Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Living conditions



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

A. Irving Osser

Bed Check Charlie

A. Irving Osser explains the nightly disturbance of "Bed Check Charlie." Because his Air Force unit was not prepared to fight back the attacks, he traded alcohol for weapons at a local weapons depot. He describes how his unit successfully shot down one of the plans after several attempts.



Ahmet Tan

Destruction and Poverty

Ahmet Tan describes the conditions of the Koreans during the Korean War. He describes the people as "good," but impoverished. He also described how the Turkish troops looked after some orphaned children, feeding them and providing them shelter in the military tents.



Returning Home

Ahmet Tan describes the enemy and fighting conditions near Cheorwon when he first arrived. The action was very violent, but eased when the Armistice was signed. After the Armistice, Turkish soldiers returned home. Ahmet Tan was happy to be home in Istanbul. He has revisited South Korea once and describes it as beautiful. Also, if war ever breaks out again, Ahmet Tan would go again.



Al Lemieux

Harsh Weather in Korea

Al Lemieux describes the weather conditions in Korea. He explains how harsh the summers were for the young men who had to carry heavy loads. He also mentions the effects of the monsoon season. Additionally, he describes the heavy snowfall they experienced, touching on the various types of harsh weather that they experienced during the war.



Alan Guy

Arriving in Korea and Placement

Alan Guy recounts his arrival in Korea. He remembers bitter cold and a horrendous smell as Koreans had just fertilized nearby rice patties with human manure. He recollects a band playing rousing music upon arrival and being transported to a transit camp in Busan. He details his placement in a field hygiene section.



Health Education

Alan Guy details the health education he provided to soldiers in the infantry. He shares the means by which soldiers on the front lines were instructed to avoid malaria by taking pills and frostbite by putting their bare feet on their mate's stomach if one thought he was getting frostbite. He describes the various trench latrines used based on the time frame spent in an area.



Duties Following Cease-fire

Alan Guy recounts returning to Busan to assist with health aspects following the cease-fire and details several duties. Despite the cease-fire, he recalls an incident that involved a rope strung across the road as an attempted means of decapitating drivers. He shares an account of a situation he found himself in within the black market.



Albert Cooper

Gift of Food and Spoon

Albert Cooper describes one of his most memorable experiences in Korea. While on patrol, he was invited into a Korean home for rice with beans. Having trouble with chop sticks, an elderly Korean woman gifted him an ancestral spoon. He talks about what that spoon means to him today and the bond between the US and South Korea.



Proud at Every Bend of the Road

Albert Cooper compares and contrasts the Korea that he left in 1953 with the Korea he revisited in 2009. Amazed at Korea's progress, he describes being "proud at every bend of the road." He says he is most proud that Koreans are happy and prosperous.



Albert Frisina

Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Albert Grocott

For the Love of Learning a Language

Albert Grocott recalls his time spent on Rest and Relaxation (R&R) in Seoul during the war. He shares that he encountered several orphaned children who needed food and clothing while there and details bringing them food from the mess hall and stealing clothing for them. He states that he did it for the love of learning a language, and the only payment he required was that they teach him Korean words and songs.



Albert Harrington

Typical Duties of the Infantryman

Albert Harrington describes the typical duties of a soldier serving in the infantry. He explains these duties consisted of checking ammunition, re-digging trenches after rain, and patrolling. He comments on the dangers of patrolling and details one particular instance where the company nearest his was hit. He also describes the penalties for taking one's boots off as they were required to keep them on during certain services.



Albert Kleine

The Pull to Join the Korean War

Albert Kleine joined the military in May 1950 before the Korean War broke out. He became interested in the Korean War in 1952 when he met a soldier who came home from this war and he had an Indian arrow head. In 1953, he went to Korea with 4 friends.



Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



Surviving a Chinese and North Korean Attack

Albert Kleine was stationed near the Imjin River during his time in the Korean War. He was very fearful of the flowing river and the sounds it gave off that showed its strength. Later he would realize that the river was nothing compared to the flutes signaling the attack by thousands of Chinese and North Korean troops.



The Cold went Right to Your Soul

Albert Kleine felt that the cold weather was the worst part of fighting in Korea. Even though he was stuck there fighting the Chinese in the terrible weather, he doesn't hate them because they were only told to fight. He wasn't fighting the man, he was fighting the country.



The Kindness of the Korean People

Albert Kleine was brought to tears when talking about his Korean revisit. When he revisited Korea, he was wearing his uniform and the adults along with the children were so kind to him since he was a soldier. In 2016 he went back for a funeral there and he wants to go there to live for the rest of his life because he has seen the evolution of the city.



Albert R. Sayles

Japan: Living Conditions and the Tachikawa Air Disaster

Albert Sayles offers an account of his time spent in Japan training with the 6th Tank Battalion of the 24th Division at the base of Mt. Fuji. He describes his living conditions and the cold winter he and others endured. He recalls a tragic accident known as the Tachikawa Air Disaster which took place while he was stationed there, killing 129 servicemen who were returning to Korea following R&R in Japan. He shares that the images of the bodies lined in the hangar and thoughts of how quickly their lives ended are with him even today.



Alford Rodriguez Rivera

Living Conditions in the Foxholes

Alford Rodriguez Rivera recounts his meals and his living conditions during the war. He explains that he ate C-rations and slept in foxholes during his time there. He shares that he did not know anything about Korea before arriving. He recollects Korea being mountainous with many trees and there being snow in the winter.



Alfred Curtis

Harsh Weather Conditions in Korea

Alfred Curtis recalls the harsh weather conditions while in Korea. He describes extreme cold and heat and recounts excessive rain as well. He mentions specific gear--rubber-lined boots and a parka--that kept him from developing frostbite during the cold months.



Ali Dagbagli

Destruction and Living Conditions

Ali Dagbagli describes the poor conditions of the Korean people. Kids would beg for food and cigarettes. People lived in houses made of rice stalks. Ali Dagbagli traveled from Incheon to Daegu, before moving north to Kunu-ri, North Korea.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

Recounts From Post-Armistice Korea

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes post-Armistice South, Korea. He describes women with small feet from forced stunting. He also describes the suffering of the people from a war-torn land. People were starving. Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan gave food to the people. However, this was against military rules. He had to spend fifteen days in military prison for giving food. He also discusses the taboos of the suffering of the people.



Alice Allen

College, Letters, and Love

Alice Allen was going to college when her husband, Jack Allen, joined the military in 1948. During his time away, she earned a degree in education, and began teaching which helped pass the time while he was away. On leave in 1950, Alice Allen was married to Jack Allen and the two stayed in contact through letters while he participated in the Korean War from 1950 through 1951.



Injuries During War Never Tarnished Their Love

Alice Allen was on the home front when her husband, Jack Allen, was injured during the Korean War. Thankfully, he was injured on his right arm and not his left because he is left-handed. Even with an arm and leg injury, Alice Allen maintained her love for her Korean War Veteran.



Allan A. Mavin

No Water and Warm Food

Allan A. Mavin remembers his most difficult moments during the Korean War. He describes his living conditions with no water, electricity, and living in tents. He describes lack of hygiene and warm food.



Allen Affolter

Sharing Equipment and Exchanging Tea for Coffee

Allen Affolter details his assignment as a Regimental Accountable Officer. He describes having to know what equipment every battalion had as well as the provisions needed for resupplying them. He states that equipment was often shared amongst the units and comments on an unusual exchange of tea for coffee among the US and Commonwealth soldiers.



Korea's Meaning

Allen Affolter describes South Korea as an amazing country. He recounts the progress made since the war after returning to Korea with a Korean War Veterans Revisit Program and comments on its differences compared to North Korea. He shares that he was greeted warmly by the citizens of South Korea and left the trip proud of the contributions he and his colleagues had made to the success of their nation.



Allen Clark

Highway Through The Danger Zone

Allen Clark described the harrowing scene he experienced coming out of the narrow road while leaving the Chosin Reservoir making them easy targets for the enemy. Allen Clark was sitting in the back seat of a Jeep when the enemy fired a shot that punctured through the gas tank (quickly emptying it), and shooting a hole right through the tire. They jumped out of the jeep and ran behind a small hill that was just beyond some railroad tracks as a parapet while the Jeep driver hooked their vehicle to a truck and pulled it out of Kunwoori.



G.I. Gear at Chosin

Allen Clark explained different GI provisions that were a life saver. He describes his field jacket, and his overcoat manufactured by London Fog that is reinforced with additional material that you slept and lived in. The temperature dropped to 42 degrees below zero and the soldiers covered themselves with the scarf all the way up to his eyes to prevent them from freezing.



Star for the Chosin Few at Koto-ri

As an Assistant Artillery Liaison Officer of the 7th Marine Regiment, Allen Clark told the story of the Frozen Chosin, who survived the 42 degrees below zero temperatures for several days while attempting to secure a place in the mountains that gave them an advantage point that overlooked a bridge. He described the conditions at Koto-ri were so bad, the scarf he described was the only thing that kept him from further hypothermia damage. Anxious and ready to go as the weather began to improve, Colonel "Chester" Pulley on a clear night had pointed to the star that was in the sky and said, "We are going in the morning," and that rallying point for the Marines when they needed it the most.



Participation in the Inchon Landing-September 1950

Allen Clark participated in the Inchon Landing and he could see the ladders and see the fighting along the beaches. As he moved throughout Korea, he saw trucks, troops, and mortars coming into his area. While sleeping on the ground in sleeping bags with little supplies, Allen Clark and his fellow Marines worked in shifts to protect their regiment 24 hours a day.



The Most Difficult Events in the Korean War

Allen Clark had difficulty choosing which event was the most difficult, but he chose the events going into and out of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. General Smith told his fellow leaders that the Marines were now going to blow up their supplies and sneak out of the Chosin. Instead, he said that they would bring their wounded, dead, and supplies first and then head out as Marines, so everyone looked up to General Smith.



Evacuation of Civilians after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

South Korean civilians wanted to escape so bad that they were willing to leave behind everything and jump aboard overcrowded ships to leave the war-stricken area. It was estimated that 99,000 civilians were crammed on two boats with the survivors from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir with aid from a Chaplin who convinced the boat skipper to bring all the civilians to safety.



Korean Culture and Ceasefire

Allen Clark worked with and became friends with some South Korean civilians during his second tour in Korea. He observed Korean burials and was invited to eat octopus for the first time with the locals. During the ceasefire, Allen Clark used the help of civilians at the DMZ to find the enemy on the final days of the Korean War in July 1953.



Allen E. Torgerson

Duties as First Sergeant

Allen Torgerson describes there being short of officers during his time in South Korea. He shares that the shortage of commanding offers led to the handing down of duties to those below the usual rankings. He recounts that these duties pertained to morning wakeup calls and sorting the sick and injured.



Off Duty & Rest and Relaxation

Allen Torgerson shares that one was never really off duty during the war as one was still involved in everyday army duties other than when on Rest and Relaxation (R&R). He recounts spending a few days in both Japan and Seoul during R&R and remembers there not being much to do in Seoul as the city was destroyed. He shares that if one found some spare time in camp, he would play cards to pass the time.



Alves James “AJ” Key

Korea in 1968-1970

Alves James "AJ" Key describes what life was life for him as a member of the Air Force stationed in Korea between 1968 to 1970. He describes the weather. He also explains how the base where he was stationed was too crowded and that aircraft were constantly leaving and arriving.



Korea in Transition

Alves James "AJ" Key was in Korea after the war, so he was able to witness its transition to a modernizing country. He describes the development both in Seoul and in the countryside. He explains that he really did not understand how remarkable this transition was until years later when he fully understood the harsh conditions Korea had been under when Japan occupied the country.



Alvin A. Gould

Arriving in Korea

Alvin Gould talks about arriving at Incheon in December 1953 and traveling to Seoul. He describes leaving the ship and his impressions of the capital city. He mentions that one of the few buildings standing was called the Chosin Hotel.



The 10th Special Services Company

Alvin Gould describes the 10th Special Services Company. He talks about the formation, organization, and mission of this unit that was put together to entertain troops. He mentions that they often performed their shows in dangerous areas near the front lines.



Daily Routine on the Road

Alvin Gould talks about the daily routine of the 10th Special Services Company. He describes how the entertainers were selected, the kinds of acts that were part of the show, as well as some of the specific entertainers that he toured with.



Sleeping though the Night

Alvin Gould recalls going to sleep one evening near the front lines. The next morning, he awoke to news that several Chinese soldiers had overrun the line the previous night and were captured. He also talks about playing in shows to many UN troops, including Turkish and British units.



Keeping up Morale

Alvin Gould talks about the important job of the 10th Special Services Company, keeping up troop morale. He also tells the story of refusing to be awarded a Purple Heart after injuring his leg during a show at a MASH unit.



Alvin Jurrens

Withholding the Difficulties of War

Alvin Jurrens details an experience out on the front lines as a forward observer on the 38th Parallel. He recalls feeling safe in the bunker, but shortly after his departure, it was blown up. He shares a second close encounter he endured in a jeep incident as well. He acknowledges that someone was watching over him in both accounts. He also explains that he wrote letters home to his mother but withheld information regarding the difficulties there as he did not want her to worry.



Return to Hardship on the Home Front

Alvin Jurrens describes the ceasefire on July 27th, 1953. He remembers waking up the following morning to, for the first time, a quiet morning. He tears as he shares the hardest part for him upon his return home after the war.



Andrew Cleveland

Life Aboard a Destroyer Ship

Andrew Cleveland recalls what life was like on a destroyer ship. He remembers it being cramped though not as bad as a submarine. He recounts sleeping in a rack with only about eighteen inches between his bed and the next bed above and below him. He shares how everything one owned as a sailor was placed in a small cabinet on the ship deck. He recalls having a toothbrush and hair comb. He comments on how the food was a good mixture of meat and vegetables, sometimes even soup and sandwiches, and recollects being out at sea for six months at a time, with tankers coming regularly to refuel the ship.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza's initial encounter as he landed in Pusan was filled with shock because he never heard of Korea. One image that he'll never forget is hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of the children were, as he described, "disfigured."



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Andrew M. Eggman

Cold Weather

Andrew M. Eggman describes the bitter cold weather he encountered in Korea. He discusses coming in contact with Chinese soldiers while serving in perimeter security during the Chinese attack at Yudamni. He recalls how the men tried to focus on various conversational topics to keep their minds off the bitter cold.



Getting out of Chosin Reservoir

Andrew M. Eggman describes his experiences during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he went from being on machine-gun outpost, to taking down the tents, and moving stretchers as a part of convoy security. He recalls seeing pallets of supplies raining down over the men.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

A Typical Day in 6147

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes the typical day of an airplane mechanic during the Korean War. He recounts waking up, going to chow, and then heading out to the fly line to see what planes had been assigned. He recalls the requirement that a mechanic fly with a pilot after the plane was serviced.



Cold Weather and Living Conditions

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes how shocking the cold air of Korea was to him. He shares that on one particular occasion, they were forced to spend the night in a foxhole, and their shelter half froze to the ground. He adds that living conditions for his unit mainly consisted of tents with wooden floors and potbellied stoves to keep warm during the cold months.



Angad Singh

Korea, 1953

Angad Singh reflects on his impressions of Korea immediately following the war. He remembers arriving in Incheon in 1953 when Syngman Rhee was Korea's President. He noticed devastation everywhere. He arrived at the DMZ and recalls seeing no buildings left. He remembers seeing huts made from mud and next to no industry in the area.



Modern Korea

Angad Singh reflects on his recent trip back to Korea along with the Korean Veterans Association. He shares how he was well-received by the Korean people and recalls his amazement of the Incheon airport. He remembers seeing a sixteen-lane highway, which was impressive to him considering there were few functioning roads there after the war. He reflects on the improvement and progress made in Korea.



Experience in Korea

Angad Singh speaks about his living arrangements in Panmunjom, along the DMZ. He describes their living quarters, U.S. tents, being well-built and remembers having kerosine heaters in the tents because the temperatures in Korea were very cold. He recalls some of his duties while in Korea and adds that he left Korea and arrived home in India in August of 1954.



Antone Jackim

Life in Okinawa

Antone Jackim talks about daily life at Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. He describes the food, his sleeping quarters, and his pay as a corporal in the Air Force.



Aragaw Mselu

Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Arden Rowley

Life as a Prisoner of War

Arden Rowley describes his experiences as a Prisoner of War . He explains how they marched 24 nights before arriving at the camp which became known as “Death Valley” or the “mining camp.” He shares their living conditions, losing many of his fellow soldiers, burial detail and the indoctrination they received daily.



Arthur Gentry

"Bonsai" attack

Arthur Gentry lived through the "bonsai" attack near Kimpo Airfield. Japan occupied Korea for 35 years, and the North Koreans learned this "bonsai" tactic from the Japanese. Arthur Gentry remembered how Roosevelt made a decision to divide Korea while working with the Soviet Union. The U.S. Air Force was bringing in supplies to the airfield, so protection of the airfield was of great significance.



War Torn: 1950 Hamheung Evacuation

Arthur Gentry had an emotional experience when he and his fellow Marines were evacuated from Hamheung along with 100,000 North Korean refugees. As the reality of war set in, seeing the ships in the harbor the troops and the countless refugees were relieved to be rescued. Arthur Gentry remembered all the his ships, his company straightening their lines, and the Marine Corps singing hymns as they marched forward.



Legacy of the Korean War

Arthur Gentry believes that if it were not for the Marines, there would not have been victory at the Chosin Reservoir. Casualties were hight with 3600 U.S. soldiers killed in action, and another 6000 suffered from frostbite. Arthur Gentry believes that the Korean War, otherwise known as the "Forgotten War," was the last war the U.S. "won" and accomplished anything. He believes the victory lies within the Marines holding the line and the U.S. nurturing South Korea to flourish economically and democratically.



Arthur Leroy Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Sons Death

After hearing the news that their son had been captured and identified as Missing In Action on July 7, 1950 it was told to those who had returned that his brother was supposedly being held as Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. It was later discovered that his brother died on his 21st birthday in January of 1951. Those who were returning from the war were talking about who had come home and who died. Some of the returning soldiers told his family that the tragic news that he had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



Arthur W Sorgatz

Strangers Left The Dead

Based on Korean culture, if someone died and the body was lying along the road, civilians would leave the body there, claiming that if they returned the body to the family, the helper would have to take care of the deceased person's family. Sometimes, bodies would lay in the road for three to four days before it was picked up. Arthur Sorgatz had to drive around bodies any times during his tour in Busan, Korea.



Impact from a Tour in Korea and Japan

Arthur Sorgatz was able to learn about how other people live when he was stationed in Busan starting in 1954. Poverty was very high in Korea after the war and America's poverty level is nothing compared to Korea's at that time. In Japan, Arthur shipped damaged trucks to the port while creating his own fun by scaring Japanese civilians by backfiring trucks right within busy towns.



Asefa Desta

Two Different Koreas

Asefa Desta describes the two different Koreas, war-torn and present. He never thought there would be such a significant change. Korea was so broken during the war. However, hard work by the people was able to transform Korea into what it is today. Asefa Desta also compares the change between Ethiopia and Korea over the same time period.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Bravery through Difficulties

Assefa Demissie Belete describes working with the 7th Division of the US military in the Korean War. Difficulties that the soldiers encountered was the snow and cold. Also, there were many snakes that were always following them. Overall, all of the troops fighting in Korea were very brave. When the troops came home to Ethiopia people received them nicely.



Austin Timmins

Korea: Yesterday to Today

Austin Timmins compares his observations from visiting Korea in 1998, to what he witnessed during the Korean War. He also details how impressed he is with Korea's development. He has knowledge of South Korea's development, but his legacy far exceeded his expectations.



Avery Creef

Basic Training at Fort Polk

Avery Creef, after enlisting in the Army in January of 1951, went to boot camp in Fort Polk, Louisiana. He reflects on his experiences and what he learned. He spent twelve weeks there and recalls countless marching drills and learning to shoot different weapons. He then went to Fort Benning, Georgia, for more training. He landed in Incheon, South Korea, in June of 1952.



Impressions of Korea

Avery Creef shares the image of Korea he has in his mind. He recalls seeing many mountains. He recounts landing in Incheon at dark but remembers the city being destroyed. He also recalls seeing Seoul on his way out of Korea and remembers it being destroyed.



Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Living Conditions, Daily Routine

Avery Creef recalls never being able take a shower. He recounts never being dressed properly for the freezing winter weather. He slept in a bunker and ate C-rations. He shares how he enjoyed eating the pork and beans and adds that everything else tasted terrible. He remembers receiving packages from home periodically which would include better food options. He also remembers writing letters home.



Ayhan Karabulut

Impressions of Korea

Ayhan Karabulut describes the despair of Korea when he landed in 1951. He describes a train from Incheon to Seoul where it was faster to walk. He also describes women and children begging soldiers for food. There were many orphaned children during this time that were also begging for food.



Basil Kvale

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Basil Kvale fought in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir in weather that reached 40 degrees below zero. The men nicknamed the region the "Frozen Chosin" since the temperature was cold enough to freeze a soldiers' skin. He worked with a lieutenant to create locations to hit the enemy throughout his time in this battle.



Fighting in Ujeongbu and the Taebacek Mountains

Basil Kvale was taken to Ujeongbu (Northern Korea) with an amphibious military group to set up for battle. They moved a lot and were so close that they could see the Chinese right near their location. At a new location in the Taebacek Mountains, Basil Kvale was over 3,000 feel above sea level and it was an important location to give orders of where to bomb.



Chinese POW-Ping

Basil Kvale captured a Chinese POW named Ping who later was sent with other soldiers. As a Marine, Basil Kvale was asked to help give the coordinates for the bombing to aid his commander. He had the cannons and bombs attack from four different sides which led to total disaster for the Chinese.



Basilio MaCalino

First-Hand Account of Japanese Bombing Pearl Harbor, HI

Basilio MaCalino was 6 years old when he saw the Japanese pilots flew low to the ground between two mountains. He could even see the pilot because the planes were so low. He watched with his own eyes as the lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii Pearl Harbor was bombed.



Joining the Marine Corps

Basilio MaCalino didn't graduate high school and due to his bad choices, he had to join the military.
He enlisted Feb. 12, 1953 for the Marine Corps and was sent to San Diego, CA for his bootcamp training. Right after training, he was sent to Korea. His specialty was a supplier for the military.



The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Life in Ascom City

Basilio MaCalino was stationed at Ascom City and he hated that there wasn't any fresh milk, eggs and hot water for his shower. When it was cold, he only showered once a week. Basilio MaCalino was able to sleep in an old building and was signed house boys to help around the base.



Belay Bekele

Protecting a Country Being Attacked

Belay Bekele describes the reasoning for Ethiopian forces going to Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie made a promise to the United Nations to protect nations being attacked. Ethiopia was the only country in Africa to send troops to Korea. Belay Bekele also describes the suffering of the people. He says the people would eat food scraps from the soldiers.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Learning Japanese Headed to Korea and the Army Point System

While on the troop ship going over to Korea, the loud speaker system on the ship was only playing conversational language in Japanese, not in Korean. This showed the soldiers that no one had the opportunity to learn Korean before landing in this combat zone. While stationed in a war zone, the Army gave out 4 points for soldiers at the front lines, 3 for troops farther back, 2 for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and 1 point for troops on the home front. Ben Schrader was earning 4 points a month, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



10 Days and a Much Needed Shower

Everything was provided for the soldiers, so pay was always sent back to the US. Combat fatigues were provided and showers were only provided every 10-12 days. Charcoal was provided for heat and since you had to carry your water for drinking, water was scarce. Ben recalled the trucks carrying large containers of hot water pulled up and they had installed pipes that sprayed hot water to produce a "shower" effect for the men as they stood under in 20-degree weather.



We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembered before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembered while cooking the C-Ration that contained some form of meat, they would eat the whole onion raw and potato uncooked to add flavor. Koreans would have double rations so that they could share with the American military and the meals consisted of rice with fish.



Closure to the Present Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believed that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the US with bombs. It is just like the Cold War the lasted for many years. He would support reunification between North and South Korea since he went back to Korea for a revisit and he saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benjamin Basham

Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Benjamin Basham

Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Benjamin Basham

Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Bernard Brownstein

Everyone Looked Beautiful

Bernard Brownstein describes his arrival in Incheon and drive to his camp. He explains that the soldier driving him whistles at Korean women as they are driving. He explains that initially he didn't find the girl attractive but as time went on, everyone became beautiful.



No Windows Anywhere

Bernard Brownstein describes the condition of Seoul during the war. He explains what the food markets looked like at the side of the street. In addition, he explains the bullet holes and blown out windows of the capital's buildings.



Toilet Paper Was The Big Thing

Bernard Brownstein describes being able to visit his cousin Myron who was also serving in Korea for five days. He explains how pulling connections made it possible for them to visit in person. He also describes how the only thing that Myron wanted from him was toilet paper.



Bernard Clark

Patrol Duties

Bernard Clark went on a variety of patrols during his time in Korea. He calls these patrols "recce" (reconnaissance). "Recce" patrols consisted of five men and entailed going out to a point and returning with the intent to keep an eye on things in no man's land. His listening patrol consisted of three men who went out into no man's land and sat in a location all night to listen for enemy movements.



Living Conditions

Bernard Clark had to live in trenches near and on the front lines because there were not any shelters of any kind. The trenches were six feet deep and a fire could be made during the winter to stay warm. C-Rations were eaten most of the war, and they included beans and tea. He recalls taking over for the Greeks at "Kowang San/Little Gibraltar" area near Hill 355, and he remembers finding many dead bodies left in the trenches.



Coping with Loss and Memories of Korea

Bernard Clark is still saddened by the loss of his friends while serving. He dealt with those losses as a young man in a few different ways. He also attended several concerts during his time in Korea, and he remembers a road march while on reserve which entailed a fiery mishap. Napalm drops took place during the Korean War, and he describes the aftermath of this weapon.



Bernard Dykes

Life in the Iron Triangle

Bernard Dykes elaborates on what living conditions were like in the Iron Triangle. He often had to sleep inside a tank with four other soldiers. He also describes the food and the cold weather.



Bernard G. Kenahan

Route to Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan describes departing for Korea in 1953 via ship. He describes making multiple stops along the way, including stops in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Japan. He recounts the living conditions regarding showering and explains that his duties aboard ship entailed overseeing the sleeping quarters.



Guard Duty

Bernard G. Kenahan shares his most difficult encounter during his service in Korea. He describes performing guard duty despite being issued a medical slip. He recalls being allowed to sit during his assigned duty.



Bernard Lee Henderson

Carepackages from family members

Bernard Henderson shared that he would write letters to his parents requesting fruitcakes and breads. His mom would send care packages to the front lines. He said he was able to carry the food along with all of his military supplies (almost 88 lbs of ammo) on A-frames that were designed to carry the amount of bullets and supplies.



Fire In The Hole

Bernard Henderson shared his experience of being struck in his chest with shrapnel. Puny Wilson, one of the members of his regiment, was pulling guard-men one night and yelled, "Fire in the hole" 5 times. After throwing the 2nd grenade, Bernard stood up from his fox hole and the grenade hit him right in the chest. Although it didn't penetrate through his clothes, he started tearing his clothes off yelling for a corps men to help him.



Life as a Soldier During the Korean War

Bernard Henderson would sleep in his foxhole with his clothes on in a sleeping bag in shifts with other Marines. As a Marine, they did not shower often since they were stationed up in the mountains. The most difficult time he had was trying to escape from a Chinese attack by running down railroad tracks since it was not even, but he just wanted to stay alive.



Bernard Smith

Bernard Smith- Struggles with Equipment

Bernard Smith described that the equipment that was set up was only good for a 50 mile radius and many times they would need to reach as far as 200 miles to get a signal. Since there wasn't a hill in between their location, they could operate from machines and make compromises to get it to work. They had multiple diesel-fueled generators to ensure they were able to continue to operate if the other ran out and the freezing cords were another concern as Bernard Smith lived through the cold winters in Korea.



What Adjective Would You Chose to Describe Korea during the war?

Bernard Smith described Korea as if the conditions and people during the war went "back in time." He said he could equate what he saw to living the harsh life in rural America where people had next to nothing, but were still happy. He described children would pull empty Hershey boxes with a string as if it was a toy truck and were so content.



Witnessing Seoul

Bernard Smith's encounter with Seoul when they arrived was a devastated and torn apart city. An example is a governmental business that had its windows blown out and walls collapsed, but what parts were still standing and areas safe enough to work, the government continued to work there. The area where Bernard Smith was stationed appeared to be untouched.



Bill Bean

Stationed at Dover

Bill Bean describes his training experience which included going to Illinois before being sent to Dover, Delaware. He explains how “rural” the base was, but that didn’t bother him. His records were destroyed in a fire, but he believes that he was there until he was activated in spring of 1952.



G.I. Bill

While serving, Bill Bean received approximately $90 per month as part of the G.I. Bill. He explains that his schooling was covered and this was an additional stipend. With the money, he purchased a GMC pickup truck that he used to explore the surrounding area in Alaska.



Bill G. Hartline

Lucky You Got Lost

Bill Hartline speaks about how being tasked to go look for a missing soldier saved his life.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



The Plight of the Korean People

Bill Lynn describes the destitute conditions the Korean people lived in during the war. He has revisited Korea and compares what he saw during the war with what he witnessed when he returned. Now he describes South Korea as a paradise and is completely astonished with the way the South Koreans have developed their country.



Bill Scott

We Called Them Hoochies

Bill Scott described what it was like on many of the hills he fought and the sand bags filled with dirt and rock used to protect them from the enemy. He described digging into trenches on the hill, and his mortar squad was placed just on the other side of the hill to fire at the enemy. Bill Scott pointed to a shadow box as he's describing the shrapnel that was collected from the battlefield that was fired at them by the Chinese.



Almost hit by the Chinese

Bill Scott described the fighting and living situations on the top of Pork Chop Hill. He recalled the area they were quartered in during their time on the hill.
Bill Scott was resting in his bed in this living quarters when it was hit and mortar barely escaped his head by inches. He said when he woke, the sound was deafening, and the area was heavily damaged. Bill Scott picked up pieces of the shell and stuck it in his pocket.



Babies Starving

When Bill Scott arrived in Seoul, they were given 4-5 days worth of rations. After seeing the starving children with or without parents, the soldiers fed the babies with their own food rather than watch them starve. Soldiers knew they had to take care of the kids and they were proud to have done it for them.



Billy Holbrook

Living Conditions & Relaxation

Billy Holbrook speaks about the living conditions on his boat. He shares how he read during his spare time. He recalls having good food, a warm place to sleep, and daily showers. He recounts how they would watch movies inside the ship. He thinks he was making somewhere between $30-$75/month. He adds they were, at times, allowed to go ashore and tour around the cities.



Billy J. Scott

The Black Moon of Korea

Billy Scott describes the two types of weather in Korea regarding visibility in the moonlight. He shares that the Chinese possessed the ability to adapt to the moonlight more so than the Americans. He recalls rotating watch and only sleeping a few hours in between and explains the danger of falling asleep during war.



The Rubble of Seoul

Billy Scott describes civilian men, women, and children starving in the destruction of Seoul. He shares that he and other American soldiers had never seen anything like it. He recounts gathering c-rations along with other fellow troops and tossing them to those in need.



The Friendship of Two Strangers

Billy Scott describes his friendship with a KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) named Pyon during his time in Korea. He recounts the opportunity Pyon was given to pay a visit to his family he had not seen in roughly a year's time. He shares that American soldiers gathered food, clothing, blankets, and money and gifted them to Pyon to secure his family's safety. He adds that he will never forget him.



Bob Couch

The Eye-Opening Trip to Pusan

Bob Couch discusses his basic training in California and his deployment to Korea. He recounts the "jolt" he experienced upon his arrival in Pusan after seeing the state of destruction and poverty level among civilians. He recalls trucks making rounds each morning to collect bodies of civilians who had died during the night.



Food Quality and Fortune in Korea

Bob Couch recalls the food provided to soldiers while in Korea. He shares that while it was not elaborate, it was still nourishment. He recounts there being no refrigeration and shares that products were canned and then boiled. He recalls being fortunate compared to other soldiers in Korea and even to those who served in WWII as he had a food line available and never went hungry.



Bob Mitchell

The Reality of Trench Warfare

Bob Mitchell speaks about the living conditions of trench warfare in the latter stages of the Korean War. He describes dealing with giant rodents, the freezing conditions, and the body lice. Bob Mitchell recalls when they left the trench and got a hot shower.



Bradley J. Strait

Destroyers during the War

Bradley Strait explains the difference between a battleship and destroyer. He discusses being stationed on the USS Joseph P. Kennedy Destroyer and shares that one of its chief functions was anti submarine warfare. He states that destroyers were used for shore bombardment at Wonsan Harbor and Incheon during the war.



Front Lines and Living Conditions

Bradley Strait explains he was stationed mostly in Wonsan Harbor. He remembers the North Koreans had pushed the Americans back to Wonsan and that a battle was taking place there, and he details the role of destroyers during this battle. He also recalls the living conditions on the ship as being very tight and cannot imagine women being stationed on the ship due to the close conditions.



Brian Hamblett

Sleeping with Gun Parts

Brian Hamblett's first memory of Korea was black and dismal. He describes winter in Korea and his battalion. He explains that they were surrounding a crater and that he was positioned with a machine gun. He describes having to cool the guns with glycerin rather than water and having to sleep with the gun parts so that they would not freeze.



Prisoner of War

Brian Hamblett describes life at Camp I after the Chinese took him as a prisoner of war. He explains that it was like a Korean village with mud huts and paper windows. He describes how the soldiers would find warmth sleeping on the floor which had flues running underneath it. He goes on to describe the indoctrination the Chinese forced on the men.



Bruce Ackerman

Home for Christmas?

Bruce Ackerman feared being surrounded by the Chinese in the Chosin Reservoir and had to endure the cold Korean winters, frost bite, and a near explosion close to his bunker. He thought that the soldiers would be home for Christmas in 1950, but sadly, he was wrong. Bruce Ackerman remembered the evacuation of 100,000 refugees during the winter of 1950 and that included North Korean civilians who were left homeless due to the invasion of the Chinese to support North Korean troops.



The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



North Korean Infiltration

The North Koreans infiltrated the Marine Corps by scouting out artillery positions. Bruce Ackerman noted that the artillery was a very important tool used during the Korean War. There was more artillery fired in the Korean War than in WWII.



Bruce W. Diggle

Picture Time

Bruce Diggle shares photos he took while in Korea. He shows photos of his travels from Pusan to Seoul through the countryside. His photos show the low level of development of Pusan and the destruction of bridges along with the city of Seoul itself.



Burt Cazden

Navy Food and Entertainment

Burt Cazden describes the food provided during his service in the Navy. He recounts a combination of foods from cans and one particular specialty, SOS. He mentions that there were few entertainment options but recalls watching movies on the ship deck via a makeshift screen hung from a gunner turret.



G.I. Bill

Burt Cazden describes using the G.I. Bill to continue his education at the University of California. He provides a detailed breakdown of expenses during that time frame and comments on his path to becoming an optometrist. He shares that he was given the G.I. Bill for four years on the condition that he maintain a certain number of course units.



