur

Korean War POW and the Simple Ways to Show Appreciation

Hong Berm Hur met Mr. English Model who was a POW (prisoner of war) during the Korean War. English Model was captured by the Chinese and was put into a camp for over a year. Thankfully, he escaped and made his way to Hawaii. This is where he shared his story with Hong Berm Hur. Hong Berm Hur not only likes to hear the stories of Korean War veterans, he also takes care of these veterans when he's not working so that he can properly show the veterans gratitude that they deserve for their service during the Korean War.



Horace Sappington

Half Dead or Captured

Horace Sappington describes his encounter with North Koreans and Russians a few miles outside of Osan. Ill-equipped and undermanned, he details the scene of a Major driving out in a jeep to meet and talk with the oncoming mass of North Korean and Russian troops. He shares that the enemy fired a cannon, blowing up the jeep and killing the major, continuing to advance upon their position. He adds that he was wounded during the fighting and was tended to by a medic who was killed shortly after during their retreat. He explains that over half of US soldiers there that day were either killed or captured.



Soldiers Pouring In Everywhere

Horace Sappington recounts his experience at the Pusan Perimeter. He shares that the North Korean soldiers were pouring in on them and they received assistance from the Air Force and the USS Missouri roughly 1 mile off of the coast. He explains he was in charge of providing the ship with coordinates for firing. He recounts an injury to his head and shoulder received from enemy fire.



Nothing Worse Than The Cold

Horace Sappington describes being cold as the most difficult thing during his service. He recounts low temperatures near the 38th Parallel and during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. As part of a task force, he shares that he was sent in to help bail out Marines before the Chinese took it all.



Howard Ballard

Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard R. Hawk

Legacy of Korean Defense Veterans and Korean War Veterans

Howard R. Hawk pays tribute to the efforts of the Korean War veterans. He notes that everything these veterans faced was every bit as ugly as what American soldiers experienced in Vietnam or World War II. He discusses the important role the Korean Defense veterans and soldiers stationed in Korea still play today in both the security of the region and the development of Korea as a country.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Hugo Monroy Moscoso remembers his first impressions of Korea. He details the destruction he encountered in every town as they arrived after the Chinese and North Korean invasion. He recalls that it gave them pleasure to share food with civilians because they understood how much they were suffering.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Detalla la destrucción que encontró en cada pueblo porque llegaron después de la invasión china y norcoreana. Recuerda que les daba placer compartir comida con los civiles porque reconocían la miseria y el hambre que sufrían.



Ibrahim Gulek

Sandbag Castle

Ibrahim Gulek describes the conditions at Sandbag Castle. War had stopped briefly due to a ceasefire, while negotiations were occurring. However, the Chinese attacked without warning. There was about two months of constant warfare in close combat. Ibrahim Gulek was a sniper and told to fire at a certain location where the enemy was located. At one point soldiers were told to consume alcohol in order to not feel death.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Sorrow of War

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes a sorrow for fighting in war. The Nevada Front was very fierce. He describes a sadness for fighting. Killing someone is very hard on a person's soul. Ibrahim Yalςinkaya lost many friends in Korea.



Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez

Battle at Bloody Ridge

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez fought during the month-long battle at Bloody Ridge. He recalls fighting and pushing the Chinese off of the hill multiple times. After pushing the Chinese back, they would return and the fighting would begin again.



Ismael Heredia Torres

First Days / Primeros Dias

Ismael Heredia Torres describes his arrival in Incheon and then Seoul. He explains that immediately after he arrived, he was assigned to an observation post and then to a listening post. It was during this second mission that he saw intense fighting which lasted over six hours. He was lucky to survive this attack as he was unable to move or communicate with the rest of the company.

Ismael Heredia Torres describe su llegada a Incheon y luego a Seúl. Explica que enseguida que llego al frente, lo asignaron a un puesto de observación y luego a un puesto de escucha. Fue durante esta segunda misión que vio intensos combates que duraron más de seis horas. Tuvo suerte de sobrevivir el ataque porque no podía moverse ni comunicarse con el resto de la compañía.



Saddest Battle / La Batalla Más Triste

Ismael Heredia Torres shares the story of his participation in the worst battle of the war. He explains that they were trying to climb Hill 223 when the Chinese intercepted their company and a battle ensued for over four hours. He, and others in the company, were saddened because Captain Lyman was killed in action that day.

Ismael Heredia Torres comparte la historia de la peor batalla de la guerra en el que el participo. Él explica que estaban tratando de escalar la colina 223 cuando los chinos interceptaron a su compañía y se produjo una batalla de más de cuatro horas. Él y otros en la compañía estaban tristes porque el Capitán Lyman murió en acción ese día.



Ismail Pasoglu

Valiant Turkish Soldiers

Ismail Pasoglu describes the Turkish soldier. He describes the opinion that the United States wanted to pull out of the war. However, the Turkish soldiers arrived and changed this attitude. The Turkish soldiers advanced after the Chinese counter-offensive. Therefore, this advancement help the US stay in the war. Koreans are proud of Turkish support in the Korean War.



Experiences along the Front

Ismail Pasoglu describes the fighting conditions at Sandbag Castle. Sandbag Castle experienced very fierce fighting. He also describes conditions of Seoul. He describes Seoul as being destroyed and in ruins. At another front, he describes twenty-six straight hours of shelling. Shelling for that long was dangerous for those shelling. The heat from the mortars could explode the shells while still in the box.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Manning the Observation Post

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez speaks of being put on alert every night at midnight. He shares memories of the tactics used by the Chinese to lure the Puerto Rican soldiers out of their bunkers with Puerto Rican music and beer. He recounts losing two members of a patrol.



Observation Post Attacked

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares memories of the fear he experienced while being in Korea during the war. He recounts being in a foxhole and an attack on his Observation Post (OP) occurring. He elaborates on how he defended his position with hand grenades.



J. Robert Lunney

The SS Meredith Victory Volunteers

J. Robert Lunney discusses the decision by Captain LaRue to volunteer his ship for the evacuation efforts in Heungnam. He recalls the urgency to evacuate the military personnel and civilians. He explicitly breaks down the positions and resources involved in the evacuation and the chaotic scene they encountered in the port. Because of the great leadership exhibited by Captain LaRue, he shares the crew never questioned his decision to assist in the evacuation.



Last Ship to Freedom

J. Robert Lunney describes the process of evacuating over fourteen thousand North Korean civilian refugees aboard the SS Meredith Victory. He provides a detailed description of the loading of the refugees and protection of the port. During this process, he explains how teams were securing port so the enemy troops were unable to pursue them. He emphasizes that the people on the ship were seeking freedom, and the S.S. Meredith Victory was the last ship out.



Jack Allen

Concussion Grenades and the Aggressive Chinese Army

At the end of November 1950, Jack Allen was wounded by the Chinese who overran the US troops. The Chinese had so many troops that they easily came over the hills. A concussion grenade took the nerve out of Jack Allen's right arm, so he couldn't use it and his knee was shot too. He was laid on straw and a tarp until a helicopter basket took him back off the line and onto Japan to recover. There were hundreds of wounded that accompanied Jack Allen, but he knew that he wouldn't be left behind because that's a Marines' motto.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Jack Cooper

A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



Duties and Thoughts on Battle

Jack Cooper details the duties of soldiers assigned to a howitzer weapon and shares that there never was really any downtime. He recalls men rotating on and off shifts and most of the action taking place in the afternoon and evening. He shares that the intensity of battle made one nervous at times but that one grew accustomed to the reality over time. He adds that one did what he had to do.



Jack Howell

Screams from Hill 1080

Jack Howell shares his memories of combat against Chinese troops as he and his fellow soldiers fought to control and defend Hill 1080. He describes the encounter as overwhelming due to the mass number of Chinese soldiers attacking them. He recalls unnerving memories of frozen Chinese soldiers in their bunkers as well as the screams and taunts of the Chinese.



Jack Whelan

Life at Koje-do POW Camp

Jack Whelan provides insight into the POW camp at Koje-do. He describes the layout and organization of the camp while he was stationed on the island. He emphasizes there was an ugliness within the North Korean compound that justified the ugliness of the frontlines. He explains how he, while in Koje-do, transitioned from being a correspondent to mapmaker.



Jake Feaster Jr.

Arriving in Korea

Jake Feaster Jr. describes his arrival in Korea and the role of artillery in providing protective fire for the infantry during the peace negotiations. He shares he joined a unit holding a defensive position along the 38th Parallel. He recalls a session with Outpost Harry and another occasion when his unit provided protective fire all night long as the enemy was attempting to attack U.S. troops who had dug in.



Combat During the Week of the Final Cease Fire

Jake Feaster Jr. describes the movement of his artillery unit during the week leading up to the cease-fire. He recounts how being sent back to his unit's original position to gather supplies left behind possibly saved his life. He notes how the majority of his battalion got out, but they did lose two or three of their guns. He explains how his company pulled back to a new position and began firing upon the Chinese who had overrun them earlier.



Jake O’Rourke

On the Move to Chosin Reservoir

Jake O'Rourke describes his time spent in the hills fighting guerrilla forces and moving to and from various locations. He details the high casualties caused by frostbite among the Chinese soldiers, adding that it was both an ally and an enemy. He attributes much of the Marines' successes to experienced leadership as many higher ranking soldiers had served during WWII. He also recounts his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, sharing that the Chinese would play their bugles when they attacked and retreated, and he describes the use of napalm against the enemy.



James “Jim” Valentine

Death on the Ice at Chosin Reservoir

Jim Valentine discusses crossing the ice in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he was surrounded. He explains how they had to not attract attention due to Chinese soldiers. He discusses the harsh winters he experienced. He explains that he is still unsure as to how/why he survived.



James A. Newman

Sneak Attack on the Yalu River

James Newman was stationed on the frigate HMNZS Hawea up the Yalu River. He participated in a daring attack along the border between China and Korea. Fighting as a gunner, his ship attacked enemy positions along the Yalu River and took the enemy by complete surprise.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



James Burroughs

Taking an Enemy Position

James Burroughs describes the fierce battles fought for hills in Korea, highlighting the strategic advantage of holding the high ground. He shares how officers disguised their ranks to avoid being targeted by enemy snipers. He recalls the intense experience of capturing an enemy position, being forced to spend the night sleeping among the dead bodies, and then rolling the corpses down the hill the following morning.



Cold Korea and Capturing a Chinese Soldier

James Burroughs reminisces about the bitterly cold weather he experienced during his service in Korea. He recalls wading through snow that was up to his shoulders. He recounts finding a Chinese soldier behind the line and learning that his unit was about to be attacked by the Chinese and North Koreans the next day. He discusses his unit's preparations for the attack and firing until they had to replace his gun barrel.



Korean War Peace Talks

James Burroughs recounts when he was pulled from the line and being ordered to guard the peace talks between the Chinese, North Koreans, South Koreans, and United States. He describes the experience of being surrounded by generals from all sides. He comments on being part of a regimental combat team.



James Butcher

The Loss of a Close Friend During the Battle of Triangle Hill

James Butcher fought during the battle of Triangle Ridge/Hill. On Oct. 18, 1952, he charged up one specific section of the ridge that included Jane Russell Hill to fight the Chinese. Unfortunately, his friend was killed right next to him as they were taking out Chinese trenches.



A Close Encounter with a Chinese Soldier

James Butcher went face-to-face with a Chinese soldier as he was fighting for Triangle Hill. The Chinese soldier was getting ready to throw a grenade at the US troops and he became scared when he saw James Butcher in the trench with him. After a long pause, James Butcher took down the enemy trench.



James C. Delong

Captured by the Chinese at Hill 1221

James C. Delong describes his capture by the Chinese and the march to Chang-ni, a interrogation camp for Prisoners of War. He explains that he was driving a truck of wounded men away from the battlefield. When he stopped to check on the men in the bed of the truck the Chinese surrounded them and ordered them surrender or die. He describes breaking his rifle and throwing his bullets into the snow so that it could not be used by the enemy. After lining up the wounded that were able to walk, the Chinese shot the rest of the wounded men in the truck.



Combat near the Chosin Reservoir

James C. Delong describes a four day period in combat near the Chosin Reservoir before being captured days later by the Chinese. He explains that he manned a machine gun and guarded a ditch that the Chinese used for cover. He describes the nights of guarding the the ditch and easily shooting the Chinese who gathered at a bunker along the side of the hill. He goes on to describe the final night when his friend, who had been in WWII and warned him about the tenacity of the Chinese, was shot and killed.



Life as a POW - Marching

James C. Delong describes the march to the POW camp. He explains that the men were given one frozen potato a day. He recalls trying to find the biggest one, knowing that would be all he would receive for the entire day. He describes climbing mountain after mountain for eighteen days to reach their destination that was sixty miles away. He explains that he never sat down along the way because if you sit down then you would freeze and die.



Life as a POW - At Camp

James C. Delong describes life at the POW camp in North Korea. He explains that he was forced into a barn where the Chinese attempted to brainwash him along with nearly three-hundred other men. He recounts how the interrogation and brainwashing would last for more than eight hours; the first four hours in Chinese and the second in English. He goes on to describe the day they were marched to another camp and eighteen Marines were released in order to take the prescribed propaganda back with them.



James Creswell

Typical Day of Service

James Creswell describes how he served as an advisor to three or four South Korean Majors and Colonels. He recounts offering radio signal, leadership, combat, artillery, and tank advice and training to other soldiers. He explains that there was significant guerrilla warfare, and due to the successes of the advisory support he was involved in, he shares that there was a bounty on his head. He expresses the level of danger, adds that no logos or insignias were worn, and recalls having a rifle in his hands at all times.



Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



South Korean Soldiers "Bugging Out"

James Creswell describes how he went up to the front line several times to see how the South Koreans were fighting due to having helped train them. He shares that two other men along with him would communicate via walkie-talkie on the status of the line. He recalls that the South Korean soldiers, when scared, would leave the British and American soldiers in the middle of the night without warning. He refers to this as "bugging out" and adds that it left the British and American soldiers vulnerable to attack by the Chinese.



James E. Carter, Sr.

Battle of the Chosin Reservoir/Battle of Jangjin Lake

James Carter describes the attack at Koto-ri. He explains how his platoon was heading to meet up with the Easy Company. He describes being attacked by the Chinese and the subsequent retreat. He recalls the dangers and losses his platoon faced. He shares how he luckily survived some possibly fatal shots.



James Elmer Bishop

First Time Under Fire

James Elmer Bishop discusses the first time he came under fire in Korea. He recalls a time when he was on guard duty, and he came face-to-face with a Chinese soldier. He describes shooting the Chinese soldier with a forty-five caliber sub-machine gun and being stabbed with a bayonet when the solider fell on him. He explains that he fought the Chinese solider for a while not knowing the soldier was already dead. He says while he can laugh about it now, at the time, he thought he was going to die.



Being Wounded and Helicopter Evacuation

James Elmer Bishop discusses being injured when a shell hit near him after an ambush. He recalls being thrown over nineteen feet into a river bed by the blast. After returning to camp, he recounts being told he was bleeding and realizing he had shrapnel in his leg. He shares that he realized how much he was bleeding when he removed his boot. He describes being flown on a helicopter to a hospital, losing consciousness, and coming to while lying on the stretcher attached to the side of the helicopter. He admits he passed out again from the loss of blood and woke up next in the hospital when they were pulling shrapnel from his leg.



James Houp

Time in Korea

James Houp speaks about his time in Pusan and Heungnam, up towards the Yalu River, and recalls meeting Chinese forces. He describes how his unit was pushed back to Heungnam where he worked to set up communication lines with the ships. He recalls how his unit stayed in a warehouse and remembers seeing the Army retreating away from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He comments on the temperature being thirty-two degrees below zero at the time. He recalls his departure via a U.S. ship headed back to Pusan and then to other locations south of Seoul.



James Kenneth Hall

Life as a Prisoner of War

James Hall describes being captured in North Korea by the Chinese and being temporarily placed in a mine. He describes being forced to march all night because the Chinese did not have a place to put prisoners. He shares his testimony of being starved and sleep deprived while in the prisoner of war encampment. He recounts being placed in Compound 39 where prisoners were placed and left to die.



Dreaming of Bologna, Peanut Butter, and Peaches

James Hall describes how he was able to survive nearly starving to death in Camp 5, a Chinese prisoner of war camp. He discusses what he was fed while in the encampment. He recalls that when peace talks to bring about a ceasefire started, he noticed the prisoners were fed rice as a means for them to regain their strength.



Sending a Letter Home

James Hall recounts how the Chinese wanted the prisoners of war to write letters home after the peace talks began in 1951. He explains how the prisoners were told to write about accolades of the Communist way of thinking and to put down the United States government. He recalls how he refused to write the letters and remembers a Chinese nurse helping him write a letter to his mother to let her know he was alive.



Finally Released

James Hall tells the story of being released from POW Camp 5 on August 10, 1953. He recalls being placed on a barge and then a train on his journey south to cross the 38th Parallel. He shares his experience of acclimating back into the possession of the United States government authorities. He recalls having his first meal at Incheon after he was released as a POW.



James L. Owen

Strategy in North Korea

James L. Owen details the strategy commanded by General MacArthur when they pushed past the 38th parallel. He remembers how the Chinese surrounded them for 30 days near the Yalu River, the border Korea shares with China. He recalls destruction along the way and recounts sailing around the peninsula to get to North Korea.



James L. Stone

Refusing to Give Up

James L. Stone recounts a night attack made by roughly eight hundred Chinese. He describes how he was shot in the leg and neck and remembers another soldier placing a small cloth on his neck to stop the bleeding. He recalls being surrounded by Chinese soldiers but shares that he and his men refused to give up despite the circumstance.



A Survival Miracle

James L. Stone says that it was a miracle he survived his wounds. He attributes his survival partially to being an officer, reasoning that the Chinese were eager for information. He shares that another soldier helped him stay alive and recalls being captured by the Chinese where he was carried up to Yalu River to a prison camp. He remembers receiving little medical treatment for his wounds but states that he was given some food and was treated a little better than others due to being an officer.



Medal of Honor

James L. Stone states that he was unaware he had been awarded the Medal of Honor. He shares that he was recognized for a few things that he did while serving and lists several that may have contributed to him being awarded the Medal of Honor. He specifically recounts keeping his men together as no one surrendered despited the one hundred percent casualty rate.



POW Stories

James L. Stone shares a few memories regarding his time in the POW camp with other soldiers from various countries. He recounts stealing corn in a North Korean field with a Turkish officer and being reprimanded. He recalls British officers being overly concerned with their handlebar mustaches and comments on their laziness. He admits that it was fairly easy to escape the POW camps; however, one realized the farther he was away from camp, the farther away he was from food.



James M. Cross

Heartbreak Ridge and PTSD (graphic)

James Cross describes the marches he endured and seeing fellow Marines dead in a pile with all clothing removed by the enemy. He shares that he began to resent the Chinese, so much so that if he saw one, he would kill him. His wife, in the interview, adds that he would wake from nightmares during the night, screaming and upset due to having seen his friends killed right beside him.



Scared or Mad (graphic)

James Cross describes how he was either scared or mad at the Chinese, particularly while at Heartbreak Ridge. He recalls having one hot meal a day and recounts an incident which occurred shortly after finishing a meal. He remembers being mad at the Chinese during the majority of his service for what they were doing to American soldiers, and he shares that he tried his best to stop them at whatever cost.



If Given a Chance to Meet the Chinese Today

James Cross states that if he met a Chinese soldier from the war today, he would shake his hand. He shares that he was thinking one thing while the Chinese soldiers were thinking another. He comments on the Chinese having little by way of uniforms and shares how proud he was to be an American soldier. He discusses the last night of his tour where he killed nine Chinese soldiers who had advanced all the way into the American trenches.



James Pigneri

Commanding from a Ditch

James Pigneri describes first getting to Korea and going straight into the war zone. The command post was in a ditch. Here he tells of his first official job transporting deceased soldiers while coming under enemy mortar fire from the Chinese.



James R. Kaleohano

I willed myself to live.

In this video James Kaleohano describes the brutal winters in Korea. Coming from Hawaii, his company had no winter clothing. The Chinese army pushed them back to Seoul. It was so cold that sometimes the weapons did not even fire.



James Sharp

Average Day Defending an Outpost

James Sharp describes an average day while defending a trench for an 83 day period as a machine gunner. He recounts receiving mortar fire often during the day and night as well as sniper fire if soldiers emerged from the trenches. He explains the necessity of being alert and aware of movement near one's position and details the need for a machine gunner to accompany patrol units.



Machine Gunner Expertise

James Sharp details an ambush scenario a unit found itself amid one night while out on patrol. He recalls Chinese machine gunners furtively stationed on a dike in the rice patties, waiting on half of the patrol to cross before attacking. He describes his own firing expertise and his ability to take out the gunners on the dike to secure the location.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Waves of Chinese Forces

James Shimabuku describes the situation in Pusan upon his arrival and recounts making his way up to Suwon. He remembers encountering the Chinese and recalls wave after wave of them. He shares that when the Chinese soldiers in the front died, the Chinese soldiers behind them would pick up their weapons and continue pushing forward.



Asians Fighting Asians

James Shimabuku describes the names that Hawaiians used for different Asian cultures. He also shares how he felt about being an Asian-American fighting against other Asian cultures such as North Koreans and Chinese. He adds that the differing cultures in Hawaii saw themselves as island people rather than Koreans, etc.



James Shipton

Transporting the Troops

James Shipton describes the transport missions moving soldiers bound for Korea from the United States to Japan. Shortly after the Chinese crossed the Yalu River, he recalls a major shift in their return missions which included evacuating injured soldiers back to the United States. During November and December of 1950, he remembers flight nurses with the Royal Canadian Air Force mainly accompanying soldiers suffering from severe frostbite.



