Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Busan



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Achille Ragazzoni

Hospital Work in Korea

Achille Ragazzoni shares memories of his father Gianluigi Ragazzoni when he initially arrived in Seoul. He explains that his father found no Italian embassy in the country as it was covered by the embassy in Tokyo. He shares his father knew little of the Korean language and recalls how there were many Japanese words used in Korea. He describes his father's role in working for an Italian hospital which used medicines provided by the Americans and shares that when given days off, his father and others enjoyed traveling around areas in Korea.

English translations begin at 30:50, 32:39, 35:52, and 37:11.



Adam McKenzie

A Picture of Before and After

Adam McKenzie offers a reflection on the Korea of 1950, compared to what he saw when he revisited in 2011. He describes a former Korea of ruins, and a modern society full of high rises and bullet trains. He shares his perception that South Korea has made advancements much more rapidly since the Korean War than the United Kingdom did during the Industrial Revolution.



Alan Guy

Arriving in Korea and Placement

Alan Guy recounts his arrival in Korea. He remembers bitter cold and a horrendous smell as Koreans had just fertilized nearby rice patties with human manure. He recollects a band playing rousing music upon arrival and being transported to a transit camp in Busan. He details his placement in a field hygiene section.



Duties Following Cease-fire

Alan Guy recounts returning to Busan to assist with health aspects following the cease-fire and details several duties. Despite the cease-fire, he recalls an incident that involved a rope strung across the road as an attempted means of decapitating drivers. He shares an account of a situation he found himself in within the black market.



Alan Maggs

Early Days in Korea

Alan Maggs recalls arriving in Pusan and then taking the train to Seoul. He describes Seoul as largely devastated, with few buildings still standing. Despite the destruction, he remembers the local people as very welcoming. Maggs also provides details about his duties and the pay he received during his service.



Albert Gonzales

First Impressions of Busan

Albert Gonzales describes what he saw when he first arrived in Busan. He explains how there were machine guns at every intersection as they rode in on the cattle cars. He remembers how terrified he and other soldiers felt not knowing what to expect during this war, yet they persevered.



Albert Kleine

Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



Albino Robert “Al” D’Agostino

First Orders

Al D'Agostino described the way in which men were sent to Fort Hood for basic training when the Korean War started. From either Fort Hood or Fort Dixon they were sent on a plane straight to Japan and then on to Korea. However, his training was a bit different as he was a replacement and had cold weather training instead.



Killed By Friendly Fire

Al D'Agostino described his old army friend Sal. Sal was killed within twenty-four hours of arriving near Busan. Sal was a forward observer who was unfortunately killed by American soldiers as they were completing a training mission in Pusan. He described it as demoralizing.



Alfred Curtis

Headed to Korea and First Impression

Alfred Curtis described how he felt when he learned he would be serving in Korea. He shared that hardly anyone knew anything about Korea and that he had honestly never even heard of Korea. He added that he and other young soldiers thought they would go over and take care of business within a few months and be home. He recalled his journey to South Korea, landing in Pusan, and the suffering of the South Korean people.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

Arriving in Korea and Heading to the Front Lines

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan recalls his arrival in Busan as a rather misty day. Among his vivid memories are the sight of people, probably refugees from North Korea, sleeping in cages. The region struck him as underdeveloped and in a pitiful state. He recounts his movements, describing his progression from the front near Uijeongbu to Cheorwan.



Allen Clark

The Most Difficult Events in the Korean War

Allen Clark had difficulty choosing which event was the most difficult, but he settles on the events going into and out of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. General Smith told his fellow leaders that the Marines were now going to blow up their supplies and sneak out of the Chosin. Instead, he said that they would bring their wounded, dead, and supplies first and then head out as Marines, so everyone looked up to General Smith.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Wounded in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts being wounded in battle while serving in the Pusan Perimeter in 1950. His troop had fought North Koreans all night on September 1st. Around 5:30 AM, a North Korean machine gun struck him. He vividly describes his arduous recovery after being shot five times. Lying on the battlefield bleeding for several hours, he was eventually found in a foxhole.



Arriving in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts the path that brought him to Korea, recalling his arrival in Pusan and his unit's push toward the front. During this advance, they were ambushed in a pass they soon named "Ambush Gap." He describes a couple of hours of intense fighting before they pulled back to recover.



Evacuating with the Wounded

Andrew Freeman Dunlap vividly recounts being found wounded in a heavily mined valley and placed on a jeep with four other injured soldiers. Many of them were in worse condition than he was. Despite the pain, they endured the bumpy ride back to Pusan. He provides detailed memories of his journey from Korea back to the US, which ultimately ended at Walter Reed in Washington, DC.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza shares the shock he experienced during his initial encounter upon landing in Pusan. A vivid image he states he will never forget is that of hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of these children, as he describes, were "disfigured."



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Air Raid Support for the Chosin Reservoir

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes working on airplanes heading out for raids on the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls not knowing what was occurring in the battle as Marines who were brought in were too traumatized to share much information. He adds that airplanes evacuated wounded soldiers from there to either Japan or to hospital ships off the coast of Korea.



Arthur C. Golden

Baptism By Fire (Graphic)

Arthur Golden vividly recalls his initial days in Korea and the fear that gripped him when the shooting began. He recounts his company's movement to set up the perimeter and the rifle company's nearby digging-in process. While digging a foxhole, he distinctly remembers meeting the rifle company's squad leader, only to see the soldier's lifeless body removed the following day. As part of their role with the United States Marine Corps 1st Division, they successfully pushed the enemy back. Following this success, he remembers regrouping for the Incheon Landing. Shortly after the landing, he describes the retaking of Seoul and their subsequent move down to Wonsan



Arthur Gentry

"Little" Battle at Pusan Perimeter

Arthur Gentry recalls participating in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter, where North Korean forces had seized control. Ordered to dig in amid heavy mortar fire, his commander was injured during the intense engagement. For two days, they reinforced the front line, aiding the army's efforts to stabilize the situation. This swift involvement upon their arrival in Korea exemplifies the immediate and intense nature of combat for some troops.



Arthur Hernandez

White Horse Mountain

Arthur Hernandez recalls his journey from Japan to Busan, Korea, during the frigid winter. He remembers taking a troop train from Busan north towards the front lines. Upon reaching their destination, he describes being escorted up a mountain which lay on the front line. As they hiked up the mountain, he remembers seeing the remains of the enemy. He provides details of a ten-day battle which took place at the location known as White Horse Mountain.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

Strangers Left the Dead

Arthur Sorgatz described the development of Busan. Even though there was little destruction to Busan at the time he was there, all the buildings were shacks. He reported there are no longer shacks, people working in rice paddies by hand, or honey wagons. Additionally, he remarked based on Korean culture, if someone died and the body was lying along the road, civilians would leave the body there, because if they returned the body to the family the helper would be required to take care of the deceased person's family. Sometimes, bodies would lay in the road for three to four days before it was picked up. He had to drive around bodies any times during his tour in Busan, Korea.



Impact from a Tour in Korea and Japan

Arthur Sorgatz was able to learn about how other people lived when he was stationed in Busan starting in 1954. Poverty was very high in Korea after the war and America's poverty level has been nothing compared to Korea's at that time. In Japan, he shipped damaged trucks to the port while creating his own fun by scaring Japanese civilians by backfiring trucks right within busy towns.



Basilio MaCalino

The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Belay Bekele

Protecting a Country Under Attack

Belay Bekele recounts the reasoning behind Ethiopian forces going to Korea. He recalls the promise Emperor Haile Selassie made to the United Nations to protect nations being attacked. He describes the suffering of the people and how they would eat food scraps from the soldiers.



Benito B. Arabe

Fighting on Hill 010

Benito B. Arabe, after arriving in Busan, joined King Company on Hill 010 on the front lines. He recalls walking three kilometers to the mountain where he joined the Americans they would soon replace. He recounts seeing many dead in the trenches. He offers a detailed account of nightly bombings including one where a bomb landed about five meters from them as they were hiding.



Benjamin Allen

First Days in Korea

Benjamin Allen shares he left for Korean in September 1950. He recounts his journey to Japan and then on to Busan (Pusan), Korea. He recalls riding a train towards Seoul which he remembers seeing burned as the North Koreans were retreating from the city. He offers his take on fear.



Bernard Smith

Bernard Smith- Struggles with Equipment

Bernard Smith described that the equipment that was set up was only good for a 50 mile radius and many times they would need to reach as far as 200 miles to get a signal. Since there wasn't a hill in between their location, they could operate from machines and make compromises to get it to work. They had multiple diesel-fueled generators to ensure they were able to continue to operate if the other ran out and the freezing cords were another concern as Bernard Smith lived through the cold winters in Korea.



What Adjective Would You Chose to Describe Korea during the war?

Bernard Smith described Korea as if the conditions and people during the war went "back in time." He said he could equate what he saw to living the harsh life in rural America where people had next to nothing, but were still happy. He described children would pull empty Hershey boxes with a string as if it was a toy truck and were so content.



Bill Chisholm

Napalm at Hill 351

Bill Chisholm shares he was sent back to the front lines to Hill 351 following the evacuation to Pusan. On June 6, 1951, he remembers his unit having napalm dropped on them which resulted in burns to his back and eyes. He recounts spending a couple of weeks in a MASH hospital recovering. He offers some additional details on the fighting on Hill 351.



Bill Chrysler

Traveling to Korea

Bill Chrysler vividly remembers the nervous anticipation as they headed to Korea. They stopped in the Aleutian Islands and again in Hawaii to pick up American forces. Onboard, the daily routine involved regular exercise on the deck to maintain fitness. When they arrived in Pusan, he recalls seeing refugees suffering, struggling without food or shelter, leaving a lasting impression on his memory.



The Battle of Kapyong

Bill Chrysler remembers hurrying into place from a rest camp, noting his half-track was not fully equipped. Sent to the higher hills while the Australians held the lower hills on their right, he quickly adapted to the situation. The Chinese aimed to gain control of the valley among these hills, which led to Seoul. Observing the Chinese circling them, he recalls immediately recognizing the impending trouble.



Bill Lynn

Battle of Naktong Bulge

Bill Lynn tells about the Battle at Naktong River. He survived the battle because the Korean he was fighting was unable to reload his gun. Both of the men accompanying him were killed primarily because they were using malfunctioned equipment left over from World War II.



Bjarne Christensen

Korea Then and Now

Bjarne Christensen recalls being affected by the amount of poverty he saw in Busan, South Korea. He shares that upon his revisit, he could see much progress. He explains how he was impressed and overwhelmed by the differences.



Life on a Hospital Ship

Bjarne Christensen explains how he had luxuries onboard the Jutlandia. He describes a small but comfortable space. He explains that while serving in a time of war, his life on the ship was pleasant.



To Be Young at War

Bjarne Christensen shares that he was just sixteen when he served aboard the Jutlandia. He describes exiting the hospital ship in Busan only to see great poverty among the Korean people. He recalls how he saw children begging and how much it bothered him.



Bob Couch

The Eye-Opening Trip to Pusan

Bob Couch discusses his basic training in California and his deployment to Korea. He recounts the "jolt" he experienced upon his arrival in Pusan after seeing the state of destruction and poverty level among civilians. He recalls trucks making rounds each morning to collect bodies of civilians who had died during the night.



Injury and Meeting Jennifer Jones

Bob Couch discusses an injury he incurred while setting out a mine. He recounts the tripflare going off in his hand and suffering a wound from the encounter. He describes being transported back to Pusan and to a medical ship where surgery was performed on his hand and where he met movie star, Jennifer Jones.



Bob Imose

Making Sure Communication was Always On

Bob Mitsou Imose recounts one 1954 flight mission to penetrate air defense systems in the western part of the peninsula. He describes his time in Korea as a communication electronics officer with the 5th Air Force beginning in 1967, working in cooperation with the 8th Army Division, to ensure communication always remained on. He details the military bases he visited in Korea as part of his duties during this period.



Boonyuen Junturatana

Mission of the Tachin

Boonyuen Junturatana details the mission of the the Tachin on which he was stationed his entire time in Korea. He emphasizes the ship served under United Nations' command. Their primary duties were escorting and supplying other ships as well as patrol.



Bruce Ackerman

The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



Bruce W. Diggle

Picture Time

Bruce Diggle shares photos he took while in Korea. He shows photos of his travels from Pusan to Seoul through the countryside. His photos show the low level of development of Pusan and the destruction of bridges along with the city of Seoul itself.



Burley Smith

We Loaded as Many as We Could

Burley Smith provides an account of the role the SS Meredith Victory played in the evacuation of around fourteen thousand civilians during the 1950 Hamheung Evacuation. Throughout the process of the evacuation, he admires the behavior of the refugees during the evacuation and notes the bravery they exhibited. He notes that the ship was most likely sent there to load equipment but they ended up only loading people. He elaborates on the process of loading refugees into the holds and the living conditions they endured during the trip.



Hitchhiking Their Way Home

Burley Smith reminisces about the time he and a fellow merchant marine, Merl Smith, become stranded on a trip to see the front line. After hitching a ride up to the front, their pilot receives orders to head to Japan. He elaborates on their journey back to the SS Meredith Victory, which includes a ride in a Sherman Tank and an encounter with bed check charlie.



Carl Hissman

Evacuating Heungnam, Off to Busan

Carl Hissman describes his experience at the evacuation of Heungnam. He remembers being the last one off of the beach. He recalls seeing many North Korean refugees and remembers the roads were so full of people. He shares they were able to save some but not all. He remembers seeing a blown-up village and two civilians frozen dead. After Heungnam, his unit went down to Busan and began pushing back up north towards Seoul.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker describes the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during an especially cold winter. He describes poor housing because so many refugees were crammed in the Busan Perimeter. He explains how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Experiences in MASH Hospitals in Korea

Cecelia Sulkowski arrived to Korea in 1949 and began working in a MASH hospital. She recalls seeing shrapnel, fire, and fireworks but was not afraid as she felt far enough away. She explains the MASH unit was set up in an old schoolhouse because it was well built.



Discussing Patient Deaths

Cecelia Sulkowski recollects her perpetual struggle with death and destruction surrounding her. She discusses the importance of humor. She speaks about the advent of triage and the usage of MASH hospitals. She explains her hospital was a stationary unit and that she was not on the move like others. She describes the makeup of her unit as well.



Cengiz A. Turkogul

Be Prepared to Fight

Cengiz Turkogul first arrived in Busan, South Korea on July 6, 1953. He was given a uniform, canteen, blanket, and food. He was then told to be ready to fight. A train to him to the front and was there for the remainder of the war.



Charles Bissett

Arrival and Encounter with North Koreans

Charles Bissett recalls his arrival in Korean during the early part of the war. He recounts arriving in Pusan and then transferring north to Daegu where they were met by North Korean soldiers and suffered casualties. He shares that he served as a wireman in communications for a period of time.



Charles E. Gebhardt

First Impressions of Korea

Charles Gebhardt describes arriving in Pusan in July, 1950. He talks about contacting his unit by phone and being picked up by jeep to travel to Masan. On their journey, he talks about seeing the first signs of war.



Charles Falugo, Jr.

What were living conditions like in South Korea?