C G Atzenhoffer Jr.

Freezing on the Airstrip

C G Atzenhoffer describes the weather in Spokane, Washington, and dealing with the harsh conditions during his duties. He shares his experience guarding jet squadrons during blizzards as part of the special service. He details the scant clothing they were given to carry out their duties and the lack of warmth they gave.



Poorly Prepared for War

C G Atzenhoffer describes his opinion on the Korean War and how unprepared he felt the United States was for the conflict. He expresses that American soldiers lacked training and were under-equipped. He describes flying to differing arsenals across the United States gathering weapons to send over to Korea.



Calvin Karram

Calvin was only 17

Calvin Karram remembers how his superiors found out that he was only 17, which meant that while he could be in the service, he was too young to be in a combat position. Since it was only 10 days until he turned 18, they did not want to send him home as he then he would be assigned somewhere else. Instead, they sent him for 10 days of R & R and then back to his unit.



The Army taught me about Life

Because his unity constantly on the front lines, Calvin Karram explains that there was often no place to sleep even during the winter. Often they would sleep under trees or in foxholes and only sometimes were able to carry their sleeping bags with them. Despite this, he says he had no regrets about joining the army as it taught him a trade and about life.



Carl B. Witwer

Life on the Aircraft Carrier

Carl Witwer describes how life was like on the U.S.S. Bon Homme Richard. He discusses how many people, weapons, planes, and the size of the carrier. He also compares life on an aircraft carrier compared to life on a destroyer ship.



Part II: Destroyer Experience

Carl Witwer returned back to Korea and had to assist with radar technologies on the destroyer U.S.S. Hanson in the West Sea. He compares his duties a part of Task Force 95 compared to his prior assignment. He also elaborates on a time his ship saw action with a submarine and how it was a close call.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Enlistment and Basic Training

Carl Jacobsen describes his path into service. He shares how he felt the need to do something constructive and decided to enlist in the U.S. Army. He details his basic training and recounts volunteering to represent his regiment as a mile runner, winning many of his meets. He recounts his decision to go airborne and attend jump school following basic.



Living Conditions

Carl Jacobsen describes the living conditions he endured while serving. He remembers extremely cold temperatures and not being outfitted with proper winter gear. He recalls the K-Ration meals he ate and recounts a few meals he shared with locals.



Carl Rackley

Nerve Damage from War

Carl Rackley describes here the lasting impact the Korean War has had on his life since he served. He describes having nerve problems and how this affects his daily life. He describes the roots of these nerve issues from their origins in war.



Carl W. House

Destruction of Civilian Homes

After Carl House's unit left the Incheon landing site, they headed to Seoul. He said the first time he witnessed the capital, it was gone due to total destruction. When American tanks arrived, they would level the buildings to keep the North Koreans from using them. Carl House said they warned civilians to leave their homes before the soldiers destroyed them. However, recently, Carl House was was surprised at a doctor's office when he came across a magazine in the waiting room describing South Korea's accomplishments since the war.



First Night with a North Korean Spy

Carl House described that his unit worked with ROK soldiers and the language barrier made it difficult to understand each other. They relied heavily on sign language as a way to interpret their needs. During the first night, Carl House discovered that the person in his foxhole was a North Korean spy with assistance from the ROK soldier. They questioned the spy and the ROK soldiers took him away. Carl House felt he was lucky and he was amazed that the ROK was able to identify the spy.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Surrounded at Jangjin: Last Line of Defense

Carl House arrived at Jangjin with his unit and was told no enemy forces were within a fifteen-mile radius. He recalls many soldiers began building fires, drinking coffee, and preparing sleeping bags. He shares that Chinese forces surrounded the U.S. soldiers in a horseshoe-shaped position around three in the morning, making it nearly impossible for them to escape. He remembers fighting for three days and running low on artillery after a failed airdrop landed in enemy territory. He recounts his captain ordering his unit to stand rear guard while fellow soldiers pulled out and recalls doing what he could to hold off the Chinese.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As Carl House was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke Carl House's arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When Carl House made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the 30 degree below zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and Carl House were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. Carl House left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembered eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen

Life in Korea After the War

Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen describes his daily life in Korea as a member of the Military Police after the Korean War had ended. He shares that it was not easy and that he and others there worked 7 days a week. He expresses that the only thing that really bothered him throughout the experience was not being with his family.



On Their Feet

Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen describes how he feels he helped the Korean people get up on their feet after the war. He shares that his aid came through distributing clothing, food, and assistance where needed while he was there. He explains that he knew they were going through a difficult time and that they needed all the help soldiers and the government could give them.



Cecil Franklin Snyder

Seoul, 1958-1959

Cecil Snyder describes Seoul based on his visits there in late 1958 though 1959. He talks about the condition of the city, it's infrastructure, sanitation and people.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker describes the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during the time of winter. He describes poor housing and lack of general items. Cecil Walker describes how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Conditions In and Around Seoul

Cecil Walker describes conditions in and around Seoul. He helped bring supplies from Incheon to Seoul and transport Australian forces from the Second Line of Defense. Cecil Walker also describes how Seoul was deserted, with the exception of "Street Kids." He describes how when people did return to Seoul, they used any scrap to build shelter.



Cecil Phipps

Captured!

Cecil Phipps talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers, becoming a prisoner of war. He describes his initial three-day evasion and a fateful decision that led to his capture. He and seven fellow soldier were made to march north at night until they reached the Chinese border.



Chinese Houses

Cecil Phipps talks about the Chinese buildings he was housed in as a POW. He describes how these dwellings were built and what materials were used in their construction. He also describes in detail the heating system that was important for cold Asian winters.



Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Pak Tong POW camp (#3) and the harsh living conditions that he lived under as prisoner including remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions that he went from 190 pounds to 75 pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



POW Release

Cecil Phipps was released from Chinese captivity on August 28, 1953 at Panmunjeom after 33 months as a POW. He describes the trip from Pak Tong camp (#3), taking several days by truck and train and spending a week in another POW camp, before finally reaching freedom at Panmunjeom.



First Days of Freedom

Cecil Phipps talks about his first hours and days after his release as a POW. He describes being deloused, talking to military intelligence and reporters, and eating his first meal. He goes on to talk about his journey back to the United States by ship.



Cevdet Sidal

Folly During Wartime: An Important Mission

Cevdet Sidal describes an important mission. The mission was to acquire Sul, a Korean Rice Wine from an Alcohol Factory. The Turkish troops drank at the factory. The troops had trouble returning to base. Taking over the Alcohol Factory meant they always had alcohol. Cedet Sidal also describes fishing by grenade. As a result, this provided fresh fish for the soldiers.



Chaplain Ralph Lindon Smith Jr.

Outpost Harry (April-July 1953)

Ralph Smith talks about his time at Outpost Harry in 1953. He describes the terrain, logistics, and layout of the encampment. Manned only by one company, he talks about how they dealt with being grossly outnumbered by two Chinese battalions.



Charles Bissett

K-Rations and Where a Soldier Sleeps

Charles Bissett describes eating K-Rations while in Korea as there were no cooks for them. He recounts the K-Rations containing meat products and fruit. He recalls sleeping on the ground during the summer months.



Charles Blum

You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Mass Grave Site Filled with Civilians

Charles Buckley drove all throughout Korea during his time there and witnessed the narrow roads, trees, and the damage incurred. He recalls a massive grave site that had been unearthed full of slaughtered children. It's predicted that this grave site was from when the North Koreans overran Seoul, South Korea and killed anything is their path.



Thoughts of an Airman: Get the Hell Out Of There!

Charles Buckley's initial thoughts when he reflects on his experience during the war was to "get the hell out of there." He remembers his contribution to the country by helping various people, specifically the orphaned children. Charles Buckley would order from the Sears and Roebuck catalog and he would look forward to seeing the smiles on the children's faces. He also recalled the living conditions of all of the children and the civilians were able to obtain supplies they needed to rebuild their own country.



The Korean People Are Different Than Other People Around the World

Charles Buckley traveled all over the world and he said the people of Korea are so different in such a positive way. He feels their conduct, willingness to help themselves, and loyal to their country is what sets them apart from other countries. Charles Buckley also said the Koreans were so loyal to the US soldiers and respectful to those who died for their cause during the Korean War. They are the only people that continue to thank US soldiers.



Non-Combat Related Deaths

Charles Buckley said there were many non-combat related deaths with at least 5 to 7 within his own unit. While in Wonju, a radio relay site, a young man was in a 6 X 6 truck and he was trying to get up a slick mountain with another soldier, and the 6 X 6 truck rolled over killing them both.



Charles Bull

Training Can Be a Huge Pain in the Neck!

Charles Bull was shocked when he joined the Navy. It was difficult to take care of himself by washing, ironing, cooking, and caring for other men. He also had to learn all seamanship training for tools and ships. During a training, he almost was hit in the head with a 14 point lead pipe.



The Hardest Time in My Life While Active in the Navy

Charles Bull was stationed on the HMS Kenya when he was given the most difficult job he's ever had in the Navy. He had to work in the pay office to hand write all the ledgers for 6 months writing all hours of the night. When he went into Portsmouth to refuel, Charles Bull and two other men caught up all the paperwork to be handed over to the sailors at that port.



HMS Kenya's Involvement in the Start of the Korean War: June 28, 1950

As one of the first British Naval ships to be docked in Sasebo, Japan, his ship was used as a jump-off ship that took Marines and Army troops into Korea right after the war began on June 28, 1950. Charles Bull was working on pay ledgers for every pay accounts for every sailor in his section for every payday. His job was to document pay and then make sure that the sailors had money in their pocket when they went ashore in Korea. The whole process of getting paid was very formal and Charles Bull gave a detailed description of the process of getting their well-earned money.



Fighting Along Side and Burying Allied Forces During the Korean War

While aboard the HMS Kenya, Charles Bull worked along side multiple naval allies including the Austrians, Canadians, Dutch, and Belgians. Sadly, bodies of soldiers would be found at sea, so his ship would take the deceased aboard until they were ready to provide a proper burial at sea. Charles Bull remembers the moving ceremonies that the British gave for fallen American soldiers during the sea burial.



Charles Carl Smith

Life in the Punch Bowl

Charles Smith talks about the 11 1/2 months that he spent in the Punch Bowl and describes what it was like to be a part of trench warfare along the MLR. He tells the story of his first encounter with enemy troops and how he hoped to not be "yellow."



Charles Connally

Living Conditions

Charles Connally describes the dangers he faced and living conditions in Korea. He explains that mortar fire, snipers, and shrapnel were a constant concern but luckily many injuries were avoided except for two men: one was shot in the shoulder by a sniper and another was hit in the leg by a shard of shrapnel. He goes on to describe the miserable food options that led to his losing nearly forty pounds during his stay and sleeping in quonset huts.



Psychological Warfare

Charles Connally describes two psychological strategies utilized during the war. He describes connecting large speakers to the bottoms of B-52s and playing recordings of Korean women compelling the North Korean men to go home to their wives. He goes on to explain how the Chinese would fly planes over their camp at night, occasionally dropping hand grenades and bombs, in order to limit the amount of rest soldiers got. This the troops referred to as "Bed Check Charlie."



Charles Crow Flies High

Entering Korea in 1993

Charles Crow Flies High was sent to Korea for his first deployment in November 1993. He flew into Kimpo Air Force Base, and then he was sent to Seoul to get finished setting up to protect South Korea. He recounts that they were "locked and stocked" at all times from that point forward. His job was to watch for Kim Jong Il and his North Korean troops to make sure that they did not take over Seoul.



Knowledge of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High did not know much about Korea before his deployment, except for the details about the Korean War. Since many of his relatives were in the military, he knew about the Korean War, and it made him really proud to protect the peninsula just like they did. For both deployments, Charles Crow Flies High stayed for fifteen months protecting a variety of areas along the DMZ.



United States and Republic of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High talks about why the relationship between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a good thing for both countries. He believes that Kim Jung Un is influenced by his father, but there is a lot of camaraderie between US troops and Korean civilians. The Korean culture has spread around the United States, and he feels that this is a very positive interaction.



Charles E. Gebhardt

First Impressions of Korea

Charles Gebhardt describes arriving in Pusan in July, 1950. He talks about contacting his unit by phone and being picked up by jeep to travel to Masan. On their journey, he talks about seeing the first signs of war.



A Day on the Line

Charles Gebhardt describes his duties as a part of the 29th Infantry Regiment. He talks about going on patrols and observing enemy movements as an artillery forward observer.



Destruction in Seoul

Charles Gebhardt describes the destruction of Seoul he witnessed when passing through on his way to Kimpo Airfield. He says he "may have became a pacifist at that time," referring to the conditions that he saw Koreans living under.



Retreat from Chosin

Charles Gebhardt describes his unit's retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about destroying equipment. He also describes loading up the wounded on the slow retreat to Hagalwoori.



Losses, Conditions, and Rescue

Charles Gebhardt talks about the lives that were lost in the retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difficult conditions on the trek. He also tells the story when he and his comrades borrowed Marine vehicles to rescue wounded soldiers.



Charles Eggenberger

Bearing the Extreme Cold

Charles Eggenberger talks about being able to withstand the extreme cold he encountered in Korea. He describes a childhood of not having enough warmth because of poverty and neglect. He recalls seeing the injuries some soldiers suffered from not knowing how to take care of their extremities in the cold.



Charles Elder

Taking Care of Myself

Charles Elder talks about the cycle of taking care of himself during his time as a wounded prisoner during the Korean War. He had moments of extreme highs or lows. He had to remind himself to have hope of survival.



Charles Eugene Warriner

Korea After the Armistice

Charles Eugene Warriner talks about arriving at Incheon and his assignment near the DMZ in the time just after the signing of the Armistice. He describes building a bunker and collecting lumber. Although the war was over, you could still feel and sense the horror of war overhead.



Winter in Korea

Charles Eugene Warriner describes the winter conditions at his outpost near the DMZ in 1953. There was a terrible ice storm. He describes wrapping barbed wire around his boots to be able to walk upon the ice.



"You do crazy things"

Charles Eugene Warriner tells a story of how he took pest control into his own hands when faced with a rat problem in his mess hall. He shot the rat. He also describes how it helped not only the rat problem but to cure boredom as well.



Korean Children

Charles Eugene Warriner talks about seeing impoverished Korean children while on his way to his unit. He describes the emotional impact that the experience had on him. Many of these children were starving and had lost their families and homes.



Pumpkin Pie out of Strained Beans

Charles Eugene Warriner recalls a funny story when, as a cook, he came up with a clever way to use cans of strained beans. Strained beans was like baby food. He used them to create a pumpkin pie.



Charles Falugo

What is Korea like today?

Charles Falugo revisited South Korea in 2016 and was amazed at the differences he witnessed. The buildings, the highways, and other improvements he witnessed were so different from how he remembers Seoul in 1951. It was totally destroyed then, with only a couple of buildings standing.



What did you experience driving through Korea?

Charles Falugo recalls the roads being so bad that their truck chassis would constantly break. Every time his division would stop to fix its trucks, they would encounter starving children begging for food. He would give his rations to the children. He recalls moving into Seoul and only seeing the blue capitol building and the railroad station. All embassies were blown up. There was one Shell Oil Company building that was guarded, located right next to his company's housing.



Communicating During and After the War

Charles Falugo does not recall what he was paid, but he does remember sending his paychecks home to his wife, Rosemary. He recalls writing and receiving many letters back and forth with her during his time in the Korean War. He also talks about a Korean man that he befriended and somewhat adopted. He seeks to reconnect with him.



Rest and Relaxation

Charles Falugo recalls that when he was not on duty, he would hang out with the Korean people. Often he would give them supplies not being used by his unit. He recalls a good life in the Underwood house. He enjoyed all of the food that his Korean cooks would make and enjoyed saki with his friends.



Charles Fowler

Pusan Perimeter in July

Charles Fowler describes the intense July heat at the Pusan Perimeter when he arrived in Korea. He recounts suffering severe blisters due to taking his shirt off as he attempted to cool down while digging a foxhole. He also recalls helping build the "Al Jolson Bridge" which he later helped blow up during a retreat from enemy forces.



The Biggest Apples and Frostbite

Charles Fowler describes how the North Koreans used human waste to fertilize their crops and recalls the apples being the biggest he had ever seen due to this fertilizing method. He recounts accidentally eating a cat once as well while trying to stave off hunger. He describes the cold winter and shares his encounter with frostbite. He details being flown to Incheon, put on a ship, and a doctor telling him he could go home if he signed to have his feet amputated.



Chinese Torture

Charles Fowler recounts a fellow soldier's torture experience during the Korean War. He shares that the soldier had been captured and tortured by the Chinese. He describes how the soldier endured his eyebrows and eyelashes being plucked out, his finger and toenails being removed, and being buried up to his neck with insects crawling in his ears.



Charles Francis Jacks

Assignment, Living Conditions, and Patrol Dangers

Charles Jacks speaks of his assignment with the Marines and shares how they used a trench line for protection from incoming fire. He explains that Corpsman were sent where they were needed, and he recalls being sent to various locations via jeep transport. He remembers the dangers he and others faced while out on patrol.



The Korean I Saw

Charles Jacks describes the Korea he saw in the 1950s. He remembers small villages and rice paddies. He describes civilian housing and recalls the unique heating system they used to keep their houses warm in the winter.



Charles Gaush

Leaflets After Korean War

Charles Gaush talks about his job in psychological warfare after the armistice was signed. He describes making leaflets which were dropped in South Korea to give civilians suggestions to improve health and water quality.



Life in Japan at Camp Iomia

Charles Gaush talks about his time at Camp Iomia, Japan in the US Army's psychological warfare unit. He describes the building he was housed, living conditions, and how much he was paid.



Charles H. Brown

Shift Work

Charles H Brown discusses the most difficult thing about his time in Korea. He describes being undermanned on board and working around the clock. He worked in 4-hour shifts manning the radio.



Charles L. Chipley

Life Aboard the USS Rochester

Charles L. Chipley Jr. describes the food available aboard the USS Rochester. He shares that meat, potatoes, fruits, and vegetables were available among other foods. He adds that supply ships would replenish his ship's stock.



Charles L. Hallgren

An Overcrowded Voyage

Charles Hallgren describes his journey from basic training through deployment to Korea. He recalls boarding a troop ship containing six thousand soldiers though it was only supposed to carry two thousand. He describes the congested sleeping situation aboard ship as well as the limited food availability.



When Bomb Drops Go Wrong

Charles Hallgren describes the dilemma of dealing with ammunition and explosives that were produced during World War II but sent to be used in Korea during bomb drops. He explains the task of having to diffuse weapons before they actually exploded to prevent deaths. He describes the challenges that accompanied working with B-26 bomber aircraft. He recounts how the enemy would also run wire in between mountains to take down planes which may have been how General Van Fleet's son was killed.



Back to Korea During the Vietnam War

Charles Hallgren describes being deployed to Japan in 1970 for the purpose of inspecting Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units in Korea. He explains that Korea had tactical nuclear weapons which had to be inspected in various base locations on the peninsula. He describes his impressions of seeing a modernized Korea in 1970.



Charles Rangel

The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Segregation in the Armed Forces

Although the military was desegregated in 1948, Charles Rangel still experienced segregation during his military career. The only thing that was integrated, were two units. Even when he returned to the United States after the war, Charles Rangel had segregated barracks back on the military base.



Charles Ross

Singing in the POW Camp

Charles Ross describes how the Chinese forced them to learn a particular song. He shares that once he and other fellow POWs found out what the words meant they refused to sing it as it called for the death of Americans. He details going on strike and singing "God Bless America" during his time as a POW.



Charles T. Gregg

Poverty in Korea

Charles Gregg talks about some of his experiences with Korean civilians in the mid-1960's. He describes seeing dead people beside the road, a Korean man killing and eating a dog, and how Koreans fertilized their fields.



Interactions with KATUSA

Charles Gregg talks about KATUSAs. He describes how KATUSA soldiers were organized and used within his unit. He tells the story of dealing with a KATUSA soldier that had killed another soldier in an argument.



Charles Walther

Orphanage in Seoul

Chuck Walther tells a story about when he and several of his fellow soldiers went in search of an orphanage and what happened when they found it. They often contributed donations to the orphanage, however he and fellow soldiers wanted to see the local orphanage they were donating to. They bought gum and candies and delivered them there.



Charles Weeks

"I Didn't Change My Socks"

Charles Weeks talks about his decision not to change his socks which resulted in him being sent to Japan to recover from frozen toes. He feels like he dishonored his country, by not doing something so simple. He discusses this situation and his regrets.



Chong Rae Sok

Inchon Landing and Osan

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Inchon Landing. His unit landed at Inchon on September 18, 1950 and fought their way to Suwon. One day later, he describes moving by foot to Osan and losing soldiers along the way, including a fellow KATUSA.



Chuck Walther

Military Police Living Conditions

Chuck Walther describes the improvement in living conditions when he was in Seoul working as a Military Policeman compared to working at the DMZ. They stayed in a converted two story girls school in Seoul and he had a real bed to sleep on instead of a cot. His room and building were warm which was a another welcome upgrade.



Clarence Atzenhoffer

First Station Location

Clarence Atzenhoffer recalls how his unit reported to Geiger Field in Spokane, Washington, in September of 1951. He shares that there was a squadron of F-86 fighter jets onsite and adds that his unit served was an air control and early warning radar unit. He remembers the weather conditions, commenting on the large amount of snow they experienced there.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Chinese Were Everywhere

Clarence Sperbeck describes when he arrived on the front lines when the Chinese were all over the place they controlled everything. When he came back to the states, counter intelligence asked him how he knew the Chinese were everywhere dominating the region, and he said, "that was easy to detect." When you entered a traditional Korean home, you were supposed to take off your shoes outside and put rubber slippers on. Clarence Sperbeck said most of the houses he saw had Chinese Army Boots at the door, so that's how he knew they were sleeping in the Korean houses.



Frozen In Fear

Clarence Sperbeck recalls while on the move picking up extra men who had been displaced from their unit and abandoned weapons. He found one guy frozen (not literally), just sitting there whether fear or uncertainty, Clarence Sperbeck kicked him in the shin with his combat boot (said it hurt like hell), handed him a weapon, and told him to fall in line with the rest. The other soldier was a new replacement paralyzed again with fear who didn't speak or move even after being kicked by Clarence Sperbeck.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



Hope This Never Happens to You Too

Clarence Sperbeck commented on how fast the Chinese moved compared to the US troops. It was said that the average number of steps per minute the Chinese took were 140 to Americans' 120. While unable to hear, see, or walk due to his illness (amoebic dysentery), most of the American prisoners bypassed Clarence Sperbeck when he needed help, but a few soldiers helped him up. He was often the last in line (so weak/sick) during the march which would put him at a greater risk of being shot.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



You Dream Just Before You Die

Clarence Sperbeck tells the story of another camp that lost over 1600 men in a period of 2 weeks, and the Chinese brought the survivors of that "massacre" to Camp 1 to merge those survivors with his prison camp. Clarence Sperbeck was already suffering with amoebic dysentery at that time, so when he came upon his old squad leader who had survived the "massacre" (death from other camp), the squad leader demanded the Chinese to provide medical care for Clarence Sperbeck. He said he would have dreams of cooking a full meal, then going back to cook some more. Many men declared that these were the symptoms dying men.



Performing Medical Experiments on the Prisoners

In the 3 month stay in this hospital at Camp 1, the Chinese performed medical experiments on the prisoners by implanting a gland from an animal into POW's bodies. POWs were told that if the gland stayed in their body, they would potentially run a high fever and die from an infection. Clarence Sperbeck said the soldiers wouldn't let the incision heal over and they would attempt to squeeze the gland out to keep it from infecting their body.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clarence Jerke

Seoul, 1952

Clarence Jerke talks about driving a supply truck while he was stationed in Seoul in 1952. He describes the city, civilians, and the difficulties that he faced when transporting supplies.



Memories of the Armistice and Returning POWs

Clarence Jerke talks about his memories of the Armistice. He describes how he felt and what he did as he encountered returning POWs in August 1953.



Claude Charland

Helping the Hungry

Claude Charland describes the most vivid memory he has of his time in Korea. He shares the experience of a Korean family while on the front lines. He describes how he and his platoon led a Korean family down a hill to recuperate the food that the family had stored before the war.



The Hardship of Just Living

Claude Charland describes how hard it was to stay clean while serving on the front lines. He describes where they lived. He describes the attack by the bugs. He describes the weather and how it affected his living conditions..



Hockey During Reserve

Claude Charland remembers how he and other Canadian troops played ice hockey on the frozen Imjin River during January. He shares how the games were organized around teams from different regiments and were set up as a round-robin tournament. He shares how playing the national sport of his homeland allowed him to escape the reality of war for a little while.



Clayborne Lyles

Joining the Navy, Basic Training, and Traveling to Show Power

Clayborne Lyles joined the Navy as a 17 year old in order to move away from poverty in Arkansas in 1947. After attending 11 weeks of basic training and Machinist Maintenance (engineer) training, he was sent way on the USS Toledo to travel to a variety of ports across the world to demonstrate the US Navy's strength during the Cold War. He spent all of his time on the ship maintaining boiler operations while working on steam turbines, generators, pumps, air conditioning and refrigeration.



The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Friend or Foe?

Clayborne Lyles was part of General Quarters, "All arms, man your battle stations." The USS Toledo didn't realize that the incoming planes were US planes, so everyone was told to get ready to fight in the middle of the night. Thankfully, sailors used the Identifying Friend or Foe (IFF) gear before any shots were fired from the USS Toledo.



Clayton Burkholder

The Forgotten War and Korea Today

Clayton Burkholder felt that people call the Korean War the "Forgotten War" because people didn't know what to do with a communist country. He thought that great things came out of the Korean War because of the fortitude of its civilians. United States veterans are proud for their service in the war which led to South Korea's freedom today. Clayton Burkholder is surprised to see the change from dirt and huts to paved roads when he looks at Google Maps.



Pilots

Clayton Burkholder slept in metal huts and buildings with a cafeteria to eat. Since he was in headquarter staff, he was in that office most of the day. Clayton Burkholder made charts as an illustrator technician. He proudly shared pictures that he took while in Korea.
Some pilots that were stationed in Suwon with Clayton Burkhodler later became well-known such as John Glenn and Captain McConnell.



Clifford Allen

Inside the Supply Ship

Clifford Allen describes his life aboard a supply ship as surprisingly very pleasant. He shares that quarters were quite clean, and the bunks were 4 beds high with roughly 80 men to a compartment. He adds that he had no complaints about the food aboard ship.



Clifford L. Wilcox

A Great Discovery

Clifford Wilcox talks about experiencing cold nights while on duty as a forward observer. He stayed in a cave and froze for about two nights. He quickly discovering the ancient Korean way of heating a home.



One of The Greatest Experiences

Clifford Wilcox talks about the remarkable contrast between the Korea he saw during the war and the Korea he saw and experienced while revisiting in 2010. When he first arrived, he saw extreme poverty and destruction. In 2010, his experience was first class, seeing South Korea's progress.



Clifford Petrey

Living Conditions as a POW

Clifford Petrey comments on the food rations provided by the Chinese. He recalls suffering through cold winters in North Korea as a prisoner of war even after being given Chinese uniforms by his captors. He describes the healing of his wounds he sustained at the Chosin Reservoir despite being a POW with little medical attention.



POW Experience

Clifford Petrey further details his POW experience. He recalls there being little firewood and comments on the close sleeping arrangements. He shares that lice was an issue and how he and other soldiers picked lice off of each other. He details food portions and content and speaks of rampant dysentery.



Clifford Townsend

Living Conditions Near the Front Lines

Clifford Townsend recounts spending thirteen months on the front lines near the Imjingang River and the Iron Triangle. He describes the sleeping conditions, stating that he and other soldiers slept in tents during the summer and bunkers during the winter. He recalls eating in shifts and comments on the food offered.



Clyde D. McKenrick

A New Mess Sergeant

Clyde McKenrick talks about his duties as a personnel clerk in Korea. He was responsible for assigning new personnel to appropriate units. He tells the story of assigning a corporal to the duties of mess sergeant and the fortuitous results that happened.



Clyde Fruth

"Up to the Hill"

Clyde Fruth describes the daily routine of an Army forward observer. He spent most of his time on the lookout, observing through binoculars at the enemy. He details the type of technology he used as well. He couldn't look too high because he didn't want to be hit by a sniper. He also describes his living conditions.



Snow and Supplies

Clyde Fruth talks about the most difficult times he had in Korea. He describes deep snows forcing traveling by foot to his mountain forward observer post. In this predicament, they had to carry all their food, supplies, water, and weapons that were heavy to carry in the cold.



Day by Day

Clyde Fruth talks about the dangers he faced as a forward observer from incoming artillery and snipers. He details about an enemy unit that was always prepared to attack them and would sneak up through the trenches. He describes always have to keep his eyes open for the enemy.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



Radio Operators in the Korean War

Colin Carley shares that he worked alongside an Australian brigade when he patrolled near Panmunjeom in late 1950 through early 1951. As a radio operator for his New Zealand Battery Brigade, he recalls being scared of all the tracer bullets that would whiz by him. He remembers how he would feel sick when battles began because he never knew if he would be able to return home again.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Colin J. Hallett

Conditions of the Ship

Colin Hallett describes the living conditions on the ship. Crewman could not leave things around and would have to pay to retrieve possessions left out. He explains that crewmen were limited, worked during the day during one of the four watches and slept in hammocks.



Engaged During the War

Colin Hallett describes his engaged to Ina Everitt. Both Collin Hallett and Ina Everitt sent letters to stay in contact. Colin Hallett sent letters that spoke of daily and weekly events. Ina Everitt had a busy life at home that kept her busy and not just thinking of her fiancé.



Conrad R. Grimshaw

The Houses of the Korean People

Conrad Grimshaw describes arriving in Korea and seeing the devastation of the Korean households. He recounts their homes being burnt and crudely replaced by stones, straw, and dirt. He shares that American soldiers were empathic and took care of the Korean people any way they could.



Curtis Lewis

African Americans in the Korean War

African Americans that were in the military during the 1950s faced discrimination. Curtis Lewis noticed that African Americans were relegated to jobs such as navy motor pool, food service, supply, and general trade jobs. Unfortunately, African Americans were still subjected to institutionalized racism in America.



Basic Training and MOS Training in California

Curtis Lewis graduated high school in 1952 and jointed the Air Force right away. He attended basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. After earning high scores in the technology industry, he was sent to California to learn his military operational specialty. While in California, he was able to see many of his Army friends leave for Korea, but not all returned.



Travis Air Force Base During the Korean War

Curtis Lewis was not sent to the Korean War during his time in the military. He heard that the US Army didn't have enough guns and ammunition while fighting against the North Koreans. Many of the US regiments were run over by the North Koreans due to lack of weapons. He was stationed at Travis Air Force Base in California to perform maintenance and was paid 200 dollars a month and he earned his way up to Staff Sergeant.



Dale Schlichting

Enlisting as a 17 Year Old

Dale Schlichting chose to join the Navy the day after he turned 17 years old. He prepared and studied for the Eddie Test for electronics with help from his favorite high school teacher. Dlae Schlichting chose the Navy since everyone in his neighborhood was active in this branch and he also wanted to follow after his relatives in the Navy.



Training, Training, and More Training!

Dale Schlichting didn't know that he could get a guarantee to go to ET (Electrical Training) School so that he could get into aviation by spending 8 weeks there. Then he went to mess cooking for 5 school. After that, he went 29 weeks Aviation Electrician Technician School and he wanted to be a tailgunner, but that job was closed.



Squadron 35

After 16 months of training, Dale Schlichting was sent to Florida to join Attack Squadron 35. The only propeller aircraft that was still being used in the Korean and Vietnam War was worked on by Dale and this made his so proud. He was supposed to be dismissed from the military two months early, but he wanted to stay with his squadron to travel the world. If was left behind with 13 of this squad mates because Squadron 35 wouldn't be back to their base by the time Dale Schlichting would have to leave.



Dan McKinney

An Amazing Coincidence

Dan McKinney describes his capture by enemy forces and the way he was able to let his family know that he was still alive. He talks about telling another POW who was scheduled to be released, to tell his girlfriend and family that he was still alive when he returned stateside. In an amazing coincidence, the Marine told him that he had actually double dated Mckinney's girlfriend back in Texas before the war.



The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly 60-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Food and Living Quarters in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes what he was given to eat during his journey to POW Camp #1. He describes the POW Camp and how it was in a former Korean village. He also details what the prisoners' small living quarters were like.



Day-to-Day Work at POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the day-to-day work of POW's at Camp #1. He describes going to nearby mountains to harvest firewood during the warm months for the upcoming winter. They would hike about four miles to and from, carrying the large logs.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Food, Clothing, and Propaganda in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the food he was given as a POW in Camp #1. He talks about the clothing that he wore during his captivity. He also tells the story of a captured photographer whose photographs the North Koreans used to create propaganda materials.



Infractions and Consequences for POW's

Dan McKinney talks about infractions and consequences for prisoners in his POW camp. He describes the cages that they were sometimes held in. He also discusses his perceptions of North Korean POW camps versus Chinese POW camps.



Life After the Armistice Was Signed

Dan McKinney talks about life in the POW camp during months prior to and days after the Armistice were signed. He mentions that their treatment became better or worse based on the state of the negotiations. He talks about the prisoners' reactions to the news of the Armistice as well as how he and his comrades were transported to be exchanged nearly a month after the ceasefire went in place.



Coming Home

Dan McKinney talks about the 2-week journey back to the US by ship after he was released as a POW. He describes being interrogated about his captivity. He also describes finally eating well, gaining 25 pounds during the crossing.



Daniel Carvalho

Living Conditions

Daniel Carvalho shares details of the living conditions he faced while in Korea. He describes the little food he had. He shares how the cold was new for him. He shares the lack of water for hygiene purposes.



Daniel Ed Fenton

POW Experience

Daniel Ed Fenton briefly describes his capture and experience as a POW during the Korean War. He touches upon his living conditions during that time. He shares that he was held captive for 2 years and 8 months.



Daniel J. Rickert

Becoming a Demolition Corporal

Daniel Rickert talks about the jobs he performed as a part of the 3rd Combat Engineering Battalion. Trained as an infantry soldier, he describes assuming his job as Demolition Corporal being given a manual. He set up removing explosives in landmines, etc.



Enemy Bunkers and Trenches

Daniel Rickert talks about the many enemy bunkers and trenches. He describes how they were designed and built. They were very hard to find.



Life in the Winter of '51-'52

Daniel Rickert describes life during the winter of 1951-1952. He talks about his duties, frozen food, and "hot bunking." He also details other aspects of bunker life on the front lines.



"It Was a Miracle"

Daniel Rickert revisited South Korea in 1998. He compares and contrasts his Korean experiences that were 50 years apart. He describes the rebuilding and modernization as "a miracle."



Regimental Combat Team

Daniel Rickert gives a description of a regimental combat team. He talks specifically about the 5th RCT. This was his battalion he was attached to.