James Tilford Jones

Fighting against the Chinese

James Jones has vivid memories of how Chinese battlefield tactics were distinctive. They had unique sounds and smells, as well as unique military strategies. His platoon would dig in each night, fight, retreat and then dig in again as the Chinese kept coming.



James Vance Scott

The Big Grenade and Surrender of North Korean Soldiers

James Vance Scott describes the grenade attached to his anti-aircraft machinery that he was instructed to activate if the troops were ever overrun. He recounts how they were also to be back-up support with machine guns. He describes the Battle of Old Baldy, including the surrender of two North Korean soldiers who voluntarily walked into the American camp starving and cold. He describes his first encounter with Chinese soldiers, as well as seeing a dead enemy civilian.



Janice Feagin Britton

Duties as a Wartime Flight Nurse

Janice Briton explains her role as a flight nurse during the Korean War. She describes how they used information about the patients to place them in the plane where they would receive the best care. She details how, because there were not good places to land, they took the smaller C-46 and C-47 planes that could only hold twenty to twenty-five patients. She adds that when they were able to access better landing strips, they flew in the C-54 which could carry twenty-eight soldiers. She recalls almost being surrounded by the Chinese at the Jangin (Chosin) Reservoir and how they loaded planes as full as possible to help evacuate as many people as possible.



First Nurse to Fly Over the 38th Parallel

Janice Briton recalls being featured in a newspaper article as the first nurse to fly over the 38th parallel. She admits she did nothing different than other nurses, and it was just by chance she was assigned to be on this particular flight. She did not regard her job as dangerous and reflects on knowing the U.S. Marines had secured the area before her flight. She shows pride in knowing she played a role in taking injured soldiers from a bad situation to a better one. She shares she knew her job was to go as close to the front lines as safely possible to evacuate wounded soldiers.



Jean Clement

Imjingang River Attack

Jean Clement shares an account of soldiers on patrol being attacked by the Chinese. He describes the camp where he was assigned, sandwiched between the Imjingang River and a mountain, and recalls that it was not located in the best position for defense against an attack. He shares that Luxembourg soldiers were conducting a patrol across a nearby floating bridge on the Imjingang River, and they were attacked by the Chinese. He recalls helping a soldier out of the river after he had jumped in to protect himself from the Chinese fire. He recounts destroying the equipment they could not carry with them prior to leaving so that it would not fall in Chinese hands and describes how the Belgium soldiers carved a path through the mountain to safety.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

Difficulties of War

Jean Paul St. Aubin details a difficult experience while out on patrol. He recounts orders to capture a small hill and the plan being to send 20 soldiers up the hill, leaving 20 in reserve at the base of the hill. He shares that those sent up the hill were attacked with grenades and suffered wounds, were killed, were taken prisoner, or went missing.



Jean Paul White

Chinese Intervention

Jean Paul White describes war activity with the Chinese. He explains the living conditions and injuries that resulted. He describes the movements of the Marine Corps leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes events that happen during and after the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains learning about General MacArthur asking them to retreat with orders from his Commanding General, General Smith.



Shot But Not Wounded

Jean Paul White describes an incident while he and his squad were taking a hill. He describes a Chinese soldier with an automatic rifle. He mentions a fellow officer, PFC Walter Talbot, who was hit. He explains that after dispatching the enemy soldier, he was surprised to find that PFC Talbot had been shot but not wounded. He explains how he was miraculously saved.



Jeff Liebregts

We Finally Took Hill 325

Jeff Liebregts does not recall knowing if they were fighting Chinese or North Korean soldiers at Hill 325. He explains that before the third attempt to take the hill it didn't matter what job you had. You were given a gun and sent up the hill. He shares details about being afraid and if someone says they were not, they are joking. After taking the hill, he remembers feeling tired and lying down near body bags. He recalls waking up to someone kicking him to check if he was alive.



You Saved My Life Baby

Jeff Liebregts elaborates on his experience protecting the bridge in Hoengsong and saving the life of a colonel. While monitoring the replacement bridge, he remembers hearing something approaching. He describes seeing a weapons carrier with mortars crossing the bridge and readying his weapon. As he assessed the situation, he recalls seeing a colonel exit the car looking completely out of sorts. After providing protection for the colonel, he describes opening the vehicle and finding four deceased soldiers.



Jerry Bowen

Dangerous Moments

When asked about dangerous moments, Jerry Bowen describes exchanging mortar fire with the Chinese in formation in front of his camp. He got some mortar bombs and went up to the top of the hill, but feared the Chinese would ambush them. He describes using hand grenades and the other events of that night in detail.



Jesse Chenevert

Chinese Treatment of Canadian POWs

Jesse Chenevert describes being prepared at one point for receiving Canadian soldiers who had been a prisoner by the Chinese. She shares how the personnel at the hospital were surprised by the good condition of the soldiers. She explains how she learned that their excellent care was most likely due to them being used as propaganda by their captors. She explains that the POWs who were very sick were not treated by the Canadian hospital



Jesse Englehart

Taking a Hill

Jesse Englehart describes his part in taking a hill. He explains how he prepared for battle with his helmet. He described weapons used against him and others during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He also explains that he was lucky to survive and how they made sure they left nothing the enemy could use.



The Hazards of War

Jesse Englehart describes what he forgets and remembers from the war. He explains the weapons used. He explains incidents of death in what he calls the "hazards of war."



Jesse Sanchez Berain

War on the Korean Peninsula

Jesse Sanchez Berain remembers being stationed close to Seoul during the war. He uses a map to demonstrate how North Korean and Chinese forces attacked and pushed the United States military forces south of the 38th Parallel. He mentions that he spent eighteen months in Korea and Japan.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



An Outpost Harry Survivor

Jimmy A. Garcia shares his experience of patrolling for Chinese activity at night. He recalls a time when he was ordered to patrol alone, which was a perilous and nerve-racking task. He provides an overview of the sieges of Outpost Harry that took place in June 1953. He speaks of the casualties his company suffered as they defended the hill and expresses pride in being called a survivor of Outpost Harry.



Joe D. Slatton

The Most Difficult Time Above the 38th Parallel

Joe D. Slatton recalls three difficult events while he was in Korea. He reflects on the passing of his father, how Howitzers ruined his hearing, and getting lost in no-man's-land.



Joe H. Ager

Learned About Korea While Training the Chinese

Joe Ager shares he first learned about Korea in 1948 during a mission to Peking, China. The mission he describes was part of Truman’s program that gave the United States' surplus of weapons to Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek). He recounts being sent to China to train soldiers on these weapons. He shares that before 1950, his experience with Korea included watching soldiers disembark at Incheon.



We Did Not Expect an Attack

Joe Ager shares details about the slow drive along the narrow roads to the east of the Chosin Reservoir. After reaching where the 5th Marines had been, he explains how they chose to stop and dig in. He notes the harsh living conditions they experienced. He describes the surprise of being attacked and surrounded by the Chinese.



Glad I Survived

Joe Ager offers an overview of the withdrawal. Under the orders of Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith, they began abandoning resources so that the Chinese would not know they were retreating. He reflects on Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith’s treatment of African American soldiers. During the withdrawal, he remembers encounters with the Chinese and the heavy loses they suffered. He shares that three hundred eighty-five out of the two thousand men reached Heungnam. He reflects on feelings of guilt for surviving but emphasizes not wasting time and energy on regret.



Joe Larkin

"Battle of the Hook" at Panmunjeom

An outcrop of land between two main lines resembled a hook.
Joe Larkin's Marine Division was sent to Panmunjom to hold the line of resistance against the Chinese. His unit helped with reinforcements by bringing in timber that they would move at night so the enemy could not detect their movement. The outpost was attacked and both sides suffered casualties, but with the help of his division, the UN troops took over the area.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe Rosato

Bad Ankle Injury

Joe Rosato recalled that while fighting near the Yalu River, he, his sergeant, and a lieutenant were ordered to take out a machine gun nest using the 57-recoilless rifle. Not soon after their assigned task to take out the gunnery, they were ordered to quickly get down the road and regroup in no particular order. They were to just move as quickly as they could. Joe Rosato was carrying the rifle when his foot was wedged between rocks and he fell in a hole while twisting his ankle so bad he couldn't walk on it. He had to abandoned his rifle and limp as fast as he could to meet up with this regiment, but they lost a lot of men that day.



John A. Ciburk

Bombing in North Korea

John A. Ciburk describes several bombing missions in which he participated. He recalls bombing an oil refinery as well as roads and bridges in North Korea as a means of stopping enemy forces on the ground. He shares that when the Chinese forces came in, they were ordered to start bombing villages as the Chinese were using them for housing.



John B. Winter

Lessons Learned in Korea from WWII Veterans

John Winter discusses his interaction with WWII veterans he served with, and the lessons he learned from them. He recalls a specific conversation with a Marine from WWII in the mess hall. He expresses how important it was to learn from these men.



John Beasley

A Picture of the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

John Beasley describes his own experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. His descriptions include seeing the U.S. Army suffer heavy casualties, as well as hearing a testimony from a wounded soldier about the atrocities done to the wounded by the Chinese. He recalls serving under his highly decorated commander, Colonel "Chesty" Puller. He also describes suffering a shrapnel wound during the Seoul Recapture.



John Boyd

Korea 1953 - The Last Few Months of the War

John Boyd recalls the last few months of the war were full of anticipation as the talks were taking place at Panmunjom between the Chinese, North Koreans, and the United Nations. He recalls seeing a barrage balloon hovering over the site of the talks. As the weather began to heat up while they were waiting for the conclusion of the peace talks, valley fires increased in numbers and things became quite dangerous.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd recalls the devastating Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. He notes that they were always getting messages in regarding how had been wounded or killed. He remembers that artillery fire often went over their location. John Boyd details his duties during his final days in Korea.



John Burton Forse

First Time on Patrol

John Burton Forse describes the way he felt the first time he went on patrol in a tank. He describes feeling confident but reluctant at the same time. This is the moment soldiers are trained for. He describes the feeling as "this is it." He also details all the Chinese he saw dead everywhere.



John C. Delagrange

Enemy River Crossing

John Delagrange recalls spending most of his time at Kimpo Air Base, analyzing aerial photos for intelligence. He remembers sending a reconnaissance flight to investigate an area of concern on the Imjingang River. He highlights that was the location where many of the Chinese troops hid and invaded during the Korean War.



John Cole

Attack in the Fox Hole

John Cole used his great hearing as one of his fighting tools. He shares when he was about to fall asleep in his fox hole, he could hear the enemy gathering across the rice field. He recalls the Chinese soon began their attack and notes that when one thought the enemy combatants were dead, they usually were not. He recalls finding out the hard way as the enemy crept into his fox hole through the rice field.



Battling for Hill 1520

John Cole fought for Hill 1520 during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts how many men were lost defending that hill. He remembers three Chinese soldiers climbing into his fox hole and how he had to fight using hand-to-hand combat. He notes this was when he was shot through his right arm.



John Fischetti

Russian Instigators

John Fischetti comments on whether he holds any animosity towards the North Koreans, Chinese, or Russians to this day. He states that he holds the most animosity towards the Russians, believing that they instigated much of the Cold War. He describes how they supplied weapons to the Chinese and North Koreans in the war.



John G. Sinnicki

Encounters with the Koreans

John Sinnicki reflects on his encounters with the North Koreans in various settings. He describes how on the battlefield, they were dedicated to their Communist cause; however, in a civilian sense, they were very friendly and willing to engage with the Americans. He recalls KATUSA playing an incredibly helpful and important role and regrets they haven't received the credit they deserve.



Impressions of the Chinese

John Sinnicki describes his experiences with the Chinese. He recalls feeling sorry for many of them, as they were very hungry and cold and would take clothing and shoes from dead Marines in the field for their own use. He explains that the Chinese POWs were sometimes executed rather than being allowed to leave and possibly rejoin the Chinese military.



John H. Jackson

Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson shares he fought in the Battle at the Chosin Reservoir through Christmas Eve of 1950. He recalls how the weather was very cold, reaching down to fifty degrees below zero. He remembers how some of the soldiers were freezing to death as the Chinese continued to fight.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson explains he was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He shares he fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He recounts how he continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John Halliday

Close to the Enemy

John Halliday describes working in a three-man team calling in airstrikes. In their forward observation positions, he notes their position was so close they could visually observe the enemy without the use of a telescope. He emphasizes how he was very lucky to have not been wounded during any of his missions.



John Hilgert

Captured

John Hilgert describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese Army. He explains that after the Spring Offensive, he and two other men were cut off and alone. He recalls how they were found by the Chinese and taken prisoner. He shares that of the seven thousand men taken prisoner, only a little over three thousand survived to be released, partially due to the poor quality of food the Chinese provided.



March to the Camp

John Hilgert details some of the humiliation and perils experienced by him and other prisoners as they were being marched to the prison camp. He explains that in addition to walking, they also were transported by train. He describes the thick, noxious smoke from the train's engine that would waft into the first cars, killing the men on board. He remembers how the Chinese walked the men through towns as a show of force, often times marching the same men over and over.



Camp Conditions

John Hilgert describes what conditions were like in the camp where he spent two years as a prisoner of the Chinese Army. He explains that the Chinese were not as brutal as the North Koreans who would dismember the enemies. He recalls sleeping in dirt floored huts, eight to twelve men to a hut. He describes the terrible lice infestation they experienced that was out of control until they were able to boil their clothes. He describes how he gathered wood to heat their hut during the winters.



John I. Reidy

Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

We Knew War Was Going to Happen

John J. Baker recalls being a student in Japan when men were rotating in and out of Korea. He recalls General Hodge coming to Japan in 1949 to see General MacArthur, but the General would not see him at the time. He expands on how he knew the war was coming and remembers having a conversation about how the North Koreans were training with the Russians to prepare for war. He shares about a message he remembers coming from General MacArthur.



John L. Johnsrud

Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



John Levi

The Frozen at Chosin

John Levi shares his experience from the winter of 1950 when the United States Marines endured the harsh conditions at the Chosin Reservoir. The brutal winter still stands out clearly as one of the most memorable parts of his entire experience in the war. He recounts how the winter required an unexpected shift in his corpsman duties - from blood freezing to morphine freezing, the Marines had to alter their craft fast to survive.



John Munro

Watching Over the Enemy

John Munro recounts how he tried to go home and work at his parents' cafe and service station. He shares that he decided to go back into the military as an Australian Army Reservist. He recalls being stationed with the 38th Battalion, F Unit, and being sent to the DMZ to patrol right across from the North Koreans. He shares that it was rough protecting South Korea through the freezing winters and steamy summers.



John O. Every

Close Encounters Under Enemy Fire

John O. Every speaks about being under enemy fire and encountering Chinese soldiers. He was awarded a Marine Corps Commendation Medal for enduring the enemy fire. He explains having to repair ammunition that was not properly operating.



John P. Downing

Dangers as an Infantrymen

John P. Downing spent 13 months fighting in the Korean War north of Seoul. During night patrols, he fought the Chinese and participated in ambush patrols. During his patrols, he suffered a wound to his right arm, but it didn't take him away from Korea.



Life as a Soldier on Hill 355

John P. Downing explained that life as a soldier was cold, wet, and hungry. He had limited rations and many of his friends died during his time participating in the Korean War for 13 months. Hill 355 was a hill that overlooked the 38th parallel and it was constantly under attack by the enemy. Artillery and mortars were incoming while John was protecting the hill.



John R. Stevens

Wonsan Landing then on to Chosin Reservoir

John R. Steven describes landing in Wonsan and being greeted by the Korean soldiers before journeying by train further into North Korea to the Chosin Reservoir. He remembers capturing two Chinese soldiers and sending them back to battalion. He goes on to discuss Generals MacArthur and Willoughby's intense refusal to believe Chinese troops were in North Korea.



John Singhose

Working with Koreans

John Singhose recalls being reasonably warm in his sleeping bag when he had to sleep in a tent while in Korea. He describes interacting with Koreans in several capacities, and speaks of them with admiration. He shares that everyone he encountered, from their cook to construction workers, were industrious and honest workers.



John Tobia

Leaving Korea and Remembering a Reemerging Seoul

John Tobia recalls being given his discharge papers and being sent home in 1953. He talks about the weapons he collected from the Russian and Chinese soldiers. His commanding officer told him he could not take any weapons for souvenirs; otherwise, he would end up in prison for some time. He also recalls how the South Koreans quickly began rebuilding Seoul as he was leaving.



John Wallar

Mending Communication Lines

John Wallar talks about being under Chinese mortar fire while working on a line gang. He describes his team's job and how they went about mending broken communication lines.



John Y. Lee

Headquarters Description

John Y. Lee, an interpreter assigned to UN Headquarters unit, explains the organization of the unit during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difference between his headquarters unit and a normal infantry regiment. He recalls the way Headquarters was set up at Hagalwoori, defended by only two Marine companies.



Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina provides an account of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that their unit had incurred heavy losses after two weeks of bombing and was attacked by the enemy who seized on their weakness. He recalls that this battle was particularly brutal because Chinese troops outnumbered them ten-to-one. He adds that the following day, he and a handful of others volunteered to climb back up Old Baldy to recover the dead and wounded.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina brinda un relato de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Explica que su unidad sufrió grandes pérdidas porque los chinos los bombardearon por dos semanas antes de la batalla y aprovecharon de su debilidad cuando los atacaron. Él se acuerda que esta batalla fue brutal porque las tropas chinas los superaban en número diez a uno. El agrega que al día siguiente, él y una docena de soldados más se ofrecieron como voluntarios para volver a subir a Old Baldy para recuperar a los muertos y heridos que quedaron en la colina.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Dangerous Missions / Misiones Peligrosas

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera discusses the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls being frightened whenever he was sent on reconnaissance missions as they had to explore neighboring hills and could see the enemy’s movement and numbers. He remembers that whenever the enemy retreated, they would be able to use their foxholes. Being that they were outnumbered three-to-one, he marvels at the fact that he survived.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera analiza los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda que se asustaba cada vez que lo enviaban en misiones de reconocimiento, ya que tenían que explorar las colinas vecinas para poder ver el movimiento del enemigo. Recuerda que cada vez que el enemigo se retiraba, utilizaban sus trincheras. Dado que los superaban en número tres a uno, se maravilla por el hecho de haber sobrevivido.



Jose E. Colon

The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that any time they were on the move it was incredibly dangerous as they were always met with mortar attacks. He remembers how they were ambushed one night, and his friend was killed. He wonders if he killed anyone as they shot in all directions as they could not see the enemy. Forever etched in his memory are the hardships of civilians and what they had to resort to in order to survive.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Él explica que cada vez que se movía del sur hasta el frente era increíblemente peligroso porque siempre lo atacaban con morteros. Recuerda que una noche los emboscaron y mataron a su amigo, y ellos disparaban en todas direcciones porque no podían ver donde estaba al enemigo entonces él no sabe si mato a nadie. Las miserias de los civiles y lo que tenían que hacer para sobrevivir le han quedado grabadas en su memoria.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

Sudden Attack / Sudden Attack / Ataque

José María Gómez Parra provides a detailed account of the start of the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the intense fighting that occurred and the manner in which Chinese troops advanced into their territory. He adds that the Chinese would try to dissuade Colombians from fighting through speakerphones by telling them they were going to die or have an amputated limb to diminish troop morale. He shares that during the battle he was an assistant machine gunner along with two other individuals, one of whom was killed and the other that ran away. He recalls how he kept his position and fought until he realized the hill was lost.

José María Gómez Parra ofrece un relato del inicio de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe el combate intenso que ocurrió y la forma en la cual las tropas chinas entraron a su territorio. Además, cuenta que los chinos trataban de disuadir a los colombianos de pelear a través de los altavoces diciéndoles que iban a morir o que les amputarían una extremidad para romper la linea de combate. Durante la batalla, fue asistente de ametralladora junto con otros dos individuos, uno de los cuales murió y el otro se escapó. El mantuvo su posición y luchó hasta que se dio cuenta de que la colina estaba perdida.



Wounded at Old Baldy / Herido en Old Baldy

José María Gómez Parra explains how he was wounded during the Battle of Old Baldy. Blinded and wounded from a grenade, he shares how he managed to crawl into a latrine for safety. As day broke, he recalls hearing Americans enter the battlefield. Although planes heavily bombed the area in an attempt to retake the hill from the Chinese, he surmises that some allied forces were killed during the bombing as there were between thirty and forty Colombians missing in action.

José María Gómez Parra explica cómo fue herido durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Cegado y herido en la pierna, se arrastró hasta una letrina para esconderse. Al amanecer, escuchó a los estadounidenses entrar al campo de batalla. Los aviones bombardearon intensamente el área en un intento de recuperar la colina que estaba a manos de los chinos. El supone que algunos soldados aliados murieron durante el bombardeo ya que hubo entre treinta y cuarenta colombianos desaparecidos en esa batalla.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Dunford shares how he participated in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which is known in Korea as the Jangjin Battle. He explains that there were so many Chinese there that he couldn't even count. He explains how he had to sleep on the ground without a sleeping bag since they were told to burn everything except a few C-Rations and weapons. He shares how the lack of food, proper shelter, and other necessities made survival difficult.



Joseph F. Gibson

"All Hell Broke Loose"

Joseph F. Gibson describes having to protect seventeen injured patients who were under his care in the medic tent as the Chinese broke the line. He explains how his unit was only fourteen miles from the Chinese border. He explains how he was told that the war would be over soon since they had pushed all the way through North Korea. He describes how the Chinese joined the North Koreans and how he took a lot of incoming fire in order to hold his tent safe from invasion. He shares how many Chinese were captured by the US and the loss of a Catholic priest.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



KCOMZ and Christmas Hill

Joseph Horton details his work as a guard at a Chinese POW camp. He recalls serving there there for seventy-three days until being moved to Christmas Hill. He describes combat at Christmas Hill and shares how he served there on the front lines until the truce was announced.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Why Waste A Bullet

Joseph Annello describes being hit with a bullet and hand grenade. He describes it being the last thing he remembers before being prodded by a Chinese bayonet. He explains that he became a prisoner of war and was soon left by the side of the road to die.