After a twenty-two day trip from Seattle, Washington, Charles Falugo recalls being relieved that they finally landed in Pusan, South Korea. He recalls the poor living conditions he witnessed--all Korean houses were made of clay, the people used oxen to help them transport water, and they picked roots for food. He also recalls South Korean children taking his unit's leftovers home to feed their families. He felt very lucky relative to the South Koreans he encountered and feels immense pride for the advancements South Korea has made today.



Charles L. Chipley

Chinese Attacks Against Civilians

Charles L. Chipley Jr. offers his account of providing evacuation aid to the Marines at Heungnam. He recounts that his ship provided gunfire support so that troops could be loaded onto the evacuation ships. He describes the movement of a speculated 100,000 Chinese troops killing civilian Koreans.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

"Outgunned and Outflanked"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the beginning of the Korean War. Stationed in Japan, he describes hearing the news of the North Korean invasion of South Korea and his unit's quick deployment to the war. He talks about being "outgunned and outflanked" by North Korean forces at Masan because of substandard equipment and supplies.



"The Fire Brigade"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the 25th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Fire Brigade." He describes his regiments makeup and how the unit was used during the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter.



Chong Rae Sok

KATUSA

Chong Rae Sok describes becoming a KATUSA soldier at the beginning of the Korean War. He describes what a KATUSA soldier was and what he was doing when he was recruited into the Army. He tells about being sent to train at Camp Fuji, Japan where he was assigned to Easy Company, 31st Regiment, 7th Division.



Chuck Lusardi

Heading to Korea

Chuck Lusardi recalls the process of learning he and his brother were both headed to Korea while he was at Camp Stoneman, California. He recalls how, from Camp Stoneman, they were consigned to a troop ship which took about three thousand five hundred men on a fourteen-day voyage to Yokohama, Japan. He remembers that upon arrival at Camp Drake, there were no ships left because they had been dispersed from the Heungnam Evacuation. He vividly recounts the masses of humanity upon arrival in Busan on January 11, 1951, estimating the throng of refugees to be about two and a half million.



Clara K. Cleland

Caring for Patients at Incheon

Clara Cleland discusses her arrival in Korea, approximately ten days after the Incheon landing. She describes entering a harbor full of ships of all sizes. She explains how some of the nurses were sent to a Prisoner of War Camp for captured North Koreans and how she went with nurses to an old schoolhouse that was being used as a hospital to treat civilians. She remembers the children, many of which suffered from burns, and how they cried all night. She recounts how she and other nurses came under fire while attempting to help injured servicemen when a headquarters company was attacked.



Nursing Wounded Soldiers After Various Campaigns

Clara Cleland describes her nursing duties as various battles were occurring, including taking care of patients from the Jangin (Chosin) Reservoir. She recalls how she and her unit set up various Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH) and remembers witnessing the U.S.S. Missouri firing its guns and heavy fire from other ships as well. She explains how her unit was then moved to assist another unit on a hospital ship and how, from there, they began treating non-emergent patients with illnesses.



Claude Charland

Miracle Society

Claude Charland describes his revisit to South Korea. He describes the economic growth of South Korea as a miracle. He explains how the comparison is so expansive to what South Korea was to know. He makes the argument that it is very important strategically to the region as a commercial hub.



Clayborne Lyles

The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Clifford L. Wilcox

One of The Greatest Experiences

Clifford Wilcox talks about the remarkable contrast between the Korea he saw during the war and the Korea he saw and experienced while revisiting in 2010. When he first arrived, he saw extreme poverty and destruction. In 2010, his experience was first class, seeing South Korea's progress.



Clifford Petrey

Injuries at the Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir

Clifford Petrey describes landing at Inchon. He recounts injuries he received as a soldier both at Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir. He details his subsequent capture by the Chinese and camp movements while a POW.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



Daniel Carvalho

Wonsan Landing

Daniel Carvalho discusses his landing at Wonsan and subsequent retreat to Busan after being overrun by North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. He explains how the Chinese had sticks of bamboo. He shares how the LST was the mode of transport. LST stands for Landing ShipTank or tank landing ship.



Dodging Mines

Daniel Carvalho describes the spotlight on the water. He remembers having to use bamboo sticks to poke mines away from the LST. He discusses moving from Wonson to Buson.



Daniel Kawaiaea

I'm a Squad Leader Now

Daniel Kawaiaea speaks of the challenges he faced as a squad leader who was provided with very little training to prepare him for commanding others. He discusses the mindset many felt in having to take a human life to save his own. He concludes with a brief account of being wounded in the jaw while serving in Korea.



David Lopez

The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge and First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. He was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Simon

I Feel Very Fortunate

David Simon recalls his service in units which focusing on mapmaking and distribution of these maps during the Korean War. He briefly shares how fortunate he was to serve as he did during the Korean War. He recalls that many of those who were onboard the Breckinridge were shipped to Pusan. He counts himself lucky that he had a background in printing that kept him from the dangers of the front lines.



David Valley

Unprepared for War

David Valley talks about his lack of preparation for war as a 19-year old. He describes seeing the bodies of dead soldiers and being taken under the wing of a WWII veteran.



Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles

David Valley talks about his participation the Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles. He describes what happened to enemy soldiers that were captured and tells a story of opening a vault in Pyongyang.



Demetrios Arvanitis

Marching into Busan

Demetrios Arvanitis describes arriving in Korea in 1953 with the Greek Expeditionary Forces and his first impressions of the country. While marching into Busan, he recalls an interaction with an American colonel who reached out to the Greek Army Battalion Headquarters to praise his unit. He shares his appreciation for the perseverance the people of Korea exhibited and feels lucky to have participated in the campaign for their freedom.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Dispatch Rider

Desmond Vinten initially lied on military documents to enlist in the military at nineteen. He arrived at Busan in June of 1951 and remained until the Armistice. He served as a dispatch rider based in the headquarters of the Forward Maintenance Area. He left July 27, 1953, as the cease fire came into effect. He has returned to Korea four times since his service.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



Diego Dantone

A Nice World without War

Diego Dantone lost his father, Sabino Dantone, at age nineteen. He remembers his father crying when Sabino first heard the news of the 1991 Gulf War, and he shares his father's sentiments that war is a shame. Sabino Dantone had joined the first Italian Red Cross team that served in the Korean War. The elder Dantone did not speak of the war to his young son, but Diego Dantone remembers his father and mother being proud of the friendship between the Korean and Italian people.



Donald D. Lanternier

First Impressions of Pusan

Donald Lanternier describes what it was like arriving in Pusan in 1952. He explains that it was a very busy place, with lots of troop ships and supplies on the docks. However, he also notes how impoverished the people were. He remembers that the children were still happy regardless of their circumstances.



Donald Duquette

First Impressions of Korea

Donald Duquette describes his first impressions of Korea arriving on a boat from Japan and his journey to join his division. He shares what he remembers about the scenery, which had not yet experienced destruction. He explains how he headed north in the cold.



Donald H. Jones

Potatoes in the Sea

Donald Jones tells a story about his arrival by ship to Pusan and how Koreans dove into the sea to collect potatoes that the Army discarded.



Donald Haller

Revisiting Korea

Donald Haller recalls revisiting Korea, along with his family, in the 1980s. He shares how vastly different Korea was from how he remembered it in the 1950s. He remembers how poor Korea was in the 1950s, lacking basic infrastructure such as proper roadways and bridges. He remembers the Koreans as both honest and hardworking. He comments he is not surprised that the Korean economy is now booming.



Donald R. Bennett

Last One Up the Mountain, Last One Down

Donald Bennett recounts living conditions while they were in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He shares a detailed account of a close encounter between the Chinese and his tank. He recalls the challenge of driving the tanks back down the mountain after the snow had been packed down into the ice. He remembers that his tank was the last tank down. He shares how those that remained in his unit were taken by boat back to Busan and were reformed at an airstrip where they conducted foot patrols before fighting their way up the center of Korea across the 38th Parallel in support of the 1st Marine Regiment.



Ed Donahue

Basic Training Experience

Ed Donahue recalls his experience at boot camp in Parris Island, South Carolina. He remembers how his life changed as soon as he arrived. He describes being awakened the first night at three in the morning because someone spilled something on the floor. He recounts how he and all of the other new recruits were required to scrub the floor with a toothbrush. He shares how he only spent eight weeks there due to a growing need for troops in Korea. He recalls attending advanced rifle training at Camp Pendleton in California before being sent to Kobe, Japan, and then on to Pusan, Korea, in October of 1950.



Edgar Green

First Impressions and Relying on the Americans

Edgar Green reflects on his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the stench of human waste as they drew nearer to the dock in Busan and remembers an American band and Korean choir there to welcome them. He shares that they were part of the very first British land forces to enter the Korean War and comments on having to rely on the Americans for food and transport for the first several days.



Edith Pavlischek

Women in Basic Training

This video clip describes the 6 weeks of basic training that Edith Pavlischek endured. She says it was bunch of "crap". In her own hilarious nature, she gives the details of Army life for women in basic training during the Korean War era.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

From Bogotá to Korea / De Bogotá a Corea

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro describes his voyage by bus, train, and boat to Korea. His battalion started as the Bogota battalion and eventually became the Colombian battalion within the United Nations Forces. Hundreds of people waved them farewell in the streets of the Capital as they left for war. After a thirty-day voyage, they were received as heroes in April of 1951 in the port of Busan. He remembers a celebration with a military band, government officials, and President Syngman Rhee amongst the distinguished guests at the ceremony.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro discute su viaje en autobús, tren y barco a Corea. Su batallón comenzó como el batallón Bogotá y finalmente se convirtió en el batallón colombiano dentro de las Fuerzas de las Naciones Unidas. Cientos de personas los despidieron en las calles de la Capital de Colombia cuando se fueron para la guerra. Después de el viaje que duro treinta días, fueron recibidos como héroes en abril de 1951 en el puerto de Busan. El recuerda una bienvenida con una banda militar, funcionarios del gobierno y el presidente Syngman Rhee entre los distinguidos en la ceremonia.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Black Bean Soup

Eduardo Sanchez is describing his interactions with soldiers from some of the 22 nations that participated in the Korean War. As a navy repairman, he repaired ships for other nations. He provides specific details about one occurrence with the Colombian Navy where they shared black beans, something that was a rarity in the United States at the time. When repairing ships, he shared food and really enjoyed getting to know other cultures.



Flashbacks and Nightmares

Eduardo Sanchez is describing the loss of men when they were seeking for mines. The mine seekers actually hit a mine and members of the navy who were on the three boats lost their lives. For years after the explosion, he continued to have flashbacks and nightmares of the event. This event is forever in his memory and has impacted his life overall.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Edward Mastronardi

Edward Mastronardi's Arrival at Pusan

Edward Mastronardi recalled the heavy pollution, dark clouds, and high noise level upon his arrival at Pusan. Young boys were at the dock being mistreated by their boss as their ship was unloading close to nightfall. They would later move to northeast of Pusan and would anchor next to a burial ground believed to be full of prisoners.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



Edward Wong

Heading to Korea

In April of 1951, Edward Wong left New Jersey to head to Korea. He flew to California and then left by ship where he remembers sleeping in the engine rooms. He was assigned to the communications center in Busan where he arrived in May of 1951. At the communications center in Pusan, he answered telephones and replied back. Later he was transferred to Daegu to work with the Air Force Engineering Battalion to drive trucks.



Eingred Fredh

No Papa or Mama

Eingred Fredh comments on the living conditions of the people in Busan. She believes the people she cared for at the hospital were better off than the people in the city. In particular, she recalls seeing many orphans begging for money.



Helping the Korean People

Eingred Fredh describes the Busan she experienced in 1952. She reflects on seeing many refugees and people in need. She describes the various wards she worked in throughout her time at the hospital and treating a variety of patients. Yet, she recalls many of her patients were Korean people who sustained injuries from being in the streets.



Transformation of Korea

Eingred Fredh expresses her amazement with the transformation of Korea and discusses the differences she saw. Even though she likes the transformation, she admits preferring to live in a little calmer place free from the hustle and bustle. She expresses her appreciation for the citizens of Korea continuing to recognize their work.



Elbert H. Collins

What Happened to Injured Civilians and Soldiers?

Elbert Collins recalls what sticks out most in his mind- tons of civilians, including women and children- walking down the sides of the road. He describes a time that these civilians almost killed a man. As a medic, he often questioned what happened to the people that he treated, but Elbert Collins did get a letter from one Marine he treated.



Injured in the Line of Duty

Along the front lines at the Nakdong Perimeter, North Koreans were charging the Americans and came as close as 20 yards away. Elbert Collins was actually shot with a ricochet bullet in his bottom. He explains what it was like on the front lines.



Living Conditions

Elbert Collins explains that they had to eat C-rations and smoke cigarettes from World War II. He describes the foxholes in which they slept, including the one in which he dug that flooded out. He admits that he was scared to death during this time and questioned why he was there.



Elburn Duffy

We Knew Why We Were There

Elburn Duffy remembers leaving Ft. Lewis Washington in early April 1951 and arriving in Busan by the end of the month. He notes they did not stop in Japan as most other servicemen headed to Korea did because troops were desperately needed at the time of his arrival. He recalls the shock of the total desolation of the country and in particular the state of the children.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Entering the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis shares he joined the Korean War in December 1950, entering through Pusan. After some time there, he moved through Seoul and then advanced to the 38th Parallel. Throughout this period, he notes he did not engage in any combat.



Epifanio Rodriguez Nunez

Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explains that he was sent as an advanced group to Korea and, therefore, his voyage was different from that of other Colombian troops. Upon arriving, he was sent to Busan to organize the training for troops that would follow. He recalls the warm greeting they received from dignitaries which included Syngman Rhee.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explica que fue enviado con un grupo avanzado a Corea y por lo tanto su viaje fue diferente al de otras tropas colombianas. Al llegar a Corea, fue enviado a Busan para organizar el entrenamiento de las tropas que seguirían. Recuerda que los recibieron bien con muchos dignatarios incluido Syngman Rhee.



Erich Reuter

Siemens Involvement

Erich Reuter recounts Siemens involvement with the Red Cross in Korea. He shares that he was one of three Siemens engineers selected for the assignment. He explains how Siemens supported the Red Cross.



Thankful Koreans

Erich Reuter comments on his experience in the hospital. He shares that the Siemens medical equipment brought in was handed over to the Koreans when upon his departure. He adds that the Koreans were very thankful for the offer.



Ernest J. Berry

Skating Over Dead People

Ernest J. Berry describes traveling by truck from Busan to the Han River. He recalls the unsettling realization that people were paid and encouraged to kill him. Upon arrival, he and his unit found Canadians skating on the frozen river, so the new arrivals joined them. Beneath the ice, he saw the faces of dead soldiers and people peering up at him.



"Luxuries, which we dreamed of"

Ernest J. Berry describes being ordered to move out quickly at one point. His unit encountered an abandoned American M.A.S.H. outpost. He describes his amazement at encountering the luxurious conditions and resources the Americans had abandoned. Ernest J. Berry describes American abundance. When Americans left a camp, they buried their supplies. In contrast, New Zealand soldiers would have to pay for lost socks.