Darold Galloway

Daily Life on the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about daily life on the USS Fletcher (DD-445). He describes the weapons systems and number of men on board. He also talks about food, living quarters, and the duty schedule.



Daryl J. Cole

Living Conditions

Daryl J. Cole describes the living conditions he experienced while in Korea. He describes living in a basic canvas tent with a cot and sleeping bag and a small stove in the middle of the tent. He recalls always having a good, hot meal, being able to take a shower about once a week and the foot fungus he brought home after the war. He goes on to recount his correspondence back home with his father.



David Carpenter

The Green Berets

David Carpenter participated in extreme exercises while in commando training. He recalls how if a trainee did not pass the test, he would be thrown out of the Marines. Training included cliff climbing, nine mile speed marches, a thirty mile trek with a seventy pound backpack, and crossing rivers on ropes. After surviving this training, they were awarded the Green Berets which signified that they had passed the All Arms Commando Course.



Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



Modo Island

David Carpenter lost four Marines who were taken as POW's off the coast of Wonsan. He stayed on Korea's islands until peace talks began in 1953. He recalls going on leave to Japan to get some rest and relaxation (R & R) before he returned to England.



David Clark

Ship Assignment

David Clark describes his travel to Norfolk Naval Base. He shares how the next day he was transferred to his ship, which was a Fletcher-class destroyer. He describes the U.S.S. McCord in detail.



Travel to Korea

David Clark discusses the route that he took to get to Korea via the U.S.S McCloud. He describes going through Pearl Harbor, Midway, and into Sasebo, Japan. He shares how he was immediately introduced into the war zone when they arrived in the East Asia Sea.



U.S.S McCloud and Military Occupation

David Clark shares details of the U.S.S McCord (DD-534). He describes the weapons available on the ship. He describes his job as a Quartermaster.



Ship Life

David Clark discusses the living conditions aboard the U.S.S. McCord while serving in the Navy. He explains the sleeping area. He explains the food and the cooks. He describes showering, entertainment, and letters on the ship.



David Espinoza

Traveling to Korea

David Espinoza describes his journey to Korea and his arrival on the front lines. He explains having to board a ship in California, and his arrival at Inchon in late 1950. He recalls having to replace other men who were much younger, and had been fighting for some time.



Koje-do Prison Camp Riots-1951

David Espinoza talks about his participation in the combat operations within Koje-do Prison Camp. He recalls having to use flame throwers to help stop the riots incited by North Korean and Chinese prisoners. He remembers that he and the men he served with had to use hand grenades and bayonets to restore order in the camp.



David H. Epstein

A Destroyed City

David H. Epstein discusses seeing Seoul during the Korean War. He recalls that the city was a destroyed, flattened area in 1953, and describes the South Korean people as being very friendly. He describes seeing women and children walking on the roads, and remembers not being able to communicate with them.



David J. Smith

The 47th MASH Unit

David J. Smith talks about his job as a medical technician attached to the 47th MASH Unit. He describes his job working with doctors during surgery, interviewing patients who came in off the field, and taking care of sick soldiers during sick call. He also describes the layout of the unit, comprised of seven quonset huts.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez has mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so David Lopez would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them was really tall and David Lopez believes that it was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but David Lopez tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge About Korea and David Lopez's First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. David Lopez was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Nevarez

Korea: Taste of the Manchurian Wind

David Nevarez shares that he went to Korea for the first time in 1984 as part of the 3rd Service Support Group headquartered in Okinawa, Japan. He describes setting up camp in Korea. He remembers the temperature drop from 40 degrees to 40 below zero in the span of less than 30 minutes and recounts the cold winds that hit him in the camp. He expresses he then understood what the 1st Marine Division experienced at the Chosin Reservoir during the war and adds that the memory of that level of coldness stays with him to this day.



David Valley

Retreating from Pyongyang

David Valley talks about what happened as his unit retreated from the north into Seoul. He describes burning villages as they moved south and talks about the condition of Seoul upon their return.



David White

Working and Living Among ROK Soldiers

David White talks about working and living among ROK soldiers during his time serving as a Liaison officer to the 6th ROK Division. He describes the ROK soldiers as very disciplined. While he was there, he began to enjoy Korean food.



Life as a Platoon Leader

David White talks about his duties as Platoon Leader. His responsibilities included setting up ambushes and relieving his men and the conditions under which they operated. Most of these operations were against the North Koreans and took place at night.



Stacking Up Bodies

David White describes one of the jobs he and his men were assigned, clearing the battlefield of fallen soldiers from both sides. He had to get a body count of both sides. They also had to put out more barbed wire and traps as well.



Wounded in Battle, Recovery, and Returning Home

David White describes how he was recovered from the battlefield after being wounded by an enemy mortar. He talks about his month-long recovery. He also discusses returning to service before going home.



Delbert Ray Houlette

Massacre in a Korean Village

Delbert Ray Houlette recollects here on some of his toughest moments while serving in Korea. He describes the disconnect between the Marine Corps with the Army and ROK soldiers. He also details having to build a causeway over a river in the middle of fighting. Lastly, he remembers witnessing a village after it had experienced a massacre.



Seasoned for the Incheon Landing

Delbert Ray Houlette recalls being sent to serve at the Incheon Landing. He and his outfit were sent due to being "seasoned" in combat compared to other troops with their experience in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes the tides of the area where he was on Red Beach.



Collecting the Dead

Delbert Ray Houlette describes how one of his duties during combat was to collect the dead bodies of fellow soldiers and put their bodies in the beds of trucks. He remembers one incident where a soldier's eyes had opened unexpectedly while in the truck. Believing the body might be alive, he told the personnel he was getting ammunition and would try to come back to see if he was okay later. However, he was never able to return and check.



Delbert Tallman

Food, Entertainment, and Money

In this clip, Delbert Tallman describes the food he had while in Korea. He also talks about going to a British run club during his time of service. He also shares how he sent money home.



Suwon in 1955

Delbert Tallman remembers that there was not much left in Suwon in 1955. He shares that there were very few houses left, describing one house that was better than the others. The countryside at that time was “pretty much barren.”



Denis John Earp

"Lenient Policy"

Upon being taken as a Prisoner of War, Denis John Earp was interrogated by Chinese soldiers. Knowing his rights under the Geneva Convention, he refused to answer some questions. However, he was quickly informed by the Chinese about their “lenient policy” and soon was placed in a scary situation that was meant to get him to change his mind.



Always Being Watched

Denis John Earp explains what it was like being transferred to a Chinese Camp from the North Korean Camp known as “Park’s Palace.” He explains that they were constantly watched and there were daily propaganda lectures. He recalls the unfortunate circumstances that occurred in the winter months for those who were injured.



Park's Palace

Denis John Earp describes the conditions at Park’s Palace, a Prisoner of War camp in North Korea. He describes a cruel game that they would play for the guards’ entertainment. He also explains the interrogation tactics, including waterboarding, that were used to get information.



Dennis Grogan

Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Dennis Kinney

One Hundred Percent Disabled

Dennis Kinney describes the list of disabilities he accrued while serving in the military. He explains that his first disabilities came from malaria and jungle rot in Guam. He then explains his accidents in cars and planes crashing while on missions.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



Dick Lien

Combat Remembrances

Dick Lien recounts moving often while out in the field with his artillery unit. He describes defensive firing that his unit conducted while in the Marine Corps and explains that white phosphorus would be thrown into caves. He describes feeling guilty about it afterwards.



A Turk on a Mission and Losing Friends

Dick Lien describes meeting a Turkish soldier and shares that the soldier was dedicated to collecting an enemy's head every night. He recounts that the Turkish soldier would come back with the decapitated head and place it on a stake in front of his pup tent. He adds his thoughts on losing comrades while serving and states that the losses increased his anger.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

Delivery Ship

Dimitrios Matsoukas shows a photo of the personnel ship that carried his brother, George Matsoukas, to the Korean Peninsula.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

Letters from Korea and Digging the DMZ

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls a particular letter from her husband at the developing DMZ. She shares that her husband spoke of the quietened guns after the ceasefire. She explains that her husband described the digging of lines at the present-day DMZ and living on C-Rations.



An American in Paris in Monsoon Season

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, describes her husband taking part in a familiar American pastime while in Korea. She recalls, from one of his letters, him seeing the movie An American in Paris on Geojedo Island. She remembers him writing that he was drenched after the excursion due to it being Korea's monsoon season.



Domingo Pelliceer Febre

Lack of Water for Hygiene

Domingo Pellicer Febre explains how scarce water was on the frontlines. They were only able to shower once per month and brushing one's teeth was a luxury. While some of the hills had a water pipe, using it often meant making yourself a target for the Chinese who were watching.



Don C. Jones

Korea Reborn from the Ashes

Don C. Jones has seen the Korean peninsula transition from before the onset of the Korean War through the present day. He witnessed it through his service in the Army and his work as a Christian missionary. He describes how when he first arrived in Korea majority of the people were illiterate and in poverty, while detailing this is not the case today.



Don Leaser

Life on the USS Herbert J. Thomas

Don Leaser describes life aboard the USS Herbert J. Thomas. They slept on bunks and his favorite foods were eggs and cheese. His ship was the head of the fleet which had three ships. He was able to write letters home, but he said he didn't write enough and only wrote one letter to his girlfriend Geneva.



Don McCarty

Go to Jail or Go to the Marines

Don McCarty joined the US Marine Corps when he was 17 years old because if he didn't, he would have ended up in jail. With is mom's permission, he was sent away to Parris Island, SC for boot camp. After growing up in Chicago, Illinois and Kentucky, he said that he received the positive push in life that he needed once entering boot camp.



Big Muscles were Needed for Machine Gunners

Don McCarty's specialty during the Korean War was a heavy machine gun operator. The tripod was 54 pounds and the gun with water was 40 pounds. He left for Korea in March 1953 and landed in Inchoeon. Once he arrived in Seoul, it was devastated and there were children begging for candy and cigarettes.



Fear on the Front Lines That Led to PTSD

Don McCarty was afraid every minute that he was in Korea. Even after the Korean War ended, North Koreans continued to surrender to the Marines by crossing the 38th parallel. Don McCarty feels that he has a better understanding of life once he fought in the Korean War because there were so many Marines that lost their lives. Every night at 2 am, he wakes up with nightmares from his time at war. PTSD is a disease that Don McCarty is still living with 60 years after the Korean War ended.



Donald C. Hay

15 year old Seaman

Donald C. Hay describes leaving high school and joining the New Zealand Navy at 15. In addition to his naval duties, he had to continue attending school onboard the ship. Something unique about the New Zealand Navy is they provided a teacher on board the ship. All boys were required to take English and Math classes for a couple of hours a day.



Donald Clark

Life as a Radio Operator During the War

Donald Clark describes what it was like to serve as a Radio Operator during the war. He explains what members were on the team and what it was like in the radio truck. He mentions the only moments of combat they experienced while they were set up next to a river and the bridge was bombed- they quickly moved to a new location!



Cold Winters as a Radio Operator

Donald Clark describes the cold winters in Korea. He explains that the men would fight over who would get to serve the midnight shift because the radio truck was much warmer than their tent thanks to the BC10 transmitter and other equipment. He recalls a time in Seoul when they had to cut cardboard boxes to cover the holes in the tent and block the cold winds.



Donald D. Lanternier

First Impressions of Pusan

Donald Lanternier describes what it was like arriving in Pusan in 1952. He explains that it was a very busy place, with lots of troop ships and supplies on the docks. However, he also notes how impoverished the people were. He remembers that the children were still happy regardless of their circumstances.



Life as a Radio Operator

In this short clip, Donald Lanternier describes what it was like to be a Radio Operator. He explains that they were often on top of a mountain trying to intercept communication, but also relaying messages. He never experienced combat, but this was still an important role to play.



Donald Dempster

Why the Forgotten War?

Donald Dempster believes that since the Korean War was after WWII, the American public had enough of war. He further feels that the Korean War has been forgotten by the public because it was not reported by US media as much as other wars. He acknowledges that recruitment was not as large during the Korean War as it was during WWII.



Special Job

Donald Dempster shares how he was promoted to work for the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) in Washington D.C. He was part of a team that researched any inappropriate activities in the Air Force. He had extra training to receive this special position.



Donald Dufault

Daily Life Behind the Front Lines

Donald Dufault talks about what daily life was like in camp behind the front lines near Pork Chop Hill, Korea during his service in the Korean War. He explains the layout of the Camp and what they received to eat. He shares why he thought they were lucky.



Donald Haller

Revisiting Korea

Donald Haller recalls revisiting Korea, along with his family, in the 1980s. He shares how vastly different Korea was from how he remembered it in the 1950s. He remembers how poor Korea was in the 1950s, lacking basic infrastructure such as proper roadways and bridges. He remembers the Koreans as both honest and hardworking. He comments he is not surprised that the Korean economy is now booming.



Donald J. Zoeller

Adventures at the Battalion

Donald Zoeller describes some interesting events that happened while he was stationed near Chuncheon. He describes walking into a minefield with his commander and their duties while in camp. He also remembers an airplane trip he took over enemy territory.



Edge of MLR

Donald Zoeller describes the battalion which was located close to the MLR. One time they were even in the 'no man's land' zone. They had to build bunkers on their own by cutting down trees designed to hold up under artillery.



Defending Seoul

Part of Donald Zoeller's platoon was sent to Seoul when the Chinese tried to retake the city. He describes how his colleague "fell apart" and he was asked to take over leadership. He describes living in a foxhole constantly hearing shrapnel and was called upon at times to open fire.



Donald Jones

Potatoes in the Sea

Donald Jones tells a story about his arrival by ship to Pusan and how Koreans dove into the sea to collect potatoes that the Army discarded.



Bunker Description

Donald Jones describes the interior of a US Army bunker.



Donald L. Buske

Boilermaker duties

Donald Buske describes his duties as a boilermaker, operating steam driver generators on ship. His crew's duties were to house the Air Patrol that were patrolling around the DMZ. One of his jobs was to stand on the bridge and watch the smokestacks to ensure that the air pilots could see through the smoke to navigate. He describes seeing several airplane crashes during this time.



Donald Lynch

Legacy of the Korean War

Donald Lynch recalls not learning much about Korea in school. He thinks the Korean War was one of the greatest efforts put forth by the United States as it was an effort to stem the growth of world Communism. He believes the war's effects continue to resonate today. He speaks about many of the atrocities that the Koreans have had to face, including the invasions by Japan. He shares how impressed he is by the successes of Korea today.



Serving in Korea

Donald Lynch recalls how he landed in Incheon, South Korea, and recalls taking trains through Seoul and seeing many starving children. He shares how he and his unit gave their c-rations to the children. He describes being sent from Seoul to Chuncheon and then on to the frontlines where he served as a unit supply sergeant and was a part of the K Company, 197th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. He comments on how he was wounded, bayonetted in the abdomen by a Chinese soldier and shares how he later served in a medical unit.



Duties and Living Conditions

Donald Lynch recalls the patrols he went on along the Kansas Line, a line back from the frontlines. He details how he would help refill supplies and bring back any North Korean defectors they came across. He recalls there being a kitchen at the medical outfit and eating hot meals every day. He remembers showering opportunities varying based on his location and shares how, at one point, shampoo saved his life.



Donald Michael Walsh

"Hey Kid, Take the Top Bunk"

Donald Walsh describes traveling to Japan on a troop ship and the sage advice he received from a veteran merchant seaman.



The Food Was Pretty Good

Donald Walsh describes the food that he received as a soldier in a tank battalion.



Donald Peppard

Surviving North Korea

Donald Peppard describes how he and his fellow crew members spent their days as prisoners in North Korea. He recalls having to entertain themselves for eleven months through card games, exercise, and reading and writing. He shares that he and others endured what they referred to as "Hell Week" where they were beaten for forty-eight hours straight before they were released.



Donald Schneider (Part 1/2)

Memories of time in a MASH hospital

Donald Schneider received a leg wound when he was hit by a mortar round, and in this clip he explains his experiences in a MASH hospital. He recalls the stretchers of men that were waiting out in the open for the operating table. He states that it was "terrible" and that he felt "foolish" because his wound was nothing compared to others.



The Challenges of Letter Writing

Donald Schneider colorfully describes not only the challenges of writing letters from the front lines, but also the dangers faced by the soldiers whose job it was to deliver the incoming mail. He remembers having to use his helmet to write on while having to use pencils because the pens were frozen. He said that while it was difficult to write, everyone looked forward to the mail that they received.



The Moon during Patrols

Donald Schneider explains the effect that a full moon can have on foot patrols, and how memories of those patrols still influence him today. He associates that moon with the night patrols that became very dangerous since the enemy could see them. He said that always meant "someone was not coming back."



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Sleeping Conditions on the Front Lines

Donald Schneider describes the limited opportunities that soldiers on the front lines had to get any sleep, which often resulted in what he called a "zombie-like" state. While they had sleep bags sometimes that wasn’t a guarantee- they often would cover themselves with snow as an insulator on their ponchos. On a typical day, they would only get 2-3 hours of sleep.



Weather in Korea

Like many other soldiers in Korea, Donald Schneider talks about how cold it was during the war. He states that the weather was like that in Wisconsin- really hot in the summer and freezing in the winter. He said that the difference was the monsoon season, which would include massive amounts of rain in short periods of time.



Donald Schwoch

Destruction

Donald H. Schwoch talks about the poverty and destruction of Seoul that he saw in 1955. Throughout Seoul, desperate children begged for food among the destroyed buildings. Even in Uijeongbu, the civilian population lived in huts with dirt floors.



Red Cross Nurses and Generator Repair

Donald H. Schwoch arrived in Korea on January 6, 1955, wading ashore to the welcome of Red Cross nurses offering donuts. He changed his wet clothes aboard a railway car and traveled by train to a tent encampment where a Lieutenant McNair assigned him to generator repair. In one case, an officer from his unit needed a generator for the cook house so badly that he cannibalized a new ambulance for parts.



Donald Stemper

FBI Scoured His Home Town Asking Questions

Since Don Stemper and his family had printing skills, he had a huge interest in infrared, aerial, or map-making photography. While at Lackland Air Force Base, they put him into a Casual Squadron which is where the armed forces put you when they don't know what to do with you. He heard from family members that the FBI had scoured the town of Mankato, Minnesota asking questions about Don Stemper in order to receive clearance to do undercover work for the Armed Forces. He learned later that these strategies was standard protocol before giving someone who was working with classified material and map-making technology. While Don Stemper was in this holding pattern, he pulled duty over trash cans!



Importance of Topography:Life or Death

Don Stemper pulls out a map a map and uses it to explain the importance of topography. These skills proved that the tiny details could mean the difference between life and death, winning, or losing the war effort. He says accuracy is so importance during war.



Mobile Topography Units

During the Korean War, the US military had mobile TOPO (an acronym like M.A.S.H) units in trucks that were like a caravan vehicle. They included cameras, printing presses, plate making, survey & drafting equipment, as well as ink and paper just behind the lines because that's where the information was coming from. All these tools were needed to create the maps at any time and diligence was crucial. Don Stemper was very proud of the work he did and in his mapping instruction.



Donald Urich

Landing in Incheon

Donald Urich first landed in Incheon which he described as crowded. From there he went north and remembers seeing the DMZ. He was with the 45th Infantry Division, but was then transferred to the 7th Division. He worked in a motor pool and became Motor Sergeant in charge of one hundred and seven vehicles and dozens of mechanics.



1954 Seoul

Donald Urich said Seoul was desolate 1954. Houses were in shambles and businesses were in bad shape. In the winter he remembers seeing kids without shoes or many clothes. He would have candy for the kids and remembers Seoul being very poor, but he said the people were cordial.



Donald Westfall

Life on the USS Wisconsin

Donald Westfall describes life on the USS Wisconsin.



Doris B. Porpiglia

Letters to Where?

No soldier could have imagined that their letters would be analyzed to determine their IQ. Doris Porpiglia was called aside while at Camp Cook and she was told to go through stacks of mail to determine which G.I.s had high IQs. If they had high IQs, they would be assigned certain jobs, but she didn't know what they were being assigned to.



Ladies Don't Do Such A Thing

Doris Porpiglia was asked how her family felt about her being in the military. Although her parents and immediate family were proud of her, her rich aunt told her that "Ladies don't do such a thing." Doris Porpiglia replied, "I am more of a lady than you'll ever be, and what I wear isn't going to determine the person I am going to be."



Training For The Future

Doris Porpiglia explained that many women had standard jobs that most women had during that time period. This included telephone operator and secretary. She said the main thing women wanted from their experiences during the war, was skills they needed that they could use when the war ended.



The Women Just Sat There and Wouldn't Shoot

During her time in basic training, the women GIs were given the opportunity to practice shooting weapons. They were actually given a choice in the event that at any given time they were told they had to shoot their weapon, they should be ready. Doris Porpiglia said she wanted to be prepared, but most women just sat there and didn't attempt to try shooting at all, but Doris Porpiglia didn't understand their reasoning.



Dottie Harris

Sexism and Racism in the Air Force

Dottie Harris recalls the first time she ate at the mess hall at Connally AFB. She explains that she was the only WAF stationed at Connally at that time and was reluctant to go to the mess hall by herself. She describes walking in and, with all eyes on her and the room silent, she sat at nearest table and hurriedly ate her meal. She explains how she had inadvertently sat at a table where African American Airmen were also seated and was harassed not only for being a female officer, but for sitting with African Americans.



WAF Living Conditions on Base

Dottie Harris describes her living conditions while living in the barracks with other women. She explains that the barracks she shared with three other women at Connally AFB was entirely too small and only allowed for twenty-eight inches of open space between the bunk beds. She describes the open bay area of uncomfortable cots at Lowry AFB.



From Khaki to Air Force Blue

Dottie Harris explains that the book she is currently (at the time of the interview) writing entitled 1951 From Khaki to Air Force Blue is fictional but contains some factual events that she experienced. She shares photos from her time at Connally AFB. She recalls an incident involving the men on base playing a prank on her.



Doug Mitchell

Captured North Korean Soldier

Doug Mitchell and some men in his unit that were in their foxholes spotted a North Korean solider who was coming down the road towards them. Rather than shooting him, the soldier held up his hands in the air. The North Korean soldier surrendered to the US Army, and the men behind the lines took him back.



First experience with death

Doug Mitchell recalls a night where it was difficult to see, especially since there wasn't any light and the sites had glass installed in them which made it very hard to see through. While on duty as a machine gunner, he noticed a tank that was coming around a turn and they halted to tell them who it was or they'd shoot. It turned out that it was a lieutenant that walked up to present himself before they moved the tank any further. As they were standing on the deck, Doug Mitchell heard a mortar going off and he was able to get to safety, but the lieutenant was blown apart.



3 Dreadful Components of the Korean War

Doug Mitchell described 3 things that he hated about war: Patrol at night, crawling on the front line to knock out machine guns, and dreaming about the stress soldiers felt. He said it was scary when the guys behind you were firing at a machine gun while you were told to crawl close enough to throw a grenade at the machine gun while hoping a riflemen wasn't there to shoot you. Bayonets were another dreadful memory from the Korean War and Doug Mitchell said that no one needs to go through fighting against bayonets.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Knowledge of Korea and Arriving in Korea

Earl House shares he knew little about Korea prior to arriving as a soldier. He recalls the first time learning anything about Korea was in the Naval Reserves. He mentions he was excited to travel to Korea and fight in the war as he had never traveled outside the U.S. except for visiting Canada.



Earl Coplan

Living Conditions

Earl Coplan details the living conditions while he served in Korea in the 1970s. He explains having to adapt from American food to Korean food, such as Kimchi. He recalls receiving a monthly pay of $120 a month before taxes.



Ed Donahue

Basic Training Experience

Ed Donahue recalls his experience at boot camp in Parris Island, South Carolina. He remembers how his life changed as soon as he arrived. He describes being awakened the first night at three in the morning because someone spilled something on the floor. He recounts how he and all of the other new recruits were required to scrub the floor with a toothbrush. He shares how he only spent eight weeks there due to a growing need for troops in Korea. He recalls attending advanced rifle training at Camp Pendleton in California before being sent to Kobe, Japan, and then on to Pusan, Korea, in October of 1950.



The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



Edgar Green

First Impressions and Relying on the Americans

Edgar Green reflects on his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the stench of human waste as they drew nearer to the dock in Busan and remembers an American band and Korean choir there to welcome them. He shares that they were part of the very first British land forces to enter the Korean War and comments on having to rely on the Americans for food and transport for the first several days.



Cold Weather and Visits to the MASH Unit

Edgar Green recalls the weather he experienced while in Korea. He recounts how they only had tropical clothing when the temperature dropped to forty degrees below zero and shares that the Americans brought them parka jackets. He describes his visits to a MASH unit on multiple occasions as he dealt with pneumonia and a broken tooth.



Edgar Tufts

The Best Thanksgiving Ever

Edgar Tufts describes rotating to reserve after being on the front lines in eastern Korea after three months without a shower or change of clothes and solely eating c-rations, . He talks about getting cleaned up and enjoying a wonderful Thanksgiving meal that "rivaled his grandmother's."



Company Beer Party

Edgar Tufts tells a story when his company held a beer party while in reserve, some soldiers using their air mattresses for rafts in a nearby creek.



Edmund Reel

Food in the Prison Camp

Edmund Reel describes the food that he and other prisoners received from their Chinese captors during his thirty-four months as a POW. He recalls eating soybeans, cracked corn, sorghum, and millet. He shares that they were fed two meals a day and provides an example of the ration size.



Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Black Bean Soup

Eduardo Sanchez is describing his interactions with soldiers from some of the 22 nations that participated in the Korean War. As a navy repairman, he repaired ships for other nations. He provides specific details about one occurrence with the Colombian Navy where they shared black beans, something that was a rarity in the United States at the time. When repairing ships, he shared food and really enjoyed getting to know other cultures.



Edward A. Gallant

Military Service, a Family Affair

Edward Gallant followed the military tradition in his family. Some of his brothers fought in World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. One of his brothers was a POW that was killed in action during the Korean War and is buried in Hawaii.



Camp Howard (near Osan) during the Cold War

Edward Gallant is a Korean War defense veteran because he protected South Korea starting in 1966. During his time in Korea, he was stationed at Camp Howard near Osan to work on the monitoring system for missiles that could reach across many countries. This 40 foot computer was watched over constantly just in case it needed to be used during the Cold War against communists.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Truckin': The Relative Freedom of Army Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced relative freedom as an Army transport truck driver. On one trip, his truck separated from the convoy to take a shortcut recently built by the Americans. Another memory involves the excitement of transporting rowdy Welsh soldiers to the front lines at night.



Edward B. Heimann

Life in Korea

Edward Heimann describes life in Korea after his winter arrival at Incheon. He recalls his living conditions, being fed well, and being able to take warm showers most of the time. He explains that he was also able to enjoy leave (rest and relaxation) in Japan and received care packages from home.



Edward Brooks

Night Patrol to Apprehend Migun Wianbu

Edward Brooks patrolled at night to catch American soldiers looking for US military comfort women & their pimps. They apprehended them on many occasions.
The comfort women and their pimps were turned into the Korean authorities and then the soldiers were disciplined for their illegal actions.



I Never Wanted to Go Back to Korea Until Now!

Dr. Han asked Edward Brooks if he ever wanted to return to Korea and he said that he never wanted to go back. Edward Brooks changed his mind when he looked at a satellite image of what South Korea looks like today compared to the North. He couldn't believe it. He couldn't imagine Seoul looking the way it does today.



Edward F. Foley, Sr.

Impressions of Korea

Edward Foley describes Korea as being primitive when he arrived. He recalls traveling by truck with other soldiers to view the surrounding area and remembers seeing villagers out and about and children asking for food. He recounts very little evidence of a war torn country where he was stationed as no buildings had been bombed.



Living Conditions

Edward Foley describes the living conditions while in Korea. He recalls the winters as "colder than blazes" but admits that he was lucky as he had warm clothes and a lot of downtime. He shares that it was hard for him to be away from home and that letters were sporadic.



Edward Hoth

Thanksgiving in Hungnam

Edward Hoth met Felix DelGiudice and Myron "Jack" Leissler at the mess hall on Thanksgiving. Their regiments joined together and Edward Hoth's rifle platoon supported the regiment by using machine gun support at Heungnam.



Battle of the Chosin Reservior

Edward Hoth fought in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the winter of 1950. The weather was 42 below zero and it was so cold that guns became sluggish while oil froze on the guns.



Christmas in Korean War and Iron Triangle

Edward Hoth was excited to receive two Christmas dinners, one from the Marines and the Navy including turkey, candy, and beer. After Christmas he fought in the Iron Triangle at Cheorwon and then he went to Wonsan, North Korea where he found many dead soldiers along the road.



Edward Langevin

DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



Edward Mastronardi

Edward Mastronardi's Arrival at Pusan

Edward Mastronardi recalled the heavy pollution, dark clouds, and high noise level upon his arrival at Pusan. Young boys were at the dock being mistreated by their boss as their ship was unloading close to nightfall. They would later move to northeast of Pusan and would anchor next to a burial ground believed to be full of prisoners.



We Were Alone and the Chinese Were Everywhere

Edward Mastronardi described the scene at hill 464 and 467 as two humps on a camel. They lacked communication due to the terrain (mountains), no air support, and overcast caused artillery to shoot without knowing directly what it was going to hit since the visibility was so bad. Edward Mastronardi brought Colonel up to witness several hundred Chinese only yards away, so the Colonel wanted to take out his 9 mm to attack the several hundred Chinese himself! They decided that attempting to attack the Chinese was too much, but they did it anyway and didn't succeed in taking Hill 464.



The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



It's Fantastic to See What Has Happened to Korea Now!

The Interviewer asked Edward Mastronardi how he feels about Korea today in the 21st century, knowing he has a clear picture of Korea during the Korean War. He said, "Fantastic! It shows the true strength, diversity, flexibility of what can be done. There is always a way to do it if you are willing to work for it." Edward Mastronardi is very proud to have been apart of saving South Korea.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edward Rowny

Two- Sided Legacy of the Korean War

Edward Rowny explains that he had no idea how industrious and successful the Koreans would become after the War. He mentions the Korean world leadership in technology and calls it an "economic miracle". He also mentions his own fears that the present-day generation does not realize the grave danger of North Korea today. He advises them to keep their military trained and equipped at all times, even with the US nuclear capacity.



Edward T. Smith

Becoming a POW during the Battle of Kunuri

Edward T Smith was taken as a POW during the Battle of Kunuri at the beginning of December in 1950. He remembers being with a few stragglers when they ran into a Command Post of Chinese. He states that they were told that they weren't being killed, but that the Chinese wanted prisoners.



Life in Camps

Edward T. Smith describes life in the camp. He said that most of the day focused on whatever work detail there was, often either wood or burial detail. He recalls how the Chinese tried to indoctrinate the prisoners and some believed it enough to move to China. He also remembers the cramped sleeping quarters and limited uniforms.



Life as a POW

Edward T. Smith describes what it was like being captured, including his treatment by the Chinese. He said that they were relatively decent, but there was the looming unknown of what was going to happen. He remembers the living conditions, including how they were often just fed kernels of corn.



Death in the Camps

Edward T. Smith recalls how many peopled died in the camp, stating that there were eight to ten burial details per day. He says that some died of malnutrition, illness, or wounds. However, he believes that some of the men "just gave up."



Edwin R. Hanson

The Incheon Landing on September 15, 1950

Ralph Gastelum explained about the ship circling the water around nightfall before landing on the beach and he recalled his personal experience in the large foxhole they took cover in. Edwin Hanson's boat was supposed to land around 5:00 PM as the 3rd wave, Boat 5, on Blue Beach at high tide, but they lost one of the tracks off of the vehicle which was why the were encircling the area before they could land. There was a jeep that had an electrical short in the horn and continued to honk as they were headed to shore unloaded out of the Amtrack and slogged their way through mud in the last remaining clean pair of Dungarees he had. Once they made it to shore down the road, they climbed a hill and 3 Soviet T-34 tanks coming right towards them. US forces hit the gas tanks located in the back of the tank, watching them blow up right in front of him.



Edwin Hanson Captures His First POW

As they were advancing throughout Seoul, Edwin Hanson and his regiment came across a street intersection with sand bags filled on each corner that minimized the space from 30-40 ft wide down to 10 ft. A US Tank was hit by a North Korean sniper that was shooting with a 50 caliber automatic weapon, and Edwin Hanson was peaking around the corner to try and find where the sniper was located while the guys were crossing the intersection, but his section leader, Howe, had been shot in the heel. Therefore, he put his M2 Carbine on automatic in an attempt to shoot into a building he thought the sniper was located and he said he, "fell right on his ass." When Edwin Hanson stood up, a North Korean soldier came into view and he stuck the gun up to the North Korean, but instead of killing him, he captured the North Korean soldier.



Experiences During the Wonsan Landing

After the Seoul recapture, the men were now at the Wonsan Landing where they were sent to secure a pass that North Koreans were using to get away. The North Koreans had barricaded the road and began to open fire on US troops. Edwin Hanson described how over 93 North Koreans were killed and 7 US troops were killed including Sergeant Beard from his regiment.



The Chosin Reservoir Being Overrun at Kor-'o-ri

The first Chinese Edwin Hanson encountered at Kor-'o-ri was at night about 5 meters away. The enemy was carrying a Thompson submachine gun and it missed Edwin Hanson after firing 2 rounds at him. Flares were thrown into the sky to detect the location of the enemy and that's when Edwin Hanson (at the time he was on top of a hill looking down at their camp) discovered there were 5 Chinese at their tents. Edwin Hanson threw 4 grenades and 2 went off, so the following morning he went down and picked up the 2 that didn't go off and threw the remaining grenades at their front lines. Edwin Hanson ended up saving Ralph Gastelum's life when he threw those grenades because it gave Ralph Gastelum time to get out of the fox hole and run to the top of the hill.



First Shots at the Chinese at Chosin Reservoir

After the US knocked out tanks that were rolled up near their regiment, one of the Chinese enemy played dead near the campfire they were sitting at. As US troops were heating C-rations by the campfire, Edwin Hanson noticed about 15-20 yards away, the enemy had lifted up off the frozen ground. The Chinese troops had a burp gun to start to shooting at the US troops sitting by the campfire. Luckily, Edwin Hanson shot and killed the Chinese soldier attacking his regiment.



The Dead and Their Affects on PTSD

Ralph Gastelum described the number of bodies on the battlefield. They laid as far as the eye could see; both the enemy and their fallen comrades were frozen the way they had fell. There was a bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up. The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and built bitterness most US soldiers have for warfare. Edwin Hanson leaned over to point at his wife to recall what happens to him both awake and asleep, but they have learned to cope with it.



"Home by Christmas" Was Just a Rumor

After the Hamheung Evacuation, the US soldiers came down from the Chosin Reservoir and traveled to Masan to celebrate Christmas with the famous 'Home by Christmas' Dinner. This was when MacArthur gave a speech promising the men to be home before Christmas. Edwin Hanson said that this rumor was killed shortly after they got to Masan. "Chestee" was what Edwin Hason called MacArthur and he said that it was only a rumor because they wouldn't be going home. Edwin Hason didn't mind though; he was just excited to be aboard a ship and not in the Chosin Reservoir again.