Terrible Medical Conditions

After being seriously wounded, Joseph Annello was taken to a Chinese medical unit where he met up with several severely wounded prisoners of war. He describes the terrible conditions, including maggots and gangrene. He shares how he and others buried a soldier in a kimchi pit.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes heading towards the Chosin Reservoir. He shares how he was meant to advance to Yellow River but stopped. He shares how he didn't hit any resistance since they defeated that North Koreans and the men thought that the Chinese would not get involved. He describes the frozen ground and how it was so cold that the soldiers couldn't dig a fox hole, so they slept on the ground in their sleeping bags. He shares how the Chinese attacked them and there was nowhere to hide.



"It Was the Fourth of July"

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes that they were stuck at the top of the hill because of a roadblock created by the Chinese. He shares how this maneuver blocked the US soldiers in with their trucks, supplies, and ammunition. He shares how he along with other men charged the Chinese blockade but were outnumbered. He shares how he was shot an injured. He describes how once the trucks were filled with injured, Chinese continued to attack the soldiers from all sides. He explains how he was shot again but this time in his soldier. He describes shots by the Chinese that sounded like the 4th of July.



Joseph Lissberger

Danger Beyond the Front Lines

Joseph Lissberger talks about the danger of setting up loudspeakers beyond the front lines for psychological warfare. He mentions that five men in his unit were killed while performing this important duty.



Joseph M. Picanzi

I Was the Lucky One

Joseph Picanzi discusses the purpose of each type of patrol and different issues while living on the line. He emphasizes how he was a lucky one because he came out of the war without being wounded. Yet, he recalls one night where he came extremely close to being wounded during a mortar attack.



Signing of the Armistice

Joseph Picanzi elaborates on the experience on the front lines the night before the signing of the armistice. Interestingly, he mentions the Chinese forces rapidly firing off artillery in an effort to spend the ammunition so that they would not have to carry it later. Once the armistice was signed, he recalls relocating to Camp Casey to practice maneuvers.



Joseph R. Owen

The Chinese: Morale Destoyer and Fear Creator

Joseph R. Owen describes his greatest moment of terror facing the Chinese at the Chosin Reservoir. He had to persevere and be a leader despite the fact that the Chinese were coming in droves attacking. He describes the causalities witnessed on the scene as well.



Joseph T. Wagener

Operation Piledriver

Joseph Wagener remembers an incident during the Spring Offensive of April 1951 when UN troops tried to locate Chinese forces across the Imjin River. In order to assist the Belgian B Company, he provides an explanation for his unit's occupation of a key bridgehead. Despite reports from nearby villagers that the Chinese had recently retreated with their equipment, he describes the Chinese positioning themselves a mile away from their location. He elaborates on his experience during the Chinese assault on the Luxembourg battalion as they held the bridgehead.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Josue Orlando Bernal García shares his memories of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that Chinese troops waited until replacement troops were sent in to unleash their terrible attack. He describes the chaos that ensued after they were infiltrated by enemy troops and the way in which American troops were mobilized to support them. He details his role during the ordeal and the resulting toll of the battle.

Josue Orlando Bernal García comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él explica que las tropas chinas esperaron hasta que se enviaran tropas de reemplazo para empezar el ataque. Describe el caos que resultó cuando entro el enemigo, y la forma en que se movilizaron las tropas estadounidenses para apoyarlos. También el relata su experiencia y el precio resultante de la batalla.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Brutal First Days / Primeros Días Brutales

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez presents an overview of his time in Korea as he was only there three months before being wounded in combat. He recoils at the intensity and brutality of the war as he shares a story of being told to bathe in a river which was full of corpses. He recalls having to trek for days to reach the Yalu River and ruining his kidneys due to a lack of available drinking water. Once they arrived at their destination, He explains that Chinese forces outnumbered them and all his men, but two individuals were killed in action.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez describe sus impresiones de Corea, ya que sólo estuvo allí tres meses antes de ser herido en combate. Se horroriza cuando se acuerda de brutalidad de la guerra y comparte la historia del tercer día en combate que lo mandaron a bañarse en un río que estaba lleno de cadáveres. Recuerda haber tenido que caminar por días para llegar al río Yalu y cuenta que se arruino los riñones debido a la falta de agua potable. Una vez que llegaron a su destino, él explica que las fuerzas chinas los superaban en número a ellos y a todos sus hombres murieron menos dos individuos que fueron heridos.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez provides an account of the Battle of Kelly Hill. The 65th Infantry suffered many losses during this battle and needed reinforcements multiple times. He explains that Chinese forces set up traps to capture prisoners, but the traps, rigged with explosives, resulted in several casualties. After seeing so much death, he shares that he suffered vivid nightmares upon his return.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez brinda un relato de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. La Infantería 65 sufrió muchas bajas durante esa batalla y mandaron reemplazos varias veces. Explica que las fuerzas chinas tenían trampas para capturar prisioneros, pero las trampas, llenas de explosivos, resultaron en varias bajas. Después de ver tanta muerte, comparte que sufrió pesadillas a su regreso.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Medical Care and Rejoining the Unit

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. explains how he was wounded in September of 1950. He reflects on a situation where his patrol encountered the enemy, but his report was not believed by his officer. Despite his insistence, he was forced to go back to his position where the injury occurred. He admits he was not pleased with the officer who did not believe him. He remembers showing his wound to the officer and asking, "Are you happy now?"



Returning to the Hospital

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses being wounded right before the Chinese attacked. He shares how he knew that he would not be able to return home for Christmas if the Chinese were involved. He explains how, after returning back to his unit, he was given command of a company since most of the officers in his battalion had been killed during the Chinese advance. He comments that he received two Purple Heart Medals, a Silver Star, and the Combat Infantry Badge for his services.



Jutta I. Andersson

Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Wounded During the Battle of Old Baldy / Herido en la Batalla de Old Baldy

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas presents an overview of the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was severely wounded. He explains that the battle was particularly brutal because the enemy offensive was conducted when replacement troops were entering the front. Furthermore, he states that it was an unwinnable fight because they were outnumbered ten-to-one. He remembers how he and others sought refuge in a bunker and describes the way in which they were wounded.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla del Viejo Calvo en la que fue herido gravemente. Explica que la batalla fue brutal porque la ofensiva enemiga empezó cuando las tropas de reemplazo entraban al frente. Además, afirma que fue una pelea imposible de ganar porque los superaban en número diez a uno. Recuerda cómo él y otros buscaron refugio en un búnker y describe la forma en que fueron heridos.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Keith Nutter

Coping

Keith Nutter recollects on losing a dear friend while in Korea. Although he mourned later at home, in the moment he couldn't shed a tear. He describes what funeral services were like while serving in Korea.



Kenneth Borchers

The Enemy Talked To Us

Bodies lay dying on the battlefield not too far from where the troops were stationed on the hill they were defending territory. Kenneth Borchers recalled the sounds bodies were making as the men were dying during the night. There was death all around and soldiers moaning from their pain was a constant sound.



A Breakfast Surprise

The men in Kenneth Borchers's platoon were enjoying a delicatessen of eating pancakes while on the front line one morning. As they got situated on the ground to eat, they saw the enemy running through their camp. The US soldiers never could fire a shot before the enemy passed their camp and were down the hill.



Attack By the Chinese and the Rats

After spending nights as an observer on the hill they were defending, Kenneth Borchers continued to report to Lt. Stone that there were people coming up the road, but no one believed him. The area they were located had been fairly secured with barbed wire, but around 9pm, the rats began to run.
Therefore, Kenneth Borchers knew that his troops were under attack by the Chinese who mounted the barbed wire fences by using acrobatic moves to scale the fence.



Kenneth Dillard

Two Trips to Korea

Kenneth Dillard describes his experiences at sea during the Korean War. He was on one of many destroyers that were stationed in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. He recalls chipping ice off the ship, and chasing submarines in the East Sea.



Kenneth F. Dawson

Hill 355: Death and Danger

Kenneth F. Dawson remembers being in the thick of fighting when the Chinese tried to take Hill 355. Driving up to deliver ammunition, he met an oncoming truck of Canadians. Blood was pouring out of the truck. Another time, on the Imjin River, he pulled the body of a dead American from the water and buried it in a sand bank. In a third instance, he drove a family north to the 38th Parallel so they could rejoin their relatives.



Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth Newton

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Kenneth Newton recounts the days leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which included seeing Manchuria and partaking in a Thanksgiving meal. He remembers waking up to explosions late one night and realized they were under attack by the Chinese. He explains that chaos ensued, everyone being assigned a weapon and sent to the front lines.



Chinese-American vs. Chinese Soldiers

Kenneth Newton describes Chinese soldiers, sharing memories of them freezing to death due to the harsh weather conditions. He offers a story of an American officer with them who was Chinese and could speak Chinese fluently. He recounts the soldier's bravery and his ability to confuse the enemy by countering orders due to understanding the language.



Kenneth S. Shankland

A Peaceful Solution for a Divided Country

Kenneth Shankland recalls how he knew nothing about Korea until he was sent to the East Sea to patrol the Korean coast. He shares that since his service in Korea, he has closely studied the developments of the Korean War, from the actual fighting to the Armistice that has not resolved the war. He adds that he would like for Korea to find a peaceful solution between the North and South.



Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



Kenneth Warner

The Realities of the Bitter Cold

Kenneth Warner shares his first experience ever with death. Having never seen a dead body, he explains that one of his primary tasks was to retrieve the deceased from battle. He describes the shock from seeing bodies frozen solid and the struggle in trying to find the most respectable approach in removing them for transport. He recalls hearing the moaning and whimpering of the Chinese Prisoners of War as they stood barefoot in the ice and snow, suffering terribly from frostbite.



Treadway Bridge (graphic)

Kenneth Warner describes the obstacles created by the dangerously cold temperatures and the engineering behind bridge drops, where floating box cars would descend with all the necessary items to construct a bridge where existing bridges had been destroyed. He credits such engineering as the reason why they were able to get out of that area. He recalls learning sometime after the war that the Chinese dead were used to fill the holes between the steel and the ground because the ground was so frozen they were unable to source sufficient dirt.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Armistice Experience

Kevin Dean elaborates on the lead up and immediate aftermath of the Armistice signing. He recounts the positions of the Kiwis, Americans, and Chinese during the final days leading up to the signing and describes the heavy weapon fire. He recalls how calm it was after the signing, sharing that the killing stopped, and he elaborates on the death toll the Chinese suffered. He shares that he and other soldiers near his position narrowly missed a planned Chinese explosion.



Kirk Wolford

Home by Christmas

Kirk Wolford expresses the frustration he and others felt towards General MacArthur as the Chinese entered the war. He shares how MacArthur's promise of "Home by Christmas" was fading as they enjoyed a hot Thanksgiving meal on the front lines. He explains the actual strength of the Chinese and what they were told to expect were quite different, which led to some feeling MacArthur was holding out on them.



We Knew We Were at War

Kirk Wolford tells of situation he witnessed while serving on the front lines. He recalls his communication chief stepping out into the road in the middle of the night to confront what he thought was friendly noise only to find himself facing a Russian tank, the first they would encounter followed by masses of Chinese soldiers. He remembers coming to the realization that he was indeed fighting in a war.



Larry Kinard

Front Lines of the 38th Parallel

Larry Kinard explains how he was embedded in the mountains along the Inchon River fighting to maintain their position against the Chinese. He shares that throughout the day, there was mortar and artillery fire, so he stayed inside his bunker. He explains that at night, the Chinese would perform assaults on his men, so he explains how there wasn't a lot of sleep for two months.



Larry Shadler

Captured by the Chinese

Lawrence Shadler describes the night he and 68 other men were captured by the Chinese when his troop ran out of ammunition. The Dutch had pulled out an left a two and half mile gap in the lines. He was on guard when about 50,000 Chinese attacked just after midnight.



In Line Waiting to Die

Lawrence Shadler describes the Chinese lining up the captured American troops and waiting to be shot while third in line. Lining them up was just for show at times. Approximately 300 were marched north to a P.O.W. camp.



A Prisoner's Winter

Lawrence Shadler describes spending the winter in a Chinese P.O.W. camp. He was given a "long-John," a piece of steamed bread. The flue from the stove tunneled under the building and created heat under the floor. The men had to move around or "you would burn your butt." The cold was so overbearing that birds wings froze in mid air.



What do you think of the War?

Lawrence Shadler describes being taken to the headquarters of the Chinese prison camps after 15-18 months and being asked about his impressions of the war. The enemy propaganda papers reported they had been advancing 30-40 miles a day. He asked how they liked Hawaii, since they must have made their way to San Francisco after 15-18 months of advancing so significantly.



Release of the P.O.W.

Lawrence Shadler describes his release just north of the 38th Parallel. For every 100 American solidiers released, 500 enemy POWs were also repatriated. They were taken on trucks to a white stone path and were not officially released until stepping onto those stones.



Lawrence Elwell

Grateful to Be Alive

Lawrence Elwell describes being wounded in a battle near Hagaru-ri after getting caught in crossfire with the Chinese. He notes that a Navy corpsman tended to his wounded right arm and stopped the bleeding. He shares he was then evacuated to Yokoska, Japan. He explains that his injury prevented him from returning to the front lines and adds he was not eager to go back into the firefight anyway. While hospitalized in Japan, he recalls being awarded, rather unceremoniously, the Purple Heart. He recounts how he was later sent to a U.S. Navy hospital in Pensacola, Florida, to finish his recovery.



Tonight Marine, You Die!

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamri. Among his revelations, he speaks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that, ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured in the United States which resulted in high casualties among American troops.



Lawrence Hafen

The Last Ten Days

Lawrence Hafen talks about his experience during the last ten days before the signing of the Armistice. He mentions continuous shelling by both sides in an effort to expend stocks of ammunition. He describes the front lines after the ceasefire.



Leandro Diaz Miranda

Battle of Kelly Hill / Batalla de Kelly Hill

Leandro Díaz Miranda explains the difficulty the 65th Regiment encountered at the Battle of Kelly Hill. He details the terrible fighting as they were outnumbered ten-to-one. They suffered many casualties and thus the troops were completely demoralized by the end of the battle.

Leandro Díaz Miranda explica la dificultad que encontró el Regimiento 65 en la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Detalla lo terrible que fue la lucha, ya que fueron superados en número diez a uno. Sufrieron muchas bajas y, por lo tanto, las tropas estaban completamente desmoralizadas al final de la batalla.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Armistice Day

Leon "Andy" Anderson shares his experience being there for the Armistice in July 1953. He explains how he was near the front lines in the recon rear area. He shares how the Chinese and North Koreans were shooting at the US troops all the way up to the last minute before the Armistice. He shares how he celebrated the end of the war.



Leona Stern

Access to the War Room

Leona Stern recounts her experience while Charles was in the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. After the Chinese attacks on Thanksgiving, she reveals sharing her fears with an admiral who authorized her to have access to the maps in the war room. She describes seeing the day-by-day movements of the units and the Chinese surrounding them. Since she did not receive a notification informing her he was gone, she assumed Charles was okay but shares it was two weeks before she knew for sure he was alive. She emphasizes how she did not stop crying until she received letters from Charles informing her he was alright.



Leonard Laconia

Just How Close We Were To The Enemy

Leonard Laconia's jeep squadron moved around from Seoul to Pyongyang and up to the North Korean Airports that he noted as K23 and K24 (Pyongyang). He recalled spending most of his time around K23 and he was told originally there were 30,000 Chinese headed their way, but there was actually 380,000 Chinese soldiers. Leonard Laconia's missions, known as a "sorties," would only last about 15 minutes (refuel & amp; rearm) because they would run out of ammunition so quickly due to the number of Chinese they were fighting.



The Chinese Were Smart, But Napalm Was Stronger

When Leonard Laconia's air squadron went on "strafing" missions, the Chinese were smart to just lie down flat on the ground to keep from getting shot which was a great defense tactic. Leonard Laconia's group responded by dropping napalm which wiped out most of the Chinese troops. He described that one canister of napalm would cover the diameter of a football field spreading across consuming the oxygen in the air and heat would rise under the plane. The Chinese wore thick heavy coats during the winter and the napalm would just stick to it aiding in the burning of bodies.



US B-29s Couldn't Stop the Chinese

Leonard Laconia stated that the Chinese would fly MiGs from Manchuria, but they would burn fuel so quickly that they rarely made it to Korea. The US would fly B-29s up and down the Yalu River dropping bombs to destroy bridges, but it didn't stop the Chinese from coming down into Korea. The Chinese still found a way to get across the Yalu River.



Bed Check Charlie

An enemy plane was nicknamed "Bed Check Charlie" by The Stars and Stripes newspaper which was provided for every US soldier. In the newspaper, it threatened that "Bed Check Charlie" would come at night and killed one of the men from his squadron by dropping grenades and mortar shells. Leonard Laconia remembered that many of the enemy planes maneuvered well through the night sky, so soldiers were afraid of them.



Armistice Signed, But Fighting Continued

Leonard Laconia mentioned how bad the fighting was from 1950 through 1951, but when talk of armistice was being discussed in 1951, no one wanted to take a chance of dying. Therefore, none of the soldiers showed interest in the armistice. After the Armistice was signed in 1953, territory along the DMZ had many battles that continued to secure and occupy any land.



Leonard Nicholls

Observation Post Observations

Leonard Nicholls manned the observation posts while on duty as a radio operator. The front lines were traumatic. Traveling to a post on Hill #365 took them through Chinese lines. He describes the process of calling in artillery fire on Chinese positions.



Chinese Propaganda

Leonard Nicholls describes the rats in camp and his experiences with Chinese on the front lines. The Chinese also sent Christmas cards to make soldiers homesick.



Leonard R. Stanek

Welcome to Korea

Leonard Stanek describes arriving in Incheon Harbor in 1952. Incheon, secured by the US military, however, Leonard Stanek could still hear artillery being fired 30 miles away. Soon after arrival, he was sent to the front lines, due to his company having many losses, both death and wounded. Leonard Stanek also describes the food on the frontlines, C-Rations, and SPAM and Eggs with a cracker being his favorite meal.



Wounded

Leonard Stanek describes how the Chinese attacked on July 26th, 1953, the day before the Armistice took effect. Leonard Stanek was in a trench and hunkered down, when one of the last artillery shells exploded with a piece of shrapnel piercing his helmet. He medivacked to the Hospital Ship Haven to recover and earned a Purple Heart.



The Armistice

Leonard Stanek describes where and when he learned about the Armistice signing. He suffered a head injury and medivacked to a hospital ship and learned about the Armistice when he woke up from injury or exhaustion. A week later, after his injury, Leonard Stanek rejoined his unit. Upon returning, he learned about the loss of a buddy that was helping retrieve wounded.



Leroy Johnson

International Interactions

LeRoy Johnson describes his interactions with other nation's troops. He explains that he often engaged with South Korean soldiers when they picked up prisoners in the harbor. He elaborates on mainly picking up mostly Chinese soldiers and transporting them to a carrier.



Leslie John Pye

Haunting Memories

Leslie Pye remembers what it was like going back up HIll 111 to gather reusable material for the new line of resistance. He reflects on the experience of arriving on the 28th of July and seeing the carnage of the previous battle. He shares the memories of what he saw that haunt him.



Lewis Ebert

The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lloyd Pitman

Christmas In Korea

Lloyd Pitman describes a Christmas day in Korea. The army gave him two beers and two cigars. He had spent three Christmases away from home and spent some time thinking about his family. The horrors of war returned as he soon found South Korean civilians executed by the North Koreans and Chinese as they retreated.



Loren Schumacher

Surviving an Attack by the Chinese at Outpost Reno

Loren Schumacher describes an attack of Chinese forces on outpost Reno, sometimes called Yoke. He and thirty-six other soldiers were defending the outpost when a battalion of Chinese soldiers attacked them. He describes his Lieutenant calling in on a PRC-6 and reporting they were overrun and how the Captain at the command post ordered VT artillary to be fired on their position which ended the Chinese attack. He was wounded by a Chinese shell that exploded in a pit right in front of him, causing a concussion which is how he earned his Purple Heart.



Louis G. Surratt

Killed in Action Versus Missing in Action

Louis Surratt served in the 8th Fighter Bomber Wing at Suwon. Suwon had the longest runway in Korea and housed three different Air Force squadrons of about 30 pilots each. The 8th Fighter Bomber Wing oversaw the F80 Shooting Star. Louis Surrat's job was casualty reporting and awards and decorations. He estimates that around thirty pilots were reported as either killed or missing in action.



Louis J. Weber

Chorwon and Battle of Triangle Hill

Louis J. Weber explains how he landed. in Inchon. He shares how he was sent to Chorwon, which was part of the Iron Triangle. He explains that he was an infantryman. He shares that his job was to protect his bunker while sending out artillery to fight the Chinese.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

Legacy of Batallón Colombia / Legado del Batallón Colombia

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describes the most dangerous battles of the war. He provides an account of his participation in the Battle of Old Baldy and Hill 180 including a moment of heroism in which he charged up a hill to save his friend’s life. He believes that the battle of Old Baldy was a great triumph for Colombia as they the fought with so much valor.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describe las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Brinda un relato de su participación en la Batalla de Old Baldy y la colina 180 y cuenta sobre su momento de heroísmo en el que subió una colina para salvar la vida de su amigo. Él cree que la batalla de Old Baldy fue un gran triunfo para Colombia porque lucharon con mucho valor y el legado del batallón.



Luis Maria Jimenez Jimenez

A Serious Ultimatum / Un Ultimátum Serio

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez shares his memories of Old Baldy in 1953 and 1954. He recalls a very serious incident in which the captain of their Battalion was captured by the Chinese. He explains that there was an ultimatum following the incident and recounts the details of how the incident was handled.