Basic Training and Meeting Refugees

Ernest J. Berry describes the training as a medic at Waiouru Military Camp and sailing to Korea. He knew nothing of Korea. As he arrived, the communists were penetrating southward. He remembers streams of refugees traveling south as well. He explains his first impressions of Korean people.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

The Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recalls feeling a sense of adventure as he left for Korea in 1951. He explains that the voyage lasted about a month with a one-day respite in Hawaii. He shares his memories of the devastation he encountered in Korea as he arrived after Busan had been attacked. Additionally, he remembers the poverty of the civilian population and the way in which civilians helped soldiers with everyday tasks.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recuerda la sensación de aventura que tuvo cuando partió hacia Corea en 1951. Explica que el viaje duró aproximadamente un mes con un respiro de un día en Hawaii. Comparte sus recuerdos de la devastación que encontró en Corea cuando llegó que fue después que Busan había sido atacado. Además, él recuerda la pobreza de la población civil y la forma en que los coreanos ayudaban a los soldados en las tareas cotidianas.



Eugene Buckley

Dog Tags Saved Eugene Buckley

Refusing to surrender while trapped in a ravine, Eugene Buckley and another soldier (O'Donnell) were climbing out of the ravine when they noticed a soldier who had been shot in the neck. Trying to save his life, Eugene Buckley was shot once in the shoulder and another shot went through his dog tags under his arm. He was lying on the ground trying to help another soldier who wouldn't make it out alive.



Hunger

Eugene Buckley was trying to make it back to the front line after escaping from the ravine when he and O'Donnell got on the back of a family ox cart and spent most of the day traveling. Not having eaten in 4 or 5 days, Eugene Buckley broke into a large container of applesauce and ate the whole thing. He said it wasn't long after that when they were back in the same situation of extreme hungry again.



Returning to the Front Line: Casualties and Hunger

The interviewer asked what happened to the rest of the platoon that was left behind, and Eugene Buckley replied that everyone had been massacred except for himself, O'Donnell, and another soldier. Eugene Buckley had dysentery at the time and he got back so the infirmary gave him a lollipop shaped pill that he consumed to help with the problem. He said when he went into the war, he was 165 pounds, but when he was taken for his wounds, he was only 95 pounds, practically a skeleton.



Eugene Dixon

Taking Terrritory in the Busan Perimeter

Eugene Dixon talks about the role of the United States Marines in securing the Busan Perimeter. He describes the sounds and smells he took in upon arrival in South Korea. He recalls the casualties he encountered during his first months in combat.



Felipe Cruz

Training and Operating Heavy Equipment

Felipe Cruz shares his experience of basic training in the United States Marine Corps. He comments on his training in rifle qualification, infantry, and amphibian tractor school. He recounts how he spent six months as a crewman on amphibian tractors in Busan, Korea, before being deployed to the infantry on the Imjin River. He notes that due to his prior experience in driving trucks, he was reassigned to the Headquarters and Service Company as a heavy equipment truck driver.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describes his first impressions of Korea. He explains that even though Busan was a city, most of the civilians were farmers who were incredible different to the people he knew. He details the way in which Koreans built their homes and utilized heated floors.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que, aunque Busan era una ciudad, la mayoría de los civiles eran agricultores que eran increíblemente diferentes a la gente de Puerto Rico. Detalla la forma en que los coreanos construían sus casas y utilizaban suelos radiantes.



Fidel Diaz

A Scary Place

Fidel Diaz describes how scary it was his first few nights in Korea after the Inchon Landing. He said that seeing the other soldiers that had been captured as an effective form of psychological warfare. He explains how close the North Koreans got to his foxhole.



Frances M. Liberty

Remembering an Incident on the Train

Frances Liberty recalls an incident where the fireman and stoker on the train ran away when they saw Chinese Soldiers on a nearby hill. She admits she thought she was going to die, but a soldier was able to drive the train back to Pusan. She discusses another experience that occurred while serving in a medical facility. She remembers everyone pulling out overnight and being left behind with a young captain. She recounts they were discovered by U.S. Marines that helped them evacuate.



Frank Churchward

Arriving in Korea Busan to Incheon

Frank Churchward describes his arrival in Korea. He explains how he landed in Busan to Icheon. He shares about a project that was finishing up when he arrived. He also shares how the area has since changed.



Frank E. Butler

Enlisted at Age Fifteen

Frank E. Butler enlisted in the New Zealand Navy in 1951. He completed basic training in Auckland before sailing to Korea aboard the HMNZS Kaniere. At fifteen, he was the youngest New Zealand soldier to go to Korea. He traveled to Pusan, Seoul, and North Korea. He describes being under constant attack by North Koreans.



Frank Seaman

Arriving in Korea and Bed Check Charlie

Frank Seaman describes his arrival in Korea, ferrying over from Japan to Pusan and then by rail up to Chuncheon. He recalls viewing the aftermath and destruction from the Pusan Perimeter battle on his way to Chuncheon. He offers insight to his regular duties which entailed bringing ammunition up from the south. He also recounts his introduction to Bed Check Charlie following breakfast while washing his mess kit.



Fred J. Ito

Unprepared for Combat

Fred Ito enlisted in the military and received basic training before going to Japan in 1948. However, his training as an auto mechanic did not prepare him for combat when he then went to the frontlines of Korea. He describes his training and how he felt as he found himself in a situation he never expected in August 1950.



Frederick Schram

Potpourri From Around the World

Frederick describes his first assignment with the 25th Division in Dongducheon and his decision to stay in Korea. While in Dongducheon, he comments on the encampment being made up of people from all over the world. He shares vivid memories about the various groups and issues they dealt with while in the camp. Since the 25th Division was returning to Hawaii, he discusses his decision to join KMAG, the Korean Military Advisory Group, to work directly with Koreans in Busan.



KMAG's Critical Role

Frederick Schram describes his time with KMAG working on the reconstruction of the railroad near Busan. He discusses the critical role the KMAG played in the rebuilding of South Korea after the war. Since his MOS was a transportation specialist, he describes his role working on rebuilding the transportation corridor for the Korean railroad.



Challenging but Gratifying Experiences

Fredeirck Schram recounts his experience adjusting to seeing people forced to live in deplorable conditions. On a daily basis, he remembers seeing people searching for assistance. In order to help, he recalls finding ways to purchase goods from civilians. Even though he originally wished for another assignment, he shares how it was exciting and gratifying to be able to help the Korean people. Along with seeing extreme levels of poverty, he expands on another challenging experience which resulted in the loss of several men during the reconstruction of the railway system.



Galip Fethi Okay

In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



George Covel

Enlistment and Leaving Loved Ones Behind

George Covel describes his enlistment and leaving behind his wife who was 6 months pregnant at the time. He details his role as a bandsman and placement in the Honor Guard and recounts serving as a ceremonial bandsman during the war, about 11 miles away from the front lines. He expresses that he was fortunate enough to avoid firing weapons on most occasions.



George Drake

The Poverty of War

Dr. George Drake explains how children were rescued from poverty during the Korean War. He recounts his journey to find photos that were taken during the war of orphans in Korea. He shares his concern over the children who became abandoned victims of the Korean War.



George H. Campbell

Seoul's Growth and Gains

George H. Campbell discusses how devastated Korea was after the war. He explains how he saw pictures of places that lost everything. He explains the changes in Seoul in the 1970s seeing the skyscrapers and the resiliency of the people.



Journey to Korea

George H. Campbell describes his military training. He shares his role as a medical equipment repairman. He explains how his job led him to live in Korea in the early 1970s.



George J. Bruzgis

R&R, Hitchhiking, and Trench Injuries, Oh My!

After reenlisting in the military in March 7, 1954, George Bruzgis was given a 30 day leave and 7 day R&R in Japan, but he had difficulty getting back to Korea since the French were fighting in Indochina.
After finally being shipped to Pusan, he had to hitchhike for 3 days to get back to his unit. George Bruzgis would rest/sleep along his hike by signing paper work that would allow him to eat and sleep before moving to the next Army unit and so forth. After he met up with his division, he fell into a trench and injured his knees for 2 weeks.



George Koustoklenis

It was Miserable

George Koustoklenis recalls reading in the newspapers about North Korea's invasion of South Korea in June 1950, followed by the United Nations' call for help. Instead of being sent directly to Korea, he spent some time training in Lamia, where they assessed each soldier's best role in the military. After completing his training, he arrived in Busan in December 1950. He offers commentary on both the city and his journey to Suwon.



I was Left Open-Mouthed

George Koustoklenis has revisited Korea three times since his service in the country. When he departed Korea, he recalls, everything was flat and devastated. Maps showed where villages once stood, were then marked only by signs bearing their names. During his return trips, the country's progress left him open-mouthed. He proudly reflects on the role he and other members of the Greek Expeditionary Forces played in Korea's transformation.



George Parsons

Bound for Korea and First Experiences

George Parsons chronicles his departure from the States and arrival in Korea. He comments on the ride over aboard the troop ship USS Anderson and recalls landing in Pusan. He recounts the cold weather as it was January of 1951 and recalls there being no lodging available, stating that he remembers sleeping out in the field and crowding around fires to stay warm. He details his journey to Incheon and through Seoul, sharing that Seoul was completely flattened from the fighting.



George Sullivan

Pushed Back by China

George Sullivan recalls experiencing the push back to Busan by Chinese forces. He remembers hearing that General MacArthur said they were going to push back. During the push back, his tank broke, and he ended up in hand-to-hand combat with a Chinese soldier. He recounts that his arm was cut by a bayonet and had to be treated.



On the Front Lines

George Sullivan recounts his experiences in tanks along the front lines. He shares his tank unit had a direct confrontation with the enemy and recalls being wounded in the leg by gunfire. He comments on his fortune that it did not break any of his bones. He shares he continued to fight after he was mended.



George W. Liebenstein

Thought I Would Be Drafted

George "Bill" Liebenstein served as part of the 1st Field Artillery Observation Battalion of the 8th Army Division in Korea from April 1953 through July 1954. He recounts the fear of being drafted in part because he was not ready to leave home. He was drafted into the U.S. Army and offers an accounting of the days leading up to his deployment to Korea. He notes that upon arrival in Korea he "pulled" guard duty the very first evening. He recalls the fear of being in a strange country where he did not really know what was going on.



Georgios Margaritis

Witnessing Devastation

George Margaritis reflects on his first days in Korea as he traveled from Busan to Cheorwon. He recalls seeing fires on the outskirts of Seoul and absolute disaster in most places they traveled through. He shares is concern for the Korean people and their futures.

Note: English translations of answers begin at 12:12, 13:34, and 15:04



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Arriving in Korea at Age Nineteen

Gerry Farmer describes arriving at Pusan at age nineteen. He shares his surprise that it was all Americans there, and he recalls hearing an American band playing music. He remembers traveling from Pusan by train to Hill 159.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Serving as a Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw remembers arriving in Korea in 1952 and noticing the poverty and extensive destruction in the country. He then delves into his role as a medical assistant, specifically serving Ethiopian troops. He acknowledges the difficulty of administering first aid to injured comrades during his service.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Arrival in Busan and Seoul

When Gordon McIntrye first arrived in Busan, the New Zealand troops were met by an American Dixie band. He describes seeing Seoul's utter destruction, claiming it must have been one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Fronts of buildings were blown out on either side of the wide streets, but he encountered a relatively untouched brick cathedral.



Gregorio Evangelista

Fighting on the Front Line

Gregorio Evangelista remembers his front-line service as extremely dangerous, with gunfire occurring day and night. Although he is unsure of the battle's name, he recalls that they won a crucial battle on a hill shortly before peace talks began.



Gustave Gevaert

Joining the Military

Gustave Gevart joined the Army for his normal military service in 1951. It was upon entering the Army that he heard about the war in Korea. The war in Korea reminded him of the resistance in his home country of Belgium. In the winter of 1953 Gustave Gevart traveled to Japan and then by boat to Pusan.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Korea at the Beginning of the War

Haralambos Theodorakis left for Korea in 1950 and came back in 1951. Everything was destroyed when he arrived and the people were very sweet people. Korean civilians didn't have a lot of clothes to wear or food to eat. If Haralambos Theodorakis had extra food, he gave it to the civilians and he saw a lot of Korean children running the streets during his 8 months there.



Harold A. Hoelzer

Experiencing a Whole New World

Harold Hoelzer speaks about his initial experiences with Korea during the war. He offers stark details contrasting what he saw in Korea with the world he was familiar with back in the United States. Coming from a world of cities, roads, and factories, he remembers how "crude" Korea seemed to him at the time.



Harold Don

Seeing and Experiencing Battle

Harold Don shares that he was apprehensive about arriving to Korea. He recalls witnessing the destruction from prior battles upon landing in Incheon. He remembers how his unit experienced fire from North Korean tanks at Yeongdeungpo and observed the destruction at Seoul. His unit then boarded another ship and attempted a landing at Wonsan but was forced to wait due to mines needing to be cleared.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



Harry McNeilly

The Power of a Map

Harry McNeilly's speciality during the war was Motor Transport. For the majority of the war, his job was to escort correspondent's from various countries to the front-lines. Harry McNeilly jokes about his ability to take people where they needed to go without ever studying Korean geography.



Henk Bos

We Were Going There to Help

Henk Bos, a volunteer in the Dutch Infantry who was attached to the 3rd US Army, recalls his enlistment and training. He remembers the journey to Korea taking a few weeks to travel by American transport boat and the sea sickness that many experienced. He notes that it was very cold when they arrived which many felt since most were still in their summer uniforms. He shares the mixed feelings he felt as his unit was transported to the Kumhwa area.



Henry T. Pooley

Revisiting Korea and Memories

Henry T Pooley remembers his return to Korea in 2000. He recounts his amazement at the progress and compares it to his time in 1952. He shares his memories of the destruction and his hope that Korea reunites during his lifetime.



Herbert Werner

What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



Homer W. Mundy

Wounded in Combat

Homer Mundy describes being wounded in Korea only 13 days after arriving in Korea. He also talks about the withdrawal of his unit from the Yalu River area when the Chinese crossed into Korea.



Horace Sappington

Soldiers Pouring In Everywhere

Horace Sappington recounts his experience at the Pusan Perimeter. He shares that the North Korean soldiers were pouring in on them and they received assistance from the Air Force and the USS Missouri roughly 1 mile off of the coast. He explains he was in charge of providing the ship with coordinates for firing. He recounts an injury to his head and shoulder received from enemy fire.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Howard Street

Prior Knowledge of Korea and Basic Training

Howard Street expresses that he knew nothing about Korea at the time of his enlistment other than there was a war going on there. He recounts his basic training and shares that he specialized in amphibious tanks. He adds that he arrived in Pusan, Korea, right after the ceasefire.



Destruction Everywhere

Howard Street recounts Pusan's terrible condition. He remembers everything being destroyed, even in Seoul. He recalls that he and other soldiers rode a train north for 2 plus days with little food and that people were throwing things at their train.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Howard Bradshaw's Love for Orphaned Koreans

Howard Bradshaw encountered many orphans during his time in Korea. He offered them candy and expressed his love for these kids.
Howard Bradshaw took pictures of these children while he was there during the Korean War.



English and the Mormon Church

Howard Bradshaw spoke of a professor from Cornell University and the soldiers who came to Korea during the war. They helped to organize English courses for the Korean civilians and they spoke about the Latter Day Saints. A Mormon temple is now located in Korea and it's estimated that over 125,000 Koreans are Mormons.