I Jumped In Front of a Torpedo Bomber to Mail My Postcard

A Torpedo Bomber (plane) came through Kor-'o-ri to pick up wounded soldiers and it had the big bay door below it open to drop torpedoes. Edwin Hanson had a postcard that he wanted to deliver to his mother, but the bomber was about to leave without Edwin Hanson's mail. The bomber was sitting at the end of the runway, trying to take off, so Edwin Hanson ran down the middle of the runway blocking his takeoff and waving his letter. When he got up close, Edwin Hanson crawled up on the wing to an open window, so the bombardier took the postcard as Edwin Hanson slid down the wing.



Anxious Over Flamethrowers and Frogs

Edwin Hanson described preparing to launch the attack on Incheon. He also explained the first night ashore and the anxiety it caused the men in their foxholes. He described being extremely nervous about something moving in his foxhole which turned out to be a frog in the morning light.



Edwin S. Leak

Living Conditions on the 38th Parallel

Edwin S. Leak describes living conditions on the 38th Parallel in post-war Korea. He elaborates about sleeping quarters and food provided. In addition, he explains improvements being made to improve the devastation caused by the war.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

MASH Got it Right!

Eilif Jorgen Ness explains how the TV show, MASH, accurately displayed life in a MASH unit. He was amazed at how if faithfully depicted the camp set-up and living conditions. His one complaint is that the show overstated the use of helicopters which only became a major part of delivering the wounded toward the end of the war.



Eingred Fredh

Contrast of Korea

Eingred Fredh describes the people of Busan. The people she cared for at the hospital were better off than the people in the city. There were many children without parents and clothes in Busan. The children were begging for anything and desperate. Eingred Fredh also describes her one day off from work a week. For instance, she would go to the beaches or the mountains during her time off.



Descriptions of Korea

Eingred Fredh describes the Korea she saw. She was very happy she volunteered. There were many refugees and people in bad ways. She worked six days a week in various wards at the hospital. In one ward she would care for soldiers. In another ward there were many patients had tuberculosis. As the war pushed North, away from Busan, she cared for more civilians.



Transformation of Korea

Eingred Fredh describes the transformation of Busan since the war. None of the landmarks that she remembered were still there. The building were much taller and everything is rebuild. She does like the transformation. However, she likes to live a little calmer than the hustle of a large city. Citizen of Korea, though, are very thankful for her service to them during the Korean War.



Elbert H. Collins

Living Conditions

Elbert Collins explains that they had to eat C-rations and smoke cigarettes from World War II. He describes the foxholes in which they slept, including the one in which he dug that flooded out. He admits that he was scared to death during this time and questioned why he was there.



Eleanor Newton

Duties of an Air Force Flight Nurse

Eleanor Newton describes her role as an Air Force Flight Nurse. Eleanor received many Korean War soldiers under her care while stationed in Berkeley, California. Soldiers were sent to her for treatment and evaluation before moving on to other locations stateside.



Care in Air and Ditching the Patient

Eleanor Newton describes the training she received in caring for patients in the air as well as 'ditching' patients. She explains that the training involved what to do if an airplane transporting patients ever crashed into the ocean or desert. She describes the steps taken to ensure that the patients survived until help arrived.



Earthquakes and PTSD

Eleanor Newton describes the responsibilities of responding to civilian accidents while on base at Edwards Air Force Base. This included responding to help after an earthquake in Tehachapi, California. She also explains the importance of treating patients with PTSD and assuring them they were safe.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Preparation for Joining the Greek Army

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis didn't know anything about the Korean War when it began. He was a a civil servant that took care of the military horses. His specialty was to transfer food and ammunition on mules during the Korean War.



Entering the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis entered the Korean War in December 1950 and he entered through Pusan. After spending time there, he was sent through Seoul and then went onto the 38th parallel. During this whole time, he didn't have to fight any enemy.



Scars From the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis suffered many injures during the Korean War. A grenade went off right by his face and he experienced pain and scaring to his right cheek. A military artillery shell blew up right by him and he almost lost his right leg and arm.



Modern Korea

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis left Korea in July/August 1951. After returning twice to Korea, in 2008 and 2013, he was able to see the great advancements that were made in Korea. Korea's advancements were 100 years more advanced than Greece.



Destruction in Seoul

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis saw extreme hunger and destruction when he entered Seoul. It was so bad that he considered Korea to be 100 years before Greece in 1950. Korean children begged for food from UN troops as they exited restaurants and food tents.



Elliott Landall

Conditions in Korea

Elliott Landall describes the weather in Korea. The winters were extremely cold and summers extremely hot. He explains that men were well fed and living conditions had ten men to a tent.



Seoul During the War

Elliott Landall describes how Seoul was in a terrible state. He explains that the people were living in a shell of a city and he felt sorry for them. He was amazed at the spirit of the people, including how the people would listen and were good learners.



Forgotten War

Elliott Landall is satisfied with his service in the Korean War. He really liked helping the people of South Korea and feels he had a lasting impact. He explains that the Korean War is a Forgotten War because it was after the "Big Wars," World War I and World War II.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Living Conditions in the Prison Camps

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the long march from the mining camp to Camp 5. He explains that many died of exposure due to the lack of sufficient winter clothing and recalls that within a six weeks period over one thousand men died. He discusses the treatment of POW's by the North Koreans and the Chinese as well as the propaganda campaigns.



Propaganda and POW Release

Ellis Ezra Allen describes the continued propaganda lectures with the Chinese and the living conditions in Camp 4. He remembers them as not being too terrible as they had wood floors and coal-heated stoves. He recounts his release and shares that he was picked up by a helicopter, taken to Inchon, put on a U-boat, and transported back to the States.



Ellsworth Peterson

72 Days on the Front Line

Ellsworth Peterson talks about the difficulties of being on the front line without rest for 72 straight days. He describes the fear and experience of falling under the attack of heavy shelling. He elaborates on his unit suffering many casualties during these attacks.



Elvin Hobbs

Less Than Modern Hospitals

Elvin Hobbs describes his job as an x-ray technician at 121 Hospital located in Ascom City. He describes the layout of the hospital. In addition, he explains the challenges that he faced working with less than modern medical equipment.



Daily Life in Seoul, 1964

Elvin Hobbs describes Seoul after the conclusion of the war in 1964. He talks about the rebuilding of the city and its transformation from total destruction. He expands in detail on descriptions of transportation and Korean daily life.



Maggot Medical Innovations

Elvin Hobbs talks about the innovative ways that they treated patients at 121 Hospital in Ascom City, Korea. He describes one such technique involving maggots as a treatment. He explains that these insects were used to help burn victims.



Exploding While Searching for Metal

Elvin Hobbs describes the most common injuries that they saw at 121 Hospital. He describes how many Koreans were injured scavenging for metal. Many civilians were drastically wounded when they came across live ordnance that hadn't exploded during the war.



Ernest Benson

PTSD

Ernest Benson discusses how PTSD manifested itself in his post-war life. He found out when he was tested by the Veterans Hospital around the year 2000. He explains how he was functional, but still impacted by the war and often drank.



Ernest J. Berry

"Luxuries, which we dreamed of"

Ernest J. Berry describes being ordered to move out quickly at one point. His unit encountered an abandoned American M.A.S.H. outpost. He describes his amazement at encountering the luxurious conditions and resources the Americans had abandoned. Ernest J. Berry describes American abundance. When Americans left a camp, they buried their supplies. In contrast, New Zealand soldiers would have to pay for lost socks.



Ernesto Sanchez

Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Eugene Buckley

Hunger

Eugene Buckley was trying to make it back to the front line after escaping from the ravine when he and O'Donnell got on the back of a family ox cart and spent most of the day traveling. Not having eaten in 4 or 5 days, Eugene Buckley broke into a large container of applesauce and ate the whole thing. He said it wasn't long after that when they were back in the same situation of extreme hungry again.



Returning to the Front Line: Casualties and Hunger

The interviewer asked what happened to the rest of the platoon that was left behind, and Eugene Buckley replied that everyone had been massacred except for himself, O'Donnell, and another soldier. Eugene Buckley had dysentery at the time and he got back so the infirmary gave him a lollipop shaped pill that he consumed to help with the problem. He said when he went into the war, he was 165 pounds, but when he was taken for his wounds, he was only 95 pounds, practically a skeleton.



Eugene Dixon

Surrounded by the Enemy at Thanksgiving

Eugene Dixon gives a detailed explanation of encountering the Chinese soldiers just after Thanksgiving in 1950. He recalls being prohibited from crossing the 38th Parallel, and recounts his experiences during the landing at Wonsan. He describes having a hot Thanksgiving meal just before providing relief for other soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir, where the Chinese had cut the supply lines.



Home, Food, and Weather

Eugene Dixon describes how he communicated with his family through letter writing during the Korean War. He details experiences in eating combat rations, and recalls the difficulty in accessing food in extreme cold weather conditions. He recounts the impact of low temperatures on the functioning of weapons and communications devices. He describes the precautions he took to prevent having frost-bite during the war.



Eugene Evers

Repairing Cameras at Yokota Air Base

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being stationed at Yokota Air Base in Japan. He explains his job as a camera repairman and inspector.



Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions as a Prisoner of War. He explains the circumstances of his first seven months in North Korea. He elaborates on how he was treated by the Chinese and North Koreans.



Isolation in Chinese POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being isolated in a Chinese POW camp. He describes his knowledge of Marine Colonel Frank Schwable. Schwable was a fellow POW in the Chinese prisoner camp.



You Are Going to Die

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being questioned by Chinese soldiers during his time a POW. He explains how a fellow soldier saved his life by telling them that he was an "ABC agent". He describes the feeling associated with being told you are going to die.



Details of Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult daily living conditions of being a prisoner of war. He explains what it was like during a seven month period (July 1952-January 1953) as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



A Christmas Feast in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about Christmas in a POW camp. He explains that this was the only time he had eaten meat during his 14 month captivity. This occurred during his captivity as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



28 Hours to Mukden

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses his arduous and physically challenging journey while be transferred to a POW camp in Mukden (presently Shenyang), China.



Living Conditions in Mukden Prison

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult living conditions in Mukden Prison (Manchuria) during his seven month stay there as a Prisoner of War.



This Particularly Mean Guard...

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions and one particularly mean guard he encountered during his seven month stay in Mukden Prison (China) as a Prisoner of War.



On Trial as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being put on trial while being held at Mukden Prison (Manchuria) and his sentence of death by hard labor in the mines.



"Well, Welcome Back!"

Eugene "Gene" Evers discusses the details of how he was released after 14 months as a prisoner of war.



Eugene Gregory

Marine Corps Advanced Infantry Training

Eugene Gregory describes training in the Marine Corps Advanced Infantry. He recounts exercises involving barbed wire and training under live fire and in cold weather situations throughout the courses. He shares that this type of training was meant to prepare them to adapt in combat situations and for Korean winters.



The Purpose of the Password

Eugene Gregory describes serving in artillery which placed him in an artillery fire support position off of the front lines where the combat was occurring. He recounts his duty of traveling between artillery bases to provide communication and to pass along the daily changing password. He shares that the purpose of the password was to ensure that those on guard duty knew who was a friendly and who may not be.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Eusebio Santiago

Night patrols

Eusebio Santiago describes bunkers and night patrols. The bunkers were about 4 feet high and 8 feet wide square. Men would live in bunkers due to the Chinese threat. While in the bunkers, soldiers did not have access to a shower for up to a month.



Fishing Practices

Eusebio Santiago recalls how the sight of Korean villagers catching and cleaning fish reminded him of daily life in Puerto Rico. He describes the rice fields and how villagers continued their life with war around them. Eusebio Santiago recalls his childhood while war was going on.



Everett Kelley

Living Conditions in Post War Korea

Everett Kelley provides his impressions of Korea when he arrived in 1976. He recounts the living conditions of American soldiers during that time as well as the status of relationships between American and South Korean soldiers. He expresses that American contributions post-1953 were focused on maintaining peace between North and South Korea while maintaining a high readiness level.



The Impact of the Orphans

Everett Kelley shares how his service spent in Korea impacted his life in many ways. He describes his involvement in sponsoring orphaned children through various donations. He recalls the number of orphans in Korea at the time being extremely high.



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



"The Older I Get, The Prouder I Am"

Ezra Frank Williams is very proud of his contribution during the Korean War to fight off the North Koreans and Chinese. He has admiration for Korean immigrants that came to the United States after the war. South Koreans really show that they appreciate everything the UN did to protect their country.



All Marines Were Headed to Korea

Ezra Frank Williams stated that he should have put his duty station as Korea because that's where the US military was sending all their Marines. Everyone laughed at him when he asked where the enemy was while in basic training in 1951. They told him that he'll really get a good look at them while he's in Korea.



Felix DelGiudice

Tootsie Rolls

Felix DelGiudice and his peers recall how important Tootsie Rolls were to them during the war. They explained how they were able to warm them up inside the soldiers' coat since they would often freeze in the weather. The Tootsie Rolls were not only a treat, but they were used for other purposes as well.



Freezing Cold Weather

Felix DelGiudice explains how cold it really got to be in Korea, with one night being 42 degrees below zero. This impacted their guns, the machinery, and even their bodily functions. While he says that its not something people like to talk about, it was the reality of their living conditions.



Fermin Cantu

Life in the Barracks

Fermin Cantu describes the living conditions he experienced while in Korea in 1974 and again in the 80s. He describes the barracks that he slept in. He shares his estimated pay at the time.



Filis Nikoldos

Graphic Memories

Filis Nikoldos identifies his wife who recounts a few of his observations while serving in Korea. She shares that he saw disaster and found ruins of houses, people massacred, babies crying on the bodies of their dead parents, and poverty. She adds that he did not think solely of protecting himself and that he had even made preparations to ensure he would not be captured alive by the Chinese.



Floyd Hanamann

They Called It C-17

Floyd Hanamann describes his experience working with psychiatric patients in the military hospital. He explains the symptoms he would see when soldiers would come back from the Korean War. In addition, he explains that there would be some soldiers who could only be furnished with a mattress as they would destroy the furniture if provided.



Electroshock and Aversion Therapy

Floyd Hanamann describes the treatments Korean War veterans would receive for their mental health issues at Fitzsimmons Army Hospital. He explains watching soldiers undergoing ECT treatments and how high they would rise from the table when shocked. He also describes the therapy for alcoholics who were poisoned to vomit and expel liquids to encourage aversion to the substance.



Forrest D. Claussen

Sleeping Near Artillery Fire Zones

Forrest Claussen describes arriving in Korea and not having sleeping quarters established yet. He explains how his group was sent to sleep inside a makeshift tent with artillery rounds and recalls artillery fire throughout the night. He adds that his group was later moved to other sleeping quarters.



Questioning Orders

Forrest Claussen shares his thoughts on the life lessons he learned from his military service. He centers his focus on questioning authority and standing up for one's self as he recalls two particular situations which rendered personal loss and physical harm. He also cautions against trusting all one is told.



Winter Clothing from Home

Forrest Claussen recounts cold winter nights in Korea and shares a story about receiving winter clothing from home. He recalls writing home to his mother, asking for additional winter clothing as the military had not issued winter clothing yet. He recounts receiving the clothing, only to be ordered to discard it as other men in his group did not have access to the same. He describes digging a hole and placing the clothing inside in hopes that South Korean civilians would find and utilize his discarded items.



Francis Bidle

Difficulties in Korea

Francis Bidle comments on the most difficult thing he experienced while serving. He shares that it was difficult trying to figure out why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing. He offers an account of the time he asked a colonel why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing in Korea, and the colonel responded, "Son, if I knew the answers to your questions, we wouldn't be here." He adds that he did know he was fighting against Communism.



Francis John Ezzo

Just Doing My Job

Francis Ezzo explains that he does not remember specific hills or battles because he was just doing his job. He describes being outnumbered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the Chinese were not well equipped as some did not have rifles or shoes.



Korea Then and Now

Francis Ezzo describes walking through the countryside. He recalls seeing rice paddies and giving kids some food. He shares that even though he has never been back he is thankful that Koreans appreciate the sacrifices American soldiers made for their country.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Frank Bewley

Serving on the HMS Glory

Frank Bewley served on the HMS Glory during the Korean War. He explains what it was like to be on this aircraft carrier, including the work that he had to do and how the squadrons were broken up with various engineers. He also shares about the living conditions, explaining that he did not like where they had to sleep.



Life on the Carrier

Frank Bewley explains what it was like on the carrier while preparing for Korea. He remembers the items, including food and weapons that were loaded. He also explains how they had to travel with the wind for support, clean the windows, and run routine pre-flight checks.



Losing a Pilot

Frank Bewley shares what it was like to lose the pilot assigned to his squadron. He remembers feeling “lost” when his aircraft was gone. He also explains how he knew the pilot’s story so it was really hard to know that he was gone.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

Sleeping Arrangements

Frank Cohee explains the sleeping quarters during the war. He states that they originally slept in pup tents before moving to textile factories. Finally, he was moved to a squad tent with wooden bunks.



Frank Lewis

Living Conditions on a Naval Ship

Frank Lewis describes what life was like on a ship in the Navy. He explains the sleeping arrangements and states that he enjoyed the food. He argues that it was a "new way of life" in which you had to get along with a lot of people in a small space.



Impact of Service

Frank Lewis describes how his life changed for the better because he was in the Navy. Having to meet new people, follow orders, and be independent for the first time, Frank Lewis said that the service helped "make a man out of him." Among the biggest lessons were to follow orders and practice discipline.



Frank Montolio

Football Leads to Korea

Frank Montolio describes how two of his high school friends ended up in Korea and suffered physical consequences. Because they were unable to play first-string football after receiving a full-scholarship, the two young men joined the Navy reserves in order to actively play. However, they were soon given orders to go to Korea where, unfortunately, they got severe frostbite on their feet.



Frank Seaman

Dangerous Moment and Living Conditions

Frank Seaman shares one of his most dangerous moments while serving and recalls his basic living conditions. He recounts a particular service run to deliver fuel to a platoon of tanks where mortar rounds came in before his departure. Unscathed, he remembers dealing with flat tires on his truck on his return back to base. He also provides insight to his living conditions, describing pup tents and larger tents which could provide shelter for 4 to 5 men.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. One of his friends drowned clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. Another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. The soldiers lived in trenches on the front lines, sometimes without proper equipment. At times, his division was surrounded by North Koreans and Chinese.



The Hell of Living in Trenches

Frank Zielinski was stationed at Old Baldy when the Armistice went into effect. He remembers the danger of living in cold trenches filled with water. The enemy would attack at night, so soldiers stayed awake to guard their positions. With no hot food available, C-rations included pork and beans, cookies, cigarettes, and instant coffee. Soldiers would leave part of their rations for the children living in nearby villages.



Returning Home

Frank Zielinski describes the use of Korean "house boys" by various officers, though he himself did not take on a house boy. KATUSAS brought food up the paths to the front lines to feed soldiers. At Thanksgiving, the KSCs delivered much-appreciated turkey. Korea taught Frank Zielinski to respect and protect others.



Franklin M. Sarver, Jr.

Losing One's Lunch

Franklin M. Sarver, Jr. describes being on the ship heading to Asia. He describes the seasickness him and others experiences. He shares memories of that time on the ship.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Surrender and Difference Between Chinese and North Korean Treatment

Franklin Gillreath describes the events leading up to surrendering and the difference between Chinese and North Korean treatment. He explains that the North Koreans were harsh and would hit any soldier who could not understand their directions in Korean. He compares this example to the Chinese approach which involved finding a translator rather than hitting a soldier who could not understand directions.



Barbed Wire Fence along the Yalu River

Franklin Gillreath describes the march north as a prisoner of war (POW) deep into North Korea. He explains that villages would be emptied so that the prisoners could be stowed in the huts of North Korean civilians where there was only enough room to sit up. He describes the camp along the Yalu River where barbed wire used to keep in cattle was the only border between him and escape.



Lice Popping Contests

Franklin Gillreath describes the grass mats they were given to sleep on in the POW camps. He explains that the mats were infested with lice as well as the clothes they were forced to remain in for two years. He describes contests between the captured men to see who could kill the most lice between their fingers.



Daily Life in Camp Five

Franklin Gillreath explains what daily life was like inside of POW Camp Five. He describes the food mostly consisting of millet. He explains the wood and burial detail he was forced to conduct when fellow POWs died.



Traitors in the POW Camp

Franklin Gillreath shares memories of traitors among fellow soldiers in the POW camp. He explains that not being able to confide in some of his own countrymen weighed heavily on him mentally. He recounts fellow soldiers snitching on other soldiers in hopes of receiving more food and better treatment. He recalls one soldier in particular snitching to receive a lapel pin and adds that he suffered for his actions on the way home from Korea.



Franklin Searfoss

$97 a Month

Franklin Searfoss earned $97 each month while he lived in Germany in 1954. He used his pay to cut his hair, launder his uniforms, and support his wife. Otherwise, life was fairly stable, although normal accidents happened among the army soldiers.



Fred Barnett

A Dangerous Moment of Friendly Fire

Fred Barnett did not see any combat in Korea. He describes an incident of "friendly fire" when he and other soldiers were out on patrol on nearby railroad tracks. He heard shots coming from the nearby rice paddy. He and his lieutenant investigated, and found it was American soldiers shooting at ducks.



Life in the Camp

Fred Barnett describes life at the camps. He describes the food, showers, etc, generally saying that life wasn't too bad and that the food was actually better than what he was getting at home. He says he had a good time in the camp, as he was away from the front lines.



Fred J. Ito

Life in the Army

Fred Ito describes his life while in the Army in Korea. He describes the meals he ate, his salary, and communication home with his parents. He particularly explained how his father received a Missing In Action report and his knee-wound.



Thanksgiving at Usan

Fred Ito describes Thanksgiving in Usan. The 25th Division came to relieve the 2nd Battalion while they enjoyed their turkey, but the Chinese unit, which had been hiding behind the mountains, made a big offensive against the 25th Division, including Fred Ito's friend. Fred Ito and some of the 2nd Battalion went back to help, but found themselves having to escape through the deep river.



Fred Liddell

The capture of Fred Liddell: POW

Fred Liddell was captured by the Chinese in May 1951 at Hill 151 (Jirisan Mountain). His regiment was supposed to hold this hill until the US artillery saturated the hill. As Fred Liddell went down a slope around rocks, he met up with the Marines that were milling around near multiple vehicles on fire. The Chinese surrounded the US soldiers even as Fred Liddell was killing some of them in the bushes. Injured US soldiers were burned to death in a hut while over 300 POWs were forced to march to a cave and then onto Camp Suan.



Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



Korea Revisit Program in 1986: The Evolution of Korea

Fred Liddell could not believe that evolution of South Korea in 1986 when he revisited through the Korea Revisit Program. He remembered Seoul train station completely in ruins along with all the buildings, but when he saw it rebuilt, it was a miracle. When he visited the Suan cultural center, Fred Liddell was able to share all of the changes that he saw from 1951 to 1986 including straw huts to homes and women plowing fields to mechanization. Fred Liddell was invited to visit the hut where the peace treaty was signed, but he felt extremely nervous because it was so close to North Korea.



POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Frederick Marso

Life with Underwater Demolition

Frederick Marso describes his job responsibilities as a part of the Underwater Demolition Team. He describes the training as tough and his platoon being the cream of the crop. He details everyday life living on a ship for an extended period of time.



Frederick Schram

Potpourri From Around the World

Frederick describes his first assignment in Dongducheon. He was encamped in a valley with soldiers from all over the world including Turks, Danes, and Brits. He vividly remembers Australian parties in the evenings. Frederick also recounts joining KMAG, the Korean Military Advisory Group, to work directly with Koreans in Busan.



Fredrick Still

Running a Road Grader

Fredrick Still describes his job in Korea, maintaining roads as a part of the 116th Combat Engineer Battalion. Because of his experience on the farm, he was familiar working with heavy equipment, but his first hand road grader was too dangerous due to the rocky terrain. He explains that he then got a motorized road grader that was much easier to operate after a few days.



A Frames and Agriculture

Fredrick Still describes the way of life experienced by Koreans, specifically agricultural practices. He remembers the many huts lined up along the roads in areas he refers to as "slums." He explains that the Koreans would carry baskets of human waste to their rice paddies which were often irrigated by water from the mountains. Frederick Still also describes the A-frames that were used.



"I did what I was told to do"

On a freezing, snowy night, Fredrick Still was told guard a dozer because it quit on the Punch Bowl pass. The other man that was assigned to the task with him took the opportunity to go back when a Jeep rode by, but Fredrick Still stayed all night because that is what he was told to do. He attributes his promotion to staff sergeant to this decision because it followed shortly after.



Galip Fethi Okay

In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



Gary Fletcher

Submarine Description

Gary Fletcher describes the layout of the USS Razorback, the submarine he was on during the Korean War. He remembers that while there was no Chaplain, they would still have a church service. He also explains crew consisted of a only few executive officers and then the rankings went down from there.



"A Man's Home is His Castle"

Gary Fletcher continues to explain life on the submarine, including just how small “home” really. He remembers that while they had good comradery, it was not easy to get close like you would in normal life. He comments on how they were called “sewer pipers” because they were rarely able to bathe even though they would have diesel on them.



Boatswain's Mate on a Submarine

Gary Fletcher describes his job as a Boatswain's Mate on the USS Razorback. Part of his crew’s role was to load the torpedoes down into the ships. He had to qualify and be certified to earn a “dolphin.”



Gary Routh

Listening in on North Korea

Gary Routh describes his job secretly listening to North Korean soldiers on the radio in the 1990s. He explains that occasionally he would hear artillery practice and excitement on the other end of the radio. He describes that spying was mostly boring, hearing the same phrases every day from the North Korean soldiers.



American G.I.s and the KATUSA

Gary Routh describes his interaction with the KATUSA stationed with the American G.I.s. He describes how the American forces would view Korean culture as strange, such as bathing each other or eating ramen while seated on the floor. He then describes how Koreans would view the Americans as strange, including the harsh language and loud nature of the U.S. soldiers.



Like Living in a Ghetto

Gary Routh describes what it was like to live in the barracks stationed in Korea. He explains that the conditions were rough and that the buildings were falling apart. He describes being able to hang out with soldiers who were friends at a moment's notice but that the majority of the experience was similar to living in a ghetto.



Gene C. Richards

Poverty Stricken Villages

Gene C. Richards discusses how Seoul was when he left Korea in 1953. He describes Seoul as not the major city seen today. He describes how majority of Korea was agricultural villages rather than urban. He also describes how so many people at the time lived in immense poverty.



Satisfaction for the Sacrifice

Gene C. Richards describes how much South Korea has changed since he served there. Much of the places where he served no longer exist. He describes how he was amazed at the success of South Korea today. Gene C. Richards expresses how he is proud of his service and seeing South Korea's implementation of democracy has provided soldiers closure for their sacrifices.



Avoiding the Final Mission

Gene C. Richards earned 4 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters in addition to his Air Medal. He was one mission away from earning his fifth. He was determined to make one last mission, however, last minute was convinced not to make the attempt. Gene C. Richards describes how he is grateful to not have taken that mission due to that plane being shot down.



Gene Jordan

Night Patrolling

Gene Jordan describes being on the trench line at night for thirty days straight during the Korean War. He describes how the enemy was on one side and they were on the other. He explains that it was a stationary war at this point, and how they lived in the trench lines and bunkers in extremely cold weather.



Gene Peeples

The 7th Med Battalion

Gene Peeples describes his role as a combat medic in the 7th Med Battalion. He describes combat medics rotating between different units every two weeks. He explains that he would spend time with engineering troops, then switch to another unit such as infantry.



Delousing the POWs

Gene Peeples describes being sent to Freedom Village as the war was coming to an end. His job as a medic included handling the POWs who were coming in from the Chinese camps. He explains the clothing of the POWs, their vomiting from being fed ice cream, and the thickness of lice on the shower floors.



Mostly Gunshot Wounds

Gene Peeples describes his treatment of the most common wounds he encountered as a medic during the Korean War. He explains his quick treatment of gunshot wounds before sending injured soldiers off to evacuation. He also describes another of the most common conditions they saw in the hospital, venereal disease.



Gene Welch

Living Conditions at Osan Air Base

Gene Welch describes the living conditions in Korea. He remembers staying in a metal hut with concrete floors. While there was fuel for heat, it would get extremely cold in the winter. He also explains what the showers and chow hall were like.



Air Force Radar Technician

Gene Welch describes some of his responsibilities while in Korea. He had to take care of the radar which was responsible for controlling the sight on the plane. He recounts how when they arrived in Korea, many of the planes did not work, but they were able to get the equipment and fix all of the planes before leaving.



Geoffrey Grimley

Recollections of Korea

Geoff Grimley remembers seeing Korea for the first time and observing telegraph lines down and burning T-34 tanks. He speaks about having to sleep in a field and waking up with frost on his things, but he says it was better than school because he would get a beating every day. He briefly recalls the Battle of Kapyong.



George A. Edwards

Life at Kimpo (K14)

George Edwards recounts the living conditions while stationed at Kimpo Air Force base. He remembers that there were now permanent buildings, but there was a chapel and a chow hall. He states that the chow hall was “primitive” and the food was often cold when you sat at the table, but everyone was happy to be doing their job.



The Most Gratifying Mission

George Edwards remembers his most gratifying moments which included giving candy and other items to the Korean children. When his crew would take a plane to Japan for repair, they would spend all of their money on things that they could give out when they returned. George Edwards states that the Korean people were living in such destitute conditions, with only the clothes on their back and no standing buildings.



Like a Thousand Years of Progress

George Edwards says that when he returned to Korea it was like they made over a “thousand years of progress.” He feels that this progress is gratifying. He said whenever he would walk around, the Korean people would thank him for his service.



Korean Progress

When asked what Korea means to him, George Edwards says that he is proud that in some small way, he is proud that Americans contributed to the progress and freedom in Korea. He believes that those acts helped to provide the freedom necessary to progress like the country has.



George Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Son's Death

After hearing the news that their son had been captured and identified as Missing In Action on July 7, 1950, the family was identified by the US military. Soldiers who had returned to the states told the family that Arthur Leroy Brown was being held at the Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. It was later discovered that Arthur Leroy Brown died on his 21st birthday in January of 1951. Some of the returning soldiers told his family that Arthur Leroy Brown had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



The Burial of a POW

George Brown was only 6 years old at the time when he heard his brother had died. Arthur Leroy Brown's family was too poor to afford a burial closer to home, so he was buried in Hawaii after his body was found. At his temporary burial in North Korea, the ground was frozen solid, so they could only dig a shallow grave. It was devastating to George Brown and his brothers since they were older and they could really understand the devastation of the death of a family member.



George Covel

Enlistment and Leaving Loved Ones Behind

George Covel describes his enlistment and leaving behind his wife who was 6 months pregnant at the time. He details his role as a bandsman and placement in the Honor Guard and recounts serving as a ceremonial bandsman during the war, about 11 miles away from the front lines. He expresses that he was fortunate enough to avoid firing weapons on most occasions.



First Impressions of Korea and Living Conditions

George Covel describes his first impressions of Korea as shocking and recounts significant devastation. He recalls his living conditions, stating that he was one of the fortunate ones to have lived in an old sergeant's quarters with cots, houseboys, and enough clothing. He mentions that an officer peddled their food on the black market which rendered poor food options for the bandsmen.



George Dixon

Setting up Orphanages in South Korea

Like many outfits, George Dixon and his unit had orphans (many under the age of ten) that had found them. He explains soldiers would cut down GI uniforms for them to wear and help find them food. He remembers an orphanage that was started where he helped place children.



George Drake

The War's Innocent Victims

Dr. George Drake discusses his research on Korean War information found in various archival locations. He explains the repercussions of war on society. He describes the problem with poverty left in Korea because of war, and his passion for getting more information out about his humanitarian concerns.



A Life Abroad Before Korea

Dr. George Drake explains how growing up in poverty affected his life decisions. He describes his travels to South America and Europe before enlisting into the United States Army. He recounts wanting to be a part of the Army Corps of Engineers to study topography, but he was placed with Intelligence instead.



The Poverty of War

Dr. George Drake explains how children were rescued from poverty during the Korean War. He recounts his journey to find photos that were taken during the war of orphans in Korea. He shares his concern over the children who became abandoned victims of the Korean War.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



Radio Transmitters, Ghost Towns, and Orphanages in Seoul

George Enice Lawhon Jr.'s job in the US military was to fix a BC 610 (a Collins radio Transmitter). When he arrived in Seoul, there was not anyone there and it was a ghost town. Sadly, some old and young people found in a rice field shot and bayonetted. He had a Chaplin in his group that started an orphanage for Korean children because there were so many that were left alone.



PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George Geno

Working Hard to Stay Afloat During the Great Depression

It would be unfathomable for student in high school today to know how hard kids during the Depression had to work to earn money. George Geno said that most farmers couldn't pay you, but they wanted to give you food. He helped farmers, trapped musk rats, and raised calves. In 8-10 months, he sold the bull and that's the money he lived on and saved to buy his first car. George Geno was also given a nanny goat and a kid which he used to start his own goat farm while attending high school.



Stringing Popcorn on Christmas During the Depression

Because George Geno lived in the country, he avoided seeing a lot of the soup lines and problems in the cities, but the farms had a share of their own poverty. People would work in the field or paint your barn just to get food. They didn't have anything, but they didn't know any better. They would string popcorn to decorate the Christmas tree. To keep watermelon and their soda pop cool, families would put them in the draining ditch to act as a refrigerator. You couldn't buy tire outright, but you could buy the boots to use inside the tire. Toys weren't available, so they handmade everything including their bow and arrows for hunting pheasants, squirrel, and duck.



We Fished In the Basement Of Our House During the Depression

The house George Geno had growing up had a dirt basement and it would fill with water in the spring. His dad would take them to Reese's to buy nets and they would catch fish. Not many people can say that they went fishing in their own basement during the Great Depression!



The Korean War Draft

George Geno received his draft card in November of 1950 during some cold weather, so he worked hard to get the car running for his family before he left. He first took a train to Fort Wayne, Detroit for basic training and then he found out that his hometown dentist had been drafted too as he went in for his military checkup. After basic training, he was trained as a combat construction engineer specialist. He was also chosen for Officer Candidate Training School even though he didn't really want to go.



George Geno: One Happy and Safe Soldier!

George Geno was chosen for Officer CandidateTraining School and he had a Lieutenant that wanted to be well-known, so he really worked his men. George Geno was called heavy, so he had to run 2 miles extra every night and when he was discharged July 2, 1952, he was asked to re-enlist. He decided to re-enlist the next day and they were all given their next assignments; to George Geno's surprise, he was assigned to stay at Fort Bliss in the US. He cried with excitement and eventually became the Lieutenant in charge of training the US soldiers how to shoot accurately from the trenches.