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez comparte sus recuerdos de Old Baldy en 1953 y 1954. Recuerda un incidente muy grave en el que el capitán de su batallón fue capturado por los chinos. Explica que hubo un ultimátum después del incidente y relata los detalles de cómo se manejó el incidente.



Luis Rosado Padua

The Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Luis Rosado Padua recalls his experience during the Battle of Kelly Hill. He was originally in the tank company, but when he was transferred to the medical unit, he was responsible for carrying out the wounded from the battlefield. He describes the carnage of the battle of Kelly Hill which seemed to be unending.

Luis Rosado Padua recuerda su experiencia durante la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Originalmente estaba en la compañía de tanques, pero cuando fue transferido a la unidad médica, estaba a cargo de sacar a los heridos del campo de batalla. Describe los horrores de la batalla de Kelly Hill que parecía interminable porque había tantos chinos que estaban peleando.



Luther Dappen

Impressions of Korea

Luther Dappen describes receiving his orders and his journey to Korea by way of Japan. He describes traveling by train across the country to Seattle but being told to get off at Tacoma so he could get to Ft. Lewis. From there he traveled to Yokohama by ship, hearing reports of MacArthur saying his troops would be home by Christmas and the Chinese invasion.



Impressions of Korea and Withdrawal from Seoul

Luther Dappen describes his arrival in Korea and his transfer north from Inchon. He describes his unit's experiences during the withdrawal before Seoul was taken over by the Chinese. He recalls seeing not only the troops retreating but also lines of civilians carrying everything they could carry away from their homes. He goes on to explain that his company was the last to cross the bridge at the Han river, leaving them with the responsibility to blow the bridge up in order to slow the Chinese' progress.



The Eyes and Ears of the Division

Luther Dappen describes the work of Reconnaissance. He explains that many times he was given the task of "going out to see what they're shooting at you with today." He goes on to describe his unit accidentally stumbling upon a unit of Chinese troops who were lying in wait and having to take them in as prisoners.



Manuel Carnero

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Manuel Carnero describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes arriving and experiencing temperatures 20-30 degrees below 0. He describes the weapons available and how the machine guns they carried utilized belted ammunition though the soldiers were given linked ammunition. He goes on to describe seeing what he thought looked like a German grenade from WWII and being unable to escape the explosion. When he awoke, his tongue half cut-off and mouth full of blood, he looked up the hill and thought he was dead and headed to Valhalla.



Injuries and Casualties

Manuel Carnero describes how the cold and frostbite affected soldiers. He explains that he had frostbite on his hands and feet while many other men froze to death. He says it was not unusual for men to fall asleep and not wake up; that the weather claimed more lives than the Chinese. He goes on to describe how the Navy Corpsmen serving with the Marines were picking up the casualties at the battle site when they found him and helped him to a truck.



Marcelino C. Nardo

Dangers of Land Mines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls being among the group of Filipino soldiers sent as an advance unit to Christmas Hill. He recalls arriving about 2:00 in the morning and seeing piles of dead bodies. He explains their main mission was to lay landmines to protect the area from further Chinese encroachment.



Challenges of Serving on the Front Lines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls many difficulties of serving on the front lines. He remembers it was often hard to see where the enemy was and could only hear the sounds of incoming artillery fire. He shares the story of a friend being killed while trying to deliver water to the front line. He speaks frequently of the cold and the lack of equipment many encountered when facing Korea's cold winters.



Armistice Brought Happiness

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls the happiness felt with the agreement on the armistice. He notes that this agreement led to the evacuation of all things from the front lines to Pusan via railroad. His unit evacuated to an area controlled by the 24t Division of the U.S. Army.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

Worst Battle / La Batalla Más Dura

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recounts his experience at the Battle of Hill 400. He explains the ground operation which resulted in his platoon piercing into enemy lines and capturing a number of prisoners of war, documents, and bloody cash. He details the way in which American airpower covered the platoon with the use of machine guns and napalm. He led his platoon on this mission without ever firing his gun as he was forced to fight with his bayonet in hand-to-hand combat. He described the battle as hell on earth and went in with the mindset that he had to win or die.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata su experiencia en la Batalla de la Colina 400. Explica la misión que resulto en su pelotón atravesara las líneas enemigas y capturar a varios prisioneros de guerra, documentos y dinero. Relata la forma en que el aviones estadounidense cubrieron el pelotón con el uso de ametralladoras y napalm. El dirigió su pelotón en esta misión sin disparar su arma, pero estuvo obligado a luchar con su bayoneta en un combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Describió la batalla como el infierno en la tierra y entró con la mentalidad de que tenía que vencer o morir.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Marshall E. Davis

Former POWs sabotaging their generators

The location of their headquarters was near a fence line that once held POWS that had integrated with the locals but some became apart of a guerrilla style action that would sabotage their generators and effect the transmitter that was far away from the headquarters. When the transmitters would go out it was usually because of the generators. Marshall was assigned night duty and was always on the lookout for possible saboteurs affecting their generators.



Marshall W. Ritchey

Keep Your Head Down

Mitchell W. Ritchey describes the 3 most important things to making it home: stay warm, keep your head down (always wear your helmet), and doing everything you could to stay alive. He recalls the year he was there was marked by one of the coldest winters ('52) and says they had "Hoochies" that they made while on the front lines where they would dig a hole into the side of a mountain and put sands bags into the hill (in case of incoming mail-grenade drop) and 3-4 bunks at one time. Most of the men slept in sleeping bags and Mitchell said he never took his boots off.



Martin Goge

Attack Plans

Martin Goge describes spending a lot of time at meetings planning attacks to straighten out defensive lines against the Chinese. He helped maintain communication with the soldier's families and assisted in night raids against the Chinese to keep them out of no-man's-land, a constant job. He explains that both sides made efforts to take and prevent the other side from taking no-man's-land.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Watching Napalm

Sam Bas describes what it was like watching napalm being dropped. He explains how the planes flew in. He remembers hearing people screaming from ten miles away.



Captured by the Chinese

Sam Bass was captured in September 1951 around the Punchbowl or Old Baldy area. He describes how he was arrested by the Chinese who had cut them off through the line. He explains the living conditions during that time, including the marching and sleep conditions.



Matthew D. Rennie

Battlefield and Memories

Matthew Rennie details suffering a head wound during an encounter with Chinese soldiers. He recalls a bullet grazing the back of his head and spending several days at a MASH unit to receive care. He reflects on the fear he experienced on the battlefield and his feelings of helplessness as he watched fellow soldiers die. He shares that he suffers from PTSD and nightmares despite so many years having past since his service in Korea.



Maurice B. Pears

Protecting the Hills after the Battle of Kapyong

Maurice Pears shares how he was trained as an infantryman in 1950. He recounts his arrival at Kimpo Airbase and how he went to the front lines at Kapyong to dig in. He shares that he participated in some patrols across the river in enemy territory. He adds that as a commander of twenty-six men, they had to prepare for the assault on the Chinese.



Life as a Korean War Soldier and Operation Minden

Maurice Pear recalls living in foxholes during his year in Korea from 1951-1952. He remembers patrolling through small Korean villages that were filled with only women and children. He recounts that during Operation Minden, his troops fought the Chinese for Hill 355, 317, and 227 while enduring many casualties.



Maurice Morby

Ghost Man

Maurice Morby shares a story of a ghostly encounter that he had during one evening's guard duty. He describes seeing what he thought was an old man dressed in traditional Korean clothing. He and a fellow soldier chased the man into a long inescapable alley and opened fire. Despite what seemed like an impossible escape, they never saw the man again.



Mine Clearing Dogs

Maurice Morby talks about dogs that were used to discover enemy mines. He describes the dogs' duties and one particular encounter with several dogs in camp.



Second Hand Mail

Maurice Morby tells a story about what he called "second hand mail." While eating lunch one day, his unit's encampment came under heavy artillery fire. He describes that later it was found out that the artillery fire was from friendly tanks, their shells ricocheting off of a nearby river.



Secret Supply Mission

Maurice Morby describes delivering secret cargo on a supply mission. He talks about his discovery of what the cargo was, a fabricated decoy tank that was switched for a real tank that needed to be serviced.



28 Days for Smoking

Maurice Morby recalls the story of when he and a fellow soldier were caught smoking on guard duty and received a 28-day sentence in a military jail. He talks about the circumstances that surrounded his infraction and describes his experience as a military prisoner.



Maximo Young

Searching for Smugglers

Maximo Young shares his 10th BCT unit was ordered to search for smugglers along the eighty-one mile stretch they were assigned to patrol. He recalls moving slowly with his reconnaisance unit until a truck hit a mine. He recalls they were reminded by the tactical officer to be observant as they were expecting an enemy encounter along their route.



Battle of Yultong

Maximo Young recounts being placed in a defensive position on April 22, 1951, in the area near Yultong. He describes the Filipino forces being aided by forces from Puerto Rico and Turkey when they faced down forty thousand Chinese. Ultimately, he recalls the Turks gave way, and the Chinese attacked the other forces in the area. He figures roughly one hundred twelve BCT soldiers were killed in action, but the forces managed to protect Seoul from the Chinese invaders.



Mehmet Aksoy

Service During the Korean War

Mehmet Aksoy describes his service during the Korean War. He identifies the various Fronts he served along. Further, Vegas Front and Cheorwon Front, which are along the 38th Parallel saw heavy fighting. Mehmet Aksoy did not see any fierce fighting. However, he played an important role of ensuring the phone line between headquarters and the men never broke. Breaking would occur due to enemy mortars. This was instrumental in the Turkish military holding off Chinese advancement.



Mehmet Arif Boran

Tape and a Coke

Mehmet Arif Boran describes being injured from artillery shrapnel. The artillery shell hit a tree and exploded overhead instead of on his position. The doctors were able to pull out his shrapnel in about five minutes. They put some numbing tape on his wound and gave him a Coke. He reported back with his unit. However, two fellow soldiers were not so lucky. They had pretty serious injuries and Mehmet Arif Boran could not even go see them.



A State of Misery

Mehmet Arif Boran describes the fighting in the Vegas Complex and the state of the Korean people. He describes how when the Turks surrendered Vegas Hill, injured troops were in the valley. Dead bodies started to stink. The Chinese would not let the Turkish soldiers recover their injured and dead.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Geumyangjangri Front

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the fighting conditions at the Geumyangjangri Front. The Chinese were surrounded and could not escape. Therefore, this battle helped the Allies maintain control of the advancing Chinese Army. Further, he also describes the overall destruction that war brought. Towns were bombed out and looted. However, Pyongyang had people, while the South suffered.



Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle is famous for Turkish soldiers. The engagement was very fierce. However, the Turkish were able to turn back a larger Chinese force. Mehmet Cecil Yasar describes how the Chinese attacked at night. The Turkish fighters lost many troops during the Battle of Kunu-ri.



Chinese Strategy

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the actions of the Chinese during the Korean War. The Chinese engaged in a strategy of pulling the Allies further north. This created problems for re-supplying Allied forces. Also, this helped the Chinese re-supply, because they were closer to Manchuria. Mehmet Cecil Yasar also describes how the Chinese forces were very well trained.



Mehmet Copten

Papasan Hill, aka Hill 1062

Mehmet Çöpten describes Papasan Hill near Cheorwon. This is a battlefront in the Iron Triangle. He describes how deceptive the Chinese fighters were. The Turkish soldiers had to come up with a code to send messages when the Chinese were attacking. The Chinese would even use soldiers surrendering as a cover to launch an attack. The Turkish soldiers had to be constantly aware of a possible attack.



Vegas Front

Mehmet Çöpten describes the Vegas Front. He describes how the Chinese used howitzers on one hill, while simultaneously attacking another. The Turkish fighters lost one hundred and fifty-three men. The fighting took place over thirty-six hours. They eventually won the battle and the front. The Turkish fighters then turned over the front to the American forces.



Mehmet Esen

Battle of Kunu-ri aka Wawon

Mehmet Esen describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle is also known as Wawon. Mehmet Sen describes the American retreating, while the Turkish soldiers stayed. He provides details about how there were approximately five hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers that fought. After the fighting stopped only sixty-nine remained.



Battles in Korea

Mehmet Esen describes the fighting conditions when he first arrived in Korea. The Turkish soldiers fought near the Manchurian line. One famous battle was Cheorwon in North Korea. Another battle he describes is Sandbag Castle, or Kumkale. During one of the battles, he was wounded and sent to a hospital in Seoul.



Melese Tessema

Fear and Commitment in Battle

Melese Tessema acknowledges feeling afraid as he joined the fighting in the Korean War, but he asserts that soldiers cannot allow fear to interfere with a mission. He arrived in Kumhwa and fought the Chinese on Hill 358. Shrapnel from a mortar shell injured his leg during the fighting. Melese Tessema received Korean, Ethiopian, and United States awards, including the United States bronze star.



Chinese Artillery Barrage

Melese Tessema considers the Battle of Triangle Hill Battle his most dangerous experience. His platoon had just arrived at their location and thus had not yet dug many trenches. The Ethiopian soldiers had the high ground, but large numbers of Chinese approached. The Chinese had difficulty climbing in the steep terrain. Still, he lost fellow soldiers, including his dearest friend. Melese Tessema and the other platoon officers spoke English, but soldiers from the lower ranks did not, creating language barriers across groups. At one point his platoon provided machine gun support to Korean forces nearby. After fighting ended, their only hope was to communicate in sign language.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



A Brutal Attack

Melvin Hill explains a brutal attack at a roadblock on the way back from the Yalu river. He recalls his experience with hand-to-hand combat, saying he never thought he would ever put a knife into someone, stab someone with a bayonet or shoot someone right in front of him. He describes running over people in the middle of the road. He believes that his survival of the attack by the Chinese is only due to luck.



Melvin J. Behnen

It Haunts You (Graphic)

Melvin Behnen describes the challenge of taking care of enemy soldiers killed in action. He shares details about dealing with the remains of those killed on the battlefield, and the fear of finding explosives within the bodies made the ordeal extremely challenging. He elaborates on the struggles he faced seeing the loss of life and reveals how he sought out help to cope with the memories.



Merl Smith

The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

Jincheng Campaign- Battle at Kumsong "All Hell Broke Loose"

Merle Degler always carried in his pocket rolls of film he had taken during his time in Korea. One day, he found an empty ammo box and decided to put the film in the ammo box, and the next thing you knew, "All Hell Broke Loose." He recalls the ROK and his unit were overrun by the Chinese, so they were told to retreat. Merle Degler learned just a few months ago, that the the US artillery regiment left their equipment when they retreated, so the Chinese used the equipment against our own people. They reorganized before the next morning to create a new front line, but with a lot less equipment since they had lost it while retreating.



Fighting in the Iron Triangle in Jan. 1953

Merle Degler was stationed in the Iron Triangle and he fought along with the US Marines who had be run off an important hill by fighting the Chinese. He went to White Horse Hill right after a battle like WWI trenches right at the front line. After he had been in a bunker for a while, a soldier took him out of the trench towards no-man's-land, and he was taken to a field full of dead Chinese soldiers.



Merle Peterson

Battles from City to City Across Korea

Merle Peterson describes the difference between the 2.6 rocket launchers and the new 3.5 models. He explains that the rockets from the 2.6 launcher merely bounced off the tanks but the 3.5s were able to pierce the tanks, enabling them to take out eight of the eleven tanks that had attacked them. He goes on to describe meeting with the 7th division in Osan and from there moving through Seoul, Pyongyang, and onto the Yalu River until the Chinese joined the North Koreans and they were forced to retreat.



The Chinese Invasion Changed the War

Merle Peterson describes fighting the Chinese at the Yalu River. He explains that though his unit had been told they would be home for Christmas, when the Chinese invaded, their plans to return home were ended. He describes having to retreat alongside many of the Korean people. He recalls having to fight in summer military clothes during the winter in the freezing weather and delousing after not showering for thirty days, which was the norm.



Mert Lassere

First Impressions of Korea

Mert Lassere recounts his first experience with stepping on to Korean soil. Having just landed due to mechanical difficulties, he remembers being met with sniper fire while stepping off the plane. He shares no one had ammunition due to in-flight regulations, so they take cover in the ditches. He remembers how they proceeded through a burning town in the cover of night as they marched to form their perimeter, being told to make no noise along the way as Chinese were in the hills waiting for them.



Michael Daly

Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Michael Fryer

Recollections from the Battle of the Hook

Michael Fryer recalls his experiences as an ammunition carrier for troops during the Battle of the Hook. He explains seeing large amounts of explosions and men who were machine gunned down. He describes watching as the bodies of deceased men were carried down and lain in a road.



Michel Ozwald

Battle of Keum Hwa

Michel Ozwald recalls his engagement being at the Battle of Keum Hwa in January and February of 1952. He served as part of Queens Company which had armaments like machine guns, 81 mm mortars, and Seventy-Five Recoilless. He recalls the weather being very cold which meant there was not much fighting other than covering gun fire. He explains that he would accompany scouting parties as a gun layer.



Injured at Battle of T-Bone Hill

Michel Ozwald recalls being in contact with the Chinese at T-Bone Hill and insults being hurled. He notes that the hill was alternately taken by the Americans and the Chinese resulting in high casualties. He remembers the French forces receiving information regarding an impending attack from a Chinese prisoner, but while preparing for a frontal attack, the French were hit from the rear. Following the battle, someone pointed out that Michel Ozwald was bleeding from his ears.



Battle of Arrowhead

Michel Ozwald recalls his involvement in the Battle of Arrowhead as being the most difficult of his time in Korea. He explains that the North Koreans and Chinese bombarded the hill for 24 hours. He notes it was the most intense fighting he was involved in while serving in Korea.



Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce

Most Difficult Battle / La Batalla Más Difícil

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce discusses the most difficult battle of the war in which many soldiers died. He recounts that they were spotted by Chinese troops because of the fire from their food. During the battle, they were forced to cross a river, but because many were unable to swim, they drowned.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce habla de la batalla más difícil de la guerra en la que murieron muchos soldados. Él cuenta que las tropas chinas vieron sus posiciones debido al fuego que unos compañeros hicieron para calentar la comida. Durante la batalla, se vieron obligados a cruzar un río, pero como muchos no sabían nadar, se ahogaron.



Mike Mogridge

On the Front Lines

Mike Mogridge details being in combat on "The Hook." He recalls Chinese artillery tactics as well as the Chinese suicide attacks. He recounts being lucky as he was in the rear trenches for most of the battle where they did not receive so much fire or action. He vividly remembers recovering the bodies of the enemy dead and using them as a wall to protect the hutches in which his unit stayed.



Combat

Mike Mogridge speaks about his first experiences in combat at the Hook. He recounts witnessing the deaths of two of his fellow soldiers. He remembers being lucky to survive an occasion when the Chinese dropped five mortars on him and two other soldiers.



Flashback to Korea

Mike Mogridge shares his thoughts about death as well as his views about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). He admits many from his generation are skeptical of PTSD but that this skepticism does not mean people do not suffer from it. He recounts a personal story of having a flashback some fifty years after the war.



Milton W. Walker

Surviving the Chosin Reservoir and Multiple Attacks

Milton Walker explains that he drove a truck and jeep loaded with supplies for the troops throughout his time in the Korean War. He describes being told that he couldn't collect drinking water from the reservoir because they were surrounded by the Chinese and couldn't travel freely. He goes on to explain that the Chinese had blown up bridges and roads, prolonging efforts to get down the mountain until the Seabees and US engineers helped build temporary bridges.



Monte Curry

Cruelty of the Turks

Monte Curry felt sorry for the Chinese (Chinks) who were being picked off so easily by the Turks and other UN soldiers that were shooting them. With three waves of Chinese soldiers, the first round, only 1 out of 10 carried a gun, so the second wave picked up the weapons on the ground. The 3rd wave had more weapons and fought using guerrilla tactics hiding behind bushes. Monte Curry described how the Turks carried leather satchels to bring back the ears they had cut off of the enemy.



Morris J. Selwyn

Tense Encounters with Formosan Gunboats

Morris Selwyn explains the role of the HMNZS Kaniere as a support vessel. The Korean War had ended and in 1954 the Kaniere was stationed in Japan with the role of escorting British shipping into China. Alliances between China, the United States, and Britain caused tense encounters at sea. At one point, a Formosan gunpoint challenged the Kaniere. Sometimes boats from opposing sides docked across from one another at the port in Kobe, Japan.



Narce Caliva

POW Trials on Geoje Island

Narce Caliva describes common occurrences at the Geoje Island POW camp. He explains that he was assigned several missing persons cases among the North Korean POWs. These cases had been reported to the Geneva Convention as mistreatments on behalf of the UN soldiers. He explains that through testimony it was understood that the missing persons had been perceived to be collaborators or were not friendly to the North Korean cause and were murdered and cut up into small pieces by other North Korean POWs and disposed of in the outgoing "honey buckets."



Nathan Stovall

Never Set Foot on Korean Soil

Nathan Stovall patrolled the East Sea near Wonsan in the summer of 1951. He neither set foot on Korean soil nor saw enemy forces, but the USS Blue engaged in firefights along the coast. Once his unit assisted the ROC by shooting onto the shore while the ROC escaped a tight spot.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Vegas Complex

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the conditions of the war at the Vegas Complex. There were a series of battles that took place in May of 1953 in this area. Subsequently, the fighting was fierce. Moreover, negotiations for peace were occurring. Importantly, the battles ended in arguably a stalemate after a Chinese offensive. Further, this helped with negotiations for the United Nations



Nelson Skinner

Toughest Battle at the Nakdong River

Nelson Skinner describes a fierce battle fought near the Nakdong River. He explains that his mission was to protect his regiment and another one in front of him. He describes the weaponry used during the battle. He goes on to describe being shot in the leg by a sniper and having to go to an overwhelmed MASH unit for medical aid.