Writing Home

Howard Bradshaw wrote to his wife every day. In the letters, he described the impact he'd made on the Korean people through his faith. Howard Bradshaw felt that these letters saved his life by giving him comfort and joy.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Laverne Bradshaw's Perspective After Visiting Korea

Letters Howard Bradshaw wrote home described in such detail what is was like in Korea. Laverne Bradshaw was well-informed about his surroundings while away. When she had the chance to see modern Korea for the first time, they described the large amount of buildings from Seoul to Pusan and they thought it was gorgeous.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Hugo Monroy Moscoso remembers his first impressions of Korea. He details the destruction he encountered in every town as they arrived after the Chinese and North Korean invasion. He recalls that it gave them pleasure to share food with civilians because they understood how much they were suffering.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Detalla la destrucción que encontró en cada pueblo porque llegaron después de la invasión china y norcoreana. Recuerda que les daba placer compartir comida con los civiles porque reconocían la miseria y el hambre que sufrían.



Ian J. Nathan

Platoons within Ten Company

Ian Nathan arrived at Pusan in September of 1951. After three weeks organizing the vehicles and men of Ten New Zealand Transport Company, his workshop platoon moved north to merge with other platoons. There was a lot of equipment needed to maintain military vehicles, but the jobs were shared among the skilled company of about fifty men.



From Teacher Training to K Force

Ian Nathan entered teacher training college as a twenty-three-year-old, but he left to join K Force. He trained at Burnham Military Camp, and then he transferred to Darwin. In Darwin, he joined the rescued soldiers from the ship Wahine that had run aground on a reef outside Darwin. They flew to Japan and then to Pusan.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Sorrow for Friends Lost

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes returning to Korea in 2005. He went to a Korean War Memorial and looked for his friends' names, which many were missing. He wishes there was no war. Many people lost their lives and he wishes for "healthy days, days without war."



Inga-Britt Jagland

Agony of the Wounded

Inga-Britt Jagland vividly recounts the emotional distress experienced by wounded soldiers, particularly those who had lost limbs and grappled with uncertainty about their futures. She emphasizes that beyond the physical care, a nurse's crucial role is to provide emotional comfort and support to those in need.



Rules for Nurses

Inga-Britt Jagland recounts the strict regulations imposed by the US military on nurses during her service. She explains nurses were strictly prohibited from bringing men into their quarters, with severe consequences such as being barred from entering the United States for those who violated this rule. Additionally, she notes members of the Swedish Red Cross received compensation from the US military.



Nurse Work

Inga-Britt Jagland recounts her nursing duties during her time in Korea. Initially assigned to the tuberculosis ward, her responsibilities expanded when the Red Cross began receiving UN soldiers engaged in North Korea. These soldiers would stay for brief periods, usually just two or three days, before being evacuated to Japan. As a nurse, Inga-Britt recalls working long hours from 6 am to 10 pm, tending to soldiers with severe injuries. She notes some of these men experienced panic episodes, requiring assistance from fellow Marines to provide restraint.



Civilian Suffering

Inga-Britt Jagland expresses her joy at being in Korea, where she encountered a warm and grateful people. The country's natural beauty, highlighted by stunning sunrises over mountains, captivated her. However, amidst this splendor, she witnessed the suffering of many people, including children without limbs. Inga-Britt also vividly recalls her efforts in providing food t to Korean children she encountered during her time there.



Isamu Yoshishige

To Korea with the Whole Outfit

Isamu Yoshishige served in the United States Army in Korea beginning in 1951. He offers a brief account of his travels to Korea with some detail included on the areas within the region where his unit deployed. He speaks of working within a heavy weapons company as someone who fired 75mm recoilless rifles which possibly caused his hearing loss. He provides limited descriptions of the conflicts with the Chinese in the area in which he served.



J. Robert Lunney

No Room at the Inn

J. Robert Lunney remembers the SS Meredith Victory being denied the ability to off-load the fourteen thousand refugees at Busan on Christmas Eve 1950. He explains how Busan was already overcrowded with UN troops and refugees. After being denied entry, he recalls their redirection to Koje-do and the tricky offloading of the refugees on December 26th.



Jack Goodwin

First Engagement: Task Force Smith

Jack Goodwin recounts his experience in Task Force Smith, the first group to engage with North Korean soldiers during the Korean War. He shares that they were severely outnumbered and ill-equipped with only four hundred or so men against roughly twenty thousand North Korean soldiers, having severely limited ammunition. He recalls remaining U.S. soldiers being forced to leave their position and walk during the night to a village where they were captured the following morning.



James “Jim” Cawyer

A Dedication of Honor

James "Jim" Cawyer recalls performing with the Air Force Band at a United Nations Cemetery dedication at Busan on Memorial Day, 1951. He describes seeing the large burial trench for approximately three thousand bodies, and how emotional it was to see so many men in body bags. He recalls the terrible stench of the area, which was due to the long period of time it took for the soldiers to have a proper burial during the Korean War.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



James Creswell

Conditions in Pusan

James Creswell describes his first impressions of Korea. He recounts the horrible living conditions civilians faced in Pusan. He shares that people were living in river beds, freezing to death due to lack of clothing, and had no food or money.



Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



South Korean Soldiers "Bugging Out"

James Creswell describes how he went up to the front line several times to see how the South Koreans were fighting due to having helped train them. He shares that two other men along with him would communicate via walkie-talkie on the status of the line. He recalls that the South Korean soldiers, when scared, would leave the British and American soldiers in the middle of the night without warning. He refers to this as "bugging out" and adds that it left the British and American soldiers vulnerable to attack by the Chinese.



James Houp

Time in Korea

James Houp speaks about his time in Pusan and Heungnam, up towards the Yalu River, and recalls meeting Chinese forces. He describes how his unit was pushed back to Heungnam where he worked to set up communication lines with the ships. He recalls how his unit stayed in a warehouse and remembers seeing the Army retreating away from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He comments on the temperature being thirty-two degrees below zero at the time. He recalls his departure via a U.S. ship headed back to Pusan and then to other locations south of Seoul.



James M. Cross

Impressions of Korea

James Cross discusses his first impressions of Korea. He remembers everything as small and ruined and recounts children being hungry as there was not enough food. He shares that he would give candy bars or whatever else he had to the children.



James M. Oyadomari

Arriving in Korea

James M. Oyadomari shares the story of his arrival in Korea and the travels to his station at headquarters, about four miles behind the front lines. He recollects traveling from Busan to Incheon and Seoul on a slow train. From Seoul, he recalls traveling via truck through the West Gate to Chuncheon and ultimately to headquarters near the Kunson River. He recalls building bunkers for the first couple of months before transferring to a radio relay station closer to the front lines at a location referred to as Hill 949.



James Pigneri

Commanding from a Ditch

James Pigneri describes first getting to Korea and going straight into the war zone. The command post was in a ditch. Here he tells of his first official job transporting deceased soldiers while coming under enemy mortar fire from the Chinese.



James Rominger

Korean House Boys

James Rominger talks about the duties of the Korean house boys who took care of all the general housekeeping needs of the soldiers. The house boys washed clothes, cleaned shoes and kept the general area clean in the foxholes and the bunkers in exchange for food and clothing. James Rominger shares why the teenage boy was unable to even return home.



James Sharp

Reflections and View of Korea Today

James Sharp reflects on the the Korean War and discusses the positive outcome. He expresses that his revisit to Korea was a life-lifting experience as he was able to witness the development that has occurred since the war. He shares that soldiers often carry bad memories of war, wondering if their service was of worth, but he expresses that after seeing Korea's development during his revisit, he is certain his service was of worth.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Waves of Chinese Forces

James Shimabuku describes the situation in Pusan upon his arrival and recounts making his way up to Suwon. He remembers encountering the Chinese and recalls wave after wave of them. He shares that when the Chinese soldiers in the front died, the Chinese soldiers behind them would pick up their weapons and continue pushing forward.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

First Impressions of Korea

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his first impressions after landing in Korea. He recounts the destruction, seeing few trees and buildings. He shares that it was hard to believe how poor the living conditions were for the Koreans as he witnessed malnourishment, naked children begging in the streets, and women working in the rice fields with their babies.



Jean Paul White

The Marine Corps Joins the War

Jean Paul White talks about where he was when he first heard about fighting in the Korean War. He describes learning about the war in newspaper headlines. He explains how he was unsure as to where Korea was located. He describes the diminished state of the USMC at the start of the war.



Jeremiah Johnson

First Impression of Busan

Jeremiah Johnson recalls traveling to Korea aboard the General Black troopship and describes the experience. He recounts arriving in Pusan and seeing Korean men in boats he was unfamiliar with. He remembers men from his ship tossing down fruit to the Korean men in the boats and watching them put the fruit into boxes.



Jesse Englehart

Kill or Be Killed

Jesse Englehart discusses landing in Busan. He discusses the personal hardship of being on a ship for such a long time. He explains how they quickly he was thrust into combat. He explains how he adapted.



Jesus L. Balaoro

Koreans Happy to See Filippinos

Jesus Balaoro arrived in Korea and the Korean people were happy to see the Filipinos. They were happy the Filipinos were trying to save them. He noted there were actually a few villages that were not destroyed by the war yet.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



Joe O. Apodaca

The USS Henrico in Korea

Joe O. Apodaca discusses his time in Korea while aboard the USS Henrico. He shares he witnessed U.S. Marines disembarking from the ship via nets onto LCMs and other boats which then transported the units to shore. He remembers how the ship traveled roughly one to two miles from the beach near Incheon, Seoul, and Busan. He recalls seeing flashes of light on land throughout the night and passing enemy planes.



John Boyd

Traveling to Korea in 1952

John Boyd details his travels to Korea. He was sent by ship and many trains to meet up with his brigade at the 1st Commonwealth Division Headquarters north of Uijeongbu. As he had never traveled so far from home, he recalls the excitement of seeing dolphins, flying fish, and much more. He explains the various places they stopped on the way to Korea.



John Cantrall

Sleeping and Eating Conditions for US Troops

John Cantrall described how fortunate we was to experience the living conditions that he was assigned, but the food was never something that he could report that he enjoyed. He also reported that the housing arrangements for the American and Korean soldiers were quite different. He expressed concern that it was an unfair situation.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

John Candrall was very sad when he went to Korea at the end of the Korean War in 1953 because he saw what true poverty looked like even compared to the US during the Great Depression. The advancement that took place from 1955 until he went back for his revisit was huge and John Candrall included the advancements in transportation in addition to housing. He was very proud of his service in the military and the help that he was able to provide for Korea between 1953 and 1955.



John Fry

Impressions of Pusan

John Fry describes his impressions of landing in Pusan and then the rest of Korea in 1953. He remembers being welcomed by an American military band when they arrived at the wharf before taking a train north. He recalls what the villages and homes were like during this time.



John Funk

First Impressions of Korea

John Funk shares how he saw sadness the first time he laid eyes on Korea and the Korean people. He recalls people being hungry, sad, and poor, and he offers an account of their impoverished living conditions at the time. His adds that his time in Korea made him and other soldiers realize that they needed to help the Korean people.



John H. Jackson

Fighting During the Pusan Perimeter

John H. Jackson shares he fought from the second he arrived in Korea and participated in the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls how the the most difficult part about the battle was that he did not know who was the enemy since the North Koreans dressed up as civilians and then attacked the US soldiers.



John Hartup, Jr.

Comparing Korea: Before, During, and After the War

John Hartup, Jr., compares the Korea he witnessed in 1946-1947 to the Korea he experienced in 1951. He recalls seeing many refugees going south in 1951. He remembers the city of Incheon as a bustling metropolis in 1947, and in 1951, it was completely leveled and destroyed. He remembers the same about Seoul. He recounts how there was no farming or agriculture taking place in 1951. He shares that he revisited Korea three times after the war and emphasizes that he was very impressed by modern Korea. He notes that it is difficult to compare modern Korea to the devastation he witnessed during the war.



John Jefferies

Arriving in Korea

John Jefferies recalls landing in Pusan, South Korea, in 1953 and the reality of war sinking in as he disembarked. He recalls being assigned to a Medical Clearing Company and describes his role while there. He shares that he worked in a POW camp where North Korean soldiers were detained.



John L. Johnsrud

The US Draft and Arriving in Pusan

John L. Johnsrud was drafted when we was 22 years old in 1950. It took 19 days to get from Seattle to Yokahama Japan by boat before heading to Pusan. He arrived in Pusan on a troopship with 5,000 other soldiers.



John Munro

When the Nation Calls, You Answer

John Munro shares how he was called to service for the Australian National Army in 1952 and was going to be stationed on the home front. Since he wanted to fight in the Korean War, he describes joining the Regular Army in 1953. He recalls being sent to Korean as a nineteen year old in 1954 after the ceasefire to patrol the demilitarized zone (DMZ).



John Pritchard

First Job in Korea

John Pritchard was dropped off in Pusan and was shocked to see civilians living in cardboard boxes without any sanitation. After one day, he was sent to Geoje Island to work in an American workshop to fix a water tanker. He was impressed with the tools available to the American Army.



John Sehejong Ha

KATUSA

John Sehejong Ha explains the role of the Korean Augmentation to the United States Army (KATUSA). He shares his duties as a translator. He explains how he was often escorted by military police (MPs) all around Korea to translate as needed. He shares how he went to the field hospitals to translate for US medical staff aiding South Korean soldiers. He shares all the places he visited doing his translator duties. He shares the destruction he saw as well.



John Snodell

Preparing for War

John Snodell was working in distribution when the Korean War broke out in 1950. In 1951, he received notification that he was to be drafted into the U.S. Army. He received training as a combat engineer at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, before leaving for Korea by boat from Seattle, and landing at Busan.



From Busan to the Punchbowl

John Snodell describes his first impressions of Busan, Korea. He recalls having a negative experience getting on a truck in Busan, then connecting with the 1st Marine Division for the Battle of the Punchbowl. He recalls being in Korea during a very cold winter.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Difficult Goodbyes / Despedidas Difíciles

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera reminisces about the emotional farewell he bid his mother as he left for Korea. He explains that it was particularly difficult for her as he was her only child. The emotional stress was compounded, as he details, by the seasickness he experienced on the month-long boat ride to Korea.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recuerda la emoción de la despedida de su madre cuando él partió hacia Corea. Explica que fue especialmente difícil para ella porque era su único hijo. El estrés emocional se vio agravado, como detalla él, por el mareo que tuvo durante el viaje en barco de un mes a Corea.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

"I Didn't Know What Poverty Was"

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes the difficult living conditions for refugees in Pusan (Busan). He describes the crowded nature as well as the difficulty in acquiring foods due to the lack of good roads and transportation.



Thousands of Letters

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recounts interesting aspects of his job as a mail clerk in Pusan (Busan). He recalls seeing thousands of letters, sometimes three months after they were written. He shares that, many times, the letters never made it to the intended soldiers due to their movements.



Keeping Warm with Newspaper

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes what he found most difficult during his time in Pusan (Busan)--the cold. He recalls layering in heavy clothing yet was still cold. He shares that he took part in a local Korean tradition of using newspaper to help him stay warm.



Danger in Busan

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recalls the danger imposed by plain-clothes North Koreans in Pusan (Busan). He describes how the North Korean's infiltrated the area, which made it impossible to determine who they were.