George H. Campbell

Seoul's Growth and Gains

George H. Campbell discusses how devastated Korea was after the war. He explains how he saw pictures of places that lost everything. He explains the changes in Seoul in the 1970s seeing the skyscrapers and the resiliency of the people.



Journey to Korea

George H. Campbell describes his military training. He shares his role as a medical equipment repairman. He explains how his job led him to live in Korea in the early 1970s.



George J. Bruzgis

Befriending The KATUSA

Short on men within his own division, the KATUSA pictured with George Bruzgis is Corporal Yu daek yoo. He described him as a great man and he was considered a part of the division. George Bruzgis mentioned how little the KATUSA was paid, so the men in his division pitched in 5 dollars each, so that they could paying him over 20 dollars a month. This was a lot of money in 1953.



Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



R&R, Hitchhiking, and Trench Injuries, Oh My!

After reenlisting in the military in March 7, 1954, George Bruzgis was given a 30 day leave and 7 day R&R in Japan, but he had difficulty getting back to Korea since the French were fighting in Indochina.
After finally being shipped to Pusan, he had to hitchhike for 3 days to get back to his unit. George Bruzgis would rest/sleep along his hike by signing paper work that would allow him to eat and sleep before moving to the next Army unit and so forth. After he met up with his division, he fell into a trench and injured his knees for 2 weeks.



George P. Wolf

Flying in the Berlin Airlift

George Wolf was a pilot in the Air Force during the Berlin Airlift after WWII. He provided food, but mostly coal to the people living in West Berlin during the Russian blockade. He flew the same path that the famous, Gail Halvorsen, flew during the 11-month blockade.



The Role of a Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf's role during the Korean War was that he was a Mosquito pilot that provided reconnaissance for UN nations. The Chinese wore dark green uniforms and he only flew 100 feet off the ground. Both the North Koreans and Chinese would hid really well with their camouflage uniforms.



Nobody Believed Us

George Wolf encountered Chinese troops early in the war while performing reconnaissance as a Mosquito pilot in February 1951. He reported many times about Chinese presence, but he felt they were ignored. In late October through early November 1951, George Wolf saw thousands of Chinese cross the Cheonggyecheon River, so he reported this information to the US intelligence officers, but they did not believe that the Chinese were fighting in the Korean War.



George Parsons

Bound for Korea and First Experiences

George Parsons chronicles his departure from the States and arrival in Korea. He comments on the ride over aboard the troop ship USS Anderson and recalls landing in Pusan. He recounts the cold weather as it was January of 1951 and recalls there being no lodging available, stating that he remembers sleeping out in the field and crowding around fires to stay warm. He details his journey to Incheon and through Seoul, sharing that Seoul was completely flattened from the fighting.



George Sullivan

Impressions of Korea

George Sullivan talks about his experiences in Korea during the 1950s. He remembers how cold the weather was and how destitute the South Koreans were. He recalls many of them living in tents or broken down cars and shares that Seoul was totally destroyed. He is amazed at the transformation South Korea has made over the last half century and adds that he really enjoys kimchi.



George Warfield

Military Reconnaissance

George Warfield was in the reserves when he was called into active duty. He was sent to Fort Campbell for two to three weeks to retrain for war. After training, he was shipped to Japan to set up for the Korean War with the 25th Reconnaissance Company, 25th Division. As a radio operator in a reconnaissance company, he had to find the enemy, go to fill-in the front line if the enemy broke the line, and he was the last unit to retreat.



A Troop Ship Hits a Cyclone

George Warfield did not know anything about Korea before he went over. When traveling on a troop ship with 1,500 soldiers, they hit a cyclone that tossed the ship all over the ocean which made men throw up all over. Luckily, George Warfield did not get sick during any of his travels in the military.



Destruction on Christmas Eve

George Warfield landed in Korea on December 24, 1950 and had Christmas Eve dinner on the ship before he was dropped off at Inchon harbor. He counted 17 tanks that went out to battle from Inchon, but only 1 came back the next morning after fighting. George Warfield passed through Euijeongbu one night and saw the terrible conditions for civilians, but he did not stay in any location longer than a day.



Experiences Working With the Turkish Troops

George Warfield worked with the Turkish Army and they were tough. The Turkish Army even practiced hand-to-hand combat with their own troops to stay battle-ready. George Warfield said that he would fight with them against an enemy at any time.



George Zimmerman

Mess Halls and Lawn Mowers

George Zimmerman recounts how he and a fellow soldier named Downey built a lawnmower for cutting brush in the compound. Their creation earned them an article in the military magazine "Stars and Stripes." Other welding jobs included building a mess hall. George Zimmerman greatly respects everyone involved in the war, particularly the hardworking Korean people. His military service helped him grow up and gave him valuable experiences.



Georgios Hahlioutis

Tears in My Eyes

George Hahlioutis describes how it felt to see Korea for the first time. He explains how he could see the destruction. He also shares the pain and suffering he saw of the locals as well as the hungry children.



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Eyes Frozen Shut

Gerry Farmer describes the cold as unbelievable and recalls the temperature dropping to forty-two below at one point. He remembers his eyes would be frozen in the morning because they would go to bed wet. He explains had a parka that was warm and shares they were not allowed to wear the hoods to ensure their hearing was not hindered.



Gerald Cavagnaro

Release for POWs

Gerald Cavagnaro describes moving to the last POW camp. He describes being transferred by train and ambulance to the border. He explains the welcoming home by American officers but didn't see the American flag. He explains the delousing process and receiving his first real shower in thirty-three months. He shares his fingerprints, picture, and information given on a laminated card to him once he returned to the US Army.



Killing Lice

Gerald Cavagnaro describes his days in a POW camp. He shares how everything was covered in lice and how they would try to kill them. He explains how other countries later had POWs added to the camp. He explains the Communist indoctrination sessions he was subjected to when there.



Gerald Edward Ballow

The Training Changed Completely

Gerald Ballow knew at the beginning of July 1950 that US troops were going to enter Korea after North Koreans invaded South Korea, so training started to change. Even though he volunteered to go, Gerald Ballow was asked to stay behind at GHQ to assist. He shares how it felt to find out that his friend was killed in combat.



Gerald Land

Live or Come Home In A Box

Gerald Land described how long the journey was from California to Japan which was a total of 14 days. When he arrived in Yokohama, Japan, they were picking up more soldiers to take to Korea and he stumbled upon an old high school friend (yelling down from the top of the ship to the deck). They had some time to talk about why he was in Japan, and his friend said he had gone AWOL while in the Air Force because of a girl he wanted to be with in Japan, but was located and brought to trial. He was given a choice: go to Fort Leavenworth to serve a 4-year sentence or be sent to Korea with the 40th Division. "Live and your record is wiped clean or come home in a box."



Government Issued (G.I.) Gear

When they arrived at Inchon, Gerald Land had to wear khakis and a short sleeve shirt in the middle of the winter while traveling to Chuncheon. Once the soldiers arrived at Chuncheon, they were given two pairs of long underwear, a towel, soap, brush, pants, fatigues, field jacket, and pile lined jacket (no overcoat). The men were also given a M-1 Rifle w/ bandolier, cartridges, and a helmet.



Homesick Soldiers

Gerald Land described how he felt in December 1952 on Heartbreak Ridge in the middle of the winter. An Army loudspeakers would play Christmas carols and a woman would be telling stories back home of your girlfriend cheating on you with your best friend. He also recalled a time shortly after New Years when one of the guys started firing his weapon by making a series of shots that sounded funny and the Patton tank at the base of that mountain fired a round which it lifted their spirits. He said he felt very homesick.
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Gerald Land's First Encounter with North Koreans

Gerald Land described how his Company Commander and his Sergeant were at an Outpost at Kumwha Valley for 3 days for 3 nights with no sleep. They barricaded themselves with barbed wire and hung C-ration containers so if anything hit the wire, it would make a sound, and the men knew where to shoot. Gerald Land spoke often of rats crawling around touching the C-rations, but it did alert him when the North Koreans were near.



War Is Hell: My First Kill

Gerald Land recalled when he was shot by North Koreans for the first time, and how terrible he felt knowing that he was tearing the enemy to pieces with his gun. As a Methodist, he carried a prayer book around and prayed for guidance/forgiveness for his time in the war. He also hoped and prayed that he would make it home safe to his family.



Released POWs Had a Blank Stare In Their Eyes

Panmunjom was the site of disembarkation at the time when Gerald Land left in September of 1953. He came across American soldiers who had been held as Prisoners of War. Gerald Land was overcome by sadness when he saw how sick the POWs looked. They just stared into space and this made Gerald Land reflect how lucky he was to come out alive. He couldn't imagine the type of torture those men had been put through.



Gerald Spandorf

Patriotism, A Better Life, and Water Brought Me to the Navy

Gerald Spandorf volunteered for the Navy because he loved to swim and to be in the water. He also wanted to serve his country. For basic training, he went to Bay Bridge, Maryland and then he was assigned a his ship in Road Island.



Friend or Foe?

Gerald Spandorf's ship traveled the world including 16 countries while in the Navy. One time during a bad storm, he was allowed to de-board in England to protect himself. When his ship went to the Netherlands, Gerald Spandorf's ship was left in port because the native people didn't like Americans due to the bombing that they did during WWII.



Traveling with the Navy

Gerald Spandorf loved when his ship was in port because the sailors were able to walk around different countries. In Germany, the Germans asked him his name and they loved him because he had a strong German name. Gerald Spandorf told them that the Germans didn't like his family because his parents and grandparents are jews.



Concerns About North Korea Today

Gerald Spandorf felt mad at North Korea because they are test bombing different areas around Korea. He's afraid that their bombing will start another war and he doesn't want anything bad to happen to the Korean people. Since he's been out of the Navy, Gerald Spandorf has been learning more about the Korean people and they have all been so sweet to him.



Gilbert Hauffels

Christmas Joy on the Front Lines

After R and R in Japan, Gilbert Hauffels’ platoon ended up back at the front near Cheorwon toward the end of December. Christmas Day, helicopters delivered turkey dinners to soldiers on the front lines. For the Luxembourg troops, Christmas in Korea was filled with joy, as they were on the verge of going home. Turkey and anticipation of returning to Luxembourg brought a lovely ambience to Gilbert Hauffels’ Christmas experience.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes being a Medical Assistant. The Ethiopian soldiers did not have a doctor assigned to them. Instead, there were six medical assistants assigned per shamble (two hundred fifty men). He does have nightmares about the wounds he witnessed. Someone with their stomach "out" is terrifying.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes his Korean War experience. Men lived in bunkers. There was no hot food. Men did not sleep, due to constant attacks. Mortar shells would shake the ground at all hours. Soldiers showered every ten days because the Americans made them. Girma Mola Endeshaw still describes his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Gordon Evans

Living Conditions

He recalls having to dig a hole in the ground and putting a tent over it. They would then put a pot belly stove on top for warmth. He remembers only having a hot bath once in six months. When he was getting ready to leave, he recalls being deliced and the they were lined up like animals and sprayed in order to kill the lice. He recalls having fun with his buddies and one Filipino bringing his fighting rooster with him, making it to the front lines with it.



Grace Ackerman

Speaking About War: A Healing Process

Grace Ackerman feels that the Korean War Legacy Foundation is important because it allows the veterans to speak about their experiences during the Korean War. Students and future generations will also be able to gain knowledge from the interviews. Experiences such as the cold weather, being away from family, and personal experiences endured during the Korean War.



PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Graham L. Hughes

Stress and Relief for the Radio Operators

Graham Hughes was a radio operator and worked in four-hour, two-man shifts. Radio operators had to find time to sleep, wash, and rest in four hours. This exhaustion caused him to get shingles. There was a constant, intense pressure for his military specialty throughout the Korean War. He even went fishing with hand grenades in the East Sea during the few hours that he had off.



Loss of Sailors and Shingles

Graham Hughes lost three sailors while he was stationed in the East Sea. None of the sailors died in combat, but all their lives clearly had an impact on him. He discovered one of the sailors who hanged himself. After getting shingles, he was sent to an island in Japan for Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



Gregory Garcia

Living Conditions in Korea

Gregory Garcia describes the living conditions while in Korea. He remembers that they lived in sleeping bags, foxholes, and slept in tents in Taegu. He recalls that he was paid a little over 100 dollars per month to be a soldier and then was paid 45 extra per month for being a paratrooper.



Gustavo Mendez

"I Don't Need Bullets"

Gustavo Mendez arrived in Inchon and then went to the Battle at Old Baldy. After getting to Korea, he had to deal with prejudice against Puerto Ricans because he didn't speak fluent English. A South Korean soldier that was embedded with Gustavo Mendez warned the US troops that many Chinese were headed their way. As he engaged the enemy, Gustavo Mendez's rifle jammed. He though that he it was a sign from God.



"...The Next Day, I'm a General"

Gustavo Mendez recalled a first sergeant who wanted him to stay in Korea for three additional months and become a sergeant. He cleverly replied, "If I go home to my house, the next day, I'm a general." Dr. Han, the interviewer, found a connection between the treatment of Puerto Ricans and Koreans.



Prayer and the Bible Was All that Was Needed After being Drafted

Gustavo Mendez was drafted into the Army in 1951 while living in New York. He asked if he could go back to his hometown to attend basic training and the US government allowed him to move back to Puerto Rico for training. Gustavo Mendez was a Christian and he was nervous about having to use his weapon in warfare, but as he read more of the Bible he learned that he will be protected which made him feel better.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Growing Up in Greece

Haralambos Theodorakis was born into a farming family with 5 brothers and 3 sisters on Crete, Greece. While attending only a few years of school, he was not taught about Korea. He didn't even know about Japan or China, so his schooling was very narrow based on his home country.



Korea at the Beginning of the War

Haralambos Theodorakis left for Korea in 1950 and came back in 1951. Everything was destroyed when he arrived and the people were very sweet people. Korean civilians didn't have a lot of clothes to wear or food to eat. If Haralambos Theodorakis had extra food, he gave it to the civilians and he saw a lot of Korean children running the streets during his 8 months there.



Modern Korea

Haralambos Theodorakis knew that he was fighting communists during the war. Now, Korea is the 10th strongest nation in the world and he feels that it was a destroyed country in 1950. Now, he's excited to see the progress that has been made in Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harlan Nielsen

Living Conditions and the Front Lines

Harlan Nielsen explains the living conditions on the front lines and not wanting to talk about Korean War battles he witnessed from the front lines. He recalls that many soldiers were killed. He continues to say that he feels war is close again with the activity of North Korea.



Harold Barber

Thanksgiving Day at War

Harold Barber describes a Thanksgiving Day that he spent during the Korean War. The soldiers were given a bowl of soup to eat, but they had to leave and return to patrolling their area and became completed surrounded by the enemy. Those who did return after the ambush, only returned to soup that was frozen solid.



Harold Beck

Bed Check Charlie

Harold Beck describes “Bed Check Charlie.” Each night a small biplane would come and drop bombs or grenades just around bed time. Their crew moved the lights toward the mountain, and one night Bed Check Charlie flew right into the cliff.



Choto Island Air Force Base

Harold Beck explains the living conditions in Chodo Island Air Force Base, which was down a hill. There was a large storage unit and chow hall, but the rest of it was tents and bunkers. Someone had to stay on duty all of the time to keep all lines of communication open. Even on the island, Harold Beck remembers that the weather was extremely cold, so cold that the planes landing would be full of ice.



Houseboy Spy

Harold Beck shows a photograph of a Korean houseboy. This houseboy was at several tents and bunkers and was caught tapping information on the radio line sending information to someone else, assumed to be the enemy Harold Beck said that after that, the houseboy was never seen again, but that they had a close bond. Harold Beck still has a letter that the house boy wrote to his wife.



Harold Bill Christenson

The Loss of Friends

Harold Christenson describes moving towards the fronts lines, escorted by ROK soldiers, and the fear he felt hearing small arms fire and artillery and seeing the flashes associated with the weapon fire as his company pressed inland near the mountains. He shares that within the first two months of arrival, the friends he went to Korea with were gone. With sorrow, he recounts the loss of one friend when his company was overrun by the Chinese at Gibraltar and remembers the injuries another friend sustained from a landmine.



Mama-San

Harold Christenson remembers the fun he had with friends in Japan, going to Japanese bars and buying women drinks. He recounts one experience in particular where he gave a woman $20, which was a larger sum of money at the time, to buy drinks, and she did not return with his change. He also shares of his experience riding in a rickshaw.



Stealthy Chinese

Harold Christenson describes the location of bunkers near the front lines and communicating with them each night. He explains guard duty rotation and his role in making sure someone was awake and alert throughout the night at each bunker to avoid being overrun. He details the stealth of the Chinese and recounts instances where men out on patrol who had fallen asleep were found dead in their sleeping bags.



Harold Huff

From Draft to Deployment

Harold Huff recalls being drafted, discusses his training in Georgia, and comments on his deployment and duties in the war. He shares how tough it was to leave his new bride and child behind. He remembers being pulled off of the ship and stationed in Japan where he repaired airplane radios coming back from Korea.



A Typical Day

Harold Huff discusses his workload in Japan. He recalls working on an old zero base, in the middle of a hydroponic farm. He shares that the farm was sending produce to the front lines in Korea. He recollects stories of Korea from soldiers who witnessed it firsthand, saying it was cold and dangerous.



Leisure Time

Harold Huff discusses what it was like for soldiers in Japan when they had time off. He recalls how, on the weekend, soldiers would catch trains into Tokyo for massages and hot water baths. He remembers there being a swimming pool beside their barracks they could also took advantage of. He recognizes his luck in placement during the war.



Changes in Korea

Harold Huff discusses the differences seen in Korea before and after the war and compares the two Koreas today. He remembers hearing about the turmoil experienced in Korea prior to the war and recognizes the benefits Korea has amassed due to democracy. He talks about the hunger and sadness many North Koreans face in comparison to the fortunes of the South Koreans.



Harry Castro

Experiences at Incheon in 1945

Harry Castro described experiencing snow for the first time. He shares that he spent Thanksgiving there. He describes the visuals of the area. He shares that they had no weapons and were there due to a typhoon. He shares the destruction he saw in other places as well.



Harry Hawksworth

British Troopship to the Korean War

Harry Hawksworth recalls being summonsed to serve in Korean War. He recounts enduring a six to seven-week training program where he practiced trench warfare prior to departing for Korea on a troopship. He remembers the ship stopping at many locations on the seven-week journey to gather additional supplies.



Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American US troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River on Hill 144

Harry Hawksworth and the rest of his company were forced to retreat back to a village near Choksong along the Imjin River in late 1950 due to the Chinese entering the war. After digging into trenches, performing reconnaissance trips, and guarding Allied trenches, he was startled by a possible Chinese invasion of Hill 144.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. Due to the quick retreat, most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below. Harry Hawksworth used six crates of two inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth walked at night for six weeks until he reached prisoner of war (POW) Camp Changsong in May 1951. Many of the British POWs escaped, but all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. After getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day, Harry Hawksworth became very sick. As the Chinese brainwashing continued, US and British POWs fought to survive every single day.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth knew that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. This would help to fatten up the ninety-five pound Harry Hawksworth who had been held there since May 1951. Once the armistice was signed in July 1953, Harry Hawksworth and the other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. This is where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Heath

40 Degrees Below

Harry Heath describes the harsh cold that faced the soldiers in Korea. He shares the injuries that caused him to spend two months in a hospital. He describes the failure of equipment given to the soldiers. He explains things that were limited due to the harsh temperatures for soldiers and their hygiene.



The Chosin Few

Harry Heath describes the organization he belongs to which includes American soldiers who found in the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War. He shares the struggles that both he and his fellow Chosin Few members faced such as frostbite wounds and PTSD. He shares how he feels fighting in Korea made him a better person.



Hartwell Champagne

Life in a POW Camp

Hartwell Champagne describes time spent in a Chinese POW camp during the war. He shares how he would pick up injured men and what he had to do with the dead. He describes the harsh realities he faced while in Camps 3.



This Was My Life

Hartwell Champagne describes his experience living in Chinese POW Camp 5. He shares his responsibility for gathering firewood for the camp. He also shares how he would gather water, which provided him much needed strength. He explains how this gave him a sense of purpose when many of the other prisoners of war experienced hopelessness and despair.



Harvey J. Ernest

Korea

Harvey Ernest said it was cold in Korea but not quite as cold as Wisconsin. There were some Koreans he worked with while serving in Korea but does not remember too much about them. He was paid a dollar a day, and he would write his family back home. He was reluctant to talk about some of the things that happened in Korea.



Henri Socquet

Hard to Forget

When asked if he was still bothered by the scenes of death, Henri Socquet responds with “absolutely.” However, he recently was at meeting of Korean War veterans and met a man who had been injured by a grenade while in combat and Henri Socquet had helped save. He remembers the night that this happened as well as many other times since they are hard to forget.



Henry Kosters

Join the Navy Go to Korea

Henry Kosters explains his decision to enlist with the Navy after being drafted into the Army. He describes his discussion with a Navy recruiter who explained that he could forego a four year commitment with the Army and enlist with the Navy for two years instead. He goes on to describe being assigned to the USS Gladiator (Mine Sweeper) and being transported to Korea.



Henry MacGillicuddy

First Impressions of Korea

Henry MacGillicuddy talks about arriving in Korea and describing Seoul as flat because it was devastated. He said it looked like the farmers did just enough to stay alive.



Staying On The American Base

Henry MacGillicuddy talks about what it was like staying on the American base. His favorite food was turkey and he remembers ice cream being served at every lunch and dinner. He remembers many Korean children worked on the base cleaning and doing other jobs. He also wrote home frequently.



A Visit Back to Magnificent Seoul

Henry MacGillicuddy describes going back to Seoul by invitation and being amazed and surprised at the transformation of Seoul from 1953 to 1980. He called Seoul magnificent and he saw the South African monument and the DMZ.



Henry River, Jr.

Korea in the 1950s

Henry River, Jr., recalls the living conditions of Koreans in the 1950s. He remembers life being tough for the Koreans and speaks about a nine-year-old Korean boy who did his clothes in exchange for bags of rice. Additionally, he recalls the human waste fertilizer smell in Incheon.



Living Conditions

Henry River, Jr., talks about his wife and how much he was paid. He recounts what his living conditions were like. He recalls his division having a tent compound which included the officer's tent, mess tents, and squat tents for the soldiers.



Henry Winter

Living Conditions

Henry Winter describes what it was like to live on the front line on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about sleeping in trenches and army rations. He recounts taking showers once a week in the rear. Henry Winter also remembers the cold and the many cases of frostbite suffered by soldiers.



Herbert Schreiner

Landing in Korea and First Impressions

Herbert Schreiner describes landing in Korea for the first time as a soldier and his impressions of the smell and scenery. He recalls being greeted with a stench from what he believed to be the honey buckets used to fertilize fields with human waste. He adds that the area was ravaged and war-torn. He also recounts the houseboy who cleaned soldiers' clothing and offers his impressions of the Korean people during wartime.



​Herbert Spiese

The Dungaree Navy

Herbert Spiese describes the living conditions aboard their small ship, the USS Alameda County that offered no services in contrast to an aircraft carrier. He explains how there was no pay master, no barbers, and no small stores. Herbert Spiese remembers how crewmen were forced to repair their clothes when worn out and this led to the crew being called the “Dungaree Navy.” One crewman even had to paint his worn-out, threadbare shirt to keep it from ripping even more.



“It Was Like a Palace”

Herbert Spiese describes the conditions on the ship. He explains how the ship was so small that they didn’t have great mattresses, no store, and only one cook. He states that when he was on an aircraft carrier it felt like a palace in comparison. Herbert Spiese's ship was more fit for the NATO Navy insignia, not the United States.



Proud of Our Teamwork

Herbert Spiese is very proud of his Navy service, including the camaraderie and support of his fellow crewmen. He describes of how his fellow crewmen had to work together to build a bridge to support the Marines in an amphibious mission. The bridge was quite an undertaking and many did not feel the bridge could be built, however the bridge was built.



Herbert Taylor

Chingu (Friend)

Herbert Taylor describes witnessing the destruction of Incheon following his arrival in 1954. He shares how he saw just walls and shells of buildings there. He describes the trees and how they had been shot off and the land was barren in the countryside. He describes the straw huts people were living in. He shares his experiences with local children.



Herbert Werner

Refugees During War

Herbert Werner became very emotional as he described being an 18 year old seeing war first hand. He said witnessing the wounded, being under fire, civilians fleeing, and children affected by war made him overcome with emotion. He never saw as much fear as he did while there and it still gets to him even today. Herbert Werner made an instant personal connection with the refugees during the Hamheung Evacuation since he was an orphaned child himself.



Korea Is My Second Home

After returning home from his service in Korea, it wasn't long before Herbert Werner was back in Korea as a professional boxing referee. He described after spending 3 full years of his life there, he was amazed at the resilience of the people despite the terror of war, how much the country of South Korea has improved, their patriotism, and the respect the civilians had for the soldiers who fought for South Korea. He felt like he was treated with so much respect and built an unconditional friendship.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Herman F. Naville

Conditions in the Prison Camp

Herman Naville remembers that they lived in filth and ate very poorly as prisoners. He describes not praying for his life, but accepting whatever came to him because he had chosen to enlist. He describes how when someone would die, they would carry the bodies onto the hill, they would bury them under snow or a foxhole.



Prison Camp after Peace Talks

Herman Naville describes when the prisoners were turned over to the Chinese, moving from Apex Camp to Camp 5. He remembers that he had dropped from 225lbs to about 98lbs, becoming so weak that he could barely stand up. This change occurred because the Chinese wanted to make the conditions look better for negotiations.



Herman Gilliam

Celebrating Important Dates in Japan & Korea

Herman Gilliam remembers being in Korea and Japan for several milestones and holidays. He celebrated his 21st birthday and first anniversary in Japan with his wife thousands of miles away. He remembers landing in Korea on New Year’s Day and having to enjoy his turkey dinner with a pocket knife.



Homer Garrett

First Glimpse of the Korean People

Homer Garrett described the Korean people when he first arrived in Korea as hungry and begging for food/supplies. It was the worst the worst catastrophic area that he had ever seen and Korea really needed a lot of help to rebuild. Korea was still in ruins 12 years after the Korean War ended.



Earnings for his Service

Homer Garrett briefly described, what few kids understand, which is how little soldiers were paid for their service. When he first entered as a Private First Class soldier, he started making $43.00 per month even while having a wife and two children back at home. When Homer Garrett came home, his highest earning was $130.00 per month which was much better than when he first entered the service in 1965.



Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Transportation Transformation

When Homer Garrett first arrived in Korea, the only means of transportation were ox-drawn carts for the wealthy, buses, and small taxis ("red birds"). The roads were only dirt roads that the Military Police shared with the civilians to transport goods and supplies. When Homer Garrett revisited Korea in 2007, (his wife visits often since she is from Korea- met and married her there and brought her back to Texas) he recalled the highway system in Seoul rivals that of our highway system in the United States, and that there are more cars on the road there, than there are in Dallas or Houston, Texas!



Homer W. Mundy

Cold Weather

Homer Mundy talks about the cold weather and the lack of proper cold-weather equipment. He discusses the injuries he and other men sustained as a result.



Hong Berm Hur

Korean War POW and the Simple Ways to Show Appreciation

Hong Berm Hur met Mr. English Model who was a POW (prisoner of war) during the Korean War. English Model was captured by the Chinese and was put into a camp for over a year. Thankfully, he escaped and made his way to Hawaii. This is where he shared his story with Hong Berm Hur. Hong Berm Hur not only likes to hear the stories of Korean War veterans, he also takes care of these veterans when he's not working so that he can properly show the veterans gratitude that they deserve for their service during the Korean War.



Success in South Korea

Hong Berm Hur is very proud of the relationship between the US military and the South Korean government. The US soldiers and sailors worked very hard during the Korean War to protect South Korea. The alliance between the US and South Korea has led to the success in South Korea.



Horace Sappington

Nothing Worse Than The Cold

Horace Sappington describes being cold as the most difficult thing during his service. He recounts low temperatures near the 38th Parallel and during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. As part of a task force, he shares that he was sent in to help bail out Marines before the Chinese took it all.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Training ROK Officers and Korean Culture in the Late 1940s

Howard Ballard recalls training officers for the Republic of Korea (ROK) before the start of the Korean War. He remembers how the ROK hated the Japanese because they had taken everything of value back to Japan during the Japanese occupation of Korea. He recalls training the South Koreans to become officers, shoot Howitzers, and become leaders before the Korean War began (1948). He describes aspects of Korean culture, noting the attention to respect and the practice of purchasing wives through the use of pigs.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Lee

Bridge Construction Assignments

Howard Lee shares that once their equipment and materials arrived in Incheon, they were given construction assignments. He recalls being assigned to construct bridges at various points and on certain dates. He states that platoons were required to camp out in the area once the bridge was complete until they received another assignment and mission. He comments on food availability and his platoon's mail schedule while in Korea.



Howard Street

Difficulties Faced

Howard Street shares that his most difficult obstacle in Korea was keeping clean. He recalls it being tough to find a shower and good food. He recounts having to sleep on the ground in tents, even in snow as high as six feet and temperatures below 40 degrees.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Howard Bradshaw's Love for Orphaned Koreans

Howard Bradshaw encountered many orphans during his time in Korea. He offered them candy and expressed his love for these kids.
Howard Bradshaw took pictures of these children while he was there during the Korean War.



English and the Mormon Church

Howard Bradshaw spoke of a professor from Cornell University and the soldiers who came to Korea during the war. They helped to organize English courses for the Korean civilians and they spoke about the Latter Day Saints. A Mormon temple is now located in Korea and it's estimated that over 125,000 Koreans are Mormons.



Writing Home

Howard Bradshaw wrote to his wife every day. In the letters, he described the impact he'd made on the Korean people through his faith. Howard Bradshaw felt that these letters saved his life by giving him comfort and joy.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Laverne Bradshaw's Perspective After Visiting Korea

Letters Howard Bradshaw wrote home described in such detail what is was like in Korea. Laverne Bradshaw was well-informed about his surroundings while away. When she had the chance to see modern Korea for the first time, they described the large amount of buildings from Seoul to Pusan and they thought it was gorgeous.



Hussen Mohammed Omar

Money for an Orphanage

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes the condition of the people in Korea. People were in bad shape. He describes how the Ethiopian soldiers donated money to help build an orphanage. Once the orphanage was built, soldiers continued to donate money to keep it running.



Ian J. Nathan

Platoons within Ten Company

Ian Nathan arrived at Pusan in September of 1951. After three weeks organizing the vehicles and men of Ten New Zealand Transport Company, his workshop platoon moved north to merge with other platoons. There was a lot of equipment needed to maintain military vehicles, but the jobs were shared among the skilled company of about fifty men.



From Teacher Training to K Force

Ian Nathan entered teacher training college as a twenty-three-year-old, but he left to join K Force. He trained at Burnham Military Camp, and then he transferred to Darwin. In Darwin, he joined the rescued soldiers from the ship Wahine that had run aground on a reef outside Darwin. They flew to Japan and then to Pusan.



Winter Quarters: Engineering a Tent and Shower

Ian Nathan and the Workshop Unit designed warmer quarters with petrol tanks for the troops. They pieced together a building for relatively warm showers in the frigid Korean winters. Many of their projects involved re-purposed military equipment to make new supplies the soldiers needed.



Small Boys, Heavy Loads, and Weather

Ian Nathan shows pictures of his time in Korea. One photo has a small Korean boy carrying a load supported by an A-frame pack. Other photos represent living conditions such as a tent covered in winter snow and a swollen creek blocking access to the latrines in the rainy season.



Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Gulek

Desperation of the South Koreans

Ibrahim Gulek describes the people of South Korea. South Korea was war-torn. The people were desperate. He describes South Koreans as having no clothes and constantly begging for food. The conditions were heartbreaking. Ibrahim Gulek and his fellow soldiers would give food and supplies to the people in need.



Downtime

Ibrahim Gulek describes what soldiers did when the Armistice was signed. Many Turkish soldiers could not read or write. Ibrahim Gulek was one of the few who could and taught other soldiers how to also. He also describes a tug-or-war with the American soldiers. The Turkish soldiers won.



Iluminado Santiago

Rice and Beans

Iluminado Santiago explains that the U.S. Army provided rice and beans for the 65th Regiment. The food reminded him of traditional Puerto Rican food. His platoon slept in sleeping bags in tents wherever they went, despite the extreme cold. He clarifies that he served his country and that he felt lucky to be able to fight for democracy in Korea.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Rules for Nurses

Inga-Britt Jagland describes rules that the US military assigned for nurses. Nurses could not take men into their bedroom. If a nurse broke the rules, the punishment was being banned from the United States. Members of the Swedish Red Cross were paid by the US military. Inga-Britt Jagland earned the rank of First Lieutenant.



Civilian Suffering

Inga-Britt Jagland describes being very happy to be in Korea. The people of Korea were so friendly and thankful for the help. The country was so beautiful with a sunrise over the mountains. With all the beauty, the people were suffering. Some children had no legs or arms. Inga-Britt Haglund also describes providing food to Korean children.



Big Love in Busan

Inga-Britt Jagland describes meeting her future husband in war-torn Busan. She met him at a Swedish spring festival. He slipped her vodka and orange juice. He was a driver taking people back to their villages for the Red Cross.



Irwin Saltzman

With the Help of Koreans

Irwin Saltzman describes briefly the conditions of the Korean civilians during the war. He shares that the Koreans that helped his group were very kind. He shares how his group had the help of Korean houseboys and cooks. He also remembers a special way the Koreans who cared for the soldiers' clothes were able to identify the soldier's items.



Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez

Life in Korea During the War

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez was constantly traveling during the war and had to sleep wherever he could find a spot to rest his head. Eating canned food rations was the norm. He recalls the extreme cold in Korea.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Manning the Observation Post

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez speaks of being put on alert every night at midnight. He shares memories of the tactics used by the Chinese to lure the Puerto Rican soldiers out of their bunkers with Puerto Rican music and beer. He recounts losing two members of a patrol.



J. Robert Lunney

Loading the Human Cargo

J. Robert Lunney describes the process of loading of over 14,000 North Korean civilian refugees, mostly women, children. and the elderly, aboard the cargo ship SS Meredith Victory. Lunney also speaks about the conditions aboard the ship for the refugees.



Jack Allen

Concussion Grenades and the Aggressive Chinese Army

At the end of November 1950, Jack Allen was wounded by the Chinese who overran the US troops. The Chinese had so many troops that they easily came over the hills. A concussion grenade took the nerve out of Jack Allen's right arm, so he couldn't use it and his knee was shot too. He was laid on straw and a tarp until a helicopter basket took him back off the line and onto Japan to recover. There were hundreds of wounded that accompanied Jack Allen, but he knew that he wouldn't be left behind because that's a Marines' motto.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Cooper

A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



Jack Droneburg

I like your beer better

Jack Droneburg describes his typical day and surroundings while stationed at Taegu. He explains that his day to day consisted of guard duty. He goes on to explain that the majority of the inhabitants of the compound were officers, Colonels and Generals. He recalls drinking a lot of beer and taking a particular liking to Korean beer over American beer.