Nick Cortese

Bouncing Betty Mine

Nick Cortese describes what happened when the 19th Infantry was moving north and came across a "Bouncing Betty Mine." . As the Chinese were dropping artillery his company commander jumped to get out of the way and set off the mine that detonated, killing the commander. It was later that Nick Cortese found out that this occurred in the Iron Triangle area.



Nick Nishimoto

Communist Indoctrination

Nick Nishimoto describes how the Chinese attempted to indoctrinate the Americans in the prison camp where he was stationed. He recalls twenty-one Americans adopting Communist ideology. He shares that they were called "turncoats" and that they chose to stay in North Korea with additional travel to China.



North Korean Guard Allows Burial

Nick Nishimoto details a relationship he had with a North Korean guard while in a prisoner of war camp. He recalls speaking with him in Japanese and the guard allowing him to properly bury his dear friend. He details this moment, his tears, the cold, and taking his friend's possessions for survival.



Chinese-American in a Chinese POW Camp

Nick Nishimoto discusses how in his prisoner of war camp Chinese-Americans were imprisoned as well. He remembers when his dear Chinese-American friend suffered from a cyst that became infected. He recalls there being American doctors in the prisoner of war camp who tried to provide treatment, but equipment was lacking to do so.



First Captured Night

Nick Nishimoto describes the living conditions of the school room where he was captive when he first became a prisoner of war. He recalls the room being so crowded that he had to sit crunched down for hours. He remembers how hard it was to keep balance when he got up later to stand and relieve himself. He describes how another American prisoner had to help him as the Chinese soldiers laughed.



Nicolás Cancel Figueroa

Contact Patrol at Kelly Hill / Patrulla de Contacto en Kelly Hill

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa presents an overview of the Chinese and North Korean troop positions on the eve of the battle of Kelly Hill which resulted in heavy losses from the 65th Infantry. He explains that he was a member of the contact patrol which was surveying the hill and when they reported on the great number of enemy troops and heavy equipment, his lieutenant did not believe the report. He remembers their lieutenant insisted on the contact patrol capturing a prisoner of war to interrogate him, but they were unable to do so because they were greatly outnumbered.

Nicolás Cancel Figueroa describe sus memorias de las posiciones de las tropas chinas y norcoreanas en vísperas de la batalla de Kelly Hill, que resultó en grandes pérdidas del 65º de Infantería. Explica que él era miembro de la patrulla de contacto que estaba observando el cerro y cuando le informaron a su teniente sobre la gran cantidad de tropas enemigas y equipo pesado, el no creyó el informe. Recuerda que su teniente insistía en que la patrulla de contacto capturara a un prisionero de guerra para interrogarlo, pero no pudieron hacerlo porque el enemigo los superaba en número.



Nikolaos Filis

Graphic Memories

Nikolaos Filis identifies his wife who recounts a few of his observations while serving in Korea. She shares that he saw disaster and found ruins of houses, people massacred, babies crying on the bodies of their dead parents, and poverty. She adds that he did not think solely of protecting himself and that he had even made preparations to ensure he would not be captured alive by the Chinese.



Noel G. Spence

In Retrospect

Noel G. Spence addresses why he fought in Korea. He discusses what fighting meant to him and how it saved South Korea. He expresses remorse about the shelling of the enemy. He recalls how on the night before the signing of the armistice, the Allies used up their shells as they did not want to be responsible for live artillery shells.



Nolasco de Jesus Espinal Mejia

Difficult Moments / Momentos Dificiles

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía describes the most difficult moments of the war. He recounts the story of the Battle of El Chamizo and the triumph of the Batallón Colombia in successfully completing their mission. Within this battle, he remembers how he was shot but continued fighting.

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía describe los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Cuenta la historia de la Batalla de El Chamizo y el triunfo del Batallón Colombia al completar su misión con éxito. Dentro de esta batalla, recuerda cómo le dispararon, pero explica que él continuó con su misión.



Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía discusses his relationship with Allied foreign troops. He recounts that he had a kinship with all troops but was most careful with Koreans because he was afraid that North Koreans could infiltrate their lines. He further explains this fear by sharing a story in which he helped capture prisoners of war who were in possession of the same cigarettes they had, signifying they were spies.

Nolasco de Jesús Espinal Mejía habla de sus relaciones con las tropas extranjeras. Cuenta que tenía amistad y compañerismo con las tropas de todos los países, pero tenía más cuidado con los coreanos porque temía que los norcoreanos pudieran infiltrarse en sus líneas. Explica que tenía este miedo porque en una ocasión capturaron prisioneros de guerra que estaban en posesión de los mismos cigarrillos que ellos tenían, y se dio cuenta que eran espías.



Norman Charles Champagne

Attacks on Chinese Outposts

Norman C. Champagne describes a mission to attack Hill 150 and 153, which were two Chinese outposts. As a Fire Team Leader, his goal was to blow up the Chinese bunkers and trenches to break the lower and upper trench lines. He explains why the Chinese were formidable enemies, despite the additional dropping of napalm by Corsair bombers.



Battle for the Berlin's

Norman C. Champagne shares a story about being under attack near the end of the Korean War. When asked to describe a challenging time, he talks about the Battle for the Berlin's and Boulder City. While he and another officer were driving to deliver supplies, they came under attack, experiencing a few terrifying moments that continue to live on in his memory.



Norman Renouf

Prisoner of War

In this clip, Norman Renouf describes the circumstances that led to him becoming a Prisoner of War in April of 1951. He spent several days in a cave without food before surrendering.



School in the Prisoner Camp

Norman Renouf describes the classes that he was forced to take in the prisoner camp. The Chinese used the classes to encourage the soldiers to reject capitalism in favor of communist ideologies. Some of the Chinese interpreters spoke good English because they had lived in New York City.



Norman Spencer Hale

On the Front lines

Norman S. Hale speaks about being in combat surrounded by the enemy. He also talks about a friendly-fire incident.



Preparing to be Captured

Norman S. Hale describes how he and two other men were captured by the enemy.



POW March

Norman S. Hale speaks about the food his Chinese captors gave the prisoners. He also speaks about the "March" to POW Camp 5 that began in early December 1950 and ended in February 1951.



Ollie Thompson

Lives Lost and Lives Saved

Ollie Thompson describes the overwhelming feeling of being responsible for lives lost in the war due to his position with artillery. He reflects on how taking the life of the enemy meant saving the life of a fellow soldier or civilian. He recalls leaning on his faith to help him through those times.



Osman Yasar Eken

Description of War

Osman Eken describes war. He did not feel danger or think about death. The Vegas Battles left many Chinese dead. Osman Eken provides one of the most vivid accounts of the battle. Turkey lost one hundred and forty-seven soldiers in twenty-six hours.



Othal Cooper

Night Raids

Othal Cooper explains the night raid missions of the B-29 planes on which he worked. He details how the night flyers would drop tinfoil from their planes to deter enemy radar, referring to it as radar jamming. He explains that by doing this it was more difficult for the enemy to shoot the planes down and recalls no planes receiving a direct hit while he was there.



Pablo Delgado Medina

The Battle of Imjin River / La Batalla del Río Imjin

Pablo Delgado Medina provides an account of the Battle of the Imjin River which he considers to be the most difficult of the nine months he spent in Korea. He explains that troop placement created an iron triangle with a valley of death in the middle. He remembers the harrowing way in which they were forced to cross the river and the lack of air support for five days because of the monsoon season. He laments that a friend from his town and so many others lost their lives during those six days.

Pablo Delgado Medina cuenta la historia de la Batalla del río Imjin que él considera la más difícil de los nueve meses que pasó en Corea. Explica que la ubicación de las tropas creó un triángulo de hierro con un valle de muerte en el medio. Recuerda el peligro que enfrentaron cuando se vieron obligados a cruzar el río y la falta de apoyo aéreo durante cinco días debido a la temporada de monzones. Lamenta que un amigo de su pueblo y tantos otros perdieron la vida durante esos seis días.



Trench Warfare / Guerra de Trincheras

Pablo Delgado Medina describes what the living conditions during trench warfare were like. He remembers the c-rations and describes each type of ration they received which had to be eaten cold. Moreover, he explains the trench warfare system utilized by the enemy in detail.

Pablo Delgado Medina describe cómo eran las condiciones de vida durante la guerra de trincheras. Recuerda las raciones-c y describe cada tipo de ración que recibieron y que debían comerse frías. Además, explica con gran detalle el sistema de guerra de trincheras utilizado por el enemigo.



Pascual Feliciano

Horrors of War / Los Horrores de la Guerra

Pascual Rosa Feliciano reflects on how terrible life was for both troops and civilians in South Korea. He describes incidents in which troops burned down small houses to draw out the enemy from hiding in small villages. He compares this suffering with the horrors of a battle in which so many of their troops were massacred after the use of napalm.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano discute lo terrible que era la vida tanto para las tropas como para los civiles durante la guerra. Describe incidentes en los que las tropas quemaban las casas pequeñas para sacar al enemigo de su escondite en los pueblos chicos. El compara este sufrimiento con los horrores de una batalla en la que muchos soldados fueron masacrados con el uso del napalm.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

All Was Quiet and Then Whoomph!

Patrick Hickey never felt scared, even though he could hear Chinese and North Korean soldiers all around him. Although never wounded, he experienced close calls. He recalls one memory of heading to the toilet behind a tiny Korean house, and while there, he shares that the enemy shelled and destroyed the house. He recounts how he and another soldier climbed into the trench he had dug until the shelling ceased.



Writing Home and Killing the Tiger

Patrick Hickey and his wife Joy describe their correspondence as being about everyday topics at home. Patrick shares how he did not want to worry Joy. He recalls that the battles were tough, and he describes the last battle of the war, the Third Battle of the Hook. He remembers that on the third night of the battle, thousands of Chinese attacked. He recalls how the United Nations forces killed one million Chinese soldiers in three nights and how the Chinese withdrew to sign the peace treaty.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



The Most Difficult Experience in Korea

Paul Cunningham identified the lack of solid support from the US government as the most difficult experience in Korea because all of the troops were ready to follow MacArthur all the way to the Yalu River. He shares that he was a part of the Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 502 Tactical Control Group during his time in Korea. He adds that his squadron performed air surveillance for three hundred miles in all directions using radar machines that were used during WWII.



Paul Hockla

Fighting on Pork Chop Hill

Paul Hockla describes what combat was like fighting against the Chinese at Pork Chop Hill.



Paul Hummel

Always Have a Backup Plan

Paul Hummel remembered when the enemy forces figured out the weaknesses of United States' planes. Due to this, there needed to be a back up plan created to outwit the Chinese. Mosquito pilots used a variety of maneuvers while in the Hamhung area.



Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Rodriguez

Paul Rodriguez Guards His Position and Gets Frostbite

Paul Rodriquez relates the battle where he saw the most action. The Chinese made a surprise attack in the middle of the night. He was a rifleman and rotated time between the foxholes and bunker. He states his forces were able to win because of overwhelming firepower but had to continue to serve in nine day rotations to guard their position. During that time, he got frostbit toes and continues to suffer from the effects of frostbite.



Paul Summers

"All Hell Broke Loose"

Paul Summers and his division investigated a village overrun by guerrillas. When a firefight began, he ran toward a mound of dirt to throw a hand grenade into a group of North Korean soldiers. A bullet caught him in the shoulder, and he went down. A corpsman gave him a shot of morphine and some brandy while he awaited rescue.



The Costs of War

Paul Summers remembers lying down in a skirmish line and watching a truck dump dead U.S. Marines into a big hole. Tanks filled in the hole. The image still haunts him. Later, his division marched to Hagalwoori but ran into a fortified bunker controlled by the Chinese. As the division pondered their situation, a general up the road announced they would take the hill no matter what.



Pedro A. Santana

Korean War Army Medic: A day in the life

This clip discusses the life of a medic, and the circumstances that led to Mr. Santana's hearing loss. He describes the events of February 14, 1953 where after 5 pm, in the blistering cold, he encountered Chinese troops. The Chinese were engaging in mortar attacks as Mr. Santana, in his jeep, was diligently evacuating wounded soldiers and taking them to the first aid station for medical help. He received a Bronze and Silver Star for his heroism, and Mr. Santana is still emotional about the events of that day.



Military marshal

Pedro A. Santana remembers witnessing the military marshal. He remembers an early morning fight with the Chinese. He took care of many wounded soldiers.



Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández

The Battle of Hill 180 / La Batalla de la Colina 180

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández details the Battle of Hill 180 which he dubbed his baptism by fire. He shares that the battle was especially violent because it resulted in twenty-three dead, thirty injured, and three soldiers missing in action. He describes the troop movement and the way in which they were supported by tanks. He recoils at the memory of the bewilderment in the faces of soldiers from the front lines after the intense combat that day.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández detalla la Batalla del Cerro 180 a la que denominó su bautismo de fuego. Él se acuerda que la batalla fue especialmente violenta porque resultó en veintitrés muertos, treinta heridos y tres soldados que desaparecieron. Él describe los movimientos de las tropas y la forma en que fueron apoyadas por tanques. Retrocede ante el recuerdo del desconcierto en los rostros de los soldados del frente después del intenso combate de ese día.



The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández recounts the events of the Battle of Old Baldy. He shares his thoughts on why enemy troops were relentless in their bombings and attacks for two weeks before the battle. He explains that Chinese troops waited until replacement troops were sent to the allied front before their full-scale attack which resulted in over one hundred casualties and sixty-nine soldiers missing in action. He laments how one of his friends was among those missing in action.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández relata los hechos de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Comparte sus ideas sobre por qué las tropas enemigas fueron implacables en sus bombardeos y ataques durante las dos semanas antes de la batalla. Explica que las tropas chinas esperaron hasta que tropas de reemplazo entraron al frente aliado antes de su ataque más grande, que resultó en más de cien bajas y sesenta y nueve soldados desaparecidos en combate. Lamenta que entre los desaparecidos en combate se encontraba uno de sus amigos.



The Armistice / El Armisticio

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández shares his memory of the signing of the Armistice. He remembers that initially there was a twelve-hour cease fire in which they were able to relax for a day prior to the official signing. He recalls the relief everyone felt after the signing of the Armistice even though they continued to train as the peace was uncertain.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández comparte sus recuerdos de la firma del Armisticio. Él se acuerda que antes de la firma hubo un alto el fuego por doce horas en el que pudieron relajarse por un día. Recuerda el alivio que sintieron todos cuando oyeron la noticia de la firma del Armisticio, y él explica que continuaron entrenándose porque la paz era incierta.



Hopes for Korea's Future / Esperanzas Para el Futuro de Corea

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández describes the hopes he had for Korea after he left the country. He remembers the tremendous pain and suffering endured by the civilian population and wished they could find peace. He marvels at the progress of the nation and shares that he believes Korea could serve as an example for nations that have not fully developed.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández describe las esperanzas que tenía para el pueblo coreano después de que se fue del país. Recuerda el tremendo dolor y sufrimiento que padeció la población civil y deseó que pudieran encontrar paz. Se maravilla ante el progreso de la nación y comparte sus pensamientos en que cree que Corea podría servir como ejemplo para las naciones que no se han desarrollado.



Pedro Julio Jackson Morales

The Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales explains why the Battle of Kelly Hill was incredibly dangerous. He recounts a sad incident during the battle in which one of his childhood friends was killed in action. He explains that it was especially terrible because they had been friends since the first grade.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales explica por qué la Batalla de Kelly Hill fue tan peligrosa. Relata un triste incidente durante la batalla en el que uno de sus amigos de la infancia murió en acción. Explica que fue terrible porque habían sido amigos desde el primer grado y eran del mismo pueblo.



Battle of Jackson Heights / La Batalla de Jackson Heights

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales describes the incident which led to his court martial. He recounts the difficulty troops had in keeping their position at the Battle of Jackson Heights. He explains that he was following the platoon when they descended and disobeyed orders to take the hill. He never imagined they would be in serious trouble for descending the hill.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales describe el incidente que lo mando a la corte marcial. Él describe la dificultad que tuvieron las tropas para mantener su posición en la Batalla de Jackson Heights. Explica que estaba siguiendo al pelotón cuando descendieron y desobedecieron las órdenes de tomar la colina. Nunca imaginó que estarían en problemas tan serios por descender la colina.



Pell E. Johnson

Protecting the Front Lines at Old Baldy

Pell E. Johnson understood the importance of protecting the battle lines at Old Baldy. It was difficult to drive the Chinese out of the area. He won't ever forget changing the troops out and celebrating Thanksgiving on a cold night.



Guarding Prisoner of War Camps

Pell E. Johnson guarded Chinese and North Korean Prisoner of War camps. It was a rough placement due to the prisoners trying to mutiny. He feared Bay Day, a communist holiday and a possible uprising of prisoners.



Per Anton Sommernes

To Stay or To Evacuate

Per Anton Sommernes describes an incident where there was a possibility of being overrun by Chinese soldiers. Evacuating every wounded soldier was not an option. Some nurses and doctors would have to stay. Per Anton Sommernes grew up in China and knew the language and volunteered to stay back.



Percy D. Mohr

Why Did They Miss Me?

Percy Mohr recounts the battle in which Chinese soldiers overran his division, pushing them back to headquarters. He was standing beside a captain who was shot by the Chinese, and he pauses to wonder why he survived. During the battle, Chinese soldiers overran his artillery division. When the U.S. soldiers returned to camp, they were greeted by a surprise.



Parades for MacArthur

Percy Mohr describes parades for General MacArthur. According to him, MacArthur had a particular interest in the cavalry due to his love of horses. MacArthur also wanted to pull the Japanese in to fight in Korea. He describes President Truman's attempts to avoid a war with the Chinese as political maneuvering.



Peter Elliott

Nothing Glamorous

Peter Elliott sheds light on the living conditions around the Battle of the Hook. He recalls how the men lived in dugout habitats with weather conditions that were either very hot or very cold depending on the season. He remembers that there was a lot of activity occurring before the major battle.



Philip Lindsley

Fortunate to Make it

Philip Lindsley shares his experience during extreme cold and rumors of the Chinese surrounding them. He shares how the men were only able to work on connecting coaxial cables for a minute at a time due to the extreme cold. He elaborates on the stressful experience of completing guard duty in complete darkness and his concern that he only had a little gun to fend off the enemy. As rumors began to spread, he recalls his outfit suddenly being told to pack up everything they could and evacuate the area. He explains that since the enemy crossed the Yalu River, they headed south. He emphasizes they were fortunate to make it to Seoul because other outfits were attacked along the way.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



The Battle of Chosin Reservoir and Roadblocks

Philip S. Kelly describes thinking he would be home by Christmas 1950, but instead, he encountered a surprise attack by the Chinese in what became the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He recalls that the United States Army pulled out and left the U.S. Marines exposed to the Chinese attack. He explains how he fought as an infantryman and the difficulty experienced by the soldiers in trying to clear out Chinese road blocks.



Phillip E. Hahn

The Battle at Hagaru-ri

Phillip Hahn shares his feelings of not having any regrets for standing the line with his fellow Marines. He describes feeling protected and secure with his brothers by his side, despite heavy losses all around. He tells of the moment he was pulled from the front lines due to his wounds he suffered from a mortar explosion.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Pieter Visser

Lucky to Encounter a MiG

Pieter Visser presents an overview of the South African Air Force’s role in Korea. He explains the primary missions were air to ground and that meant one would be lucky if he met any enemy aircraft or MiGs. He elaborates on scenarios where one might encounter a MiG or become engaged in a dogfight. Based on his experience, he disagrees with the assessment of North Korea’s Air Force as weak, but he states they were not as equipped as the United Nations.



Rafael Gomez Hernandez

Chosin Reservoir Experience

Rafael Gomez Hernandez describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls the deep snow, cold temperatures, cold food, and having to fight the Chinese. He shares that he saw many refugees at the time and that his unit was the last to leave the Heungnam port during the Chosin Reservoir evacuation.



Rafael Gómez Román

Lost Brothers / Compañeros Perdidos

Rafael Gómez Román shares the stories of how two of his friends were shot during the war. He still thinks about his friend Ángel Ortiz de Orocovis, whom they called Benny, and how he was killed by a sniper as he was singing unaware of the danger in the vicinity. Additionally, he describes the moment in which another friend was shot and handicapped while he was unable to help as he had to continue firing his weapon.

Rafael Gómez Román comparte las historias de cómo dos de sus amigos fueron disparado durante la guerra. Todavía piensa en su amigo Ángel Ortiz de Orocovis, a quien llamaban Benny, y en cómo un francotirador lo mató mientras cantaba sin darse cuenta del peligro que estaba tan cerca. Además, describe el momento en que otro amigo recibió un disparo y quedó discapacitado, y como él no podía ayudarlo porque tenía que seguir disparando su arma.



Rahim Gunay

Vegas Battle

Rahim Günay describes the Vegas Battle. At the Nevada Complex, the Americans were on the left and the British on the right. The Chinese attacked the Turkish soldiers in the middle. Further, for thirty-six hours the Turkish forces held off the Chinese Offensive. Also, this principle battle took place as cease-fire negotiations were taking place.



Ralph A. Milton

The Impact of Chosin Reservoir

Ralph Milton describes the impact the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir has had on his life. He details some of the struggles he faced there as well as the struggles that followed him home. He describes seeing those he pulled from the Reservoir later in life and the friendships that grew from the experience.



Fighting Within

Ralph Milton recalls a time of frustration and anger when General MacArthur kept secret that they were actually fighting the Chinese. He describes the chaos and peril so many faced when they encountered this foe. He recounts the in-fighting between the Army and the Marines at the Chosin Reservoir.



Ralph Burcham

Fighing in Korea

Ralph Burcham was busy as a forward observer in the Army. He valued the insight that seasoned soldiers imparted to new soldiers. As a soldier, Ralph Burcham was taught important skills that helped him survive.