Emergency Leave from Korea

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes his arduous journey from Korea on emergency leave. He notes how his leave allowed him to be with his pregnant wife in Puerto Rico.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describes the destruction he encountered in Korea. He explains that it is difficult for anyone that lived through a war to explain what happened. He recalls being saddened by the fact that Koreans, including professionals from universities, were forced to take menial jobs.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describe la destrucción total que encontró en Corea. Explica que es difícil para cualquiera que haya luchado en una guerra explicar lo que vio. Recuerda que le entristeció el hecho de que los coreanos, incluidos los profesionales de las universidades, se vieron obligados a aceptar trabajos manuales ayudando a los soldados.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José María Gómez Parra shares his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival. He recalls how he was immediately struck by the weather. Arriving in winter, he shares he was astonished at the barren landscape in which everything was frozen. He comments on the terrible state that civilians were in at the time.

José María Gómez Parra comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea al llegar al país. Inmediatamente fue impresionado por el clima. Al llegar en invierno, se asombró que no había nada en el paisaje porque todo estaba congelado. Además, comenta el pésimo estado en que se encontraban los civiles en ese momento.



Joseph De Palma

Then and Now

Joseph De Palma describes the changes he saw when he returned to South Korea in 2010. He recalls how Seoul had been flattened the first time he saw it. He marvels at how big and amazing the city is now with its tall buildings and expressway.



Joseph F. Gibson

First Battle Came Soon

Joseph F. Gibson describes going straight from a ship to a train after landing at the Pusan Perimeter. He explains how he was trained to jump into a ditch when he heard shooting. He shares how shortly after arriving in the Pusan Perimeter he was under fire by the North Koreans. He shares how he had to run alongside the Nak dong River while dodging bullets.



Joseph Gruber

The Bitter Cold of War

Joseph Gruber shares he was assigned to the 958 Ordinance Company. He recalls an old locomotive near their compound on which the company had guards. He notes that it, one day, disappeared. He vividly remembers the cold weather and describes how he sent a letter to his mother begging her to buy him warmer clothing.



Daily Life in War

Joseph Gruber describes his illness during the war. He suspects that he contracted hepatitis from contaminated water. He offers details regarding a minor altercation during his hospitalization when he threw a bed pan at a higher-ranked officer for demanding that he clean the hospital.



Most Dangerous Moment

Joseph Gruber's responsibilities during the war included delivering mail from Busan to Incheon. He recounts being shot at by enemy forces one day which resulted in two of their tires being hit. He credits a detachment of GI's following them with running off those who had shot at them and getting them back on the road with repaired tires.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Joseph Lissberger

I Thought We Were Losing

Joseph Lissberger talks about being a platoon sergeant at the outset of the Korean War, tasked with training new recruits in basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. He mentions that 37 of the first 49 recruits he trained died in the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about the changes that were made in response to what was happening in Korea.



Joseph T. Wagener

Luxembourg Joins the War

Joseph Wagener shares the history of Luxembourg joining United Nations forces in Korea. After hearing about the invasion of South Korea, he recalls feeling compelled to volunteer and determined to help the people of South Korea. After a short ceremony, he remembers the volunteers leaving Luxembourg and integrating into the Belgian Army. He chronicles the intense training they received and their arrival at the UN reception center near Busan in January of 1951.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains that he did not have any prior knowledge of the war in Korea had never heard anything about the country. He remembers that they boarded the ship without being told where their destination was. He shares that the only thing they were told was “Good luck and Good aim” by the honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín at Fort Buchanan.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica que no tenía ningún conocimiento previo de la guerra de Corea y nunca había oído nada sobre el país. Recuerda que abordaron el barco sin que les dijeran a dónde iban. Comparte que lo único que les dijeron fue “Buena suerte y buena puntería” por parte del honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín en Fort Buchanan.



Julien De Backer

Traveling to Korea

Julien De Backer explains how he arrived in Korea- a journey that took almost fifteen days because they had stops in several countries. After going to Japan, he went to Korea where he was joined with the rest of this troops.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

The Poverty of Korea and Puerto Rico

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez recounts sad memories of Pusan when he arrived. He remembers seeing hunger in the war torn areas of Korea. He compares the poverty to that he had witnessed in Puerto Rico and emphasizes that war is a terrible thing. He adds that Korea has changed immensely since then, becoming a major world power.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Remembering Training and Deployment to Korea

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. shares his experience of training in one of the two Black Battalions and receiving the notification that he would be deployed to Korea. He reflects on the second phase of his competitive officer tour and considers the possibility of switching units. He describes his meeting with the commanding officer and ultimately deciding to stay with his current unit. He shares that, due to the lack of soldiers, non-infantry troops were trained on the ship en route to Korea.



Combat and Being Tested

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses his first days in Korea after landing in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes how his unit was pulled out of his regiment because some in the United States Army doubted the effectiveness of all-Black units. He shares how his unit was positioned in a valley between North Korean and American troops, and was caught in the crossfire from both sides, which resulted in him receiving his first injury.



Medical Care and Rejoining the Unit

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. explains how he was wounded in September of 1950. He reflects on a situation where his patrol encountered the enemy, but his report was not believed by his officer. Despite his insistence, he was forced to go back to his position where the injury occurred. He admits he was not pleased with the officer who did not believe him. He remembers showing his wound to the officer and asking, "Are you happy now?"



Jutta I. Andersson

Busan: September 1950

Jutta Andersson describes Busan when she arrived in September of 1950. She describes the despair of the people living around Busan. She also describes life as a nurse and how nurses could not freely move about. However, she did visit the hills surrounding Busan and go to a Buddhist Temple with an escort.



Into the Fire

Jutta Andersson describes first arriving into Busan at the very beginning of the war and treating the first patient within one week of arrival. New medical buildings were being constructed everyday including barracks for patients and new surgical buildings. Jutta Andersson also describes living conditions and having a hard time finding fresh water.



Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Entertainment

Jutta Andersson describes entertainment during her off hours. There were no parties, but nurses could go to the beach. Nurses could also dress in heels and attend various concerts such as the Korean children's choir or an orchestra. For Christmas there was a special fest for the traditional Swedish St. Lucy's Day.



Revisit of South Korea

Jutta Andersson describes her revisit to South Korea. She described Busan as another world with skyscrapers. The hills of Busan that Jutta Andersson remembers originally were unrecognizable due to the growth of the city. She compares the growth of South Korea to the growth of her birth country of Germany.



Treatment of POW's

Jutta Andersson explains her treatment of North Korean soldiers. The United States military did not want to treat these soldiers. However, the Swedish doctors and nurses had to treat injured North Koreans because of the Geneva Convention. The United States had to accept the Swedish treatment of North Korean soldiers.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

The Voyage / El Viaje

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas details the voyage to Korea. He describes the way in which they travelled through Colombia to reach the coast and then by ship to Hawaii, Japan, and finally Busan. He remembers the cold they encountered arriving on the peninsula in January.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas detalla el viaje a Corea. Describe la forma en que viajaron a través de Colombia para llegar a Cartagena y luego en barco a Hawái, Japón y finalmente Busan. Recuerda el frío que sufrieron al llegar a la península en enero.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Arriving in Korea

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his arrival in Korea. He had no previous knowledge or experience with Korea. He was part of the First Kagnew Battalion arriving in 1951. Kebede Teferi Desta describes the situation as bleak for the people. Buildings were destroyed, with lots of destruction overall.



Keith G. Hall

Basic Training to Field Engineering

Keith Hall trained at Papakura and Waiouru military camps in New Zealand before sailing to Korea. He arrived December 31, 1950. His unit was the field and engineering section. He describes building roads and a base camp, digging trenches, and working mine fields.



Becoming an Officer

Keith G. Hall was selected to return to New Zealand for officer training. He describes choosing to return to Korea to avoid the daily routine of work back in New Zealand. In that sense, Korea was a welcome adventure.



Keith Gunn

A War That is Worthy

Keith Gunn recounts his first impressions of Korea upon landing, expanding upon his opinion regarding the worth of the war. He details Korea's poor state at the time, comparing it to England. He speaks highly of the progress Korea has made since the war, ultimately agreeing that the war was worth the effort.



Kenneth David Allen

Journey to Korea

Kenneth Allen explains his journey to Korea which started shortly after he graduated college. He remembers attending basic training in Ft. Dix, New Jersey before being sent to Japan then Pusan before headed to Seoul. He describes the train ride and how they had to be very careful.



Kenneth F. Dawson

War is War

Kenneth F. Dawson trained in Waiouru in New Zealand before sailing to Japan and then Korea. Assigned as a driver in Korea, he carried ammunition to the front lines. The work was dangerous and several men had been blown up before he was assigned to the job. He drove ammunition to Panmunjeom, but he dismisses the danger of being blown up by asserting that "war is war."



Kenneth Gordon

Impressions of Korea

Kenneth Gordon recounts landing in Busan before making his way to Daegu where his musical career in Korea began. He recalls the terribly rough trip from Seattle to Tokyo on board the Colonel Black where so many men, including himself, were sea sick. He details the conditions of Busan when he arrived and remarks on the incredible changes made when he returned in 1965 with Leonard Bernstein.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Retrofitted Ships and Bombed-Out Cities

Kenneth Shankland recalls how his ship, The HMNZS Royalist, had been modified for atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. He shares how the ship sailed all over the Pacific Ocean, eventually landing in Incheon and Pusan in 1957 to enforce the peace. He recounts how Korean civilians were living in terrible conditions among piles of rubble. He remembers naked and hungry children begging for food.



Kevin R. Dean

Return to Korea

Kevin Dean comments on his return visit to Korea. He recalls the physical destruction of Incheon during the war and compares it to the modern city into which it has blossomed. He describes Seoul and Busan's progression and shares that the transformation is mind boggling to him. He states that South Korea is one of the only countries in the world that thanks those who helped secure its freedom.



Kim H. McMillan

First Impressions of Korea

Kim McMillan describes his journey to Korea by boat to Busan. The terrible smell met him as he sailed into the port. Passing through Seoul to join his unit, he was dismayed at the sad and backward state of the country. The Korean people looked depressed. Initially assigned as a driver in the transportation unit of 10 Company, his superiors later assigned him to the workshop unit as a carpenter.



Leland Wallis

Seeing Busan

Leland Wallis describes seeing Busan after being destroyed. He remembers seeing huts, shacks and the difficult life of the people.



Leo Ruffing

Missionary Work in Korea

Leo Ruffing shares how he became a minister after retiring from the military. He changed his mind about his future plans after helping friends and even himself with alcoholism. He would later return to Korea for ministry, including helping young children.



Leonard Nicholls

First Impressions of Korea

Leonard Nicholls recounts his first impressions of Korea as he arrived by ship to Pusan in early 1952. His boat was greeted on the pier by an American band playing music. They then climbed aboard a slow train toward the front lines. He remembers flat lands and rice paddies until they reached the north.



Leslie Peate

Landing in Korea and Train to Pusan

Leslie Peate describes landing in Korea at Incheon and recalls the devastation he witnessed when he first arrived. He recounts sleeping on wooden planks aboard a train, describing the experience as something from an old "Wild West" movie. He remembers there being nothing for miles and being served American C-Rations at mealtime.



Lewis Ebert

The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lewis Ewing

Arriving in Korea

Lewis Ewing talks about his arrival in Korea, his journey to his unit in Chuncheon, and his first impressions of war. He explains how he felt about his deployment, and describes his rapid journey to the front lines. He recalls the living conditions on the base where he arrived.



A Bird's-Eye View of Destruction

Lewis Ewing speaks about seeing vast areas of destruction across the Korean landscape. He describes seeing devastation of mountain areas, which he viewed from helicopter flyovers. He recalls his impressions upon seeing the war-torn areas of Seoul and Busan from a bird's-eye view.



Louis F. Santangelo

Busan Harbor

Louis Santangelo describes the conditions of the people in and around Busan Harbor. He describes people coming up to the ships in boats begging for cigarettes and being "poor." Louis Santangelo compares the conditions of Busan Harbor during the Korean War to the pictures he saw during the 2018 Winter Olympics and was amazed at the changes.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describes his voyage to Korea and his first impressions of the country. He explains the route the boat took from Colombia including the many ports in which they stopped. He then goes on to describe the sadness within Korea and marvels at the intelligence of the Korean people.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describe su viaje a Corea y sus primeras impresiones del país. Él explica la ruta que tomó el barco desde Colombia, y da detalles sobre los puertos en los que se detuvieron. Luego describe la tristeza dentro de Corea y se maravilla de la inteligencia del pueblo coreano.



Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez

Different from Home

Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez recalls that when he arrived in Korea, it was very different from his native Puerto Rico. He explains that living conditions were so poor that his troop had to make a lot of makeshift items for survival. He also describes the various things needed to be done to survive in the extreme cold.



Marian Jean Setter

Second Tour in Korea

Marian Setter remembers her second tour to Korea in the 1960's, where she served as Assistant Chief Nurse at the 121st Evacuation Hospital for five months and as the Chief Nurse at a hospital in Busan for seven months. She reflects on the difference in Korea from her first assignment, pre-Korean War to her second assignment, post-Korean War. She notes that during this assignment, she had much more contact with Korean civilians since she was also working with Korean graduates and students from local hospitals. She recalls helping a former soldier who was on a church mission to South Korea set up an operating room in a hospital the church was building.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Mario Nel Bernal Avella details his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls arriving in Busan and being received very well by American and Korean dignitaries before being sent to a training camp nearby. The human misery and terrible sadness of Korea at that time is vivid in his memories and exemplified by one incident in which a Colombian soldiers threw a tin of C-Rations over the truck, and they watched a malnourished child, a starving dog, and man running towards the can of discarded food. He also bears witness to the devastation and utter destruction of Seoul and explains that it looked like a ten-magnitude earthquake hit the city.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda haber llegado a Busan y haber sido muy bien recibido por dignatarios estadounidenses y coreanos antes de ser enviado a un campo de entrenamiento. La miseria humana y la terrible tristeza de Corea en ese momento están vívidas en su memoria y ejemplificadas por un incidente en el que un soldado colombiano arrojo una lata de C3-Ration fuera del camión y vieron a un niño desnutrido, un perro hambriento y un hombre viejo corriendo hacia la lata de comida desechada. También es testigo de la devastación y destrucción total de Seúl y explica que le parecía que un terremoto de magnitud diez arrasó la ciudad.



Mark C. Sison

Shelling in Korea

Mark C. Sison provides an account of the U.S.S. Iowa's shelling in various locations in Korea, including Wonsan and Busan. He explains how the ship used smoke screens to conceal the transport of United States Marines. He remembers how, at Busan Harbor, the U.S.S. Iowa bombarded the North Korean's railroad construction to disrupt their supply line. He recounts how he became a member of the Intertribal Warrior Society which performs honor guard duties for veteran burials.



Martin Rothenberg

First Impressions of Korea

The train ride from Pusan to Seoul was incredible. Martin Rothenberg saw so much beauty on the trip, particularly with the rice crops. While the rice crops were in their stages of growing, the vistas of patterns within the fields was beautiful. Poverty was all around, especially at Seoraksan Peak where people were living in cardboard straw-thatched-roofed homes. The villages always smelled because the sewage laid in a trench that ran through the middle of the street.