Jack Goodwin

People Who Fall in a Death March

Jack Goodwin describes the Death March as a POW which took place November 1st-9th, 1950. He shares that 86 men died along the way from either wounds sustained prior to the start of the march or from being shot by the North Koreans who were forcing them to march. He recounts civilians being forced to march with them as well, including nuns, priests, engineers, and politicians.



The Aftermath of the Death March

Jack Goodwin recalls his experience after surviving the Death March. He describes being housed in a school building as a POW until February 1951. He recounts frigid conditions as temperatures dipped to forty and fifty below zero and shares that roughly two hundred men either froze to death or died of malnutrition during that time frame. He describes there not being much to do during the day other than kill the lice that infested their bodies.



Crossing the Bridge of No Return

Jack Goodwin shares memories of crossing the Bridge of No Return in 1953 after having lived as a POW since 1950. He recalls men tossing their clothes off along the road and feeling emotional upon seeing the American flag. He briefly speaks of losing his faith during his time as a POW.



Jack Howell

Morale in Wonsan

Jack Howell describes landing in Wonsan, Korea, shortly after the Marines had taken over Wonsan. He recounts the morale of fellow soldiers and shares memories of a commander greeting them on the beach with a pep talk once they had landed. He recalls scenes of Wonsan and shares that there seemed to have been little resistance as there was no major destruction to observe.



Jack Keep

Operation Mainbrace and the Destroyer Gatling

Jack Keep participated in Operation Mainbrace which was the first joint NATO exercise in the North Atlantic. Jack Keep recalls his duties on the deck force taking care of boats, rigging operations, and refueling at sea.



Life on a Destroyer

Jack Keep lived on the Gatling Destroyer for four years as a First Class Boatswain's Mate. Living quarters were close while their jobs included scrubbing the deck, maintenance, general quarters, and watch.



Jack Kronenberger

Signal Core

Jack Kronenberger explains that due to his good letters of recommendation from being a clerk typist, he was offered the job of supply clerk for the Signal Core, which was in charge of dispensing batteries and radios. He says this was a very good position as it was like a regular job. Also, it allowed him to barter for things like extra clothing and good food.



Jack Sherts

The most difficult part of war

Jack Sherts describes the intense cold. During his time in the Punchbowl, he would have to break the ice off of his eyelids. The weather during this time was 20 degrees below zero. Since he was also a jeep driver, driving in the snow and mud was very difficult as well.



Jack Spahr

Traveling Overseas Near the End of the War

Jack Spahr details his journey overseas to serve in the Korean War. He describes his duties as a young serviceman in the Air Force nearing the end of the conflict. He shares that he served as a clerk in Daegu, assisting in keeping track of personnel while administering payroll and tests among other duties.



First Impressions of Devastated Refugees

Jack Spahr expresses that he knew nothing about Korea until he entered the service. He shares that his first impressions of Korea were depressing as he saw many refugees searching for food and assistance. He recounts servicemen trying to help them as much as they could. He recalls several South Koreans working on the base with them and states that they were paid well compared to what they would get elsewhere at the time.



Jack Wolverton

Living Conditions

Jack Wolverton shares about living conditions, what they ate, and where they slept. He recalls putting up tents and taking them down every time they moved locations. He remembers the tents included fold out bunks and an oil heater. He recounts that his unit had a cook, providing them with regular meals. He recalls his salary and how he spent his money. He shares that he loved playing poker but also sent money home each month.



Comparing Korea Then and Now

Jack Wolverton offers his impressions of Korea today versus what he experienced during the war. He shares he was never taught about Korea as a kid and recalls seeing a devastated country when he arrived. He adds that he recently bought a Korean car, a Hyundai Tucson, and loves it. He comments on the company's reliable reputation and how Korea's economic success impresses him given his first impression of the country during the war.



James “Jim” Cawyer

I'd Rather Be in Seoul

James "Jim" Cawyer reminisces about some of the activities he enjoyed while stationed in Seoul. He recalls seeing movies on occasion, playing pool, and playing dime poker. He describes why he felt there were better living quarters for soldiers stationed in Seoul, than for those stationed in Daegu.



James “Jim” Valentine

Death on the Ice at Chosin Reservoir

Jim Valentine discusses crossing the ice in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he was surrounded. He explains how they had to not attract attention due to Chinese soldiers. He discusses the harsh winters he experienced. He explains that he is still unsure as to how/why he survived.



James A. Newman

Nobody Argues with Padres

James Newman was sent ashore in 1951. Rare for a Navy man, he was able to see a devastated Seoul and fight on the frontlines. He had rare access due to accompanying an Anglican clergyman.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



Return to Korea

James Newman has participated in five trips back to Korea since 2002. He is very impressed with the modern nation. He feels pride in the accomplishments of the Korean people and his part in freeing South Korea from North Korean rule.



James Berry

Life in POW Camp 5

James Berry describes some of his experiences at POW Camp 5. He explains where they slept and how many people were in the room, many of them who died. He describes his interactions with a Chinese interpreter who had been a college student in Texas before the War.



Diving a Tank

James Berry gives some insight into being a tank driving during the Korean War. This was an extension of a time as a heavy equipment operator in Guam. He explains why they needed 5 people inside of the tank.



James Bradshaw

Impressions of Korea

James Bradshaw gives an emotional account of how bombed out Seoul was when he saw it. He became tearful remembering the children that he felt sorry for, and recalls saving his rations for them.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



The Loss of a Close Friend During the Battle of Triangle Hill

James Butcher fought during the battle of Triangle Ridge/Hill. On Oct. 18, 1952, he charged up one specific section of the ridge that included Jane Russell Hill to fight the Chinese. Unfortunately, his friend was killed right next to him as they were taking out Chinese trenches.



A Close Encounter with a Chinese Soldier

James Butcher went face-to-face with a Chinese soldier as he was fighting for Triangle Hill. The Chinese soldier was getting ready to throw a grenade at the US troops and he became scared when he saw James Butcher in the trench with him. After a long pause, James Butcher took down the enemy trench.



James C. Delong

Life as a POW - At Camp

James C. Delong describes life at the POW camp in North Korea. He explains that he was forced into a barn where the Chinese attempted to brainwash him along with nearly three-hundred other men. He recounts how the interrogation and brainwashing would last for more than eight hours; the first four hours in Chinese and the second in English. He goes on to describe the day they were marched to another camp and eighteen Marines were released in order to take the prescribed propaganda back with them.



James Cochran

Duties in the Fire Direction Center

James Cochran recounts his transfer and arrival at post in the Punch Bowl area and details the living conditions there amid the artillery. He describes his role in the Fire Direction Center (FDC) which entailed providing the battery with information for aiming. He offers a shift rotation example for this particular role as well.



Softer Side of War

James Cochran offers a glimpse of the softer side of war. He recounts his living conditions in bunkers and recalls sleeping without heat from the bunker furnace at night despite the cold temperatures. He remembers being well fed and shares that he often wrote letters home during his service, detailing the weather and requesting items such as socks and camera film.



James Creswell

Conditions in Pusan

James Creswell describes his first impressions of Korea. He recounts the horrible living conditions civilians faced in Pusan. He shares that people were living in river beds, freezing to death due to lack of clothing, and had no food or money.



Typical Day of Service

James Creswell describes how he served as an advisor to three or four South Korean Majors and Colonels. He recounts offering radio signal, leadership, combat, artillery, and tank advice and training to other soldiers. He explains that there was significant guerrilla warfare, and due to the successes of the advisory support he was involved in, he shares that there was a bounty on his head. He expresses the level of danger, adds that no logos or insignias were worn, and recalls having a rifle in his hands at all times.



James Ferris

Troopships and Preparation for Deployment into the Korean War

James Ferris describes being put on an American troopship with five thousand Marines. He recalls traveling twenty-nine days to reach Japan. He shares that once in Japan, his division was so large the soldiers were split and sent to multiple locations around the country to wait for deployment to Korea.



The Difficult Job as a US Marine

James Ferris shares that his assignment did not allow him to stay in Korea for a long time. He explains that his job had him flying in and out of the entire country. He shares he earned good money for the 1950s as a corporal and recalls how he sent most of it home to his family. He adds that once he arrived back home, he went on his first date with a girl he wrote to for over a year while serving in the war.



James Friedel

Life at Sasebo, Japan

James Friedel talks about daily life when he was stationed on the USS Hector in Sasebo, Japan. He recalls playing basketball and baseball during his free time. He comments on how the Japanese were very helpful and cordial to the Americans.



"A Most Rewarding Christmas"

James Friedel tells the story of when he volunteered to host a Japanese orphan for Christmas festivities on the USS Hector in Sasebo, Japan, in 1950. He recalls how it was his first Christmas away from home and how homesick he was at the time. He shares he and other volunteers spent the day with the orphans, watching movies, opening presents, and enjoying a Christmas meal together. He adds that it was a rewarding experience and shares that it was emotional to see the orphans leave.



Repairing Damaged Ships at Sea

James Friedel speaks generally about the process of repairing ships off the coast of Korea while deployed on the USS Hector, an auxiliary repair ship. He discusses how divers would conduct underwater welding to repair damaged ships. He adds he did not participate in this specific duty.



James Houp

Korea Today and the Honor Flight

James Houp recalls reading about Korea today and recognizes its great economic achievements. He remembers participating in an honor flight to the Korean War Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. He shares how three South Koreans stopped him to take a picture and were very grateful for his service in Korea. He emphasizes how he cannot believe the transformation Korea has made from a very poor country to one of the richest in the world today. He expresses his pride in being a Korean War Veteran.



James J. Barden

Sunset Missions

James J. Barden describes preparation for the thirty bombing missions his crew executed in 1952. It took much of an entire day for his squadron to prepare the planes and bombs for night missions from Yokota Air Force Base in Japan. Each mission was to bomb various locations on the Korean Peninsula.



James Jolly

Tootsie Roll

James Jolly recalls that while at the Chosin Reservoir, his platoon survived on Tootsie Roll candy. He explains that their C-rations were frozen and the only way they could thaw them was by holding them against their bodies, which was very unpleasant. He goes on to explain how the delivery of this candy was originally a mistake; they had ordered mortar shells which happened to be the code name for Tootsie Rolls, thus tons and tons of candy was delivered from Japan.



James Kenneth Hall

Life as a Prisoner of War

James Hall describes being captured in North Korea by the Chinese and being temporarily placed in a mine. He describes being forced to march all night because the Chinese did not have a place to put prisoners. He shares his testimony of being starved and sleep deprived while in the prisoner of war encampment. He recounts being placed in Compound 39 where prisoners were placed and left to die.



Dreaming of Bologna, Peanut Butter, and Peaches

James Hall describes how he was able to survive nearly starving to death in Camp 5, a Chinese prisoner of war camp. He discusses what he was fed while in the encampment. He recalls that when peace talks to bring about a ceasefire started, he noticed the prisoners were fed rice as a means for them to regain their strength.



Sending a Letter Home

James Hall recounts how the Chinese wanted the prisoners of war to write letters home after the peace talks began in 1951. He explains how the prisoners were told to write about accolades of the Communist way of thinking and to put down the United States government. He recalls how he refused to write the letters and remembers a Chinese nurse helping him write a letter to his mother to let her know he was alive.



Finally Released

James Hall tells the story of being released from POW Camp 5 on August 10, 1953. He recalls being placed on a barge and then a train on his journey south to cross the 38th Parallel. He shares his experience of acclimating back into the possession of the United States government authorities. He recalls having his first meal at Incheon after he was released as a POW.



James L. Owen

Most Difficult Thing

James L. Owen explains that the most difficult thing of his service was knowing it had to be done. He shares it was hard to accept the fact that one must "kill or be killed." He describes how so many officers were killed, that job responsibilities constantly changed, and that one had to persevere.



James L. Stone

POW Stories

James L. Stone shares a few memories regarding his time in the POW camp with other soldiers from various countries. He recounts stealing corn in a North Korean field with a Turkish officer and being reprimanded. He recalls British officers being overly concerned with their handlebar mustaches and comments on their laziness. He admits that it was fairly easy to escape the POW camps; however, one realized the farther he was away from camp, the farther away he was from food.



James Low

Truman's Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Military

Racial tension grew after the Executive Order 9981 was issued. When James Low was in the US National Guard, he saw a confrontation between Southern soldiers and African American soldiers from Harlem, New York. Racism still existed for African Americans on the home front during the 1950s. Since James Low went to an integrated school, his beliefs were different than the Southern soldiers that were stationed with him.



Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



Begging to Join the US Army

James Low wanted to join the US Army after he graduated high school because he wanted to do his part just like everyone else did during WWII. There was a group of James Low's friends that went to volunteer month after month until there was a spot open. Finally, in February 1951, he was accepted into the Army, but had to wait until he was 18 years old to sign the paperwork because his mom refused to give permission to his 17 year-old son.



Army Gunner with Old WWII Weapons

James Low applied to a school in Texas as a radar repairman, but he was not taken into the program. Instead, he was trained as a 50 caliber machine gunner. Learning to get along with a variety of people, traveling, and training on his gun were the skills he learned. The anti-aircraft weapon that James Low used was from WWII, so soldiers couldn't shoot down planes and ammunition often didn't work.



James M. Cross

Impressions of Korea

James Cross discusses his first impressions of Korea. He remembers everything as small and ruined and recounts children being hungry as there was not enough food. He shares that he would give candy bars or whatever else he had to the children.



Scared or Mad (graphic)

James Cross describes how he was either scared or mad at the Chinese, particularly while at Heartbreak Ridge. He recalls having one hot meal a day and recounts an incident which occurred shortly after finishing a meal. He remembers being mad at the Chinese during the majority of his service for what they were doing to American soldiers, and he shares that he tried his best to stop them at whatever cost.



James P. Argires

Poverty and a Friendship

James Argires how they went from Incheon to Seoul and then North. He explains the poverty he saw in detail. He remembers a little boy that would follow him for about a month.



James R. Kaleohano

I willed myself to live.

In this video James Kaleohano describes the brutal winters in Korea. Coming from Hawaii, his company had no winter clothing. The Chinese army pushed them back to Seoul. It was so cold that sometimes the weapons did not even fire.



James Rominger

Korean House Boys

James Rominger talks about the duties of the Korean house boys who took care of all the general housekeeping needs of the soldiers. The house boys washed clothes, cleaned shoes and kept the general area clean in the foxholes and the bunkers in exchange for food and clothing. James Rominger shares why the teenage boy was unable to even return home.



We were very unprepared for WAR.

James Rominger believes the North Koreans were winning the war because the American soldiers were very unprepared. There was little food and their boots were rotten. He shares how soldiers were in the North Korean territory of Kumhwa Valley working hard to gain stabilization in an area that had been completely destroyed.



A typical day in the Kumhwa Valley

James Rominger discusses what a typical day looked like as a radio sergeant. He shares what food they ate and where they slept, but also what his job included. He remembers the procedures for fixing the radios and having to bring them to the forward observers.



James Ronald Twentey

Living Conditions in Munson

Ron Twentey describes the compound where he was stationed near Munson, Korea. He explains that his monthly salary was not very much and most of what he received, he sent home to his wife. He recalls seldom being able to bathe and the men having to haul five gallon cans of water along a cliff back to the compound for bathing. He goes on to describe utilizing tin cans as a means for security along the fence line; if they heard a noise from the cans, they would shoot at them.



Cigarettes as Money

Ron Twentey describes the need that still existed among the Korean people during his time there.
He explains that though the war was over, the people were still terribly impoverished and begged for food. He describes the children begging for food and for cigarettes which they sold to make money. He explains that he has never smoked but he would pay for the cigarette rations so that he could use them as currency and for trade. He recalls paying for his clothes to be laundered with cigarettes.



James Sharp

Treatment of African Americans in the Marines

James Sharp describes his treatment by fellow Marines from New York City. He explains that Marines are a different breed of people and that he was never singled out or treated poorly. He shares his take on there being a different understanding of human beings in New York at the time compared to the deep South as a means of supporting why he was not treated poorly.



James Shuman

Life in Korea

James Shuman describes the living conditions on the front lines. He remembers that they were not able to shower often, and how they had to use their helmets as containers for water for bathing. He shares how they lived in bunkers with a mess hall not too far from where they slept. He recalls the types of food that were available to the men serving there.



James T. Markley

My Job as a Minesweeper

James Markley describes all of the jobs that he had on the navy ship, the USS Sagacity. He was a senior life saving yeoman, and he did administrative duties as well. His ship had 4 officers and 37 crew members.



Message to the Younger Generation

James Markley gives students a message on the achievements of the Korean people. After the devastation of World War II and the Korean war, the Korean people have set a great example for the entire world. They have become a resilient nation of people.



James Tilford Jones

Cold and Hunger

James Jones describes his plight when the Chinese overran US forces at the Yalu River. He describes times when his unit went days without c-rations because their kitchen could not "find" them. He figured out that he could go into a rice paddy, shred rice with his bayonet and pop it over a fire to make popcorn.



James Vance Scott

Air Support and Bunker Life

James Vance Scott describes being a squad leader and furnishing air and ground support for the infantry. He explains that they moved around many times while on the front lines and were stationed mainly in the bunkers they built to sleep in during the war. He describes the mindset of the home-front concerning Korean War draft. He says the conditions in Korea were very unpleasant.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

First Impressions of Korea

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his first impressions after landing in Korea. He recounts the destruction, seeing few trees and buildings. He shares that it was hard to believe how poor the living conditions were for the Koreans as he witnessed malnourishment, naked children begging in the streets, and women working in the rice fields with their babies.



Minefields and Cold Temperatures

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his duty laying minefields. He recounts carrying out sweeps after opposing forces dropped shells on the fields and on their trenches. He also mentions that Canadian forces used dugouts to keep warm, utilizing gasoline and ammunition cases to create their own sources of heat.



Jean Paul White

We Trained for It

Jean Paul White describes being a tactical soldier. He explained how he slept in the ground. He describes carrying only a one-day food, ammunition, and gear. He explains that conditions were hard for him and his fellow Marines endured after landing at Inchon, but that he had trained for it.



Chinese Intervention

Jean Paul White describes war activity with the Chinese. He explains the living conditions and injuries that resulted. He describes the movements of the Marine Corps leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes events that happen during and after the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains learning about General MacArthur asking them to retreat with orders from his Commanding General, General Smith.



Fighting the Cold

Jean Paul White describes how difficult it was to maintain weapons in the cold in Korea in the winter of 1950. He explains the effects on food. He explains the extents to what people had to do to keep items in use. He shares an interesting story about the medical professionals struggle difficult conditions.



Jearl Ballow

"I'd do away with the DMZ"

He argues that the war should be declared over, that the demilitarized zone should be eradicated, and that the North Korean people should be allowed to see for themselves how South Korea has progress.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

Korean War Veterans Response to KDVA Accomplishments

Al Jenner responds that if the veterans could see the impact that was made by their efforts to deter against communism, they would see a country that is now the 11th largest economy in the world. They would also see that it's the first nation to go from a debtor nation to a creditor nation while enjoying the freedoms they have there. Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner are very proud of the progress and success in South Korea.



Jesse Chenevert

Canadian Field Dressing Station

Jesse Chenevert describes the wards in the small hospital north of Seoul where she worked during the war. She describes how she took care of patients with minimal wounds or diseases. She describes the personnel and departments that could be found at the hospital.



Chinese Treatment of Canadian POWs

Jesse Chenevert describes being prepared at one point for receiving Canadian soldiers who had been a prisoner by the Chinese. She shares how the personnel at the hospital were surprised by the good condition of the soldiers. She explains how she learned that their excellent care was most likely due to them being used as propaganda by their captors. She explains that the POWs who were very sick were not treated by the Canadian hospital



Jimmie A. Montoya

Farmers vs City Boys in a POW Camp

The soldiers who had once been farmers and ranchers back at home knew which vegetation to eat on that ground while many of the city boys lacked any of this knowledge. Georgia and Linda Montoya said that before the war, Jimmie Montoya would ride out to the ranch, shine shoes, work on the farm, or do whatever it takes to help make ends meet. Whatever amount he was paid during the war, he sent home to his mother and the kids.



Joan Taylor

Care Packages that Warmed Not Just Soldiers' Heart, But Also His Body

Joan Taylor was 21 years old when the Korean War was taking place. She lived with her parents while her first husband was away at war. Joan Taylor provided care packages for her husband that included warm clothes because winter military clothes were not provided yet.



Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor's first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. His father passed away and his mother was left to run a business, but she needed help. Joan Taylor's first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting, but he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe C. Tarver

Life at Sea

Joe C. Tarver explains that most of the men he was stationed with aboard the USS Boxer were part of a reserve squadron. The ship was almost nine hundred feet long, and had places to do laundry and take regular showers; it also had a post office and gas tanks. He explains that enemy fire never came while he was aboard the aircraft carrier because other ships were in the same area for protection.



Joe Henmuller

Military Jobs

Joe Henmuller describes his different tasks during his time in Korea. He explains that, initially, he was with a Field Artillery Observation Battalion and his job was to ensure the helicopter used for artillery spotting was maintained. He shares that he was later assigned to the 13th Transportation Helicopter Company where he maintained an H19 Chickasaw and was eventually promoted to Crew Chief. He recalls that his duties were not only maintenance but also transporting supplies and people, including Marilyn Monroe and General Matthew B. Ridgway.



Daily Life in Korea

Joe Henmuller describes what life was like in Korea. He explains that they lived in quonset huts and slept on canvas cots with rubber air mattresses. He recalls his weekly shower routine which entailed driving down a dusty road to the shower stalls and back when they finished. He recalls how the trip left them dirtier then they were before showering.



Joe Larkin

Harsh Winters and Ways to Detect the Enemy

Joe Larkin described the conditions on the mountains at Punchbowl were terrible including 10-20 degrees below zero weather which made it very difficult for guns to work properly. He said the oil and grease would freeze, so the soldiers weren't able to shoot their guns. They also developed searchlights that would beam off of low lying clouds so they could detect movement and see both the enemy and their own soldiers during the Korean War.



"Battle of the Hook" at Panmunjeom

An outcrop of land between two main lines resembled a hook.
Joe Larkin's Marine Division was sent to Panmunjom to hold the line of resistance against the Chinese. His unit helped with reinforcements by bringing in timber that they would move at night so the enemy could not detect their movement. The outpost was attacked and both sides suffered casualties, but with the help of his division, the UN troops took over the area.



Girl In The Picture

As his battalion moved from the south to northern Korea, Joe Larkin's battalion passed through several villages coming in contact with the Korean people. The civilians were very thankful for what the US troops were doing. One little girl saw a picture of Joe Larkin's niece in his pocket, and kept pointing at the picture, but Joe Larkin didn't understand. He called over an interpreter and he said the girl couldn't believe that his niece had a flower in her hair.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe Rosato

Bad Ankle Injury

Joe Rosato recalled that while fighting near the Yalu River, he, his sergeant, and a lieutenant were ordered to take out a machine gun nest using the 57-recoilless rifle. Not soon after their assigned task to take out the gunnery, they were ordered to quickly get down the road and regroup in no particular order. They were to just move as quickly as they could. Joe Rosato was carrying the rifle when his foot was wedged between rocks and he fell in a hole while twisting his ankle so bad he couldn't walk on it. He had to abandoned his rifle and limp as fast as he could to meet up with this regiment, but they lost a lot of men that day.



The Most Difficult Conditions Were Being Constantly Cold and Wet

Joe Rosato described that in most places around Korea, it wasn't safe to walk around. During the winter months, the scariest times were when they lived in the fox holes and it rained so much that it would fill the fox holes with water. Sleeping in a foot of water made Joe Rasato fear that he would freeze to death or drowned, so they had to make the choice to stay where they were or sleep outside the fox hole and risk getting shot.



Ox Steps on a Field Mine-We have meat!

Joe Rosato did have C-Rations that he took advantage of for meals. As he was passing through villages, he was aware that the food was grown in human waste, but that didn't stop him from eating the cucumbers, watermelons, peppers, and beans. Joe Rasato saw an ox step on a field mine and blew itself apart, so the soldiers built a fire and made sauce with the chili peppers to go along with this fresh meat.



John A. Ciburk

The One Good Thing about General MacArthur

John A. Ciburk describes where he was based in Japan. He shares that he generally disliked General MacArthur but describes the one thing he really appreciated about the him. He recalls General MacArthur's disdain for wearing ties in the summer, and due to this, no one had to do so.



Stationed in "Puerto Rico"

John A. Ciburk describes extending his enlistment in order to be stationed in Puerto Rico and what happened to that wish once the Korean War began. He explains that his extension was redirected by the government to Japan instead. He recalls arriving at the airbase in Yokota, Japan, to a large sign that jokingly read, "Welcome to Puerto Rico."



John A. Fiermonte

Impressions of Korea

John A. Fiermonte describes how he felt upon arriving in Korea as a young man. He also describes seeing how the Korean people lived.



John Beasley

Typhoon, Napalm, and a Big Breakfast

John Beasley describes the arduous trip to Inchon from Japan on a Japanese Navy Landing Ship Tank (LST). The voyage took place after a ten-day hold-up in Japan due to a typhoon. He recalls that the continuous large waves caused napalm containers aboard the ship to break loose on the deck. He describes the mood and morale of his fellow Marines as they ate a big breakfast of steak and eggs, and the concern about who would make it back alive from their mission.



Taking Back Seoul and the Wonsan Landing

John Beasley describes being in combat and his near death experience in the recapturing of Seoul. He describes his unit's voyage from Incheon to Wonsan after leaving Seoul. His description highlights the contributions of the U.S. Coast Guard and naval support in the Korean War.



John Bierman

Military College: Preparing For Military LIfe

John Bierman grew up during WWII and joined the Boy Scouts of America so that he could collect aluminum along with bacon fat. During the Great Depression, he would eat one piece of bread with warm milk poured over with as dinner. After graduating high school, he graduated with a pre-engineering degree at a military college in 1947.



The Holloway Program

John Bierman applied for the Holloway Program which was the Naval version of the ROTC. He was accepted after interviews and an exam, so he was sent to the University of Oklahoma. He studied chemical engineering and Naval Science until he graduated in 1951 as an officer.



John Blankenship

Night Missions with Napalm

John Blankenship knew that he was always in danger and a few of his friends were shot down. He flew every night and ended up flying 87 missions in about 1 year. The A26 held 14 gun, 4-6 bombs, and napalm. When enemy convoys stopped and were trapped, John Blankenship dropped napalm on North Korean troops.



Typical Day as a Pilot

John Blankenship remembers spending lots of time sleeping when he wasn't flying missions. He was provided food from Japan that was made my cooks in the Air Force and he was given one hot meal a day. The pilots often ate WWII C-Rations to supplement meals. An important mission that John Blankenship was part of included the bombing of Pyungyang and a town near the Yalu River.



John Boyd

Traveling to Korea in 1952

John Boyd took a ship and many trains to meet up with his brigade at the 1st Commonwealth Division Headquarters north of Uijeongbu. This was his first time traveling far away, and he was excited to see dolphins, flying fish, and much more. He explains the various places they stopped on the way to Korea.



John Boyd's Life and Duty as a Signal Officer

John Boyd was a Signal Officer with various responsibilities. He explains the conditions and duties that he had during the war, including some of the sleeping arrangements. He remembers one specific time that he was left alone and was not sure what to do.



Fire! Another Korean War Enemy

John Boyd had to deal with many fires during his year in Korea because while working as a signal officer, his equipment started a fire which affected additional trucks at the headquarters. A space heater was the cause of another fire in the signal office. He remembers what it was like witnessing one particular fire.



Korea 1953 - The Last Few Months of the War

John Boyd spent the last few months of the war looking for the Barrows Balloon which signified talks were taking place at Panmunjom between the Chinese, North Koreans, and the United Nations. He describes what he calls the “silliness” that started at Panmunjom. As the weather began to heat up while they were waiting, valley fires increased, and things became dangerous.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd fought in the 3rd Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. After the ceasefire was called, an American tank went up north toward the Chinese troops. He recalls Chinese anti-aircraft going after the tank right as two American fighter planes came down onto Chinese positions.



John Burton Forse

Traveling to Inchon by Ship

John Burton Forse describes the journey from the east coast of Korea to Inchon on a tank landing ship (LST). It was much better than the conditions he had prior. They had access to better food, showers, etc. While at sea on the ship, he experienced a bad storm and one of the tanks became loose on the ship.



John C. Delagrange

Identifying Targets During Korean War

John Delagrange shares he was trained as a photo interpreter and had difficulty identifying targets in North Korea. Using reconnaissance photos of battles throughout the mountains and hills, the United States Army Aerial Photo Interpretation Company (API) Air Intelligence Section pieced together maps in order to create a massive map of Korea. Every ravine, elevation, mountain, and hill was labeled by this photo analysis company.



Enemy River Crossing

John Delagrange recalls spending most of his time at Kimpo Air Base, analyzing aerial photos for intelligence. He remembers sending a reconnaissance flight to investigate an area of concern on the Imjingang River. He highlights that was the location where many of the Chinese troops hid and invaded during the Korean War.



John Cantrall

Sleeping and Eating Conditions for US Troops

John Cantrall described how fortunate we was to experience the living conditions that he was assigned, but the food was never something that he could report that he enjoyed. He also reported that the housing arrangements for the American and Korean soldiers were quite different. He expressed concern that it was an unfair situation.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

John Candrall was very sad when he went to Korea at the end of the Korean War in 1953 because he saw what true poverty looked like even compared to the US during the Great Depression. The advancement that took place from 1955 until he went back for his revisit was huge and John Candrall included the advancements in transportation in addition to housing. He was very proud of his service in the military and the help that he was able to provide for Korea between 1953 and 1955.



John Cumming

No Prior Knowledge of Korea, But Off We Go!

John Cumming was never taught about Korea before he arrived in Busan. As a Movement Officer, he took many flights all over the world and now that's the reason why he doesn't like to fly.



Stationed in Iwakuni, Japan for Hundreds of Flights to Busan

John Cumming was stationed at an Australian Air Force Base in Iwakuni, Japan for this 18 month deployment during the Korean War. He helped transport everything from spare parts and food to casualties from a variety of UN countries.



First Landing in Busan, Korea and Many Evacuation Flights that Followed

John Cumming landed on Busan's runway which was pitted with bombing holes. In order to load the casualties, POWs were used to assist the flight crew and once in flight, flight nurses held the injured to keep them from dying due to the temperature.



The Dreaded Stacking System and Plane Configuration

John Cumming's plane would have to go into a stacking system if there were too many planes waiting to land at the same time and that was very stressful to the flight crew along with the injured soldiers. A scary time was when he had to fly napalm from Japan, but he had to go higher which caused the napalm canisters to shrink to the size of cigars due to heightened air pressure.



Life as a Flight Nurse and the Long Waited R&R

John Cumming would wear five layers of clothing to stay warm during the winter of 1951 and he learned the hard way never touch the skin of a plane otherwise, you lose your own skin. R&R in Tokyo as a young man was a blast and he didn't end up with any extra money.



John Denning

Bed Check Charlie

John Denning describes the enemy's use of "Bed Check Charlie" and its effects upon the troops at Suwon Air Base. He explains that the enemy would fly low enough to drop had grenades onto the base and make the men have to get up and check on the situation. He goes on to describe the horrible living conditions of the local population outside of the Air Base. He recalls that in the aftermath of the war, people would often take packing crates and use them as shelters to live in for their families.



John Fry

Impressions of Pusan

John Fry describes his impressions of landing in Pusan and then the rest of Korea in 1953. He remembers being welcomed by an American military band when they arrived at the wharf before taking a train north. He recalls what the villages and homes were like during this time.



John Funk

First Impressions of Korea

John Funk shares how he saw sadness the first time he laid eyes on Korea and the Korean people. He recalls people being hungry, sad, and poor, and he offers an account of their impoverished living conditions at the time. His adds that his time in Korea made him and other soldiers realize that they needed to help the Korean people.



MASH Description

John Funk offers an account of the 8076 Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH). He describes the facility and the nearby area. He recalls soldiers being admitted with their uniforms still on as well as sometimes still in their sleeping bags and details the triage system utilized to determine who was tended to first. He additionally speaks of the role women played as nurses.



John Goldman

LIfe in a Storage Locker

Veteran John Goldman describes living conditions for soldiers aboard the naval ships at war.



John H. Jackson

Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson fought in the Battle at the Chosin Reservoir and he fought there until Christmas Eve 1950. The weather was very cold and it even went down to 50 below zero. Some of the soldiers were freezing to death as the Chinese continued to fight.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He then fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John Hilgert

Captured

John Hilgert describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese Army. He explains that after the Spring Offensive, he and two other men were cut off and alone. He recalls how they were found by the Chinese and taken prisoner. He shares that of the seven thousand men taken prisoner, only a little over three thousand survived to be released, partially due to the poor quality of food the Chinese provided.



Camp Conditions

John Hilgert describes what conditions were like in the camp where he spent two years as a prisoner of the Chinese Army. He explains that the Chinese were not as brutal as the North Koreans who would dismember the enemies. He recalls sleeping in dirt floored huts, eight to twelve men to a hut. He describes the terrible lice infestation they experienced that was out of control until they were able to boil their clothes. He describes how he gathered wood to heat their hut during the winters.



John Howard Coble

Sleeping Aboard the USCG Cutter Klamath

Veteran John Howard Coble describes sleeping quarters aboard the Coast Guard ship the USCG Cutter Klamath.



John I. Reidy

Point System Explanation

John Reidy chronicles his enlistment in the Army and basic training prior to being sent to Korea in the winter of 1952. He explains the point system utilized to send troops back home after a certain number was accrued. He comments on it being a complicated system when it came to computing the points and discusses the correlation between payment and point zone in which a soldier served. He shares how the point system, unfortunately, did not apply to him since he had enlisted.



KATUSA Soldiers and First Impressions

John Reidy explains the connection between the U.S. Army and KATUSA soldiers. He comments on his fondness of those attached to his unit and the camaraderie they shared. He recalls ways he and fellow soldiers entertained themselves to pass the time, and he offers his first impressions of Korea, describing it as primitive.



Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

Now What They Expected

In this clip, John J. Baker describes how the Korean people had to deal with the physical destruction around them. He shares when then men went down to the village and found food. There was an older woman cooking the food who he spoke to her in Japanese and found out it wasn’t the food that he expected!



Helping an Injured Comrades

John Bakers shares how they dug into foxholes and experienced enemy fire. The clip includes specific details of what happened to one of his comrades. He became this man's "guardian angel."



John J. Considine

Typical Day in Kumwha Valley as a Soldier

John J. Considine was embedded with the Korean Civilian Corps who built trenches and bunkers for the troops. Considine's job in the army was to look and listen for the enemy when out on patrol. He didn't get injured on any of these missions, but he knows of a unit of US troops that were all killed.



A Family Affair

John J. Considine discusses his brother, Matthew, entering the Korean War after him. In January of 1953, John gets a call from his older brother who was drafted. He was in the Kumwha. During his time in Korea John saw his brother twice. In July John got to visit with his brother for two days during R&R and afterwards was informed he was to return home.