Ralph Hodge

Guarding Prisoners at Geojedo

Ralph Hodge shares he soon found himself among the soldiers whose duty it was to guard the one hundred sixty thousand North Korean and Chinese prisoners on Geojedo Island. He offers details of the prison camp. He recalls the inside of the camp being a "beehive of discontent," so much so that the United Nations and the Red Cross encouraged the soldiers not to go into the compounds.



They were Ready for War

Ralph Hodge shares the errors the United States military made in dealing with those held in Geojedo and the dangers which resulted. He recalls a Brigadier General being held for two days. He estimates there were only ten thousand troops guarding the one hundred sixty thousand prisoners. He offers details of how the discontent within the prison led to danger for the guards.



We Sensed Something was Wrong

Ralph Hodge remembers sensing something was wrong on May Day. He recalls how the morning started with a parade. He notes how things changed when Brigadier General Haydon L. Boatner took command of Geojedo. He remembers that among the changes were constructing new, smaller compounds and relocating the prisoners to these smaller compounds.



Most Dangerous Place in the World

Ralph Hodge explains he returned to the front line following his days at Geojedo. He remembers he was assigned to Company C in what he references as the most dangerous place in the world. He details his injuries suffered as a result of a mistaken identity. He shares he received a Purple Heart fifty-two years after the event.



Pork Chop Hill

Ralph Hodge details how he and his unit came under fire on Pork Chop Hill on September 16th, 1953. He recalls the location was key in protecting the city of Seoul. He remembers being pinned down by wave after wave of Chinese descending on the hill and shares American casualties were devastatingly high.



Ralph Howard

Paratrooper Battles During Korean War

Ralph Howard recalls traveling all over Korea. He recounts how he performed airdrops into assorted battles including the Battle of Sukchon-Sunchon, the Battle of Triangle Hill, and the assault of Kot'o-ri. He described a mission where he was supposed to stop an enemy train carrying Allied POWs; however, the enemy had killed all but twenty-six POWs right outside the train.



Ramon D. Soto

Life in the Trenches

Ramon D. Soto remembers life on the frontline in the trenches. He discusses the difficulties soldiers faced such as trench foot, frost bite, horrible sleeping conditions, rationing of food, and nightly fear of Chinese soldiers. In this clip, Ramon D. Soto recalls the $75 a month he earned, and sent home each and every month. He also recalls the letters from his wife that he read while on the frontline.



Raoul Van Ocker

Dangerous Moments

Rauol Van Ocker details leading his small unit of men, including one Korean soldier, through several dangerous moments while serving in Korea. He remembers the challenges they faced in making their way through mine fields. He recalls coming under attack by Chinese snipers.



Raul Martinez Espinosa

Most Dangerous Moments / Momentos Más Peligrosos

Raúl Martínez Espinosa remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that Operation Nomad and Hill 400 were among the most dangerous battles in the war. Moreover, he shares the story of how he was almost killed the day he was given his leave to return to Colombia after eighteen months in combat.

Raúl Martínez Espinosa recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que Operacion Nómada y el Cerro 400 fueron las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Además, cuenta la historia de cómo casi no sobrevive el día que le dieron permiso para regresar a Colombia después de dieciocho meses de combate.



Raymond L. Ayon

Caring for Wounded Enemy POWs

Raymond L. Ayon shares how, during his time in Daegu, he was responsible for the care of wounded enemy POWs for a period of two years. He recalls the conditions of one particular POW who required an inoculation but was afraid of the syringe. As a corpsman, his duty was to provide the necessary treatment and release them once they were fit to go. He remembers a moment when General McArthur passed by in a motorcade while they were waiting to cross the Han River on a pontoon, which was an exciting experience for most of the men. He briefly discusses the numerous medals he was awarded due to his military service.



Raymond L. Fish

Saved by a Canteen

Raymond L. Fish was sent on one-week detachments to provide aid to Chinese prisoners of war who were under supervision by the United Nations. He shares how a little while later, he was injured while running from the Chinese. He shares the story of how his canteen protected him from what could have been a fatal wound during the war.



Raymond V. Miller

The Chinese Were Everywhere

Raymond Miller describes feeling no fear most of the time despite being surrounded by the Chinese. He recalls having to take cover in a foxhole during a grenade attack, and when he stepped out the next morning, he could not take a step without stepping on a Chinese soldier, noting that the stacks of bodies were horrendous. He has a recurring nightmare of pulling the trigger and his gun not firing despite squeezing and squeezing it.



Raymond W. Guenthner

Mortar, Machine Guns, and Multiple Hits

Raymond Guenthner describes the fear of fellow soldiers and the advice he provided to them. He explains what it was like being in the middle of a mortar and machine gun attack. After being hit, he tries to make it to safety while being targeted by Chinese machine gun forces.



PTSD and Bronze Stars

Raymond Guenthner describes his memories of being injured during the war. He discusses his PTSD and therapy. He explains how his commanding officer was angry that he lost his weapon while trying to save his own life and his disappointment in not reaching the top of the hill. He also highlights earning the Purple Heart.



Rex Earp-Jones

Taken Prisoner of War

Rex Earp Jones recounts flying a mission as a four plane squadron. He notes that it was his job as the fourth plane to observe the damage. While flying low to the ground to observe, his plane's engine faltered. He recalls having to make the decision to either eject from the plane or bring the plane down. He chose to eject. He remembers finding himself unharmed but surrounded by Chinese soldiers when he reached the ground.



Treatment as a Prisoner of War

Rex Earp-Jones recalls his treatment as a prisoner of war. He notes the experience was not one of comfort, but the Chinese did not treat him harshly. He shares his experience with Chinese interrogators where he frequently provided them with rubbish answers. He notes occasionally being locked up alone or being forced to stand for a long period of time as a punishment.



Life as a POW

Rex Earp-Jones describes his life as a prisoner of war near the Yalu River. He notes one of the biggest changes was going from three meals a day to one meal a day which consisted primarily of rice. He shares that for much of the time they stayed in a school room. He reminisces about how they passed their time carving chessmen to play chess and playing cards.



Indoctrination and Punishment

Rex Earp-Jones shares that as part of the Chinese indoctrination of the prisoners of war, they promoted Communism something that would rule the world. He notes that the prisoners could be punished if they upset the class. He recalls one occasion when he complained about the Chinese stealing his watch, which was seen as upsetting the program so he was punished. He notes the Chinese ultimately gave up on attempting to indoctrinate the prisoners.



Living Conditions

Rex Earp-Jones recalls being very ill while being captive. He notes that both his parents and his future wife wrote him, but he never received this communication. He describes the living conditions within the school classroom that they were kept in including during challenging winter months.



Rex L. McCall

Battle of the Hook

Rex McCall discusses arriving in Korea and describes his experiences in the Battle of the Hook. He shares how there was sporadic fire from the Chinese and recalls how he went on night time patrols. He remembers he would try to sleep in a bunker farther down the hill during the day. He comments on how it reminded him of trench warfare during World War I. He recalls the Chinese only being about four hundred fifty feet away.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Fighting for His Father

Ricardo Torres Perez shares he wanted to represent and work hard for his father since his father served in the Korean War with the 65th Infantry Division from Puerto Rico. He recalls how his father hid under two dead bodies while the Chinese were looking for living soldiers to take as POWs.



Richard A. Houser

The Korean War Ceasefire

Richard Houser fought until the last second to hold Porkchop Hill in the Chorwon Valley right before the ceasefire. It felt great for him when the war ended because he was able to build new trenches farther off the 38th parallel.



Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



Richard A. Mende

POW's after the Armistice

Richard Mende describes seeing POW's in Pusan after the armistice was signed. He talks about the prisoners being moved on trains and the poor condition of their clothing.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Richard Davey

Working with Americans While Stationed at HQ

Richard Davey recounts being stationed at the Royal Army's Headquarters (HQ) during the May 1953, 3rd Battle of the Hook. Due to bombing and busy telephone lines, he recalls having to hot loop (go around the regular telephone communication system) to communicate with other HQs. During that battle, over thirty-eight thousand shells were used during the fight.



Richard Davis

Chosin Reservoir Reflection

Richard Davis reflects on his experiences at the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts the bitterly cold conditions and being outnumbered by the Chinese. He describes the sleeping bag situation, digging foxholes, and the food available.



Richard Donatelli

Remember the Death March North

Richard Donatelli remembers that in spite of the heavy artillery being used, it was no match for the Chinese near Kotori who would over run their unit, forcibly moving them with bayonets north.
He explains that they lost a lot of men on this "death march" due to the rough, cold conditions and lack of water and food. During a few times, Richard Donatelli wanted to give up, but he kept going.



POW Camp-Teaching of Capitalism

Richard Donatelli explains that they tried to teach them about the downfalls of capitalism in the POW Camp. They placed them in a circle sharing stories of the businessmen ruining the country on a daily basis, an argument for socialism and communism. In addition to this, they would have to sing a patriotic song daily while living in the horrible conditions of the camp.



POW Camp 5 Morning Ritual

Richard Dontelli says that they hard a hard time sleeping and medical care was not the best. The Chinese doctors would only give them pills. He remembers that if you didn't eat what they gave you, you died. Richard Dontelli tells the story of one time he was caught stealing wooden shingles off of one of the cabinets and he was punished.



Release from POW Camp

After the armistice agreement in July of '53, Richard Donatelli was released from Camp 5 (August 17, 1953). He explains how they moved the prisoners and started to treat them better. He recalls that after their arrival at Panmunjom, the former prisoners started taking off and tossing the prison uniforms over the edge of the truck in exchange for winter clothes. He was so thankful to see the bright colors and beautiful women when they arrived back in the states.



Richard Franklin

Life in a MASH Unit

Richard Franklin describes life in his MASH unit during his tour in Korea. Specifically, he mentions his experience during the summer of 1952 and the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Richard P. Holgin

Burning Bridges at the Chosin Reservoir

Richard P. Holgin experienced subzero temperatures and fierce fighting at the Chosin Reservoir. After his company's missions, they would have to blow up bridges and roads so that no enemy could follow them. The weather was a major factor in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Richard Perkins

Duty off the Coast of Korea

Richard Perkins describes the mission of the Navy destroyer, USS Charles S. Sperry during the Korean War. He talks about all-night firing missions aimed at Chinese beach patrols on the east coast of Korea. He mentions the ship encountering refugees and giving aid in the form of food and supplies.



Richard S. Smith

Patrolling the Coast of Wonsan

Richard S. Smith recalls his time ten months aboard the USS New Jersey. He shares it was largely spent patrolling the east coast of Korea around Wonsan and occasional trips up the west coast. He remembers a feeling of excitement about this experience as he knew he was well-trained and possessed the weapons to carry out his duties.



Robert “Bob” W. Ezell

First Experience in Combat

Bob Ezell describes his first experience in combat at Toktong Pass during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir on November 27, 1950



Wounded

Bob Ezell describes how he survived being wounded by playing dead as the enemy stole his gloves.



Robert Battdorff

Traveling to the Chosin Reservoir

Robert Battdorff moved through Seoul, Ko do Re Pass, and then went onto the Chosin Reservoir. Using a line of soldiers, 20 feet apart, he made his way to East Hill overlooking the Chosin Reservoir. Without any enemy resistance, Robert Battdorff sent out patrols to check the different possible enemy positions in November 1950.



The Chinese Take Robert Battdorff

Marine engineers were building an airstrip near the Chosin Reservoir when Robert Battdorff moved onto Toktong Pass to set up positions. That's where the Chinese took over the hill and he was taken prisoner while on watch. It was November 28, 1950 and he was on watch in a sleeping bag because the weather was 40 below zero.



A Near Death Experience with the Chinese

The Chinese put Robert Battdorff in a cow shed and then put him in their own foxholes because the sun was coming up, so they assumed the US would be bombing soon from the air. Two other men were captured with him, but no US soldiers came to resume them right away. On the first assault, there were 28 casualties during that attack. The guard that captured the 3 US soldiers had the men kneel near a frozen stream so that he could kill them, but another Chinese soldier stopped the killing.



Marching and Traveling all over the Chosin Reservoir as a POW

After a further search and surviving a shooting, Robert Battdorff had to hide in a foxhole because the Australians were shooting up multiple buildings where the Chinese were hiding. One guard walked the POWs all day to Yudam ni, near Hamgyong, North Korea. He was moved many places to hide throughout December 1950 while the Chinese were picking up additional British POWs.



Travel, Food, and UN Attacks on Chinese as a POW

Robert Battdorff and one other US POW were forced to walk south to the 38th parallel in May 1951 as the US soldiers were pushing the Chinese back in battle. He was told that he was brought down south just in case if the Chinese came across additional prisoners. He would walk at night 6 days a week and then take Sunday off. Since the Chinese were traveling with supplies during the night, UN pilots looked for the headlights of the trucks to know where to hit.



33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert Chisolm

Battle of Pork Chop Hill

Robert Chisolm shares how he was assigned to the 187th Parachute Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. He recalls being stationed right near Pork Chop Hill in the Cheorwon Valley in defensive positions. He recounts how the Chinese attacked on July 25, 1953, (a few days before the ceasefire) and how he was tasked with calling for an artillery barrage.



Robert D. Edwards

Guarding Chinese and North Korean Prisoners of War

Robert D. Edwards recounts his experience of guarding Chinese and North Korean prisoners of war. He describes how the POWs were kept behind barbed wire and how some of them cooked the food that was provided. He recalls an incident where the prisoners seized a General during an inspection and shares how the entire camp was then surrounded by tanks to retrieve the General. He mentions a Chinese prisoner who would greet him and try to be friendly, sometimes even giving him gifts like a homemade Chinese flag. He discusses the difference in treatment of Chinese and North Korean POWs compared to American POWs.



Robert Fickbohm

Infantry Scout Dogs Saving Lives

Robert Fickbohm explains the role and duties of the scout dog in the Korean War. He shares multiple stories of scout dogs saving the lives of American soldiers. He recounts the importance of the scout dog during the war and elaborates on its ability to sense danger.



And Then The Firing Stopped

Robert Fickbohm recounts the day the Armistice was signed. He shares that the artillery on both sides continued and that he and the men he was with did not think there was going to be a truce. He recollects that late that night, the firing stopped and it was completely quiet.



Robert H. Pellou

Dug in on Outskirts of Hagaru-ri

Robert H. Pellou recalls serving with a heavy weapons unit in Korea. He shares they worked with heavy machine guns and water-cooled Brownings. He recalls how he operated the only weapon of its type in Hagaru-ri. He remembers being surrounded by the Chinese on Dec. 6th and then the heavy machine guns being called forward as others pushed back to Wonsan. He explains how while feeding an ammunition belt into the gun, he was hit by enemy fire, ending his combat career.



Robert H. Pellow

I Knew I'd Survive

Robert H. Pellow describes his weapons job during the war and describes loading an ammunition belt into a machine gun. He also describes being hit from three to four thousand yards away by enemy fire. He states that he never doubted he would survive.



Robert J. Auletti

Korean Soldiers Became an Army

Robert Auletti describes his experience in the Battle of White Horse Mountain. He also describes fighting alongside the Republic of Korea soldiers (ROK) and how they were treated poorly by other soldiers. However, he describes that the ROK earned respect by how hard they fought against the Chinese.



Robert Kam Chong Young

Injured After Capturing POWs

Robert Kam Chong Young shares his experiences after participating in the Incheon Landing. He recalls suffering from Hepatitis which caused his hospitalization at the 35th Army Hospital in Japan. He remembers being scared when he captured three Chinese prisoners of war (POWs) prior to being injured by Chinese mortar fire.



Robert L. Atkins

A “Hot” Cold Place

Robert Atkins remembers that things were really “hot and heavy” from Thanksgiving to the first of December. He explains how they were ambushed often and how the Chinese crossed the Yalu River. Even though they were outnumbered, he shares that the Fox Company was able to fight the Chinese and it became a turning point.



Robert L. Jewitt

A Chaotic Withdrawal

Robert Jewitt describes his experience after the Battle of Pyongyang and General MacArthur’s push further into North Korea. He explains the attachment of his battalion to the United States Army’s 7th cavalry and receiving orders from General MacArthur to move south of Pyongyang. He continues by providing details about the overwhelming experience of the Chinese making a stand. Consequently, he elaborates on the chaos of the withdrawing troops and their role in providing some level of protection for the retreating soldiers and refugees.



Robert M. Longden

Service Conditions, Cold, and Fear

Robert M. Longden constantly feared the Chinese and North Koreans would break the armistice while he was stationed near the DMZ. Winter was brutally cold. At one point, his hand stuck to a frozen chain while he worked with his truck. Soldiers had adequate winter gear and slept in military tents, but food was very basic.



Robert Mitchell

Ambushing Force Gets Ambushed

Bob Mitchell recalls the events of the Battle of Hill 90 when the 5th Marines were ambushed by an overwhelming Chinese force. He details his unit's retreat from the region with the dead and wounded from the fighting. He notes the sacrifice of a few brave Marines who gave their lives engaging Chinese head on.



Living with the Guilt

Bob Mitchell recalls being sent to the rear on sick call. He shares that while he was in the hospital, he learned his entire unit had been overwhelmed in an attack by the Chinese. He shares he grappled with this event and eventually reached the conclusion it was just the reality of war; in combat death comes strictly by random.



Robert O. Gray

From Hospitals to Prisons

Robert Gray discusses how he got hit and went to the hospital. He explains his motivation for lying to avoid staying in the hospital. He also describes how that decision caused him to be captured by the Chinese as a prisoner of war (POW).



Say No to Indoctrination

Robert Gray describes his capture by the Chinese. He explains how he and others spoke out against the indoctrination. He also explains why he thinks some POWs won't talk about their imprisonment.



A Day in a Chinese Prisoner Camp

Robert Gray describes an average day as a POW in the Chinese prison camps. He describes how days from day to dark. He explains they had study periods but how he had to work. He explains how they survived by stealing food.



The Cake is a Lie

Robert Gray describes how people who are starving won't eat anything. He explains how some POWs who were starving to death would fixate on food items in their head. He discusses how he saw some people experience this in the POW camp.



Robert R. Moreau

Daily Duties in Korea

Robert R. Moreau shares he arrived in Korea as part of the 13th Engineer Combat Battalion of the 7th Division in late July 1951. He explains their primary duties were clearing minefields, building roads, and checking the Bailey Bridges which the U.S. had deployed across the rivers. He notes that these bridges need to be checked almost daily because the North Koreans frequently snuck in and loosened the bolts that held them in place.



Robert S. Chessum

Battle of Kapyong

Robert Chessum describes the Battle of Kapyong. The Chinese were on the Offensive until Kapyong. Robert Chessum was part of the 16 New Zealand Field Regiment providing support to the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. He describes being on a full offensive prior to the Battle of Kapyong and how his unit became really efficient as an artillery unit. Robert Chessum provides a complete description about the prelude to the Battle and ultimate Battle of Kapyong.



Memory of Engagement and Artillery

Robert Chessum describes a Chinese threat at one moment because his unit was too far forward due to a Chinese Offensive. He describes the New Zealand artillery, providing specific details on the various guns. He then describes becoming part of the 1st Commonwealth Brigade.



Hill 355 and Hill 317

Robert Chessum describes being a Temporary Captain on the assault of Hill 355 and Hill 317. He was wounded during the campaigns by mortar fire. He was evacuated to a hospital for a week and transferred to Hero Camp in Japan. Robert Chessum eventually came back to Imjin after a six month recuperation and was eventually discharged in 1952.



Robert Stephens

Typical Day: North of the 38th Parallel

Robert Stephens describes a typical day North of the 38th parallel. He describes the extremely harsh weather, living conditions, and a near death experience where he almost drowned. The weather was cold enough to freeze tank tracks. At another point, Robert Stephens had to cross a river that swelled due to rain. The tank retriever stalled in the middle of the river and Robert Stephens almost drowned trying to make it to shore.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

Wounded

Robert Hammelsmith describes being wounded by machine gun fire while on a scouting patrol near the Manchurian border in November of 1950. He explains that he was carried out on a stretcher and then transported on the second of two ambulances, the first of which was attacked by the Chinese. He goes on to describe his evacuation to a hospital in Japan where the bullet in his shoulder was removed.



Prisoner of War

Robert Hammelsmith describes being taken prisoner by the Chinese. He recalls being taken to a mud hut and given rice that had not been cleaned of worms and gravel. He goes on to describe being relocated to Camp 5 and sleeping head to toe in a hut of eight men.



Robert W. Stevens

Role of the Navy

Robert W. Stevens notes that the Korean War was largely a war involving the Army, Air Force, and Marines, but continues on stating that the Navy also played an important support role in the war. He offers details centered on what the USS Boxer did to support the war effort. He admits he is sorry the war was never truly ended.



Robert Whited

One of the Greatest Things We Ever Did

Robert Whited recalls movement of his unit from Seoul to Incheon and later Wonsan. He explains the 5th Marines did not immediately go up to the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir but, instead, ran patrols out of Heungnam where he remembers encountering their first Chinese. He describes how when they were establishing a roadblock they were hit by the Chinese and pushed back to Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri and ultimately to the seashore. He describes how, during the retreat, they were protecting thousands of Korean refugees who were ultimately loaded on a cargo ship and taken to Busan.



Worst Memory

Robert Whited recalls the Battle of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir was the worst memory of the war. He remembers having very little intelligence when they were hit by one hundred thousand Chinese. He shares how he and the other members of his unit dealt with tragic events such as having to fight their way out of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir, resulting in the death of many men.