Marvin Ummel

Impressions of South Korea, Then and Now

Marvin Ummel revisited South Korea in 2017. He reports that the opportunity to travel back with Revisit Korea was incredible. He recalls the development in Seoul being impressive, as there were no undamaged buildings present when he was there in 1952. Now, the buildings, houses, and roadways are numerous and well-constructed. He rode the bullet train from Seoul to Pusan and was impressed that it went over one hundred and eighty miles an hour! He also remembers just how thankful the South Koreans were to Americans for their help during the war.



Mary Reid

Back to Busan

Mary Reid describes going to Busan by train. She provides an account of what her job entailed at the Army hospital compound in Busan. She recalls patients at the hospital being tended to and then sent back to the line.



Patients at the Hospital

Mary Reid describes the types of patients that she saw in the hospital. She recounts many soldiers having worms and treating them with medications. She elaborates on what happened to those too badly wounded to stay at the Army hospital compound.



Matthew D. Rennie

Witnessing Poverty and Devastation

Matthew Rennie vividly recounts the poverty and devastation he witnessed in Busan upon his arrival. He recalls the refugee camp there with hundreds of thousands of civilians living in cardboard boxes and children begging for food. He comments on their suffering during the cold winters as they possessed inadequate clothing and heating. He describes the countryside as he made his way up to Euijeongbu.



Maurice Morby

First Days in Korea

Maurice Morby describes his first impressions of Korea and the journey from Busan to Seoul. He talks about arriving at Busan harbor, picking up vehicles, and the arduous 3-day drive to Seoul through difficult terrain.



Mauro C. Lino

The Front Line Experience

Mauro C. Lino describes his experience on the front lines of Korea. He recalls being sent to the front at one point with instructions to use only grenades and to withhold firing the automatic rifle until the enemy was upon them. He shares that many were killed, though he does not how many fell from his hand for there were so many in the battle.



McKinley Mosley

Life of a private during War

McKinley Mosley remembers leaving home as a 16-year-old to embark on his military journey, starting with basic training. Transitioning from Fort Riley, Kansas, where he learned infantry skills, to Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, for artillery training, Mosley recalls gaining valuable expertise. From there, his journey continued to Fort Custer in Michigan, then California, followed by deployment to Japan, and finally to Korea for the war.



Segregated Units

McKinley Mosley describes his role as a gunner in an artillery unit responsible for protecting airports from potential enemy incursions. He recalls that his segregated unit included about twenty-five Black soldiers but notes that they were eventually integrated following President Truman's desegregation orders.



Life in a Segregated Unit

In McKinley Mosley's artillery unit, initially segregated upon his enlistment in 1950, life revolved around constant readiness. He recollects sleeping on the ground until reaching Seoul, where they finally received cots for more comfort. Notably, their unit never experienced hunger, as they were provided with hot meals every day. Additionally, Mosley fondly remembers a young Korean houseboy, aged around eight or nine, who assisted in the mess hall operations.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recalls the desolate scenes he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He describes Busan as a ghost town, with bullet-riddled buildings and a haunting sight of only one person who had frozen to death. The war, he notes, brought widespread hunger, misery, disease, and death. He highlights the constant danger, with numerous traps set by the enemy adding to the perilous conditions.



Mehmet Copten

Devastation of Korea

Mehmet Çöpten describes the condition of Korea when he landed in Busan. The city was destroyed from war. People, specifically children were orphaned and starving. The Turkish troops were being supplied by the American forces and had more than enough food. They would secretly give food to the children and needy.



Mekonen Derseh

There's a Snake in My Bed

Mekonen Derseh describes the toughest thing that happened to him in Korea. The fighting was over when Mekonen Derseh was in Korea. He describes the cold winter as being the toughest part of his service. One night a snake was cold and made its way into his sleeping bag. He did not know until he was folding his sleeping bag up.



Condition of Busan

Mekonen Derseh describes the condition of Busan. People were starving and Ethiopians gave them leftovers. Ethiopians were supplied by the Americans and needed the supplies also. He tries to make a comparison between Ethiopia and South Korea. The main difference was Ethiopia was not going through war.



Excitement for War

Mekonen Derseh describes an excitement for going to war. He went to Korea partially because of his personal experience with Italy trying to conquer Ethiopia. He did not want this to happen to another country. Mekonen Derseh still has some resentment for Italy and aggressor nations.



Melesse Tesemma

Children Crying in the Streets

Melesse Tesemma arrived in Pusan with the first detachment on May 6, 1951. The city lay in ruins, with orphaned children crying in the streets and poverty widespread. During his revisit, he was astonished by the progress of modern Korea. He notes that during the war, Haile Selassie donated $400,000 to Korea before the Ethiopian units arrived.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



Merl Smith

The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Peterson

Fighting at the Pusan Perimeter

Merle Peterson's unit landed at Busan in August 1950. He describes fighting the North Koreans for two to three weeks until his unit broke out on September 16th to march one hundred and three miles in twenty-three hours. He recalls an evening when he saw some men in a village with a Russian burp gun and later kicking the door to their shack down and taking the gun and ammunition.



Michael Fryer

The Realities of Warfare

Michael Fryer recalls broken buildings, poverty, and the state of destitution of the Korean people. He describes the poor conditions in Seoul in late 1951. He recounts the shock he received when he encountered battered and dead American soldiers on the front line.



Michel Ozwald

Impressions of Korea

Michel Ozwald shares his travels from Camp Drake to the front lines in Korea. Much of his travel was via train through Busan and Sasebo. He recalls one incident on the train when his food rations seemed to disappear. He recalls a short stay in Seoul which he remembers as completely destroyed.



Miguel M. Villamor

Preparing for Peacekeeping Mission

Miguel M. Villamor recalls arriving in Korea in April 1954 as part of 2nd Battalion Combat Team. He shares their arrival was post armistice sining. He recalls their mission was largely supporting the restoration of democracy and freedom on the Korean Peninsula.



Impressed with Korea's Progress

Miguel M. Villamor recalls traveling between Seoul and Pusan during his time in Korea. He describes a desolate land with no buildings. He expresses admiration for the industry and resilience of the Korean people in rebuilding their nation into the success it has become.



Mike Mogridge

Arriving in Korea

Mike Mogridge recalls being met upon arrival in Korea by an American band. He notes they were in Pusan for two or three days before heading to his assigned unit on the front. Although his recollections of their food was positive, he remembers being told to head to the American mess tent as their food was like eating at the Ritz.



Milton W. Walker

Pusan Perimeter and Inchon Landing

Milton Walker describes his Marine regiment's participation in the securing of the Pusan Perimeter for thirty days in August of 1950. He explains that they were known as the Fire Brigade. After thirty days, they left Busan for Inchon and participated in the Inchon Landing.



Myron Toback

First Impressions of Pusan

Myron Toback describes what he saw when he first arrived in Pusan in 1952. He remembers that there were no brick buildings except for the rail station. Additionally, he recalls that there were a lot of mountains.



Narce Caliva

Korea then and now

Narce Caliva compares his memories of his time in Korea during the war to his return to Korea as Assistant Director of the Red Cross in the Far East. He recalls being a young man "on a great adventure," despite the devastated Korean nation. He describes returning to Korea eighteen years later and marveling at the remarkable changes that had taken place in the interim period.



Nathaniel Ford Jr.

Korea after the war

Nathaniel Ford explains how he had never been out of the country prior to his first time in Korea. He recalls how he found it interesting to be in a country where people did not look like him nor speak the same language. He remembers that President Syngman Rhee did not want the American soldiers there. He goes on to describe how impressed he was with how hard the Korean farmers worked but having a problem with their using the contents of the latrines to fertilize their fields.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor recalls having never given communism a second thought when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He remembers feeling a call to duty and wanting to do the right thing for his country. He describes how far behind the times Korea was when it came to living conditions.



Living Conditions at K-9 Near Pusan

Neal Taylor describes living conditions on the base as being tolerable considering the situation. He recalls having issues with rats as they would try to sleep at night as well as struggling with the cold temperatures during the winter. He remembers the West Coast Strike impacting their food supply and having to eat stew for thirty-five days straight.



Defusing a Five Hundred-Pound Bomb on a Runway

Neal Taylor recalls having to clear a bomb off the runway at K-9 Air Base near Busan after it fell off a plane. He describes the immense pressure of having to defuse the bomb himself. He shares he was forced to use only a manual as the bomb diffusers on base were both on Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



Under Enemy Sniper Fire

Neal Taylor describes being shot at by a North Korean sniper who fired down into the base from the hills. He recalls him being more of a nuisance than a threat. He remembers the sniper then found a larger gun, therefore requiring the troops to put a stop to sniper.



Closure

Neal Taylor discusses the absence of closure from the war until he revisited Korea. He describes how seeing all of the progress and feeling the love and appreciation from the Korean people helped reinforce what he did was worthwhile. He describes the impact of reforestation and how green the country looked as well as the tall buildings that now stood in a country that was once decimated by war.



Night Squadron

Neal Taylor recalls the Night Squadron and one particular mission that spread sorrow across the base. He explains how the Night Squadron would paint their planes black to disguise them in the night sky, yet they were ordered on a daytime mission to blow a bridge, making them easy targets in the sunny sky. He remembers thirty-six planes leaving and only nine returning.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Pain of Captivity

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the suffering in Busan. People were out of hope. Moreover, they had lost everything. Many children, four to six, were parentless. Turkish soldiers were well supplied and would give candies, biscuits and chocolates. The Turkish soldiers even had a Korean houseboy. Importantly, they treated him like their own. For example, the houseboy was listed in official Turkish government correspondence. Likewise, the houseboy would complete errands for the Turkish soldiers. His name was Zeki or clever.



Neville Williams

First Impressions

After some time in Hong Kong, Neville Williams remembers traveling to Busan. He shares that his first impressions of the city were not good as he remembers the shanty town that surrounded the city and the orphans. They remained there for 4-5 days to transition to their next post on the front lines.



Nina Movin

Off to Korea

Nina Movin, daughter or Rasmus Movin, discusses her father's medical service during the Korean War. Rasmus Movin left by ship in January of 1951 and arrived in Busan on March 10th, 1951. Rasmus Movin left his wife and 4 children at home during this time.



Norman Lee

Deck Landings

Norman Lee recalls a humorous conversation with the Duke of York regarding deck landings. He then describes the differences between making a deck landing on a straight deck verses an angled deck. He remembers making 333 deck landings over the span of his career and never bending a plane.



Norman Renouf

Impressions of Korea

Norman Renouf describes his first impressions of being in Korea. He highlights a sense of fear, but also describes seeing rice paddies for the first time.



Ovid Odean Solberg

Landing in Korea

Ovid O. Solberg recalls landing in Busan and seeing the demolished villages. He remembers never setting foot in a building. He was stationed in North Korea with the 3rd Infantry.



P. Stanley Cobane

Mistaken Identity

P. Stanley Cobane describes his unit relieving an army organization on a small ridge that had had a fire fight the day and night before. While digging in they watched who they were told were South Koreans walking up the higher ridge above them. Later that night they were fired on by who they realized were actually North Koreans. His unit attacked the ridge that morning and the first platoon suffered almost total casualties. His unit lost a quarter of their men in that battle including several of his friends but they took the ridge that day.



Pablo Delgado Medina

First Day in Korea / Primer Día en Corea

Pablo Delgado Medina describes his first day in Korea after the boat pulled into Busan. He remembers the way in which they were blessed by a Catholic priest and an evangelical minister before disembarking. He explains that after disembarking, they were led to a dock that had long tables full of ammunition and grenades and were told by loudspeaker to carry as much as they were able to because they could never have enough.

Pablo Delgado Medina describe su primer día en Corea cuando el barco llegó a Busan. Recuerda la forma en que fueron bendecidos por un sacerdote católico y un ministro evangélico antes de desembarcar. Explica que después de desembarcar, los llevaron a un muelle con mesas llenas de municiones y granadas y les dijeron por altavoz que llevaran todo lo que pudieran porque nunca les iban a sobrar.



The 65th Infantry / El 65 de Infantería

Pablo Delgado Medina shares his thoughts about the 65th Infantry. He remembers the language barrier was a problem for Puerto Rican troops because Americans used slang during combat which they found difficult to understand. He states his belief that the 65th Infantry was the toughest combat brigade as it was assigned to the toughest missions including the Battle of Kelly Hill and Pork Chop Hill.

Pablo Delgado Medina comparte su opinión sobre el 65 de Infantería. Recuerda que a veces tenían problemas con el idioma porque los estadounidenses usaban una jerga durante el combate que les resultaba difícil de entender a los puertorriqueños. Afirma su creencia de que la 65.ª Infantería fue la brigada de combate más dura, y por eso fue enviada a las misiones más difíciles, incluyendo la Batalla de Kelly Hill y Pork Chop Hill.



Paciano Eugenio

Trip to the Frontline

Paciano Eugenio describes arriving in Busan in total darkness. He notes how quiet it was when they first arrived, but within an hour, he recalls hearing the sounds of battle. He explains how they received weapons and military gear before traveling by train to the frontline. He shares the surprise he felt arriving to the frontline and the enemy being nowhere within sight.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



The Most Difficult Experience in Korea

Paul Cunningham identified the lack of solid support from the US government as the most difficult experience in Korea because all of the troops were ready to follow MacArthur all the way to the Yalu River. He shares that he was a part of the Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 502 Tactical Control Group during his time in Korea. He adds that his squadron performed air surveillance for three hundred miles in all directions using radar machines that were used during WWII.



Paul Hummel

Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Ohlsen

Korean Medical Experience

Paul Ohlsen describes the ailments of the civilians treated by the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He shares tuberculosis and worms often accompany poor and/or crowded living conditions. He notes he was the only doctor in the camp with experience reading and understanding X-Rays.



Photos around the Swedish Red Cross Hospital

Paul Ohlsen provides pictures of the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He describes living conditions at the hospital and how free time was spent. He provides photos depicting life around the hospital in Busan. His photos also share glimpses of the civilians he treated, offering rare insight into what life looked like following the Armistice.



Life Within the Confines of the Hospital

Paul Ohlsen describes life inside the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He recalls not being allowed to go outside the converted high school due to the enemy being close at hand. He remembers various lessons and lectures provided to the doctors as a source of entertainment and intellectual stimulation. He reflects on how his experience was different from other doctors because his wife was stationed with him.



Paul Summers

Friendly Fire on the Pusan Perimeter

Paul Summers was digging into a hillside on the Pusan Perimeter one night. Troops were lobbing artillery over the hillside where the Marines were setting up camp. Hearing the whistling of an artillery round, he suspected it would fall short. The explosion left four Marines dead.



Percy D. Mohr

Very First Battle with North Koreans

Percy Mohr describes his very first encounter with the North Koreans. His artillery unit, right behind the infantry division, fought North Korean soldiers from hill to hill. Both divisions experienced casualties in the difficult battle.



Peter Joseph Doyle, Jr.

Reality sets in

Peter Doyle describes his departure from San Francisco aboard the USS Hase to Korea, which included a brief stop in Japan. While on the train from Busan to the distribution point for further assignment, reality set in and it finally hit home that he was in Korea. From there he headed for the front lines where he connected with the "old-timers" who had been there for a while. He says it took about a week to acclimate and get stronger in order to keep up with the more experienced soldiers.