John Juby

Expertise as a Pioneer

John Juby had a variety of jobs while serving in the Pioneer detachment, including purifying water for the troops and fulfilling patrol duties. He recalls having to take a course on how to test and treat water. He explains that living in dugouts and trenches during warfare calls for the need for expertise on clean drinking water.



Dangerous Conditions in Korea

John Juby explains how he was wounded from being scratched by barbed wire. He describes his duties as a part of the detachment of Pioneers, and explains why soldiers have differing experiences. He recalls being fired upon by American soldiers who did not detect the presence of the British troops who were nearby.



John K. Barton

Duties in Korea

John Barton describes the details of his job duties at the supply unit. He explains how he liked being with his friends and comrades overseas. However he also details that it was ultimately uncomfortable because he had just been married right before shipping overseas.



John Koontz

Worth Fighting For

John Koontz believes that Korea was worth fighting for even though he did not think that at the time. He remembers in detail seeing the starving children who were without their parents. He would like to return to Korea now if he could.



John L. Johnsrud

The US Draft and Arriving in Pusan

John L. Johnsrud was drafted when we was 22 years old in 1950. It took 19 days to get from Seattle to Yokahama Japan by boat before heading to Pusan. He arrived in Pusan on a troopship with 5,000 other soldiers.



Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



Special Services

John L. Johnsrud shifted from the Intelligence and Reconnaissance group to Special Services with the help of a friend from boot camp. He was supposed to take care of movie stars, but none came, so he was in charge of transporting food and beer rations for the US soldiers.



John Levi

Escaping Heungnam by any means necessary...

John Levi talks about his emotional encounter with Korean citizens in Heungnam. Fleeing the war zone, many Korean citizens looked for any way out of the war zone with backs that were loaded with children and anything they could carry. John Levi saw the plight of his people, the Native American people, in the same struggle that many Koreans had to endure during the war.



John McBroom

Life Onboard

John McBroom recalls what life was like aboard the U.S.S. Symbol. He remembers the sleeping arrangements were very close and recalls having to strap himself into bed because the ship was small and would move up and down with the waves. He remembers having the best food in the Navy, such as baked beans and cornbread and shares how, at times, they would even have steaks and pork chops. He fondly remembers coffee always brewing on board and helping the cook clean in exchange for extra fresh bread and butter. He recalls how showers were regularly available but very short. He describes the four-hour watch shifts aboard the ship.



John McWaters

Korea, Then and Now

John McWaters compares his memories of Korea in the 1950s and Korea today. When he left Korea after the war, there were only three buildings still standing in Seoul. When he returned in 2016, he witnessed a very modern and highly developed city. He shares how continuously impressed he is by the changes Korea is undergoing.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



Can I Please Join the Australian Navy?

John Moller recalls joining the Australian Navy when he was seventeen with his parents' permission. He describes working in the supply branch aboard the HMS Sydney, which was an aircraft carrier with three flight squadrons. He shares that he on the aircraft carrier along with multiple Spitfire planes.



Life on an Aircraft Carrier

John Moller describes being shipped out for two weeks while stationed aboard the HMS Sydney during the Korean War. He recalls how he would provide supplies for the sailors on the ship while Spitfires bombed the Korean mainland. He adds that he was able to enjoy a hot shower daily and clean hammocks every two weeks.



John Munro

Watching Over the Enemy

John Munro recounts how he tried to go home and work at his parents' cafe and service station. He shares that he decided to go back into the military as an Australian Army Reservist. He recalls being stationed with the 38th Battalion, F Unit, and being sent to the DMZ to patrol right across from the North Koreans. He shares that it was rough protecting South Korea through the freezing winters and steamy summers.



Growing Up in a Korean Orphanage

John Munro shares that he did not experience any dangerous moments while patrolling the DMZ in early 1954. He recounts how, as part of 1 Battalion, he went to Seoul to spend the day at an orphanage. He recalls his time spent at the orphanage and how he was given six children to eat with and play with throughout the afternoon.



John Naastad

Then and Now

John Naalstad describes the state of Korea during this time. He recounts a local Sunday school service he attended and the rough state of the church. Later, he contrasts that image with his pride in what Korea has become today.



John O. Every

The Terrible Cold and Frostbite

John O. Every talks about being in combat near the Chosin Reservoir, and being evacuated due to extreme frostbite. He recalls seeing airplanes drop supplies, and recounts the tough losses of fighting. He explains being evacuated and taken to various hospitals for recovery.



From the Mediterranean to Korea

John O. Every describes the journey to Korea from his location of deployment in the Mediterranean. He explains having to go through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, en route to Korea, for the amphibious landing at Inchon in 1950. He discusses other battles, as well as what he had to eat for Thanksgiving that year.



John P. Downing

Life as a Soldier on Hill 355

John P. Downing explained that life as a soldier was cold, wet, and hungry. He had limited rations and many of his friends died during his time participating in the Korean War for 13 months. Hill 355 was a hill that overlooked the 38th parallel and it was constantly under attack by the enemy. Artillery and mortars were incoming while John was protecting the hill.



John Pound

Work as a British Radar Plotter

John Pound was trained as a radar plotter in the operations room. The ship operated in a constant state of darkness to avoid enemy detection. From the operations room, John Pound would search the sea for enemy boats with the occasional star shell burst breaking the silence to help illuminate the water to identify ships in the surrounding water. Often, he would spot small fishing ships.



Navy Noon Rum Ration

John Pound describes the daily rum ration to all sailors. This tradition was used as a form of currency on the ship and higher ranking sailors received the rum straight while the lower-ranking sailors had their's diluted by water. He discusses his first time to receive the ration and his night sleeping it off in his hammock.



Sending and Receiving "Projjies"

John Pound's ship the HMS Charity would fire shells, or "projjies" short for projectiles, towards trains that traveled near the North Korean coastline. He remembers one Easter when North Korean gunners fired back from positions hidden in caves. He also describes assisting in spotting pilots who missed their landings on aircraft carriers.



John Pritchard

Why Join the Army?

John Pritchard discusses his reasons for joining the army at a young age. He was a member of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers [REME] known as "Remes" created to handle all mechanical and engineering work for the British Army. He was trained as a mechanic and he even learned to make his own tools.



First Job in Korea

John Pritchard was dropped off in Pusan and was shocked to see civilians living in cardboard boxes without any sanitation. After one day, he was sent to Geoje Island to work in an American workshop to fix a water tanker. He was impressed with the tools available to the American Army.



Christmas in Korea

John Pritchard spent Christmas off for 24 hours due to his commander speaking up for his men. To show that he cared for the commander, John Pritchard and a few lads went to Seoul to buy a Christmas present for him, 400 cigarettes, and this made him cry.



R&R in Tokyo

John Pritchard took a 5-day R&R in Tokyo which was his first 5 days off after an entire year in Korea. Armed with a lot of cash, he and his mates were ready for a break. From the food to the stiff bedsheets, readjusting to normal life and conditions was odd for the men.



John Rolston

Life at Osan Airbase in 1954-55

John Rolston shares his fourteen-month experience at the Osan Airbase. He shares information about the F-86 planes there and the number of pilots that would be there. He states the weather was so cold that the fuel would freeze in the planes. He shares information about food during this time and missing his family. He explains the stability at the DMZ during this time since both the North and South didn't want to restart the war.



John Shea

Monsoon

"I remember the rain" John Shea says. It would be raining when he went to bed, and still raining in the morning. He remembers freezing cold weather, trucks not starting.



John Singhose

The Pass is Open

John Singhose describes working with his men to use bulldozers for building a pass that shortened travel from the "Punchbowl," through the hills of Yanggu County. He recalls hiking overland to construct a tram road, which helped the U.S. Army supply ammunition to the Republic of Korea infantry. He describes supervising the paving of an airstrip.



Working with Koreans

John Singhose recalls being reasonably warm in his sleeping bag when he had to sleep in a tent while in Korea. He describes interacting with Koreans in several capacities, and speaks of them with admiration. He shares that everyone he encountered, from their cook to construction workers, were industrious and honest workers.



John Snodell

The Coldest Winter

John Snodell describes being with the 1st Marine Division and working as a combat engineer, and recalls seeing Cuban, Greek and Turkish soldiers during his time in Korea. He describes the weather as being very cold and remembers having to sleep on the ground. He recalls seeing Korean soldiers sleeping in trenches.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Combat Engineering and South Korea in 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes the duties of an Army Combat Engineer. He explains that although they are trained to handle explosives, the primary mission is bridge construction and demolition. He recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon his arrival in 1957, near Musan-ni, just below the DMZ. He describes observing the farming methods used by the people of South Korea, and having to carry out the duties of extending a run-way and building a wooden bridge across a river.



Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



Memories of South Korea, 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes his experience getting to South Korea in 1957. He recalls seeing meats hanging in the market, honey buckets, and the smell of kimchi. He describes his impression of Korean people and his appreciation for their warm sentiment toward Korean War Veterans.



We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



Memories of Korean Friends from the War

John Tobia gets very emotional regarding a memory he had of a young boy his company encountered while clearing buildings. He shares that the boy lived with his company for about a month. He also recalls a young Korean interpreter that worked with his company who became as close to him as a brother would be. He recalls giving cigarettes to the interpreter so he could trade them for food for his family.



Experiences in Battle

John Tobia discusses his recollections of being in battle. He recalls most of the fighting he witnessed occurred at night, and the next day, he and others would often go to the front lines and see how many troops were killed. He recalls how severely cold the winters were. His company used heaters and stoves to stay warm and often saw rats in their bunker also wanting to warm up. He also mentions how important it was to keep toilet paper in one's helmet.



War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Turner

Prepping for War

John Turner discusses the process he went through from enlistment to arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He enlisted in the Marines and attended Parris Island for bootcamp. After he graduated from basic training, he attended advanced training at Camp Pendleton in California. After advanced training, he departed from San Diego for Inchoen.



Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



John V. Larson

U.S.-France Relations During the Korean War

John V. Larson describes the importance of guard duty, and having a lot of leftover World War II equipment to manage. He remembers the merging of races in the military as many African-Americans were being placed into all white units in Europe. He explains why getting help from the French seemed to be difficult when U.S. troops broke down on the roads.



The Leftovers of War

John V. Larson recalls that when compared to other bombed-out areas of Europe, it seemed that there was not much destruction in Paris, France. He describes seeing places that were demolished, and other nearby places such as cathedrals, historical areas, and key cities that were never touched by bombing. He recalls feeling fortunate to be stationed where he was because he knew the combat equipment in Korea was not very good.



John Wallar

Living Conditions in the British Army

John Wallar describes his unit's living conditions during his time in Korea as a part of the British Army near Uijeongbu. He talks about living quarters, bedding, and how they kept their tents warm during the cold winter.



Johnney Lee

Working for the United States 8th Army

Johnney Lee recalls being paid for his work with the United States 8th Army. He describes the living conditions at the time and states that he was assigned to at tent with US soldiers. He remembers traveling back and forth each day between camps for negotiations, leaving in the morning for Panmunjeom and returning in the evening to base camp.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

"I Didn't Know What Poverty Was"

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes the difficult living conditions for refugees in 1946 in Pusan. He describes the crowded nature as well as the difficulty in acquiring foods due to the lack of good roads and transportation.



Keeping Warm...with Newspaper

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes what he found most difficult during his time in Busan...the cold. Jose recalls layering in heavy clothing yet was still cold. Jose took part in a local Korean tradition of using newspaper to help him stay warm.



Danger in Busan

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recalls the danger imposed by plain-clothes North Koreans in Busan. The North Korean's infiltrated the area and made it impossible to determine who they were.



Jose Ramon Chisica Torres

Impresiones de Corea y su gente - Impressions of Korea and Its People

José Ramón Chisica Torres discute la suma pobreza del pueblo Coreano en el último año de la guerra en Corea. El comenta que hacía mucho frio cuando llegaron, pero los soldados tenían todo lo que necesitaban. Después, el discute las medidas extremas tomadas por algunos Coreanos para encontrar comida y otras necesidades.

José Ramón Chisica Torres describes the extreme poverty the Korean people faced in the last year of the war. He explains that the soldiers were well taken care of even though the weather was bitterly cold. He goes on to describe the extreme measures taken by some Koreans in order to find food and other necessities.



Condiciones de los soldados - Soldiers' Conditions

José Ramón Chisica Torres discute las condiciones relativamente buenas que enfrentaron los soldados en el año 1953 cuando la lucha ya había pasado. El compara y contrasta las condiciones que el enfrentó y las que enfrentó su padre en la Guerra de los 1000 Días en Colombia. También discute el entretenimiento para las fuerzas internacionales estacionadas en Corea.

José Ramón Chisica Torres discusses the relatively good conditions that soldiers faced in the year 1953 as the fighting had already passed. He compares and contrasts the conditions that he faced and those that his father faced in the Thousand Day War in Colombia. He recounts the entertainment provided to the international forces stationed in Korea.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Typical Day for a Combat Engineer

Joseph Giordano describes a typical day a combat engineer in the US Army while in Korea. He speaks of waking up, eating breakfast, and then being assigned that day's duties. He recalls that they could range from clearing out trenches at the front lines to building an outhouse for a general several miles back behind the front lines. He includes that he dreamt of three things during his 18-month deployment to Korea and claims that hot and cold running water always reminds him of Korea.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge/part of Battle of Pusan Perimeter

Joseph Dunford, Sr. shares that his first battle in the Korean War was the 2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge. He explains how the North Koreans broke the lines and he fought to push them back. He shares how responded using his training. He knew his role was critical.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Dunford shares how he participated in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which is known in Korea as the Jangjin Battle. He explains that there were so many Chinese there that he couldn't even count. He explains how he had to sleep on the ground without a sleeping bag since they were told to burn everything except a few C-Rations and weapons. He shares how the lack of food, proper shelter, and other necessities made survival difficult.



Joseph F. Hanlon

I Forgot My Weapon

Joseph F. Harlon tells a humorous story about forgetting his rifle and his ammunition while on the front line.



Joseph Hamilton

Keeping Busy in Korea

Joseph Hamilton describes his experience in Korea, including how he kept busy. He first explains what his duties were as his did office work. However, his duties did not just end there as he recounts when they had to build a log cabin among the many mountains in Korea. He remembers how they didn’t have cots at the beginning, but fortunately did have ample food and clothing.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



The Punch Bowl

Joseph Horton describes his experience trying to hold a line against North Korean forces. He recalls his first real combat duty and seeing wounded and killed soldiers. He describes how his job was to extricate the wounded from the battlefield.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Cross Cultural Training

Joseph Annello describes training Korean civilians to fight in the Korean War. He explains that they were unable to communicate well with either side not speaking the other's language, so they identified soldiers by the numbers written on their hats. He also discusses Korean soldiers getting sick from the American diet that was served to them.



Terrible Medical Conditions

After being seriously wounded, Joseph Annello was taken to a Chinese medical unit where he met up with several severely wounded prisoners of war. He describes the terrible conditions, including maggots and gangrene. He shares how he and others buried a soldier in a kimchi pit.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes heading towards the Chosin Reservoir. He shares how he was meant to advance to Yellow River but stopped. He shares how he didn't hit any resistance since they defeated that North Koreans and the men thought that the Chinese would not get involved. He describes the frozen ground and how it was so cold that the soldiers couldn't dig a fox hole, so they slept on the ground in their sleeping bags. He shares how the Chinese attacked them and there was nowhere to hide.



Joseph Lissberger

It Was a Hard Life, But a Good Life

Joseph Lissberger describes the daily life of a soldier assigned to the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company. He talks about the rigorous schedule and difficult demands of working in a print shop. Though difficult, he mentions that he enjoyed the service.



Life After the Armistice

Joseph Lissberger describes daily life in his unit after the armistice was signed. He talks about being able to train and getting into good physical shape, activities that were difficult before the ceasefire.



Joseph M. Picanzi

Food on the Front Lines

Joseph Picanzi describes what soldiers ate on the front lines. He talks about eating two hot meals a day, served from the mess tent. The third meal, usually lunch, consisted of C-rations.



Joseph P. Ferris

Traveling to Korea and Assigned Duties

In this clip, Joseph P. Ferris describes his journey to Korea. He also talks about his duties while assigned to Kimpo Air Base during the Korean War.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Prisoner of War

Joseph Monscvitz describes his experience as a Prisoner of War marching from Taejon to Seoul to Pyongyang. He remembers being interrogated by a Russian soldier and eventually loaded onto a train that he thought was headed to Manchuria. The train stopped in the Sunchon Tunnel where many of the men were killed, but Joseph Monscvitz was fortunate to respond.



Josephine Krowinski

Army Pay During Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not recall how much she was paid while working during the Korean War as an Army nurse. She sent all the checks directly to Boston to her mother. Josephine Krowinski could tell that her mother needed the money more than she did, so that's why all her pay was sent back home.



They Took Care of Us

Josephine Krowinski described how well-protected she was by the Military Doctors she worked with. She always had G.I.'s looking after her. As a woman, Josephine Krowinski felt she was treated with respect and dignity.



Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado

Devastation in a Tranquil Place

Juan Jurado described Korea as tranquil upon first arriving. While there was no fighting, there was certainly a lot of remaining destruction. He said that the poverty and hunger were very difficult to witness.



Juan Manibusan

Searching for Food Amidst Destruction

Juan Manibusan recounts his first impressions of Korea upon arrival. He remembers the poor shape of the country as well as observing people desperately searching for food. He compares it to his time spent as a child in a Japanese concentration camp during World War II. He also shares how his experiences there impacted his marriage.



Julien De Backer

Life on the Front Lines

Julien De Backer describes the living conditions on the front lines. He explains that they would either sleep in bunkers or tents. Showering was a special occasion and done in a line where the troops would receive new clothing. According to Julien De Backer, the food was “rather ok” as long as they were not on alert.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

The Poverty of Korea and Puerto Rico

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez recounts sad memories of Pusan when he arrived. He remembers seeing hunger in the war torn areas of Korea. He compares the poverty to that he had witnessed in Puerto Rico and emphasizes that war is a terrible thing. He adds that Korea has changed immensely since then, becoming a major world power.



Befriending Charlie

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares that seeing the children in Korea experiencing poverty made him more family oriented. He recounts a touching story about a boy he befriended in South Korea. He shares that he offered food to the boy, receiving hugs in return.



Jutta I. Andersson

Busan: September 1950

Jutta Andersson describes Busan when she arrived in September of 1950. She describes the despair of the people living around Busan. She also describes life as a nurse and how nurses could not freely move about. However, she did visit the hills surrounding Busan and go to a Buddhist Temple with an escort.



Into the Fire

Jutta Andersson describes first arriving into Busan at the very beginning of the war and treating the first patient within one week of arrival. New medical buildings were being constructed everyday including barracks for patients and new surgical buildings. Jutta Andersson also describes living conditions and having a hard time finding fresh water.



Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Entertainment

Jutta Andersson describes entertainment during her off hours. There were no parties, but nurses could go to the beach. Nurses could also dress in heels and attend various concerts such as the Korean children's choir or an orchestra. For Christmas there was a special fest for the traditional Swedish St. Lucy's Day.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Korean Transformation

Kebede Teferi Desta describes the worst and best parts of his Korean War experience. He has since revisited Korea. Korea has undergone a complete transformation. He describes the large train stations and road network. Overall, he is happy about the transformation.



Keith G. Hall

"Smashed to Bits"

Keith G. Hall describes the differences between Korea in 1950 and Korea in 2010 when he returned. He describes poor conditions in the villages, with villagers farming rice paddies with primitive wooden plows. Seoul and Daegu had been "smashed to bits."



Keith Gunn

No Major Danger

Keith Gunn details life in Korea regarding his living conditions and everyday matters. He recounts showering roughly once a week, eating both rations and cooked meals. He adds that he encountered no major danger or difficulties while serving in Korea compared to troops on the front lines.



Keith H. Fannon

Difficult and Happy Memories

Keith H. Fannon talks about his experiences trying to help orphaned children. He talks about seeing dead orphans. Keith H. Fannon shares how helping an orphan family brought joy to him.



Ken Thamert

Arrival in Korea With Thoughts of the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert traveled to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers and he arrived at Incheon in April of 1954, after the Korean War. With all of this basic training, he did not feel afraid when he landed. Ken Thamert did imagine what it was like during the Incheon Landing, only a few years ago right on the spot he entered Korea.



Military Duty and Patrols on the DMZ

Ken Thamert was stationed on the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) along with the Chorwon and Kumwha areas. During his patrols, he could easily see the North Korean soldiers guarding the border too. The North Koreans were even patrolling in the areas were also patrolled by American troops.



Prior Knowledge of Korea Before Entering the Korean War

Ken Thamert was given a book about Korea from the United States military once he enlisted since they assumed that's where most of the soldiers would be headed after bootcamp. The book included Korean culture and the games that Korean children played. Ken Thamert still has the book about Korea along with many pictures that he took while stationed in Korea.



Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro

The Horrors of War

Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro describes his letters back home explaining the horrors of war. He explains his feelings for the civilian population and their absorption of the war. He describes that once he left the Korean War, he wondered what happened to those people he had seen.



Kenneth Borchers

A Farmer's New Invention

Kenneth Borchers reminisced about the integration of new technology during the Great Depression. Kenneth Borchers and his brother were hired to work for a farmer who had electricity even though he had never seen it before. Kenneth Borchers recalled how his brother continued to turn the light on and off in amazement of this new invention.



The Enemy Talked To Us

Bodies lay dying on the battlefield not too far from where the troops were stationed on the hill they were defending territory. Kenneth Borchers recalled the sounds bodies were making as the men were dying during the night. There was death all around and soldiers moaning from their pain was a constant sound.



A Breakfast Surprise

The men in Kenneth Borchers's platoon were enjoying a delicatessen of eating pancakes while on the front line one morning. As they got situated on the ground to eat, they saw the enemy running through their camp. The US soldiers never could fire a shot before the enemy passed their camp and were down the hill.



Attack By the Chinese and the Rats

After spending nights as an observer on the hill they were defending, Kenneth Borchers continued to report to Lt. Stone that there were people coming up the road, but no one believed him. The area they were located had been fairly secured with barbed wire, but around 9pm, the rats began to run.
Therefore, Kenneth Borchers knew that his troops were under attack by the Chinese who mounted the barbed wire fences by using acrobatic moves to scale the fence.



Soldiers Insane with Thirst

Kenneth Borchers was at an outpost on a very hot day in August, when one of the younger soldiers had not filled his canteen up with water like he was instructed. Later, he saw the same soldier come running back down the hill to get on his hands and knees so he could drink water from the rice fields. This act would make him very sick, so his leader put a gun to the soldier's shoulder and told him that if he drank it, he'd shoot him right there.



Kenneth David Allen

A Very Thankful People

Kenneth Allen describes his interactions with the Korean people, stating that they did what they could for them. He remembers a house boy they had at their tent and how they would give him clothes and food from the mess hall. He states that overall the Korean people were a really thankful people.



Kenneth Dillard

Life in the Navy

Kenneth Dillard describes his learning experiences during basic training. He recalls learning to swim, as well as using his own clothing to make a flotation device. He explains how he came to be stationed on a destroyer ship, where he regularly had to ration water while aboard.



Living in Tight Spaces

Kenneth Dillard describes his job monitoring powder for making gun shells. He recalls that the sleeping quarters were small, leaving little room between the bunk levels. He explains that eating aboard ship was difficult because of the constant moving on water.



Two Trips to Korea

Kenneth Dillard describes his experiences at sea during the Korean War. He was on one of many destroyers that were stationed in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. He recalls chipping ice off the ship, and chasing submarines in the East Sea.



Kenneth E. Moorhead

Conditions

Kenneth E. Moorhead describes his living conditions while serving in Korea. He discusses some of his most difficult experiences with the freezing weather as well as food rations and mailing letters home. He recalls the weather at night would often be twenty degrees below freezing and though he was from New England, he still found the winter to be difficult. He goes on to describe eating c-rations mostly but upon occasion receiving b-rations which were more substantial.



Kenneth F. Dawson

"I Want to Go Back."

Kenneth F. Dawson speaks of wanting to go back to Korea. Friends have told him that the economy is amazing, and he wants to see the shopping malls. He is proud to have served in the Korean War and would love to return for a visit, though he mentions that Korea was too cold for an island boy when he was there during the war.



Kenneth J. Winters

Reflections about the Korean People

Kenneth Winters describes the Korean people he encountered during his deployment to Camp Casey in 1967-1968. He remarks about the friendliness and industriousness of the people in nearby Tongduchan Village. He also mentions his interactions with Korean children and how they reacted to American soldiers.



Kenneth Oberstaller

Winters on Deck

Kenneth Oberstaller describes a typical day and his duties on the flight deck while stationed near the Korean Peninsula. He often had to sleep on deck, on the catwalk, in his aircraft and even standing up. He elaborates on enduring these conditions while not being at all prepared for the extreme winter cold. He goes on to describe the close relationship between crewmen and pilots.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Retrofitted Ships and Bombed-Out Cities

Kenneth Shankland recalls how his ship, The HMNZS Royalist, had been modified for atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. He shares how the ship sailed all over the Pacific Ocean, eventually landing in Incheon and Pusan in 1957 to enforce the peace. He recounts how Korean civilians were living in terrible conditions among piles of rubble. He remembers naked and hungry children begging for food.



Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



Kenneth Swanson

Got Each Other's Back

Kenneth M. Swanson describes how everyone looked out for each other at the compound where he was stationed between Inchon and Seoul. He describes how it was set up like a city and the bartering that took place. He describes a moment when a friend came to visit and how well he was taken care of when he arrived with no clothes after they had been stolen.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Kim H. McMillan

First Impressions of Korea

Kim McMillan describes his journey to Korea by boat to Busan. The terrible smell met him as he sailed into the port. Passing through Seoul to join his unit, he was dismayed at the sad and backward state of the country. The Korean people looked depressed. Initially assigned as a driver in the transportation unit of 10 Company, his superiors later assigned him to the workshop unit as a carpenter.



Engaged, Alone, and Cold

Kim McMillan left his fiancée, Elizabeth, to enlist in the New Zealand Army, but he wrote letters home twice weekly. Memories of Korea include going to bed fully dressed in the cold winters and the state of Seoul as he left in 1956. Seoul remained damaged by the war. Very little construction was underway, although Syngman Rhee diverted funds provided by the United States for a hospital into the building of a hotel.



L. Timothy Whitmore

Strange Assignments in Post War Korea

L.T. Whitmore talks about some one of the jobs he was assigned (food inspection) after his arrival at K-2 Airbase (Daegu) in 1954.



Living Conditions at K-2 Airbase

L.T. Whitmore describes the living conditions at K-2 Airbase (Daegu) in Korea in 1954.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Food Rations and Ammunition Delivered Daily

Lacy Bethea helped distribute food and ammunition to soldiers who landed at Incheon after the initial landing in 1950. Company trucks came up with their platoon guides and then Lacy Bethea would pass out only enough rations for that day. The suppliers would always be one day ahead, so that each soldier has 2-days worth of food. Ammunition was also rationed out to each regiment of soldiers.



Final Preparations for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea worked with the embarkation captain by making diagrams for the placement of vehicles on the ship. Luckily, he was able to work with many high ranking officers while preparing the military supplies. Some officers also took Lacy Bethea to San Diego, California for drinks and finalizing preparations for the Incheon Landing.



Lakew Kidane Goshene

Korea in 1954

Lakew Kidane Goshene describes the conditions of the country upon his arrival. He describes how Korean women would scavenge for wood. He also explains how his unit would share their rations with civilians. He is amazed at how different the Korean people's lives are now from then.



Modern Korea

Lakew Kidane Goshene never thought that South Korea would become what it is today. He remembers the poverty and poor living conditions in 1954. He thinks the transformation is a miracle and nothing he thought could happen.



Larry Kinard

Front Lines of the 38th Parallel

Larry Kinard explains how he was embedded in the mountains along the Inchon River fighting to maintain their position against the Chinese. He shares that throughout the day, there was mortar and artillery fire, so he stayed inside his bunker. He explains that at night, the Chinese would perform assaults on his men, so he explains how there wasn't a lot of sleep for two months.



Larry Shadler

A Prisoner's Winter

Lawrence Shadler describes spending the winter in a Chinese P.O.W. camp. He was given a "long-John," a piece of steamed bread. The flue from the stove tunneled under the building and created heat under the floor. The men had to move around or "you would burn your butt." The cold was so overbearing that birds wings froze in mid air.



Lawrence A. Bacon

"I'm a People Person"

When asked about the hardest thing about being in Korea, Lawrence Bacon says that it was difficult to see people's homes and livelihoods destroyed. He says that he is a "people person" so this was especially hard. He says that he was there because he didn't have a choice.



Lawrence Cole

Punchbowl Situation

Lawrence Cole offers an account of the situation at Punchbowl upon his arrival. He explains that both sides would engage, every so often, in artillery duals. He describes this time as a tug-of-war match. He recounts patrolling and often filling in holes on the front lines where he was needed.



Lawrence Dumpit

Impact: Economic & Military Relations with Korea

Lawrence Dumpit described the economic impact Korea has had on the US and its boom in technology throughout the 1990s. He mentioned that even on base at Miramar in San Diego, soldiers had a lot of LG and Samsung products which were made in Korea. He observed that there are a lot of cars on the road today that were manufactured in Korea (Hyundai, Kia).



Training and Protecting South Korea

Lawrence Dumpit went from bootcamp to Osan Air Force Base and went North to Camp Casey in Korea. This was located near Dongducheon and his duties were to destroy enemy tanks. For this first tour in Korea, he was there from 1997 to May 2000.



Prior Knowledge of the Korean War

From 2004 to 2008, Lawrence Dumpit's second tour, was filled with working with tanks on the ground. This was a change from the first tour in 1997. He didn't know a lot about Korea before he was stationed there, but he did know about the war because he learned about it during school.



First Impressions of Korea in 1997 and Korean Culture

Lawrence Dumpit was not a lot to go off base when he went to Camp Casey until he was given a one-week training about the Korean culture including the food, language, and civilians. The living conditions in Camp Casey were old WWII barracks because they were the oldest on the base and it was a lot better than the Koreans living in one room. He was paid 3,000 dollars a month.



South Korean Soldiers Work With US Troops

Lawrence Dumpit worked with South Korean soldiers, but they were not professional soldiers because they were drafted into the military. Therefore, many of the soldiers were not as professional as the US troops. The Korean soldiers made rank, but the US soldiers felt that they didn't earn it, so this started some problems with the US troops.



Lawrence Elwell

A Bright Spot in the War: Evacuation of North Korean Refugees

Lawrence Elwell describes helping evacuate North Korean refugees from Korea to the United States.



Lawrence Hafen

Living Conditions in the Late Stages of the War

Lawrence Hafen describes the living conditions during his time on the front lines from April 1953 until the signing of the Armistice. He talks about daily life, where and when he slept, as well as what he ate during this time.



Airirang and Other Memories

Lawrence Hafen recalls three KATUSA soldiers that were attached to his unit. He mentions their names and talks about his interactions with them. He remembers a song that "Willie," one of the Korean soldiers taught him, "Arirang." In this clip, he sings the song from memory.



Not so Friendly Fire

Lawrence Hafen tells a story of when a fellow soldier accidentally fired a contraband machine gun. The soldier, after assembling the weapon, accidentally fired several rounds in his direction.



Leland Wallis

A soldier's life

This clip conveys the conditions that soldiers faced in the Korean War including cold weather, and dangerous situations with enemy snipers. Leland Wallis also describes his endearing interactions with South Koreans who helped out in the camps.



Seeing Busan

Leland Wallis describes seeing Busan after being destroyed. He remembers seeing huts, shacks and the difficult life of the people.



Leo Calderon

You Can't Blame Them for Having Nothing

Leo Calderon describes his job maintaining security of the planes while being stationed in Suwon in South Korea. They had to guard the planes 24 hours a day. He worked 8 hour shifts. He describes how a papa-san tried to steal a tip tank and he had to chase him to retrieve it.



Selling Their Mothers and Sisters

Leo Calderon describes the atmosphere of South Korea after the war. He notes that some of the people did not like the American presence. He also describes the crime and poverty after the war. The people sold anything, including their mothers, sisters, haircuts and boot shining for cigarettes. Bars eventually popped up though American soldiers were not allowed to go beyond the MSR (Main Supply Rode).



They Have Everything Now

Leo Calderon describes the difference between first seeing Korea during the war and the country it has become today. He explains the physical characteristics of Seoul at the time: buildings no taller than half a story, potholed roads, homes made of hay and mud. He says at that time the people had nothing compared to today, that they have everything.



Leo Glover

Foreign Foods

Leo Glover describes his interactions with foreign troops who assisted the South Korean forces during the war. He recalls time spent with Australian troops with whom they shared a base. He explains his distaste for the Australian food, particularly Bubble and Squeak. He recalls dressing in a flight suit and pretending to be an Airman in order to sneak into the Air Force cafeteria and eat their food.



Leo Ruffing

Missionary Work in Korea

Leo Ruffing shares how he became a minister after retiring from the military. He changed his mind about his future plans after helping friends and even himself with alcoholism. He would later return to Korea for ministry, including helping young children.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Twenty Degrees Below

Leon "Andy" Anderson describes his time in Korea. He describes forming into boat units in freezing temperatures and landing in Korea to live in just a thin tent. He describes giving the order for his men to gather what they could in order to make life better inside the tent. He explains what resources they found. He shares how even when the went to the range to practice the weapons would be frozen.



Leon Steinkamp

Typical Day of a Military Cook

Leon Steinkamp describes a typical day of duties as a military cook. He explains that he would get up in the morning at 4:30 a.m. in order to serve breakfast by 6 a.m. to 250 men. He reflects on their favorite foods while serving in the military, primarily having a fondness for baked ham.



Life in Japan

Leon Steinkamp describes his daily life in the military as not too bad. He explains that he and the other cooks would go bowling almost every day while in the service. He recalls that the hardest part of service was the distance from his family.



Leonard Laconia

The Chinese Were Smart, But Napalm Was Stronger

When Leonard Laconia's air squadron went on "strafing" missions, the Chinese were smart to just lie down flat on the ground to keep from getting shot which was a great defense tactic. Leonard Laconia's group responded by dropping napalm which wiped out most of the Chinese troops. He described that one canister of napalm would cover the diameter of a football field spreading across consuming the oxygen in the air and heat would rise under the plane. The Chinese wore thick heavy coats during the winter and the napalm would just stick to it aiding in the burning of bodies.



US B-29s Couldn't Stop the Chinese

Leonard Laconia stated that the Chinese would fly MiGs from Manchuria, but they would burn fuel so quickly that they rarely made it to Korea. The US would fly B-29s up and down the Yalu River dropping bombs to destroy bridges, but it didn't stop the Chinese from coming down into Korea. The Chinese still found a way to get across the Yalu River.



Bed Check Charlie

An enemy plane was nicknamed "Bed Check Charlie" by The Stars and Stripes newspaper which was provided for every US soldier. In the newspaper, it threatened that "Bed Check Charlie" would come at night and killed one of the men from his squadron by dropping grenades and mortar shells. Leonard Laconia remembered that many of the enemy planes maneuvered well through the night sky, so soldiers were afraid of them.