Rodney Ramsey

Life as an American Soldier on the Front Lines: From Bunkers to Bullets

Rodney Ramsey was supported by Korean Augmentation to United States Army (KATUSA) and these troops were seasoned fighters by the time Rodney Ramsey entered the war in 1952. While sleeping in sand-bag bunkers at the front lines in Geumgang, North Korea, he was comfortable with his summer fatigues including a field jacket. Some of the most dangerous times were when Rodney Ramsey was going on patrol or raids where the Chinese were dug in. He was shot through the helmet with a minor wound when an African American soldier standing next to him was shot with the same bullet and died.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Rodney Stock

Reenlistment: Above the DMZ

Rodney F. Stock remembers being one of the first to receive a $500 bonus to reenlist. He shares when he returned to Korea in 1954, Seoul looked less war torn than when he had left. He notes that initial recovery was a testimony to the Korean people who had already begun the rebuilding process. Serving above the DMZ, at one point he recalls coming face-to-face with an entire Chinese division.



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



Food Scarcity and Living Conditions

Roland Brown recounts the food scarcity he and fellow soldiers experienced on the front lines. He recalls being surrounded by the Chinese and North Koreans, a situation that required an airdrop of provisions. He shares that he and fellow soldiers had to fight the enemy for the goods dropped, which included food and ammunition, as the Chinese and North Koreans had acquired U.S. weapons from American soldiers they had overrun and needed ammunition. He additionally comments on the living conditions, stating that they often slept on the ground and sometimes in foxholes or old bunkers.



Rollo Minchaca

Two Chinese Soldiers

Rollo Minchaca is describing his interaction during the war with the Chinese soldiers. He witnessed a 17 year old machine gunner crying for his mother during the war when his division was ambushed by the Chinese. As a browning automatic rifle man, he almost died because they were running low on ammunition.



Ronald A. Cole

Remembering Post-War Korea

Ronald Cole served in the U.S. Army following the cease-fire in Korea. He offers details on what he remembers about the people and cities in South Korea while he was there. He talks about people being in poor shape and diseases being widespread. He notes that Seoul was still heavily damaged, but was making progress in rebuilding.



North Korea and South Korea Must Decide Their Own Destiny

Ronald Cole offers his thoughts on the state of Korea and its people since he left the country. He theorizes why the war occurred and the impact the Chinese had in its escalation. He shares what he believes needs to be done to reunify the two Koreas.



Ronald Bourgon

Rain of Steel

Ronald Bourgon recalls being completely surrounded by the Chinese for three days. He details the plan to combine weaponry from the US, New Zealand, and Canada to open an artillery barrage on their location. He recalls orders given to his company to get down in foxholes and to not come out as fire would be opened on their location in an attempt to stop the Chinese. He remembers the ravaged scene of dead Chinese soldiers once the barrage had ceased.



Worst Memory

Ronald Bourgon details his worst memory while in Korea that has caused him grief over the years. He shares that in one encounter with the Chinese, he received a small shrapnel wound while another soldier was hit in the neck and was bleeding profusely. He recalls holding pressure on the soldier's neck as they made their way down the mountain towards a medical team. He shares that the soldier died due to blood loss, and he adds that he has questioned himself since as to whether he could have done more for him.



Ronald Rosser

No Longer an Enemy

When he was asked if he would shake hands with Chinese soldiers today, Ronald Rosser explains how he already has. He states that as a teacher, he taught about East Asian history and then went to visit Beijing. He explains how well he was treated by the Chinese and how he does not believe the hate should continue.



Ronald Yardley

No Idea Chinese Were Fighting With Koreans

Ronald Yardley describes his surprise to discover that the Chinese were aiding North Koreans during the Korean War. He explains that everyone assumed they were coming only to fight North Koreans. He describes that ultimately they discovered that the Chinese were playing a rather large part in the war.



Roy Aldridge

"An Angel Sitting on My Shoulder"

Roy Aldridge describes their unit being the first airborne unit that was completely self-contained. He explains how they had artillery, trucks, jeeps, ammunition, and medics. He describes the dates and movements of his Batallion. He describes the extremely cold temperatures ranging between 40-50 degrees below zero, and how they were attacked by the Chinese.



Prisoner of War

Roy Aldridge describes his first interrogation with the North Koreans and the Chinese. He explains his experience as a prisoner of war starting April 13, 1953. He explains that many soldiers died in the North Korean prisoner of war camp. He identifies his camp as Pak's Palace.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Maintaining Field Communications in Korea

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares how, after being discharged from the US Marine Corps in 1946, he re-enlisted in the United States Army two years later. He explains how during the Korean War, he served in the infantry and specialized in communications. Despite the sporadic nature of the fighting, he remembers being able to see the enemy on nearby hillsides. His recalls his primary responsibility was maintaining field communications as the enemy aimed to disrupt lines of communication.



Encountering the Enemy

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he has vivid memories of working tirelessly for almost twenty-four hours straight during the Chinese Spring Offensive. He mentions the significant loss of life during this period and the urgent requirement for more soldiers on the front lines. He remembers how on one morning, while passing by a nearby ditch, he came across enemy troops. He shares that he later observed a sudden flash of light which turned out to be caused by enemy mortar fire. He explains he was seriously injured in the attack.



Royal Vida

No One Knew What Was Happening

Royal Vida provides details about entering a deserted Pyungyang and his perceptions of North Korea. From Pyungyang, he states his unit moved up to the Yalu River and here they met an intense Chinese intervention. As they were retreating, he describes the loss of life he encountered and that no one can prepare for what you will encounter during a battle. Additionally, he shares his diagnosis of PTSD.



Royce Ebesu

This is the Hard Part

Royce Ebesu reflects on the present and future of Korea. He expresses he would like to see negotiations to reunite the peninsula so that families can be reunited. He concludes by noting that there was not much pleasant to remember about his experience.



Russel Kingston

Evading Capture from the Chinese

Russel Kingston describes how they hid in a perimeter that had been dug for a day and night; however, the Chinese dug trenches by hand to get to them. They retreated, and then swam the Yalu river all the way across. He then explains how he evaded the Chinese that night.



Captured by the Chinese

Russel Kingston describes how he and his group could not stay outside freezing and starving any longer, so they took shelter in the house of a North Korean family. The next morning the family left, and shortly thereafter the Chinese kicked down the door and held them at gunpoint. He believes that the family informed the Chinese that they were there.



Conditions in the POW camp

Russel Kingston describes the conditions he faced, including the limited food and freezing conditions. He remembers their captors would tell them lies about the status of the war, trying to get them to convert to Communism. In the spring, the captors would take their shoes to prevent them from escaping.



Russell King

The Chinese Military Was Impressive

Russell A. King was impressed the most by the civilian population. He was also amazed by the discipline and the organization of the Chinese military. He remembers taking Chinese prisoners from one prison camp to the other. With ingenuity, and they made their own communist style uniforms out of the clothes they were given.



Ruth Powell (Wife of John Powell)

Dealing with PTSD after the War

Ruth Powell introduces herself as the wife of veteran, John Powell. She describes her husband's struggles with PTSD after returning from Korea. She comments on John Powell's experiences as a prisoner of war (POW), its effects on him, and the treatments he endured to aid and better his psychological state.



Salvatore R. Conte

Capture and Traveling to the POW Camp

Salvatore Conte remembers traveling toward Hagalwoori when his vehicle was hit and the men went into a ditch. All three of the soldiers were injured in his group and then they were taken by the Chinese. He recalls being taken to Geojedo POW camp in January 1951. He gives a thorough account of what it was like in the camps.



Propaganda Lectures from the Chinese

Salvatore Conte explains his struggles with his faith and beliefs. He and the other POWs had to listen to Chinese propaganda lectures stating that they were fools for believing in Wall Street and America. He explains that they were also told that they should sign a petition to be released, but they all refused. He shares he became a political activist for the soldiers which led to him being isolated from the rest of the POWs.



Isolation Box

Salvatore Conte explains that he was placed in an isolation box for eight months since he was considered a leader among the POWs. He remembers being in the box from May through December 1952 and was only let out twice a day to use the bathroom. One time he was marched over to a hillside to be killed by the Chinese, but they allowed him to live and he was placed back into the box.



Liberation

Salvatore Conte recalls his transfer to another camp where he was placed with 21 other soldiers who were considered the most dangerous POWs. On May 1, 1953, he was transferred out of this section with the rest of the soldiers and he was given better food. On Aug. 27, 1953, he remembers he was released at Panmunjom where he told his story to newspaper reporters who published his story across America.



Santos Rodriguez Santiago

Life in the Punchbowl

Santos Rodriguez Santiago remembers not knowing much about the area as they traveled to the Punchbowl. A lot of his time was spent observing the enemy among the hills. He remembers some of his officers being hit by snipers as the two sides often exchanged gun fire. He says that after 2-3 months they began to get used to this lifestyle.



Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz

Personal Experience in Battle / Experiencia en Batalla

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz reflects on his time at the Battle of Old Baldy. He vividly remembers seeing Chinese soldiers lighting flares to find anyone that was hidden. He describes the recognition he received after his service including his five medals.

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz refleja sobre su experiencia en la Batalla de Old Baldy. Recuerda vívidamente haber visto a los soldados chinos encender bengalas para encontrar a alguien que estuviera escondido. Relata del reconocimiento que recibió después de su servicio, incluyendo sus cinco medallas.



Sergio Martinez Velasquez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Sergio Martínez Velásquez recalls the intense fighting of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that the Chinese were relentless in their attacks, and were it not for American tanks, they all would have perished. He shares the story of how he almost died when he left the bunker for a moment.

Sergio Martínez Velásquez recuerda los momentos más intensos de la guerra que sucedieron durante de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él explica que los chinos fueron implacables en sus ataques y que, si no hubiera sido por los tanques estadounidenses, todos habrían perecido. También comparte la historia de cómo casi lo mataron cuando salió del búnker por un momento.



Sixto Gil Mercado Valle

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle shares his first impressions and experiences from his arrival in Korea. He explains the journey he took to arrive in Korea which included stops in San Francisco and Hawaii. He explains that it was difficult to adjust to the front lines as North Koreans infiltrated during the night, making it difficult to sleep.

Sixto Gil Mercado Valle comparte sus primeras impresiones de la guerra y sus experiencias al llegar a Corea. Él cuenta sobre el viaje que hizo para llegar a Corea, que incluyó paradas en San Francisco y Hawái. Explica que fue difícil adaptarse a las líneas del frente porque los norcoreanos infiltraban las líneas durante la noche y era imposible dormir porque tenían que estar de guardia.



Stanley Fujii

Glorious Mail Call

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of mail call for soldiers, and the camaraderie that came along with getting communication from loved ones on the homefront. His heartwarming testimony reflects on his writing letters for a fellow soldier from Minnesota who was illiterate. His friend from Minnesota later died in a bombardment.



Running from Napalm

Stanley Fujii describes the experience of seeing the bodies of young soldiers in Chinese uniforms who were burned from Napalm. His testimony describes being on patrol to look for another location to move his company to and noticing a lot of dead bodies. The bodies were burned to a crisp and the faces were very young. He saw maggots crawling from the flesh and buzzards coming down to eat the flesh.



Sterling N. McKusick

Leaving Hagaru-Ri

Sterline N. McKusick's unit moved from Hamhueng and Wonson to Hagaru-ri on the south end of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He shares he served as part of the advanced battalion headed into the region. He recalls the Chinese moving into the region right after Thanksgiving 1950 and notes that at that point, things became a matter of survival and getting out of there. He notes that part of the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 31st Regiment were trapped on the east side of the reservoir, and two more Marine regiments were trapped on the left side of the reservoir. He remembers how the U.S. forces were severely outnumbered--one hundred fifty thousand Chinese to fifteen thousand Marines. He recounts the attempts by the convoy to slowly creep back down the mountain.



Injured, Hospitalized, and Returned to Korea

Sterling N. McKusick remembers how during the trip down the mountain from the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir that it got dark quickly, and they were ordered to travel without lights. He recalls how about nine miles down the road, they encountered a Chinese roadblock in the area of a frozen creek bed. He explains his truck was sandwiched between other trucks ahead of and behind his when the Chinese started shooting. He describes how his truck was hit and how part of the engine destroyed. He shares he was wounded during this time and recalls spending a long cold night in a ditch before things subsided as the Chinese did not like to fight in daylight. He eventually spent six or seven weeks in a hospital in Yokosuka, Japan, before returning to his unit to finish out his time in Korea.



The Dead Stick in Your Mind

Sterling N. McKusick states that the dead always stick in his mind. He recounts one occasion near Wonsan in October 1950 when his unit discovered between three hundred to four hundred civilians slaughtered by the North Koreans. He believes he had it easier than many of the infantrymen who were constantly under fire while in Korea. He notes that after a short time, he simply got numb to the stuff. He provides an account of seeing North Korean tank units in Seoul who had died at the hands of napalm deployed by U.S. Marines and the Navy. He concludes that it never really goes away but that he came to see himself fortunate that it was not him.



Steven G. Olmstead

"High Diddle Diddle, Right up the Middle"

Steven Olmstead describes his unit's movement through "Hellfire Alley" on its way to Hagaru. He talks about being engaged by enemy Chinese soldiers and the esprit de corps among the marines in his company. He recalls the actions of Rocco Zullo, the first sergeant in his marine unit, during the movement to Hagaru. He describes Sergeant Zullo's heroic actions which were thought to have led to his death and shares surprising news about the first sergeant.



The Importance of Hagaru

Steven Olmstead describes the importance of three positions that were held during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, including the hill at Hagaru. He emphasizes that the 1st Marine Division would have been annihilated had control of the positions he describes not been maintained. He recounts the retreat of US forces.



"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Stuart Gunn

The Dreaded Capture

Stuart Gunn had a confrontation with the Chinese military at the Battle of Hill 187. The Chinese were very organized. He remembers the moment him and his partners were capture and the pain they all endured. These moments lead to his capture as a Prisoner of War.



Red China: Brainwashing

Stuart Gunn had a very difficult time living in a Chinese POW camp. While at the camp, the Chinese Communist government had educational materials promoting their government for the prisoners that were printed in English. Other POWs at the camp responded to these materials and the mandatory classes in a variety of ways.



Stuart William Holmes

No One Would Dare Attack the Great British Empire

Stuart Holmes describes flying at night over the coasts of Korea, Japan, and China. He explains that he rarely felt scared, which he attributes to the hubris of youth. He elaborates that occasionally it would be reported that someone was following them which gave him a 'twitch' but, otherwise, he felt no fear.



T.J. Martin

Hoengsong Massacre February 1951 (Full Story)

T.J. Martin chronicles the Hoengsong Massacre where he states that approximately 2,400 Americans died. He details the events of the massacre, recalling thousands of Chinese soldiers advancing with hand grenades, rifles, and some even empty-handed, and provides a vivid account of his movements during those two days. He recalls the moments leading up to his capture by the Chinese.



POW Experience

T.J. Martin recalls being turned over to the North Koreans and spending one month in a North Korean POW camp. He compares and contrasts the treatment of American soldiers by the Chinese and North Koreans, stating that the North Koreans were more merciful in a sense as they would simply kill a soldier rather than let him suffer. He details being turned back over to the Chinese and a long march to another camp which resulted in many prisoner deaths.



A Typical Day in a POW Camp

T.J. Martin shares memories from his experiences as a POW for over two years. He details a typical day in a POW camp and discusses the indoctrination program the Chinese implemented in their camps. He recalls how he tried to outsmart the Chinese which eventually led to him being separated from other prisoners.



Telila Deresa

Smell of the Gun Makes You Drunk

Telila Deresa describes his experience in battle. He describes how the enemy was like snakes. The Chinese soldiers killed three of the commanders. However, he was not scared. Telila Deresa describes how youth and the smell of the gun makes a young man drunk with power.



Still Hatred

Telila Deresa describes how he still has a hatred for Chinese. China has built many things in Ethiopia like trains, bridges and roadways. However, he still loves Korea. Korea is like a mother and provides for the veterans.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Service During Armistice

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes his service that started after the signing of the Armistice. The war was technically over. However, patrolling was very important. Constant observation for lights or fires were reported to commanders for a possible enemy. Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes constant climbing of mountains as the toughest part of his service during Armistice.



Tex Malcolm

Shallow Graves in Wonju

Tex Malcom discusses his experience in the push off offensive against the Chinese and North Koreans in Wonju. He had an "unsettling" experience as they dug into the hills, and realized they were digging into shallow graves where the North Koreans had buried their dead. During this offensive, supplies were air dropped into a valley.



April 1951 Attacks From the Chinese

On April 23, 1951, Tex Malcolm was protecting another hill when the Chinese were trying to take Charlie Company out. By 2am, the Chinese started to attack his hill and the US Marines were running out of ammunition. Sadly, a Marine right next to Tex Malcolm was shot and killed.



Theodore Paul

Chinese and Napalm in the Chosin Reservoir

Theodore Paul recalls his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes it as disturbing and shares memories of seeing napalm dropped. He recounts fighting the Chinese from all directions.



Thomas B. Smith

Bunker Destruction

Thomas B. Smith shares the details of an incident which cost the lives of two American soldiers and wounded others. He recounts Chinese soldiers overshooting their target and hitting a bunker being dug to serve as a warming place during the winter months. He adds that two soldiers were killed; two were wounded; and the other three involved were deeply shaken by the event.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Fighting at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir and Frostbite

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. recalls fighting at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir during the Korean War. He recalls how his unit discovered Chinese soldiers behind their front line and how they fought both from the front and behind as they moved south to meet United Nations soldiers coming from the North. He describes the cold and cutting the ground with his knife to dig foxholes. He shares that he suffered frostbite so severe that he lost some of his toes.



Landing at Incheon and Fighting at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. speaks of landing at Incheon and ending up at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He describes the Chinese weapons and being outnumbered. One night, while he was on watch, he thought a bush was a Chinese unit attacking, but he decided not to shoot. He admits that this incident earned him the nickname "Bush Guy."



Heavy Fighting and British and Turkish Marines

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. discusses heavy fighting in Korea and how the Chinese would play bugles and would fire heavy air bursts of artillery to keep the Americans awake and on edge. He recalls running into British and Turkish Marines as they headed south. He describes how the British and Turkish soldiers made sure to identify themselves as allies, and not Chinese or North Koreans. He observed that both the Turkish Marines and the Chinese soldiers did not wear helmets.



Food in Korea and the Chinese Attacking Across the Border

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. discusses his experience with food in Korea. He recalls that the eggs they had would explode when cooked and did not even taste like eggs when they were finally cooked. He recalls that the eggs would exploded when cooked, and even when they were cooked, they did not taste like eggs. He discusses eating candy bars and his love for chocolate. He admits that his love of black coffee started during the war. He discusses being stationed close to the Chinese border and being able to see people walking on the other side of the river. He expresses that they thought the river was secure before they were attacked.



Thomas LaCroix

Coastal Deployment and Geography

Thomas LaCroix describes his experience in the United States Navy aboard an aircraft carrier that was guarding ocean bays along the coast of Korea. In his recollection, he speaks of the geographical locations where he was stationed early in his naval deployment, which included: San Diego, California-Tarawa Atoll- and Tsingtao, China. Additionally, he recounts the assignment of his aircraft carrier to safely guide pilots who were in trouble to the bay area for pick up by the warship.



Thomas O’Dell

Chinese Propaganda Leaflets and Speeches

Thomas O'Dell fought against the Chinese and North Koreans. There was propaganda slogans broadcast over loudspeakers throughout the night to try to brainwash the US troops. Leaflets were shot over the trenches by the Chinese to convince the US troops to surrender or to switch to the Chinese's side.



Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Thomas Tsuda

Journey to Korea

Thomas Tsuda recalls his journey to Korea and landing in Incheon in September of 1952. He speaks of the destruction he witnessed and shares that he felt sorry for the Korean people. He adds that he soon found himself on the front lines fighting the Chinese.



Typical Day on the Front Lines

Thomas Tsuda remembers what it was like fighting on the front lines. He comments on the cold temperatures he and other fellow soldiers experienced and shares that most of the fighting took place at night. He recalls resting, sleeping, and writing letters during the day while there was little action taking place. He speaks of the wounds he sustained on the front lines and shares his pride in serving to prevent the spread of Communism.



On the Line during the Ceasefire

Thomas Tsuda recalls where he was at the time of the ceasefire. He remembers being on the front line and seeing Chinese soldiers waving white flags. He explains that he and fellow soldiers were hesitant at first to greet them but shares that they slowly began to talk to them and shake hands. He adds that held no anger towards the Chinese as they were merely doing their job like he was. He expresses his pride in serving his country.



Thomas W. Stevens

Bombing Raids over North Korea

Thomas Stevens describes bombing raids over North Korea. All of the bombing missions were done at night, and had to use triangulation of an electronic arc. He describes the targets as belligerent stockpiles and bridges. Thomas Stevens describes the bombing missions as difficult, because of dropping bombs from 26,000 feet and trying to hit a small target. These bombing missions were far into North Korea and at times the planes went into Chinese airspace.



Tirso Sierra Pinilla

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Tirso Sierra Pinilla provides an account of the most dangerous moments of the war. He states that patrolling both day and night was extremely dangerous as they engaged the enemy on multiple occasions. Adding to the fear and confusion was the fact that he was unaware where shots came from.

Tirso Sierra Pinilla da cuenta de los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra. Afirma que patrullar tanto de día como de noche era extremadamente peligroso ya que se enfrentaron al enemigo unas cuantas veces. Él no sabía de dónde venían los disparos entonces tenía hasta más miedo.



Tom Collier

Hill 355 and Military Life

Tom Collier describes the fighting at Hill 355 and said many New Zealand soldiers died in the battle. He was never in imminent danger, but there was a constant threat from Chinese artillery. Tom Collier also fondly recollects a South Korean houseboy who was about fourteen years old that completed chores such as laundry and Tom Collier said the boy lost all his money gambling. He looked for the houseboy upon return to South Korea, but could not find him.



Pusan and Seoul Living Conditions

Tom Collier describes a rough trip to Pusan by ship and overall conditions of the people. People would make houses of anything they could, mostly tin and cardboard. The people did not know English and lived in poverty. Tom Collier then transferred to Seoul and describes the conditions of the people as similar to Pusan.