Phan Toophijit

HTMS Tachin

Upon arrival in Korea, Phan Toophijit was stationed aboard the HTMS Tachin. He explains the primary duty of this vessel was to escort and provide protection for other ships traveling through the area, especially those carrying oil. He describes the size of the boat and crew and explains the weaponry aboard.



Phanom Sukprasoet

First Impressions

Phanom Sukprasoet witnessed the complete destruction of Busan upon arriving in Korea in 1950 as part of the first rotation of the Thai Army. Although the cities were devastated, he noticed that in the rural areas, some houses were still standing, albeit with only a few elderly people remaining. Reflecting on the devastation, he couldn't help but think that the war should never have happened especially when considering the destruction of cities and the loss of many lives.



Philip Davis

"I Was Not Afraid"

Philip Davis is recounting his first duties in Pusan. He remembers that the soldiers were young and had a lot of passion- not understanding what was really happening. Philip Davis admits that he wasn't afraid either.



I narrowly escaped death

Philip Davis believes that he and his fellow soldiers at that time were not really ready to fight. He describes the ammunition they were given and how many American soldiers died helplessly in rice paddies in Korea. He was very fortunate to escape with an army captain, but still struggles today knowing that those soldiers were left to die without any help coming.



Philip E. Hahn

Encountering Guerrillas and Civilians

Phillip Hahn vividly recalls the heartbreak of war as he witnessed children serving as guerrillas and the necessity of eliminating them. He also recounts the plight of countless refugees who had little more than the clothes on their backs. Additionally, he remembers the hunger he experienced on the front lines, leading him to fight for the rations of fallen soldiers.



From Inchon to Seoul and on to Pusan

Philip E. Hahn remembers encountering minimal resistance leaving Inchon until they entered Seoul. Describing Seoul as severely damaged, with nearly everything destroyed, he recalls taking cover in a pigpen to avoid gunfire during the night. Though he didn't expect to survive, he expressed gratitude for being a Marine.



Philip Lindsley

Fortunate to Make it

Philip Lindsley shares his experience during extreme cold and rumors of the Chinese surrounding them. He shares how the men were only able to work on connecting coaxial cables for a minute at a time due to the extreme cold. He elaborates on the stressful experience of completing guard duty in complete darkness and his concern that he only had a little gun to fend off the enemy. As rumors began to spread, he recalls his outfit suddenly being told to pack up everything they could and evacuate the area. He explains that since the enemy crossed the Yalu River, they headed south. He emphasizes they were fortunate to make it to Seoul because other outfits were attacked along the way.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Death All Around While Landing in Pusan

Phillip Olson could smell the port by Pusan even before he entered the bay. Dead soldiers were still floating near the shore while dead fish also added to the smell of decay. He was shocked at the beginning because it was not what he would imagine it would look like in Korea.



Ralph Burcham

First impressions

Ralph Burcham arrived in Busan in 1952. He felt that the scene was "heart wrenching" to see shoeless children running next to the trains in the hopes that U.S. soldiers would toss out food. Families were so poor and willing to do anything for food scraps.



Ralph O’Bryant

Heading to Korea

Ralph Leon O'Bryant recalls serving with the 822nd Airborne Division in Korea. He remembers how after spending sixteen weeks in basic training at Ft. Belvoir, VA, he was shipped to Taegu and ultimately assigned to A Company in Busan. He recounts how he stayed there for a few months before being sent to Seoul for the remainder of his time in Korea. He communicates how, while in Seoul, he looked after the tool room as there was little need for his specialty--plumbing--in Korea.



Recollections of Korea

Ralph O'Bryant shares is recollections of the Korean people during his time stationed in Taegu, Busan, and Seoul. He notes that he was not very close to most of the fighting as he was stationed largely in Seoul. He states unit spent most of its time building airstrips for the U.S. Air Force.



Raymond L. Ayon

Caring for Wounded Enemy POWs

Raymond L. Ayon shares how, during his time in Daegu, he was responsible for the care of wounded enemy POWs for a period of two years. He recalls the conditions of one particular POW who required an inoculation but was afraid of the syringe. As a corpsman, his duty was to provide the necessary treatment and release them once they were fit to go. He remembers a moment when General McArthur passed by in a motorcade while they were waiting to cross the Han River on a pontoon, which was an exciting experience for most of the men. He briefly discusses the numerous medals he was awarded due to his military service.



Raymond L. Fish

The Pusan Perimeter

Raymond L. Fish recounts his role as a medic at the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls having to keep up with inventory, which was sometimes a challenge when it came to dealing with soldiers who had alcoholic tendencies. He explains how casualties were treated for wounds at varying locations.



Saved by a Canteen

Raymond L. Fish was sent on one-week detachments to provide aid to Chinese prisoners of war who were under supervision by the United Nations. He shares how a little while later, he was injured while running from the Chinese. He shares the story of how his canteen protected him from what could have been a fatal wound during the war.



Raymond W. Guenthner

Mortar, Machine Guns, and Multiple Hits

Raymond Guenthner describes the fear of fellow soldiers and the advice he provided to them. He explains what it was like being in the middle of a mortar and machine gun attack. After being hit, he tries to make it to safety while being targeted by Chinese machine gun forces.



Raymundo L. Bumatay

Korean Bus Boy

Raymundo L. Bumatay recollects that during his time in Korea, he encountered very few Korean civilians, aside from those who assisted the military effort. He mentions that they had a 14-year-old house boy in their bunker who would run errands for them in exchange for a small sum of money and c-rations.



Reginald Clifton Grier

Criminal Investigations in Korea

Reginald Clifton Grier discusses his experience of returning to the reserves and college after serving in World War II. He recalls being called back into service in 1952 and spending eight months in Korea. He describes his primary responsibility during deployment as investigating accidents and other crimes in the Busan area.



Rex L. McCall

Battle of the Hook

Rex McCall described his experiences in the Battle of the Hook. He shares how there was sporadic fire from the Chinese and recalls how he went on night time patrols. During the daytime, he remembers trying to sleep in a bunker farther down the hill. He comments on how it reminded him of trench warfare during World War I. He sights the Chinese being only around 450 feet away. The enemy was so close, he remembers seeing an arm of a dead Chinese soldier still holding a potato masher hand grenade.



Ricardo Roldan Jiménez

A Difficult Voyage / Un Viaje Difícil

Ricardo Roldan Jiménez reminisces about the difficulty he had in bidding his family goodbye before being sent to war. He explains that they were given five days to go home before their deployment, but he feared telling his family where he was being sent so he lied. He admits that he only truly understood the magnitude of his decision when he arrived in Busan and received training on how to kill, what to expect if taken as a prisoner, and how to proceed if he were wounded in battle.

Ricardo Roldán Jiménez recuerda la dificultad que tuvo para despedirse de su familia antes de ir a la guerra. Explica que les dieron cinco días para regresar a su casa antes de su despliegue, pero temía decirle a su familia adónde lo enviarían, así que mintió. Admite que sólo entendió la magnitud de su decisión cuando llegó a Busan y recibió entrenamiento sobre cómo matar, qué esperar si lo tomaban prisionero y cómo proceder si era herido en batalla.



Richard A. Mende

POW's after the Armistice

Richard Mende describes seeing POW's in Pusan after the armistice was signed. He talks about the prisoners being moved on trains and the poor condition of their clothing.



Richard A. Simpson

Civilian's Life

Richard Simpson recalls the despair of the Korean people. He describes an incident of a woman trying to commit suicide by lying on train tracks and describes giving simple necessities such as a shirt to Korean people. He offers an account of troop actions.



Tragedy of War

Richard Simpson describes the raping of a South Korean woman by an Allied soldier. He express his thoughts on the utter depravity of the actions of the soldier and his lack of respect for the human race. He describes this as the tragedy of war.



War, What Is It Good For?

Richard Simpson describes war through religion. He questions what God thinks of war and ultimately what comes from war. He discusses the impact of the war on his life and how the war helped him enter the priesthood.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Weekly Sermons Halted After Preacher was a No-Show

Church was usually done every Sunday on the hood of a cloth-draped jeep. The preacher would hold the bible in his hand and deliver the weekly sermon. One Sunday, the soldiers were present to start the service, but the preacher wasn't there. The soldiers saw in the distance a jeep driving about 90 miles an hour up the the soldiers to tell them that the preacher had checkout out a rifle to go pheasant hunting, stepped on a land mine and was killed.



Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Helping a Father See His Son

The most memorable moment in Korea was when a young soldier from Iowa ran up daily for mail call to get information about his new baby. Every time they got mail, the young soldier received many pictures of his son bathing in the tub (always naked), he was so proud. The young soldier asked Richard Brandt when he was going home and he replied that it was within two weeks, but after speaking to his commander, Richard Brandt allowed the young soldier to go home in his place to see his son.



Richard Davey

Arrival in Pusan in the Midst of 1952

Richard Davey recalls arriving in Pusan to a band playing in the background and small camps set up with Canadian troops waiting to be shipped out. After a train and truck ride, he was stationed with the Headquarters Royal Artillery (HQRA). While stationed there, he was provided food, summer clothes, and guns.



Richard Davis

First Impressions of Korea

Richard Davis recounts landing in Pusan and offers his first impressions of Korea. He recalls what older gentlemen were wearing and remembers many children asking for food. He states that his impressions of Korea made him appreciate living in the US.



Richard Ekstrand

Engineering in Korea

Richard Ekstrand explains how he was redeployed to an engineering outfit in Busan after his hospital stay resulting from an injury in the infantry. He presents an overview of the types of labor he did there, including bridge and road work.



Richard Knoebel

First Impressions of Korea

Richard Knoebel describes landing in Pusan near a pier where transports were waiting. He discusses sleeping on the pier that first night and remembers a salvation army was close by. Most of the focus there was on preparing and planning for the move up to Incheon.



Richard Miller

Return Trips to Korea After the War

Richard Miller shares he returned many times to Korea on business, including visits to Pusan and Incheon. He speaks of how he worked for a company that did petrochemical refinery work. He recalls how the Korean government mandated half the material had to be from Korea. He adds he received a job offer from Hyundai manufacturing.



Richard P. Holgin

Persevering through Frostbite

Richard P. Holgin experienced terrible frostbite on his leg. Despite this condition, he continued to serve to the best of his ability, until a superior noticed his injury. Richard P. Holgin was then cared for in Busan and in Japan.



Richard W. Edwards

Pocket Warmer Scarf

Richard Edwards describes developing a sore throat from sleeping in a pup tent his first night in Korea. He explains that his First Sergeant ignored his concern and so in an effort to feel better, Richard Edwards improvised. He describes how he assembled a makeshift treatment by wrapping his pocket warmer around his neck.



A Picture Tells a Thousand Words

Richard Edwards describes the condition of Busan during the Korean War. He shows his photographs that illustrate how rural the city was at the time. He explains that the soldiers would use a laundry near their encampment and pay very little money for their services.



Robert I. Winton

My Grandson Loves Korea

Robert Winton reflects on the marvelous recovery Korea has made since the time of war. He shares he discovered much through the eyes of his grandson who journeyed there many years later. He describes the many wonderful foods offered in Korea with a special preference to Kimchi.



Robert J. Rose

Revisiting Korea

Robert Rose recounts his visit to Korea in 2008 as part of the Department of Veterans Affairs tour. His visit included commemorations at many battle sites as well as a trip to the DMZ where he saw the reality of the relationship between North and South Korea. Although he did not personally witness the devastation of cities like Seoul and Busan during the war, he recalls seeing photos and notes his amazement of how far the country had come in its rebuilding efforts.



Robert Kam Chong Young

Arrival to Korea and Incheon Landing

Robert Kam Chong Young recalls he was still training at Ft. Belvoir, Virginia, when the Korean War broke out. Unable to finish his training because of need of soldiers in Korea, he shares his experience of arriving in Korea. He recounts taking part in the Incheon Landing as an acting squad leader.



Robert M. Longden

Miraculous Change

Robert M. Longden arrived in Busan in 1953 to witness terrible poverty. He and his fellow soldiers gave their rations to hungry children. Construction work had already begun in Seoul. When he returned to Korea a few years ago the change was miraculous. Hard work had returned Korea to great prosperity. He is grateful for the hospitality of the Korean people during his visit.



Robert O. Gray

From Hospitals to Prisons

Robert Gray discusses how he got hit and went to the hospital. He explains his motivation for lying to avoid staying in the hospital. He also describes how that decision caused him to be captured by the Chinese as a prisoner of war (POW).



Robert W. Hammelsmith

First Impressions

Robert Hammelsmith describes his first impressions of Korea after landing at Busan. He recalls being assigned to the Recon Platoon of the 89th Tank Battalion and being relocated to Masan. He explains that his first duties were performing communications relay on a hill near Masan, Korea.



Robert Whited

One of the Greatest Things We Ever Did

Robert Whited recalls movement of his unit from Seoul to Incheon and later Wonsan. He explains the 5th Marines did not immediately go up to the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir but, instead, ran patrols out of Heungnam where he remembers encountering their first Chinese. He describes how when they were establishing a roadblock they were hit by the Chinese and pushed back to Hagaru-ri and Koto-ri and ultimately to the seashore. He describes how, during the retreat, they were protecting thousands of Korean refugees who were ultimately loaded on a cargo ship and taken to Busan.



Rodney Stock

War Wounds and Train Attacks

Rodney F. Stock explains that North Koreans left farms in Yeongdeungpo unmolested since North Korea relied heavily on rice harvests. He notes that the U.S. soldiers were not so fortunate. He remembers a sniper shoting at him while he repaired a wire up a telephone pole. He recounts how the bullet missed him, but wood splinters embedded in his leg. He resents not being listed as wounded in combat since he was not hit by the actual bullet. He recalls other dangerous experiences which included the armored train ride from Yeongdeungpo to Pusan (Busan), with enemy attacks on the train each time they passed through Tegu (Daegu).



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



Reflections on Korea

Roland Brown expresses that he wanted to be in Korea as it was his goal to fight for his country. He recalls his first vision of Pusan and compares it to modern Korea. He reflects upon how poor the Korean people were during the war and comments on the thriving conditions in Korea today.



Roland Fredh

Treating Napalm

Roland Fredh describes being part of the operating team in Busan. He treated patients that Napalm wounds. The hospital was uncovered and quite dusty. Patients required lots of work. Yet, Roland Fredh is proud of his service.



Korean Soccer Club

Roland Fredh describes his leisure time in Korea. He played soccer with fellow Swedish members. The team traveled, located in Busan, traveled to Seoul and Daegu to play various teams. They beat an English team. But, they lost to a Korean team.



Songs from Korea

Roland Fredh describes music during his service. He sings a classic Korean song for the viewer. He recalls his favorite Swedish music that he would sing in Korea. Yet, he is much more impacted by the Korean music and songs that he learned while in Korea.



Rollo Minchaca

Marine Corp Hymn and Japanese Whiskey

Rollo Minchaca talks about spending Christmas and New Years during the Korean War. Many of the men were collapsing due to the stress of being in the extreme cold and living in tents. They evacuated to Pusan and had to regroup because of the extreme temperature.



Ronald A. Cole

Mortar Shells and Polio

Ronald Cole shares his experience of arriving in Pusan in December 1953 and being taken to the front line as part of an infantry replacement unit. He recalls on this trip to the front lines that the North Koreans fired a mortar shell at them and that they frequently caught infiltrators. He notes that his time in Korea was cut short due to being exposed to polio while in Korea. He offers an account of what happened to him as a result of this exposure.



Ronald C. Lovell

Hill 355

Ronald C. Lovell vividly remembers landing in Pusan before his deployment to Hill 355 (Kowang-san), situated very near Hill 317 where the Chinese were stationed. Enduring the extremely cold winters, he describes participating in nightly patrols. One particular daylight patrol he shares his recollections of facing mortar fire, requiring him to venture into the open to assist in evacuating the killed and wounded to safety. Despite the danger, he didn't recall feeling afraid; he was aware of the situation and simply continued with what was expected of him.



Rondo T. Farrer

Knowledge of Korea

Rondo T. Farrer explains how he had to find a map to find out where Korea was. He recalls asking his sister about Korea upon hearing about the war. He describes the "culture shock" he experienced when he first arrived in Korea.



Roy Aldridge

We Broke Their Will

Roy Aldridge describes how he crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea. He shares how the North Koreans shed their uniforms, put on civilian clothing, and fled. He shares how there wasn't much resistance. He explains how the North Koreans had killed all of the prisoners of war and where they put them.



Roy Cameron

The Job of Battalion Soil Engineers

Since Roy Cameron was working on his Bachelors Degree in soil science, he was assigned to the Battalion Soil Engineers where he built roads and bridges for the troops. While traveling in his Jeep near Pusan, he as thousands of refugees coming from the North in order to escape war.



Roy Painter

If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked A Cake

Roy Painter describes arriving in Korea to the American military band playing "If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked a Cake". He explains that due to his small stature, the British and Korean women joked with him. The Korean women in particular called him Baby-san.



Royal Vida

Most of the Time They were Running

Royal Vida describes the situation in Taejon after the capture of General Dean. He makes note about his assignment to an all black regiment and the drastic shift from being stationed in Japan to their assignment in Korea. During the withdrawal, he discusses one time when the Integrated 159th Field artillery was the only regiment able to hold the position. He briefly reflects on the experience of being assigned to an integrated unit. He recounts the confusion and experience of constantly moving and the sadness he felt while watching the Korean people fleeing from the battle.



Ruben Rains

The Marines Saved Korea

Ruben Rains arrived in Pusan before moving up through the middle of the country to Taegu. He served 10 months and remembers that that was a time of 2-3 major attacks by the Chinese Army. He believes that it was the Marines who saved Korea.



Rudolph “Rudy” J. Green

2,000 Riflemen On Board

Rudy Green describes taking a train from Busan that was so heavy with smoke that it was very difficult to breathe. He describes how when they arrive at their destination, there was no way to distinguish the white soldiers from the African American soldiers because they were all covered in soot. He explains his amazement in surviving that train ride.



South Korea Then and Now

Rudy Green describes the images that he saw as he was leaving South Korea. He explains the vast poverty and devastation he saw. He compares it to what he knows of South Korea today.



Sahlemariam Wmichaea

First Feelings

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes his feelings about going to war and what he though when first seeing Korea. He was not afraid ro fight and was instead eager to help due to the destruction and poverty he witnessed.



Samuel Henry Bundles, Jr.

From Japan to Korea

Samuel Bundles, Jr., discusses his experience of being deployed to Japan and being assigned to a Medical Company. He recalls waiting two or three months before arriving in Pusan, Korea, and eventually working at a hospital that was located ninety miles away from Seoul. He recounts how he played second base on a baseball team during his downtime to entertain troops.



Sangmoon Olsson

Swedish Red Cross

Sangmoon Olsson describes the services the Swedish Red Cross offered. The Swedish Red Cross in 1954 treated mostly civilians, but a few veterans because the war had ended in 1953. The Swedish Red Cross offered Surgery, Operation, and Plastic Surgery. Sangmoon Olsson describes that her training prepared her well to help the civilians of Korea in the various medical services.



Revisiting Korea and Socialism

Sangmoon Olsson describes her experience when re-visiting Korea after many years. She did not want to put out her family and make them come to her. She remembered the roads of "old Korea." However, the family met her and reminded her the country had changed and was not the "old country." She was filled with pride and amazed at the rebuilding of South Korea. Sangmoon Olsson also describes that Sweden, being more left on the political spectrum. Being left probably impacted Sweden's positive relations with North Korea.



Somdee Musikawan

Arrival in Busan

Somdee Musikawan arrived in Korea as part of the second rotation in 1951. He shares his fear at the time of not knowing when he would die. He notes the special connection between the Korean people and the Thai soldiers. He offers details of the living conditions in Busan when he arrived.

English translations occur at 3:51, 8:00, and 11:45



Stanley Jones

Experiencing the Front Lines

Stanley Jones describes the differences he saw between the National Guard and the traditional Army. He shares an experience he had where officers were relieved and chaos and mistreatment ensued. He describes where the ballistic stations were located as well as a situation concerning a fuel dump in Busan.



Steven G. Olmstead

Writing Letters Home

Steven Olmstead talks about writing letters home. He mentions that there were not opportunities to write when on the front lines and that while he received letters from family and friends, he did not write back very often. He recalls a fellow marine asking his permission to write to his sister and shares that the marine and his sister were eventually married.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Steven Olmstead describes why he thinks the Korean War was important and its legacy. He compares his opinion if he were to have been asked in 1950, his first time there, versus his opinion about its importance in 1965 when he returned. He comments on the remarkable progress Korea had made in such a short time and how seeing it firsthand made him feel.



Steven Hawes

The Sites and Smells of Pusan

Steven Hawes remembers the devastation he saw in Pusan after the war. He describes the smell of a city full of rubble, hungry children, and lots of refugees. However, he also able to recall how helping the people there is a sense of pride as they were able to help not only the people there, but contributed to the potential progress of a fledgling nation.



Svend Jagd

Jutlandia Converted from Supply Ship to Hospital

Svend Jagd recounted Denmark’s desire to help South Korea but was concerned about their proximity to the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Instead of providing the military, they converted the Jutlandia supply ship to a hospital. The ship became the most modern hospital in Denmark and was sent to support the wounded in Korea.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Arriving in Korea

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes his voyage to Korea. Men aboard the ship were mixed between Ethiopians and Greeks. At first, both countries were friendly but soon erupted into constant fighting. Upon arriving in Korea, Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen did not see anything memorable. He describes one farmer having an ox, but that was it.



Tex Malcolm

Arriving to Korea in Dec. 1950

Tex Malcolm was shipped to Korea on Nov. 1950 after stopping in Japan. All the different US branches were on one ship and the conditions were packed with multiple soldiers getting seasick. He landed at Pusan on Dec. 12, 1950 on his 21st birthday.



Thomas “Tommy” Tahara

Arrival in Korea

Thomas "Tommy" Tahara describes being aboard a ship in the Pusan (Busan) Harbor for over a week waiting to be called into action in Korea. He recounts seeing dead bodies for the first time and experiencing combat. He speaks of the fear he experienced as an eighteen-year-old while in a combat situation.



Thomas Nuzzo

Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Nuzzo was attending Fordham University when he was drafted for the Korean War. Unlike most draftees, Thomas Nuzzo knew about Korea from stamp collecting and his schooling. Being sent to Korea was not scary he said because he found the Korean culture so interesting.



Titus Santelli

Football in Korea

Titus Santelli explains that his brother, Frank Santelli, served in the Army in Korea at the same time. He recounts that Frank Santelli served in the entertainment outfit by playing football in the Army during the war. He relates his brother's experience to a M*A*S*H episode, an American television series, where teams were brought together to play football.



Tom Collier

Pusan and Seoul Living Conditions

Tom Collier describes a rough trip to Pusan by ship and overall conditions of the people. People would make houses of anything they could, mostly tin and cardboard. The people did not know English and lived in poverty. Tom Collier then transferred to Seoul and describes the conditions of the people as similar to Pusan.



Tom Muller

Not M*A*S*H

Tom Muller describes life on the front lines and compares this to the TV show M*A*S*H*. He likes the show, but disagrees with the drama and the antics of the show. He describes having a potbelly stove that was adequate up to 10 feet away. He goes further and describes the South Korean people, scrawny and begging for food near Busan.



Tommy Clough

Landing at Busan

Tommy Clough recounts how he knew little about Korea prior to shipping out on a five and a half week voyage to Korea. He recollects his first impressions of Korea, sharing that there was a stench in the air as they neared the shoreline. He remembers a United States African American band playing as they disembarked the ship and recalls South Korean women dressed traditionally and handing out apples.



Vartkess Tarbassian

First Impressions of Korea near Busan (Pusan Perimeter)

Vartkess Tarbassian was surprised when he saw the devastation in the Pusan Perimeter (Busan). There were shell holes from the mortars all across the land. Korean civilians were staving and missing shelter.



Vincent A. Bentz

Enemy Tactics

Vincent Bentz explains the company that he was in and his responsibilities. He speaks about seeing the results of a mass execution near Taejon (Daejeon). He describes the attack tactics used by the enemy.



Vincent Segarra

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Vicente Segarra shares his first impressions of Korea and its people. He recalls the poverty and cold he witnessed while there. Moreover, he remembers the joy he felt when he found a friend from his town who helped him by giving him a sleeping bag.

Vicente Segarra comparte sus primeras impresiones sobre Corea y su gente. Recuerda la pobreza y el frío que presenció mientras estuvo allí. Además, recuerda la alegría que sintió cuando encontró a un amigo de su pueblo que lo ayudó el primer día y le dio una bolsa de dormir.



Virgil W. Mikkelsen

Arriving Late to the Party

Virgil Mikkelsen describes his first day in Korea. He talks about how he and the men he was with thought they were arriving to be sent to the frontlines. Virgil Mikkelsen recalls learning from the radio that an Armistice had been signed that day ending the conflict.



Warren Middlekauf

The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



Warren Nishida

First Impressions of Korea

Warren Nishida describes seeing Korea for the first time in 1951. He provides a description of his trip through the countryside from Busan to the Kumhwa Valley. While traveling by train, he remembers the primitive housing and the surprise of finding out what farmers in Korea used as fertilize for their crops.



Willard L. Dale

Early Days in Korea

William L. Dale shares he left for Korea on November 12, 1952. He remembers the temperature being negative fourteen degrees when he landed in Pusan. He recounts staying that first night in an enormous tent with about one thousand eight hundgred others and details his movement to his duty station with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, Weapon Company into the area near Panmunjeom and the Imjin River. He recalls one engagement with the enemy that lasted about six and a half hours.



William Alli

Land of the Morning Calm

William Alli describes his arrival to Korea at Busan. As he was leaving the ship, there was a morning calm that quickly disappeared with a horrible stench, people in rags, and the anxiety of not knowing what comes next. He describes travelling deeper into Korea by trains and trucks, and his realization of his being a part of the sixth replacement draft. He describes his experience with being a machine gun ammo carrier and his first encounters with tracers and sniper fire from the surrounding hills.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Landing in Pusan

William Coe explains that he left for Korea from Japan on the July 1, 1950. He shares that they took a C-54 with Company B. He was remembers that they got right on a train and that they were ready to “fight” and tried not to be afraid. not to be afraid.



William F. Honaman

Arriving in Korea

William Honaman describes his long route to Busan, Korea, from the United States. He remembers arriving in Busan and it being full of military personnel. He describes being herded to the trains and not remembering much of Busan. He recalls eventually arriving at the front line across from the Freedom Bridge. He notes his first impression of Korea in 1953 was of war and lots of devastation.



William Kurth

The "Modern" Port of Busan

William Kurth offers a description of his experience in the port of Busan. He describes the modernization of the harbor by the Japanese and details the differing outlets available. He recounts a Japanese built railroad yard, describing some of the everyday operations taking place during the war.



Thievery in Wartime

William Kurth describes stealing as one of the biggest challenges he faced while serving. He recounts both American soldiers and Korean civilians stealing supplies to either eat or sell for a profit. He recounts building relationships with several Koreans throughout his service.



William Rooyakkers

Dangerous Duty

William Rooyakkers describes his duty of hauling ammunition from the ships to the front lines. He recalls the day his truck hit a mine, resulting in serious injury. He remembers being carried out by a M.A.S.H. chopper and receiving care on a hospital ship.



Willis Remus

Basic Training

Willis Remus describes how he was trained to be a combat engineer during his time in basic training, but once he arrived overseas in Pusan, he became part of Headquarters Company instead.



Wistremundo Dones

Remembering Terrible Battles / Recordando Terribles Batallas

Wistremundo Dones provides an account of the tactical operations which were aimed at sweeping the South of North Koreans. He explains the change in troop movements from the South and how entire platoons were sent to Incheon in the North which prompted the Chinese to get involved. He admits that they needed much courage to withstand the bombings that continuously took place.

Wistremundo Dones da cuenta de las operaciones tácticas que tenían como objetivo barrer el sur de los norcoreanos. Explica el cambio en los movimientos de tropas del Sur y cómo se enviaron pelotones enteros a Incheon, en el Norte, lo que llevó a los chinos a involucrarse. Admite que necesitaban mucho coraje para sobrevivir los bombardeos que siempre continuamente.



Getting to Korea / Como Llegó a Korea

Wistremundo Dones describes how he arrived in Korea in 1950. He details the long voyage which included stops in Panama and Japan. He remembers the way in which the boat swayed during a typhoon over the Pacific Ocean.

Wistremundo Dones describe cómo llegó a Corea en 1950. Detalla el viaje largo que incluyó escalas en Panamá y Japón. Recuerda cómo se balanceó el barco durante un tifón sobre el Océano Pacífico.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Wistremundo Dones relays his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he did not understand how a civilian population which was so impoverished was able to withstand the cold winters. He provides details of the guerrilla attacks from North Korean which ensued early in the war.

Wistremundo Dones cuenta de sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no entendía cómo una población que estaba tan empobrecida podía soportar los inviernos tan fríos. Proporciona detalles sobre los ataques de la guerrilla norcoreana que se produjeron a principios de la guerra.



Overview of Service / Descripción de su Servicio

Wistremundo Dones describes his tour of duty in Korea in English. He explains how the war changed resulting from the involvement of Chinese forces. Furthermore, he shares how the commanding officers altered the war strategy.

Wistremundo Dones describe en inglés su período de servicio en Corea. Explica cómo cambió la guerra cuando entraron las fuerzas chinas a la guerra. Además, comparte cómo los oficiales al mando cambiaron la estrategia de la guerra.



Yilma Belachew

Another Life

Yilma Belachew describes the condition of Korea upon arrival at Busan. He describes the destruction he observed. For example, there were deceased people lying in fields and destroyed buildings. However, the people of Korea were still working in the fields during the Civil War. Yilma Belachew also describes having to retrain on newer American weapons in Korea.



Ziya Dilimer

Repair

Ziya Dilimer describes his Korean War experience. His War experience is different from other Turkish soldiers. He was behind the front and not in danger. His role was to fix vehicles and guns. He would receive cars with bullet holes and swap out parts. A major thing he had to fix was the barrels of guns. Heat would damage the barrels.