Tommy Clough

Chinese Enter and Refugee Recollections

Tommy Clough remembers advancing with his unit up to Pyongyang and within sight of the Yalu River. He shares that he and fellow soldiers began to wonder what was going on when they say American soldiers and Korean refugees coming back rather than advancing. He recounts how the Chinese had entered the war and crossed the Yalu River, forcing the Americans to retreat and causing the Korean civilians to flee. He comments on the poor conditions of the refugees.



Transporting a Wounded Chinese Soldier

Tommy Clough offers an account of transporting a wounded Chinese soldier. He recalls his unit's location at Hill 327 and remembers that a moaning noise was identified coming from no man's land. He recounts that they were cautious at first as they thought it might be a trap but shares that the moaning was coming from a wounded Chinese soldier. He details having to transport the wounded soldier to receive medical treatment and shares how he convinced the driver to continue the journey rather than killing the wounded soldier on the way.



Napalm Usage

Tommy Clough recounts the usage of napalm during the war. He recalls one particular battle where United States forces dropped napalm on a nearby hill covered with Chinese soldiers. He offers a historical tidbit on when napalm was developed and shares how it was a terrible explosion to witness. He admits that he can still hear the screams and smell burnt flesh despite how many years have passed.



Value of Life

Tommy Clough chronicles the lead-up to his capture. He details catching up to his assigned officer and advancing towards a hill only to find Chinese soldiers looking down at them with a machine gun. He recalls that he lifted his rifle on instinct and shot one of the Chinese soldiers. He shares that after he and fellow soldiers reached the other side of the hill, they were surrounded by the Chinese. He recounts being taken to the spot where the soldier he had shot earlier lay and of how little the Chinese seemed to value life.



Escape Attempt

Tommy Clough recalls his escape attempt from a Chinese POW camp. He shares that he and his friend, Dave, gathered their kit and waited for the roll call one August night. He recounts making it to the bushes near the river, and right as they were about to cross, he remembers hearing the cock of a gun. He details lights coming on and whistles sounding as they were recaptured. He describes how he was handcuffed and locked in an outhouse for roughly six weeks following the attempt.



News of the Ceasefire

Tommy Clough describes the day he and fellow POWs were told that the peace treaty had been signed. He recalls gathering in the center of the compound and the Chinese surrounding them with fixed bayonets. He relates that he was confused about what was happening as he listening to a Chinese commander. He shares that they had been told the war was over for them and that he and others were hesitant to believe them. He recounts how they heard cheering from the American compound shortly after, and he states their cheering was confirmation.



Tony Espino

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Tony Espino comments on his experience as a United States Marine during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls his company digging in at a canyon and not being able to utilize mortars or flares against the Chinese as a strategy to keep their positions hidden. He remembers a significant number of Chinese soldiers pouring through the canyon.



Tony White

Hiding Under a Bull

Tony White recollects an occasion while on patrol when they received a tip from a local regarding a Chinese soldier hiding in a house they had just searched. He explains there was a cow shed attached to the main house, and the local Korean civilian pointed to a bull. He shares that when he poked the bull, a Chinese soldier who was hiding in straw underneath the bull bolted out of the house.



Cease Fire

Tony White discusses how hostilities continued after the cease fire. He details the process of laying mines. He explains they could not see Chinese soldiers during the day with planes but knew they were there because of gunfire at night. He recounts how he laid explosives at one point in a big pit and saw a lot of the land collapse around it. He shares how he realized the Chinese were hiding in tunnels during the day.



Trevor Edwards

Christmas with the Enemy

Trevor Edwards reminisces about one particular Christmas morning while on the front lines in Korea. He shares how just as daylight broke through the darkness, a tree decorated with tinsel and adorned with chocolate bars stood before them at the wire. It was a gesture from the Chinese, an example of humanity during a time of war. The Chinese had written messages stating that they did not want to fight them but instead just wanted them to go home.



Trygve Jensen

Why Korea?

Trygve Jensen explains why he chose to go to an active war from his peaceful service in the Norwegian Army occupying Germany. At the time, he thought the experience treating wounded patients would be good for his paramedic career. He arrived during the final three months of the war and assisted with surgeries.



Ulises Barreto González

Destruction Everywhere / Destrucción en Todas Partes

Ulises Barreto González recounts the destruction he saw in Incheon and Seoul. He could not believe that beautiful five story buildings were leveled by the bombing. He also speaks about the carnage of Kelly Hill. He explains the fact that this battle is the most vivid in his mind because the mountain was so high and because it was lost to Chinese forces.

Ulises Barreto González habla sobre la destrucción que vio en Incheon y Seúl. No podía creer que tantos hermosos edificios de cinco pisos fueron destruidos por el bombardeo. También habla del peligro de Kelly Hill. Esa batalla es la más vívida en su memoria porque la montaña era muy alta y porque las fuerzas chinas ganaron y ellos perdieron.



Veli Atasoy

Captivity

Veli Atasoy describes life after being taken as a Prisoner-of-War (POW). He, along with other prisoners were held near the city of Pyoktong, a city in North Korea near the Chinese border. While a prisoner, the Chinese military tried, unsuccessfully, to use propaganda to convince the Turkish troops to switch sides. There were massive infestations of lice in the camp and even a "fake" Sergeant. Veli Atasoy describes how, above all, even in the most dire of situations he turned to Allah above.



Battle of Kunu-ri

Veli Atasoy describes the fighting conditions at the Battle of Kunu-ri. There were many casualties of the Turkish troops and to evacuate, therefore approximately twenty five men were needed per Jeep. The person in command took a wrong turn into harm's way. The Chinese had surrounded the entire area and eventually killed many Americans, but spared Veli Atasoy and many of his fellow Turkish troops. After that the men walked under armed escort to Pyoktong, near the Chinese-North Korean border.



Pride and Family during Imprisonment

Veli Atasoy describes his pride in South Korea. He sacrificed so much being imprisoned, subsequently he is more prideful of his service in Korea than his native country of Turkey. While imprisoned, he had no communication with his family. His family had no news and even asked the Turkish government about their son. Therefore a certain hardship of not knowing and suffering occurred between Veli Atasoy and his family occurred.



Vernon Walden

Fighting Through the Winter of 1950

Vernon Walden was only seven miles from China's border when General MacArthur wanted to invade, but he was told to pull his troops back. Vernon Waldon explains that when his regiment began to retreat in 40 below zero weather, gas began to run out along with food and ammunition. He describes how snow blindness was a condition that troops had to deal with while traveling on foot with snow up their knees.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Armistice Ceasefire

Victor Spaulding details the lead-up to the Armistice ceasefire. He recalls the immense shelling taking place on Heartbreak Ridge for four days prior to 10PM on July 27, 1953. He recounts the uncanniness of deafening silence from both sides at the exact time planned. He comments on the fear of wondering whether or not the enemy would honor the ceasefire agreement.



Victor D. Freudenberger

Not Just Fighting but Surviving

Victor Freudenberger talks about the role every Marine played during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir--working during the day and fighting at night. He describes how exhaustion set in after a couple of days and remembers a nap in which he awoke to find that captured mortars had been thrown into his tent by the Chinese. He remembers that the pins of the mortars had not been pulled out and laughs about simply returning to his nap.



Witnessing Resiliency

Victor Freudenberger talks about his impressions of the Korean people while he was stationed at Chosin Reservoir. He recalls the suffering of civilians and families being displaced. He describes observing a Korean woman washing clothes in sub-zero temperature at six in the morning and marvels at the resilience and commitment of the Korean people. He comments on the war atrocities committed by the Chinese against civilians he saw along the way.



Víctor Luis Torres García

First Day / El Primer Día

Víctor Luis Torres García remembers the first day he arrived in Korea. He states that he wanted to join the war effort but changed his mind once he was there. He shares the story of how a mortar fell a few feet away from him and killed the cooks and those that were waiting to be served.

Víctor Luis Torres García recuerda el primer día que llegó a Corea. Afirma que quería prestar su servicio para la guerra, pero cambió de opinión una vez que llego al país. Cuenta la historia de cómo un mortero cayó a unos metros de él y mató a los cocineros y a los que esperaban ser atendidos.



Vikram Tuli

The Costs of War

Vikram Tuli talks about the effects of war, and how the families of veterans from twenty-two countries were affected by this conflict. Generations will pass before that wound fully heals. He believes the deeper connections between countries such as education, commerce, and culture will help prevent these types of conflicts in the future. He reminds us to love thy neighbor and that we are one.



Vincent Ariola

The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



Virgil Julius Caldwell

Landing at Incheon

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes his experience of landing at Incheon. He recalls being informed on his first day that the bones of the previous unit were found on a nearby hill, which made him feel uneasy. He remembers being attacked by mortar and artillery while he served as an anti-aircraft gunner.



Food and the Front Lines

Virgil Julius Caldwell discusses hot meals and how the food served by the United States Army in Korea made him feel at home amidst the difficult conditions on the front lines. He describes the conditions on the front lines and becoming accustomed to the stress of serving in a war zone. He recounts life when pulled off the line, which included being shelled by the enemy and how soldiers used their helmets to bathe.



Virgil W. Mikkelsen

A Island for a Prison

Virgil Mikkelsen recalls his time on a POW Island after the Armistice. He describes the island as desolate and made only of sand only to find out that the island is a top tourist destination today in Korea. He remembered a fence for prisoner camp.



Wallace Stewart

I Think They Could Hear My Heartbeat.

Wallace Stewart explains a typical day on the main line of resistance as consisting of long periods of boredom punctuated by moments of sheer terror. Soldiers often stayed awake and on alert all night. They cleaned and maintained their weapons, updating their fire direction cards. Wallace Stewart preferred patrolling at night due to his excellent night vision, but sometimes the soldiers hid in rice paddies to hide from Chinese patrols.



Walter Steffes

Role of a Destroyer

Walter Steffes describes the role of the Newman K. Perry, a Gearing-class destroyer. The submarine is a formidable foe for the aircraft carrier. The destroyer is expendable and would position itself around the larger aircraft carrier. However, during the time between WWII and the Korean War, the role of the Newman K. Perry was to survey tidal patterns and ocean depths of the Chinese coastline.



Warren Nishida

Fearlessness of Youth

Warren Nishida elaborates on life as a soldier during reconnaissance and ambush control missions. During this discussion, he shares details about one dangerous encounter when he and his comrades capture two Chinese soldiers. When asked if he was afraid during these experiences, he reflects on the innocence and fearlessness you have during your youth. He expands on this reflection with details about the time he unintentionally became a target of the enemy.



Wendell Murphy

Iron Triangle, Pork Chop Hill, Heartbreak Ridge

Wendell Murphy tells of his participation in several famous battles. On Sept 19, 1951 at Heartbreak Ridge he was hit by a land mine. It killed the Sergeant and Corporal in front of him; he was hit in the legs, ribs and head. He was only 18 years old, injured and unable to move. He hid to avoid being captured by Chinese.



Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar

Most difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar shares the most difficult moments that he experienced during the war. He explains how he lost his hearing after a mine exploded near his ear. Additionally, he shares the story of an attack in which he was transporting goods when they were bombarded with mortars. He explains that he was able to escape, but lamented the fact that all their Korean civilian workers were killed during the attack.

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar cuenta los momentos más difíciles que vivió durante la guerra. Explica cómo perdió la audición después de que una mina exploto cerca de su oído. Asimismo, comparte la historia de un ataque en el que transportaba mercancías cuando fueron bombardeadas con morteros. Cuenta que él pudo escapar, pero lamentó el hecho de que los coreanos civiles que trabajaban con ellos fueron matados durante el ataque.



Willard L. Dale

Early Days in Korea

William L. Dale shares he left for Korea on November 12, 1952. He remembers the temperature being negative fourteen degrees when he landed in Pusan. He recounts staying that first night in an enormous tent with about one thousand eight hundgred others and details his movement to his duty station with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, Weapon Company into the area near Panmunjeom and the Imjin River. He recalls one engagement with the enemy that lasted about six and a half hours.



Dangerous Night

Willard L. Dale believes soldiers in Korea faced danger every day until the armistice was agreed upon. He shares an account of one of the potentially most dangerous events during his time in Korea.



William Alli

In the Midst of Combat

William Alli explains the details of getting sick while in a fox hole. After his recovery, he went back to the line to face combat with North Korean and Chinese enemy fire as a part of the stretcher crew, carrying bodies of the wounded out of the combat area. He describes having to find his way to safety in the dark, with only the light of flares that were being dropped by planes from above.



William Burns

Catch Them if You Can!

William Burns never captured any Chinese soldiers while fighting in Korea. There was an incentive program created by the armed forces to capture the enemy to earn additional Rest and Relaxation (R & R) time in Japan. Even though he didn't earn any additional R & R, William Burns did receive one rotation to Japan for time away from the front lines.



Conditions in the Korean War

It was trench warfare in 1952 and it was hit or miss fighting because the Chinese were very savage. The United States fire power is what saved William Burns' troops. The soldiers slept in the ground during the winter and it was just as cold as New York because it was not as bad as the winters of 1950-1951. Hill 1062 was a huge hill that was located near William Burns' trench and the Chinese had hospitals built into the hill along with military weapons.



US Soldiers Fighting Along Side KATUSA

William Burns worked with many KATUSA and Korean civilians during his 11 months in Korea during the war. The Koreans who worked with the US troops worked hard, but had a difficulty with communication. William Burns showed personal pictures of two KATUSA that he worked closely with during the war, but he remembers about 10-15 were stationed with this regiment.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Fighting the Chinese Up to the Yalu River

William Coe’s company fought the Chinese all the way up to the Yalu River. He describes the scene at the time, explaining that the North Koreans didn't take any prisoners, so either did the US. William Coe recalls a time when he had to blow up many US supplies so that the Chinese wouldn't use them against him.



William D. Freeman

Hoengsong Massacre

William Freeman describes a little known event during the Korean War, the Hoengsong Massacre. He recalls his capture as a Prisoner of War (POW). He describes the details of the event as well as his project archiving the experiences of the American soldiers captured there.



Recaptured as a POW

William Freeman details his experiences being recaptured as a POW after his release in Panmunjeom. He recalls the rough march to the camp and being buried alive after US forces blew up the camp. He discusses the differences in treatment by Chinese soldiers versus North Korean soldiers, describing the North Koreans as being the most brutal.



Life at Camp One

William Freeman elaborates on his experience as a prisoner of war at Camp One. He shares that Camp One was managed by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he purposely acted "crazy" at the camp because the Chinese would treat him better due to their superstitions of people with mental illnesses. He recalls acquiring roughly forty-two dozen eggs over a period of one and a half years which helped keep him and his comrades alive.



William Eugene Woodward

Importance of the U.S. Air Force

William Eugene Woodward discusses the significant impact the United States Air Force had during the wars of the twentieth century. He recalls a personal experience where he had a near miss with a U.S. fighter plane in Korea. He expresses his patriotism and pride in serving his country during the Korean War.



William F. Borer

"Made me reappraise my opinion of the American Army Officer"

William Borer describes his capture by the North Koreans and their executing about two-dozen men simply because they were American. After marching north, they arrived at a large village and were placed in a compound dividing officers and enlisted men. He recalls one particular night when two enlisted POWs were placed in the not-so-crowded officers quarters but the officers quickly sent them to the very crowded enlisted side. Sergeant Estrada, who was in the same room as William blocked the door and wouldn't let the men in, saying the room was too crowded. Both men froze to death that night, and though Bill reported Estrada, the Army's criminal investigation said there was nothing they could do.



Maggots Covered My Face I Was Pronounced Dead

William Borer describes being moved to Camp 5 where he spent over a month and became ill with pneumonia. He describes the school house that cared for the sick as an an "ant-hotel" where you check in but don't check out. He recalls after being pronounced dead, he awoke among stacks of bodies and maggots encrusted on his eyes and nostrils. He explains that the Chinese were superstitious and when they saw him as he left the morgue, they ran the other direction thinking he had been resurrected.



Don't Take Your POW Clothes Off

William Borer describes the day of his release as a bright sunny day. He recalls that once in UN territory the US Military Police Officer ordered him not to immediately remove his Chinese prison clothing, as many Chinese POWs had done, and was taken into a medical facility to be deloused with DDT, fed, examined, and given new clothes with rank chevrons sewed onto his sleeves. He recalls being asked what he wanted to eat and he said a big bowl of ice cream. As he was eating his ice cream he was asked if he was anxious about going home to which he said he wanted to go back to his unit.



William F. Honaman

First Experience with Death

William Honaman describes what his living conditions were like when he first encountered the death of other soldiers. He explains that he was encamped in ditches surrounded by barbed wire with only one entrance from the back. He recalls how homemade alarms were fashioned out of empty beer cans filled with rocks. He remembers the entrance was adorned with the bodies of the dead who had tried to get in.



Purple Hearts

William Honaman describes earning his first Purple Heart after being wounded during a patrol. He explains that the point man he was accompanying stepped on a land mine, losing his leg but not his life in the process. He recalls wearing an armored vest at the time, but had unzipped it due to the heat, an action that allowed the shrapnel to pierce his chest. He describes receiving his second Purple Heart in June of 1953 after five grenades exploded around him.



William Gortney

The Importance of Airpower

Captain William Gortney's mission was to anything moving south in order to protect UN ground forces. He performed low attacks with little air battles with the North Koreans and Chinese. He is able to explain how important the airpower was during the war.



William Herold

Wounded at the Chosin Reservoir

William Herold recounts his Thanksgiving meal experience before heading up into the mountains of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes being outnumbered by the Chinese 36 to 1 and a fire fight commencing. He remembers silence that followed except for one round sounding out, adding that it was the round which wounded his right leg. He recalls being transported via jeep out of the mountains and eventually to the hospital ship, Consolation.



William Jacque

Guarding A Truck Under Chinese Fire

William Jacque details a supply route mishap while on a truck carrying ammunition. He recounts the route being under fire by the Chinese and describes his truck hitting a hole and tipping over. He shares that he was forced to guard the truck until a wrecker could recover it, and he adds that he hitchhiked a ride back to his unit.



Rather Fight Communism There Than Here

William Jacque shares the reasoning for his willingness to serve in Korea. He explains that he wanted to fight for the Korean people as he was familiar with Communism and it's movement into Korea. He shares that he would rather fight Communism somewhere else than in his own country.



William MacSwain

Horrors of War

William MacSwain describes some of the horrors of war experiences. He portrays a vivid image of scenes of war that illustrate the hardships Korean War soldiers faced. These first-hand accounts show the fear in every soldiers' mind.



William Whitley

Desolation: No Houses, No Building, No Nothing of Any Kind

William Whitley shares he spent much of his time in Korea as an ammunition truck operator. He recalls how when he first arrived in Korea, the country was dominated by forests, but these forests were soon destroyed by napalm bombers to prevent the North Koreans and Chinese from using them as cover. He recalls the desolation of the area at the time. He notes that he does not remember ever being in a building while in Korea.



Willis Remus

Passing the Time

Willis Remus describes the different activities that he and other captured soldiers did to pass the time when they were not working in the camp. They played cribbage, chess, basketball, volleyball, and soccer. The chess board was made by one of the Prisoners of War.



Food

Willis Remus describes how difficult it was in prison camp to make sure that the other soldiers were eating their rations and what he did to try to encourage soldiers to eat the food they were rationed by the Chinese.



Wistremundo Dones

Remembering Terrible Battles / Recordando Terribles Batallas

Wistremundo Dones provides an account of the tactical operations which were aimed at sweeping the South of North Koreans. He explains the change in troop movements from the South and how entire platoons were sent to Incheon in the North which prompted the Chinese to get involved. He admits that they needed much courage to withstand the bombings that continuously took place.

Wistremundo Dones da cuenta de las operaciones tácticas que tenían como objetivo barrer el sur de los norcoreanos. Explica el cambio en los movimientos de tropas del Sur y cómo se enviaron pelotones enteros a Incheon, en el Norte, lo que llevó a los chinos a involucrarse. Admite que necesitaban mucho coraje para sobrevivir los bombardeos que siempre continuamente.



Overview of Service / Descripción de su Servicio

Wistremundo Dones describes his tour of duty in Korea in English. He explains how the war changed resulting from the involvement of Chinese forces. Furthermore, he shares how the commanding officers altered the war strategy.

Wistremundo Dones describe en inglés su período de servicio en Corea. Explica cómo cambió la guerra cuando entraron las fuerzas chinas a la guerra. Además, comparte cómo los oficiales al mando cambiaron la estrategia de la guerra.



Yilma Belachew

Ethiopian Kagnew Soldiers

Yilma Belachew describes the Ethiopian soldiers' experience. He identifies that no Ethiopian soldier became a POW and that the soldier must sacrifice their life. Therefore, men who were injured would continue to fight even when seriously injured. Yilma Belachew also describes training by Swedish elite soldiers. Soldiers must prepare their minds for combat in addition to the physical battle.



Ambush Patrol

Yilma Belachew describes his command of the Ambush Patrol. He describes how he would encounter Chinese on the front with just fourteen other soldiers. His platoon did not lose a single man. The patrols were very dangerous and difficult. Ambush Patrols were carried out in the dark with no lights and then waiting for the enemy with a small number of soldiers.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.



Dangers of a Sniper

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes being a sniper during the war. On one occasion a mortar exploded near him. The explosion covered him in dirt and took the life of the man beside him. Events of the war, however, made him stronger, not scared. He also describes Chinese were good at karate.



Engagement with the Chinese

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes engaging the enemy. He describes how he sniped and killed seven Chinese soldiers. The incident occurred at night. The Ethiopians waited to be given orders to fire. Firing at night would give your position away. He also describes being so cold that he put his leg in a fire to keep it warm. His leg ultimately ended up being damaged from this incident.