Leonard Nicholls

Arriving on the Front Lines

Leonard Nicholls arrived at a valley called San Marie near the front lines. The trucks dispatched the men to a valley near the First Blazes battery of artillery. Young Korean boys wandered the camp performing odd jobs.



Three Weeks in an Indian MASH

Leonard Nicholls talks about his three-week stay in a hospital manned by an Indian unit. The lieutenant that caused his injury came to visit him. The layout of the hospital brought him into contact with many men from Commonwealth, including some thieving Australian troops.



Leonard R. Stanek

Wounded

Leonard Stanek describes how the Chinese attacked on July 26th, 1953, the day before the Armistice took effect. Leonard Stanek was in a trench and hunkered down, when one of the last artillery shells exploded with a piece of shrapnel piercing his helmet. He medivacked to the Hospital Ship Haven to recover and earned a Purple Heart.



Leroy Johnson

Ship Life

LeRoy Johnson describes living conditions abroad a ship for several months at a time. He recalls feeling extreme seasickness for the first two months before adapting sufficiently. He goes on to describe how much he disliked the food; that much of it, eggs, potatoes, and milk, were powdered and that he frequently included money with his letters home requesting a care package with food that he enjoyed and shared with his buddies.



Leslie Fuhrman

Daily Life in an Antiaircraft Operations Unit

Leslie Fuhrman describes the daily living conditions in the Antiaircraft Operations Unit that he commanded near Sosa, Korea.



Military Pay in Korea

Leslie Fuhrman talks about the pay he received as a 2nd Lieutenant during his time in Korea.



Leslie Peate

Landing in Korea and Train to Pusan

Leslie Peate describes landing in Korea at Incheon and recalls the devastation he witnessed when he first arrived. He recounts sleeping on wooden planks aboard a train, describing the experience as something from an old "Wild West" movie. He remembers there being nothing for miles and being served American C-Rations at mealtime.



Payment for Service

Leslie Peate discusses the amount soldiers in the British Army were paid while serving in Korea. He shares that they were one of the lowest paid with only the Korean soldiers earning less than them. He recalls actually losing money due to being transferred from Hong Kong to Korea where it was deemed he no longer needed a living allowance. He comments on what script was used and the trading of products among soldiers.



Korean Porters

Leslie Peate elaborates on the work of the Korean porters. He defines them as mostly farmers and/or anyone who would help out during the war. He shares that those men worked harder than any other group of people during the war and stresses that they received no recognition at all and most likely no payments for their efforts.



Lester Griebenow

They only had each other

Lester Griebenow describes how the unit of twelve men he was with had nothing but they got by with what they could. He describes eating C and K rations. He goes on to explain how they rigged a WWII Catapillar to help make their gun encasements faster and dam up a creek so that the soldiers could bathe. Their nude bathing led to complaints on behalf of some Red Cross nurses who were scandalized to see naked soldiers swimming. The men were told to wear boxer shorts from then on.



Lester Ludwig

When We Were There, There Was Nothing

Lester Ludwig describes his impressions of Korea as a soldier and that he wouldn't be able to return with his knee that needs replacing. He describes what Seoul looked like during the Korean War. He explains that his entire trip, all that he saw was destruction and no civilian life.



Lewis Ebert

An Accident at K-2

Lewis Ebert was near a rocket that was accidentally fired and blew up a tractor trailer on base. That trailer was parked near him when it blew up because he was working at the K-2 Air Base. Luckily, Lewis Ebert didn't get injured in the incident.



The Ebert Boys Heard the Calling to Arms

In June 1949, Lewis Ebert enlisted in the US Air Force a few weeks out of high school. He took his basic training in Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and then he was trained at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado for military supply training. While in Colorado, the Korean War broke out, but Lewis Ebert already had a lot of prior knowledge about Korea since his brothers all fought in WWII with one stationed in Korea.



Preparing For and Entering the Korean War

After the Korean War started in June 1950, Lewis Ebert traveled to San Fransisco to prepare to leave for Japan and arrived there the middle of July. In September 1950, he was put on a train to travel to the south-end of Japan and then flew into Taegu, South Korea (September 16, 1950, the day after the Incheon Landing). The ROK (Republic of Korea) were flying out of Taegu which had a steel mat runway.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lewis Ewing

Arriving in Korea

Lewis Ewing talks about his arrival in Korea, his journey to his unit in Chuncheon, and his first impressions of war. He explains how he felt about his deployment, and describes his rapid journey to the front lines. He recalls the living conditions on the base where he arrived.



Lloyd Hellman

Guiding Planes

Lloyd Hellman describes working in four hour shifts as an air traffic controller. He worked to help guide the planes back to the King Three airport after they flew up to the 38th parallel. This took place after the ceasefire.



Korea then and now

Lloyd Hellman visited Seoul in 1954 and said there were no buildings of any size, just Korean huts. The biggest building was the United States PX. He describes seeing Seoul on TV when he was home in Kansas City when President Eisenhower visited and he was amazed at the change. He said he can't imagine what the North Korean leader thinks when he sees modern South Korea.



Lloyd Thompson

Civilians Digging In The Trash to Survive

As a naive young man who had never witnessed much beyond a small Midwestern town, Lloyd Thompson saw Korean civilians digging in the US soldiers' trash for scraps. The realization was knowing what the UN were fighting for. Lloyd Thompson recognized the hope to give Korean civilians a normal life again.



Finding Body Bags

As Lloyd Thompson was shoveling sand on a 2 1/2 ton 6X6 truck near a flood plain at Kimpo Air Force Base, he unearthed a wooden box and unveiled an abandoned burial ground filled with body bags. He reported the incident, but nothing ever came of it. The bodies were left right there in the flood plain.



Loren Schumacher

Sleeping Soldier in South Korea

Loren Schumacher describes the way soldiers slept in Korea, surrounded by gunfire and at two hour intervals. His tent was in front of a 105 Howitzer which fired interjectory fire every ten minutes. He goes on to describe being sent out to the line on the east end of the 38th parallel to watch and listen for the enemy and alternating two hour watches with his partner.



Exploding Outhouses

Loren Schumacher describes the maintenance of the soldier's latrine by using gasoline and matches, including the dangers associated with such service. He explains how one day in particular, the maintenance man forgot the match to ignite the gasoline so he left to go retrieve a match. When he returned he threw the lit match into the latrine without noticing a soldier using the facilities. He explains that there were many ways to be killed in the war, not just in combat.



Lorenzo R Loya

Responsibilities as a Guard

Lorenzo Loya describes his duties while in Washington, D.C. He often was on guard duty with 6 or 7 other people. He states that he did very well in the service.



Louis G. Surratt

Life on Suwon Air Base

Louis Surratt describes daily living on the air base in Suwon. Overall the base provided safety and security, although many soldiers who departed on sorties faced danger and death. Stories of crashes reminded him of his fortunate situation.



Louis J. Weber

Leaving the Rats Behind

Louis J. Weber describes being surrounded by rats while in his bunker eating. He explains how he continued his service with the US military as an Air Force reservist, Navy reservist, and Army soldier after the Korean War. He shares how he doesn't want to Korea due to the memories of friends that were lost.



Louis Joseph Bourgeois

The 426 RCAF Squadron

Louis Bourgeois played an important role in the 426 RCAF Squadron during the Korean War. On return trips to his military base, the aircraft brought back wounded soldiers. Their route to Asia typically started in Washington State before going to Alaska, and then onto Japan.



Becoming a Pilot

Louis Bourgeois always wanted to be a pilot because he knew he wanted to fly. On at least 2 occasions, the Royal Canadian Air Force cited his poor vision as a reason to not let him enlist. Because Louis Bourgeois went to University and he was persistent, eventually, he became a pilot.



The Importance of Pilots During the Korean War

Louis Bourgeois also had 6 North Star Aircraft that went into Korea while others went to Japan. After the war, the planes were brought back to Canada to continue their airlift duties. He is so proud to be the president of the 426 Squadron to support fellow veterans who fought during the Korean War.



Luis M. Juarbe

The Struggle for Sanitation and Sleep

Luis Juarbe remembers the living conditions he endured while serving in Korea. He describes how the winter was brutal, but he had on "four pairs of pants and five shirts" in order to keep himself warm in the negative fourteen-degree weather. He recalls that the sanitary conditions were not ideal and he had to wait three months to bath at one point in the war. He also shares that he received letters from and wrote letters to family.



Lynwood Ingham

Lynwood Ingham Entered the Marine Corps

Lynwood Ingham went into the reserves as a 17 year old in high school while attending reserve meetings. From 1954-1956, he went into active duty and then again for 3 months over the summer. When on active duty, he was at Cherry Point, North Carolina and Atlanta.



Modern Korea

Lynwood Ingham appreciates all the soldiers today who are trying to end communism on the Korean peninsula. Like many other countries around the world, the US wants to help the people by getting rid of communism. The US and South Korea have a strong friendship and trade-relationship because of the Korean War.



Manuel A. Bustamente

Rescued Baby

Manuel Bustamante said that a little white baby was found in a Korean Orphanage. The baby was kept in the sickbay on the ship and it kept the moral high for months. Sailors all took turns caring for the baby. The doctor and his wife adopted the baby once he arrived in America. They named him Daniel Keenan and he went to many of the Korean War reunions in order to see his rescuers.



Enlisting and Basic Training

Manuel Bustamante knew about Korea when the war broke out because his brother was in the United States Navy on an aircraft carrier. Luckily, Manuel Bustamante and his brother were assigned the same ship, the USS Point Cruz. The brothers were surprised that they were allowed to be on the same ship because usually the United States military tries to separate the family members so that they would not get injured at the same time.



Manuel Carnero

Injuries and Casualties

Manuel Carnero describes how the cold and frostbite affected soldiers. He explains that he had frostbite on his hands and feet while many other men froze to death. He says it was not unusual for men to fall asleep and not wake up; that the weather claimed more lives than the Chinese. He goes on to describe how the Navy Corpsmen serving with the Marines were picking up the casualties at the battle site when they found him and helped him to a truck.



Marc Villanueva

Fox Holes in the Snow

Marc Villanueva explains that many of his new recruits from the United States were very young, right out of high school. He describes the cold conditions and necessity for having to dig the fox holes deep and wide. Unfortunately, two young soldiers did not follow instructions and instead of digging a fox hole, they slept on top of the snow in their sleeping bags. When the enemy saw them, they used their burp guns to spray them with gunfire and the men were killed.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette felt that the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the homefront.
Also, many of the veterans didn't speak about the war when they returned back home. Since Marion Burdette shot thousands of rounds of artillery, he lost most of his hearing. He was also stationed in Northern Korea and he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post -War Readjustment

Marion Burdette was walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he was able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. The impact of war on his life was that he felt that he needed to traveled the US to release his stress. He decided to reenlist in the Army for 3 years, but it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Marshall E. Davis

Former POWs sabotaging their generators

The location of their headquarters was near a fence line that once held POWS that had integrated with the locals but some became apart of a guerrilla style action that would sabotage their generators and effect the transmitter that was far away from the headquarters. When the transmitters would go out it was usually because of the generators. Marshall was assigned night duty and was always on the lookout for possible saboteurs affecting their generators.



Awesome Doesn't Describe What Korea is Like Today!

Marshall informed veterans who plan to revisit Korea that the word Awesome can't begin to describe the amazing changes that have occurred since its reconstruction over the years. (Marshall returned in 1996 for business reasons and the company took him back to where he was originally located). He said Daegu has completely transformed as a high rise city with over 3 million people compared to the several thousand that lived there when he was there and when he arrived at Kimpo Airport he could see the bridges suspended over the Han River.



Marshall W. Ritchey

Keep Your Head Down

Mitchell W. Ritchey describes the 3 most important things to making it home: stay warm, keep your head down (always wear your helmet), and doing everything you could to stay alive. He recalls the year he was there was marked by one of the coldest winters ('52) and says they had "Hoochies" that they made while on the front lines where they would dig a hole into the side of a mountain and put sands bags into the hill (in case of incoming mail-grenade drop) and 3-4 bunks at one time. Most of the men slept in sleeping bags and Mitchell said he never took his boots off.



C-Rations and a P38

Marshall W. Ritchey describe what he had to eat while on the front lines. He described his C-Rations usually had scrambled (powedered) egg w/meat mixed in it, OD crackers, 4 cigarettes (Lucky Strikes or Chesterfields) and a horrible tasting candy Chuckles. He said you at whatever you had and felt luck to have it. He also recalls making ice cream using the cream provided and some sugar that you mixed with the snow. Stay away from the yellow snow he said (shared story about that too!)



Martin Goge

Living Conditions, R&R, and sharing war stories

Martin Goge recalls having to face crude living conditions and food that was just as bad. He describes feeling great satisfaction with being able to pay his dues. He goes on to explain how his friendships made life bearable.



Martin Rothenberg

First Impressions of Korea

The train ride from Pusan to Seoul was incredible. Martin Rothenberg saw so much beauty on the trip, particularly with the rice crops. While the rice crops were in their stages of growing, the vistas of patterns within the fields was beautiful. Poverty was all around, especially at Seoraksan Peak where people were living in cardboard straw-thatched-roofed homes. The villages always smelled because the sewage laid in a trench that ran through the middle of the street.



Civilians' Lives in Poverty-Stricken Villages

Martin Rothenberg was stationed at the base of a mountain during the winter of 1954 near a village that was poverty-stricken. This village had a wood-burning flute that ran under the houses to keep the floors warm and the villagers slept on the floor. He also saw a round stone based where the villagers had planted colored flowers. Martin Rothenberg thought that it was nice the way South Koreans took the time to make their homes special.



Mission Impossible: Speaking a Foreign Language

Martin Rothenbert was proud that the US Army had provided soldiers with a book containing Korean instructions and he used it to ask simple questions to the Korean people he met. He recalled a time while in the village at the base of the hill, an older Korean man wasn't friendly to anyone and never spoke. Therefore, Martin Rothenberg took the time to learn some basic questions to get to know the older Korean man and his attitude totally changed. This made all the difference to build a bond between soldiers and civilians.



Literacy Would Prevail

Martin Rothenberg noted that there was a little girl he befriended who's mother worked in the wash tent and she would talk to him because she wanted to learn English. When Martin Rothenberg left Korea in 1955, he knew there would be a massive economic boom in South Korea because the majority of the people were literate. Plus, South Koreans had a desire to be educated and work toward the reconstruction of their country after the Korean War.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Captured by the Chinese

Sam Bass was captured in September 1951 around the Punchbowl or Old Baldy area. He describes how he was arrested by the Chinese who had cut them off through the line. He explains the living conditions during that time, including the marching and sleep conditions.



Marvin Denton

We Didn't Know We Were Poor

Marvin Denton described how much candy, movies, and cigarettes cost, along with getting no time off from school no matter how much snow, how hot, or how much rain fell. He described the manager patting him on the head and telling him "Marvin you've done a good job so we are paying you $1.25 this week," and that's how they paid you. He remembered there was a cashier who earned $15 a week and he thought if he ever made that much, he'd be a millionaire. He was moved to a cashier but never made over $12.50 a week and it all went towards helping the family. Marvin Denton commented, "We didn't know we were poor; there was always food on the table."



Losing Buddies Was The Hardest Experience

Marvin Denton described times when he lost members of his unit. One solider was walking between two companies and he was killed by a mine. Gun shots fired in the middle of the night when soldiers had discovered someone was killed. Another soldier survived a shell that hit his helmet, missing death by inches, and a different soldier, who had lied to his parents, telling them everything was okay, was bombed after an ambush. Marvin Denton were extremely thankful he lived through the experience and he feels we live in the greatest country in the world despite all of our problems.



Seoul: A Sad Sight

Marvin Denton recalled the hardships many Korean people faced during the Korean War. Men and women yoked with long poles carrying heavy buckets filled with sewage (honey pots).
Groups of children ransacked the soldiers for anything they had (pencils, papers, etc.). Marvin Denton felt so sorry for the civilians in South Korea.



Marvin Ummel

Prisoner of War Exchange

Marvin Ummel recalls witnessing the exchange of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the released prisoners changing clothes once released and many Korean locals picking up and taking the clothes back to their homes. Doctors would inspect the released POWs before sending them back home. Often the POWs were in poor condition, some even being sprayed with DDT insecticide to kill off vermin. He recalls that while the soldiers were thrilled to be back, the condition the POWs arrived in was poor and very depressing.



Impressions of South Korea, Then and Now

Marvin Ummel revisited South Korea in 2017. He reports that the opportunity to travel back with Revisit Korea was incredible. He recalls the development in Seoul being impressive, as there were no undamaged buildings present when he was there in 1952. Now, the buildings, houses, and roadways are numerous and well-constructed. He rode the bullet train from Seoul to Pusan and was impressed that it went over one hundred and eighty miles an hour! He also remembers just how thankful the South Koreans were to Americans for their help during the war.



Mary Reid

Back to Busan

Mary Reid describes going to Busan by train. She provides an account of what her job entailed at the Army hospital compound in Busan. She recalls patients at the hospital being tended to and then sent back to the line.



Patients at the Hospital

Mary Reid describes the types of patients that she saw in the hospital. She recounts many soldiers having worms and treating them with medications. She elaborates on what happened to those too badly wounded to stay at the Army hospital compound.



Mathew Thomas

Life in the POW Camp

Mathew Thomas discusses the living situation in the POW camp. He describes how they lived in wooden structures and canvas tents and remembers having heaters because it was very cold. He recalls eating goats, having good morale in the camp, and the bathrooms being outdoors. He shares he was able to mail letters home if he wanted.



Matthew D. Rennie

Witnessing Poverty and Devastation

Matthew Rennie vividly recounts the poverty and devastation he witnessed in Busan upon his arrival. He recalls the refugee camp there with hundreds of thousands of civilians living in cardboard boxes and children begging for food. He comments on their suffering during the cold winters as they possessed inadequate clothing and heating. He describes the countryside as he made his way up to Euijeongbu.



Maurice B. Pears

Korea Revisit: A Time to Remember the War

Maurice Pears shares how he traveled back to Korea in the early 1990's as a guest of the Korean government. He describes remembering how Seoul was in rubble and there was poverty everywhere while traveling around the nation. He shares how impressed by the evolution of the shops, modern businesses, and transportation he was upon his return.



Protecting the Hills after the Battle of Kapyong

Maurice Pears shares how he was trained as an infantryman in 1950. He recounts his arrival at Kimpo Airbase and how he went to the front lines at Kapyong to dig in. He shares that he participated in some patrols across the river in enemy territory. He adds that as a commander of twenty-six men, they had to prepare for the assault on the Chinese.



Life as a Korean War Soldier and Operation Minden

Maurice Pear recalls living in foxholes during his year in Korea from 1951-1952. He remembers patrolling through small Korean villages that were filled with only women and children. He recounts that during Operation Minden, his troops fought the Chinese for Hill 355, 317, and 227 while enduring many casualties.



Life of a Korean War Soldier

Maurice Pears shares how he was on the front line for one month without a chance to shower or eat a hot meal and recalls dealing with a water shortage. He remembers how each soldier had his own foxhole where he endured snow and heat. He shares that the soldiers were able to travel up and down the Korean hills with the help of Korean civilians.



Maurice Morby

Journey to Korea

Maurice Morby describes about his journey from the United Kingdom to Korea on the HMT Orwell. He describes seeing dolphins, sailors singing on deck, and their brief stop in Singapore.



First Days in Korea

Maurice Morby describes his first impressions of Korea and the journey from Busan to Seoul. He talks about arriving at Busan harbor, picking up vehicles, and the arduous 3-day drive to Seoul through difficult terrain.



Camp Description

Maurice Morby describes his unit's encampment near a factory. He describes the size of the camp, where and how they slept, how they dealt with cold weather, and what not to do with beer.



28 Days for Smoking

Maurice Morby recalls the story of when he and a fellow soldier were caught smoking on guard duty and received a 28-day sentence in a military jail. He talks about the circumstances that surrounded his infraction and describes his experience as a military prisoner.



Max Sarazin

Life at Camp Catlin, Hawaii

Max Sarazin describes daily life during his two years stationed at Camp Catlin, Hawaii as a radio operator during the Korean War. He explains that the 1st Anglico took over Camp Catlin which was a Marines radar base during WWII. He gives a detailed description of daily activities and training.



Mayo Kjellsen

Enlisting in the US Marine Corps

Mayo Kjellsen enlisted when he was 20 years old because he figured that he would be drafted soon. That was the culture, so decided to join the US Marine Corps and he was sent to Camp Pendleton in California. Without any prior knowledge about Korea, Mayo Kjellsen was surprised to see a Korean woman openly nursing her baby right near Inchon.



C-Rations, Rats, and Radios, Oh, My!

Mayo Kjellsen ate lots of C-Rations while stationed in Korea. His job was to carry a 45 pound battery pack and communicate over the radio for his regiment. One night, on radio watch in his bunker, he started shooting at large rats running throughout the rafters and he scared his commander.



Wounded in Korean War

Mayo Kjellsen was wounded twice during the Korean War. He was hit by shrapnel in his knee and the other shot blew him out of his bunker. After his second injury, he was sent to a hospital ship in the harbor and was taken to Japan for rehab. After 6 months of healing, Mayo Kjellsen was sent back to the US to finish his time in the military.



McKinley Mosley

Life of a private during War

McKinley Mosley describes his life as a 16 year old leaving home, going through basic training, and then on to Korea for the war. He learns infantry at Ft. Riley, Kansas and artillery in El Paso, Texas. He then travels from Ft. Custer in Michigan on to California to Japan and ultimately to Korea.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Geumyangjangri Front

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the fighting conditions at the Geumyangjangri Front. The Chinese were surrounded and could not escape. Therefore, this battle helped the Allies maintain control of the advancing Chinese Army. Further, he also describes the overall destruction that war brought. Towns were bombed out and looted. However, Pyongyang had people, while the South suffered.



First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the people he encountered after arriving in Korea. He describes how Busan was a ghost town. He saw only one person, who had frozen to death. The buildings were all riddled with bullets. Overall the war brought hunger, misery, disease and death. Mehmet Cecil Yasar also describes the constant danger. There were many traps set by the enemy.



Mehmet Esen

Caring for Orphans

Mehmet Esen describes how he cared for two orphans he met while in Korea. While he was in a hospital he met Chin Chol. He provided her with money for her schooling. He also provided for another orphan named Kerim. Kerim followed the Turkish troops everywhere they went.



Mekonen Derseh

There's a Snake in My Bed

Mekonen Derseh describes the toughest thing that happened to him in Korea. The fighting was over when Mekonen Derseh was in Korea. He describes the cold winter as being the toughest part of his service. One night a snake was cold and made its way into his sleeping bag. He did not know until he was folding his sleeping bag up.



Condition of Busan

Mekonen Derseh describes the condition of Busan. People were starving and Ethiopians gave them leftovers. Ethiopians were supplied by the Americans and needed the supplies also. He tries to make a comparison between Ethiopia and South Korea. The main difference was Ethiopia was not going through war.



Melese Tessema

Children Crying in the Streets

Melese Tessema arrived in the first detachment on May 6 of 1951. The city was in ruins. Orphaned children cried in the streets. Poverty reigned. He returned five years ago and was surprised at the progress of modern Korea. Haile Selassie donated $400,000 dollars to Korea during the war. Now Melese Tessema notes that Korea’s and Ethiopia’s roles have reversed economically.



Melvin Colberg

One-Room Schoolhouse Education

Melvin Colberg recounts his educational experience in a one-room schoolhouse growing up in Illinois. He shares that learning and even teaching on some days were cooperative efforts between students and the teacher. He expresses that the experience allowed students exposure to an environment conducive to learning how to get along with others and learning how to adapt in preparation for the real-world setting beyond the classroom.



Impressions of Korea in the 1960s

Melvin Colberg recalls his impressions of Korea in the 1960s during his service, a perspective which centers on the years between the war-ravaged Korea of the 1950s and today's modern Korea. He recounts that infrastructure was still in the development stage as there were many dirt roads at the time and few factories present. No large farming equipment as water buffalo were mainly used in the agricultural setting along with a few rototillers here and there. Most people were still poor, living in one-room houses heated through the floor, and many civilians still wore traditional Korean clothing.



American Weaponry and Transfer of Knowledge Contributions

Melvin Colberg offers an account of his life as part of the 83rd Ordinance Battalion in Gimpo, South Korea, which was responsible for special ammunition and served as the northernmost depot. He summarizes the weaponry at the time and Melvin Colberg assisted in the testing and maintenance of the weaponry. There was a transfer of knowledge from American soldiers to the South Korean civilians in many forms and he agrees that these contributions should be highlighted.



South Korea: A Success Story

Melvin Colberg shares his views on the relationship between Korean War veterans and defense veterans along with the legacy of the Korean War. The outcome of the Korean War is a success story for both the South Koreans as well as the Americans. South Korea has changed so much, for the better, since he left, and he acknowledges that it is a shame that this success story is not taught in schools today.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Living Conditions

Melvin D. Lubbers discusses the living conditions he experienced while stationed in Korea. He shares how they were unable to shower after crawling around in the mud. He remembers having to use his helmet for lots of different things and that the food was not enjoyable.



Melvin Leffel

Life Working in a Korean War Tank

Melvin Leffel explains that he enjoyed his service and the five men that he worked with in his tank. He describes having to sleep in a tent while in the field but often having to sleep inside the tank because they were always on the move. He goes on to explain that though he can't remember what he ate, he didn't complain about the food that was provided.



Merl Smith

First Impressions of Korea

Merl Smith recalls his first image of Korea. One of the first sights he remembers seeing was that of destroyed tanks. He remembers the Korean civilians he met were all very stoic and never crying. He is still amazed at how well they handled the effects of war. He recalls how each time he would cross paths with children, he would give them something and shares a warming story of giving a shivering girl his winter coat. He adds that he witnessed a totally devastated Seoul.



Revisiting Korea

Merl Smith discusses his impressions of Korea during a visit in 2007. He recalls not believing the recovery of Seoul. He was amazed at the prosperous and happy people, which was in complete contrast to what he witnessed in 1950. He believes the Korean people are resilient people and have a positive outlook on life.



The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

Jincheng Campaign- Battle at Kumsong "All Hell Broke Loose"

Merle Degler always carried in his pocket rolls of film he had taken during his time in Korea. One day, he found an empty ammo box and decided to put the film in the ammo box, and the next thing you knew, "All Hell Broke Loose." He recalls the ROK and his unit were overrun by the Chinese, so they were told to retreat. Merle Degler learned just a few months ago, that the the US artillery regiment left their equipment when they retreated, so the Chinese used the equipment against our own people. They reorganized before the next morning to create a new front line, but with a lot less equipment since they had lost it while retreating.



Enlisting, Training, and Preparing for the Korean War

Merle Degler enlisted in the National Guard as an 18 year old in 1951. After attending Fort Polk for basic training, he was shipped to Yokohama and Tokyo, Japan to get equipment for the war. Soon after that, Merle Degler took a ship to Pusan in Jan. 1953 and he was sent right to Yeongdeungpo, Korea. After being picked up by his regiment, he was brought to his duty station in the Iron Triangle (Kumwa Valley).



Fighting in the Iron Triangle in Jan. 1953

Merle Degler was stationed in the Iron Triangle and he fought along with the US Marines who had be run off an important hill by fighting the Chinese. He went to White Horse Hill right after a battle like WWI trenches right at the front line. After he had been in a bunker for a while, a soldier took him out of the trench towards no-man's-land, and he was taken to a field full of dead Chinese soldiers.



The Troubles with Traveling by a Truck

Merle Degler's job was to work on military trucks at the front lines in North Korea in early 1953. After being told that he had to move out, Merle Degler drove a truck up into the mountains with his regiment until the engine blew. Because he was not able to fix the truck on the side of the mountain, he was towed down the hill and back to a ROK camp where he had to stay until meeting up with additional soldiers willing to lead him back to his regiment.



Merle Peterson

The Chinese Invasion Changed the War

Merle Peterson describes fighting the Chinese at the Yalu River. He explains that though his unit had been told they would be home for Christmas, when the Chinese invaded, their plans to return home were ended. He describes having to retreat alongside many of the Korean people. He recalls having to fight in summer military clothes during the winter in the freezing weather and delousing after not showering for thirty days, which was the norm.



Merlin Mestad

Life as a Truck Driver in Chinchon

Merlin Mestad describes arriving in Inchon Harbor in October 1952. He explains that he was assigned to the 540th Trucking Company and drove trucks until the war was over. He describes hauling ammunition, fuel oil, troops, POWs, barbed wire, etc., day and night. He goes on to describe living in a province of Inchon called Chinchon in a tent with an oil burner and a wooden floor and experiencing cold winters.



Meeting Marilyn Monroe and Transporting POWs

Merlin Mestad describes meeting Marilyn Monroe in Korea when she performed for the USO. He recalls being surprised when she sang "Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend" in below zero weather. He goes on to describe transporting North Korean POWs from Panmunjom to Seoul after the war ended. He explains that many South Korean people were incredibly angry with the North Koreans after the war and threw rocks at the POWs when they arrived in Seoul.



Merlyn Jeche

Life as a Radioman

Merlyn Jeche describes landing at Inchon and being sent to work in Chorwon City, which was in rubble. He recalls the terrain in Korea was much like Minnesota, though with more hills. He explains his duties as a radioman for the Army included maintaining 24-hour communication, keeping the generators going and basic maintenance.



Dogs, Cats, and Letters at the DMZ

Merlyn Jeche describes a particular inspection when his Captain asked him if everything on his bunk was military issue. He explains that he replied in the affirmative before turning around and seeing a cat with her kittens asleep on his bunk. He goes on to describe his correspondence with friends who were fighting elsewhere and the tribulations they were experiencing. He recalls feeling grateful that he was there at such a fortuitous time, just after the armistice.



Michael Corona

Sheer Strength

Mike Corona honors the strength of both the US soldiers and the Koreans loading 1-ton jets onto the Landing Ship Tank (LST). South Korean soldiers harnessed wooden boards to their shoulders and connected chains to the jets. Together, four South Korean soldiers sang a song while they dragged the 1-ton jet onto the LST.



Korea: A Huge Empty Lot

When Mike Corona first arrived in Korea, he said it was just a huge empty lot without big buildings, sidewalks, and streets.
Now, Korea looks like Las Vegas, NV because of the beautiful streets, landscapes, and multi-story buildings. After going back for the third revisit, Mike Corona experienced the Korean government's reenactment of the Inchon Landing.



House Boys and Sleeping Conditions

Everywhere Mike Corona's unit went, no matter how long they stayed, they had to dig a hole to sleep. He still remembers the two house boys the soldiers named "Pat" and "Mike." These boys cleaned and helped the soldiers with basic daily needs. In return for payment, US soldiers provided the boys with food and clothing.



Michael Daly

Bedtime Prayer

Michael Daly's earliest political recollection of the Korean War was when he was 5 years old. He and his dad knelt by the side of the bed to say their prayers and he remembers his dad praying, "We thank God tonight for the armistice in the war in Korea." Since Michael Daly was born right before the Korean War, he was too young to remember the draft and other small nuances of the war.



Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Korea Today

Michael Daly recognized the economic and political impact Korea has had both on themselves and countries around the world. Aside from the technological advancements and automobile, the political landscape has exploded since 1987. The events of that period that further progressed democratization in South Korea too.



Michael Fryer

The Realities of Warfare

Michael Fryer recalls broken buildings, poverty, and the state of destitution of the Korean people. He describes the poor conditions in Seoul in late 1951. He recounts the shock he received when he encountered battered and dead American soldiers on the front line.



Finally Some Rest

Michael Fryer describes rest and relaxation at Inchon and Tokyo. He recalls that the Red Cross ran a center which allowed for both men and women from the British Commonwealth of Nations. He describes the Kookaburra Club, a recreation center located near Tokyo, Japan. He talks about food, the duration of the stay, and what they did while off duty.



Lice and Rats

Michael Fryer talks about the cold weather that he experienced in Korea. He describes the living conditions, what he wore, and how how he slept during the bitterly cold months. He recalls his experiences in encountering lice and rats during his service in Korea.



Michael Glisczinski

Being a Tank Mechanic

Michael Glisczinski explains what his duties were during the Korean War. As a tank mechanic he had a “big job” to do with the assistance of a helper from Nebraska. He explains that he was in charge of keeping 5 tanks going to support the war effort.



Michael White

Rest and Relaxation

Michael White speaks about being on leave from the duties of the front line. He speaks about being able to get a proper sleep.



Living on the Front Line

Michael White speaks about the living conditions on the front lines. He talks about living with lice and rats as well as being able to clean up.



Mmadu Onyeuwa

Korea making an Impression

Mmadu Onyeuwa was sent to Korea during the winter of 1968. He describes seeing very deep, waist high snow. He explains that though he spent a good deal of time with the Puerto Ricans, his instinct told him to spend more time immersing himself in the Korean culture. He describes learning the Korean language as well as customs and music.



Monte Curry

Awarded for his Idea & Peeing in Whiskey Bottles

Monte Curry had developed a way to protect the communication cable and wiring that was internally damaged from the mortars on the front line, so when the word got back to a general, he decided to reward Monte Curry for his efforts. They brought a white truck (said it looked like a Red Cross truck) and unloaded reels of movies, a projector, and a generator to the front lines so the soldiers could watch John Wayne westerns. Monte Curry was considered a hero since it was such a special treat for the men and some soldiers would walk miles just to get the opportunity to watch the movies. They were told not to drink the whiskey on the front line since they found out people were peeing in the bottles and selling it making people sick. He said they thought it was people who may have gone down to the DMZ and picked up these bottles from the local stores.



Kitty Movie Experience

Kitty Curry, Monte Curry's wife, was not told a lot about what her husband was experiencing during the Korean War. Before a movie began, instead of previews of other movies, a black and white news reel would review what was life like for the US soldiers in Korea. This included fighting and bombs dropping on the enemy. Kitty Curry's reaction about the news worried her, but her friends and faith kept her going.



Morris J. Selwyn

Seeing the World at Age Sixteen

Morris J. Selwyn enjoyed his experiences in Korea and beyond. As a boy of fifteen, he traveled around much of Asia, visiting Singapore, Hong Kong, and Korea. He celebrated his sixteenth birthday in Japan.



Myron “Jack” Leissler

A “Safe” Foxhole

Myron “Jack” Leissler recalls a “humorous” moment in Korea. While advancing toward a group of Chinese troops in Kotori, he had a chaplain, medical corpsman, and machine gunner join him in the foxhole. They joked that this is the “safest they felt since being in Korea.”



Thankful for Tootsie Rolls

Myron “Jack” Leissler explains how he is thankful for the Tootsie Roll company for sending over the candy. He describes how it was so cold that the C-Rations froze, but that they were able to put the Tootsie Rolls in their parkas and soften them with their body heat. He halfheartedly jokes that Tootsie Rolls kept them alive.



Myron Bruessel

Atomic bomb testing

Myron Bruessel was assigned to the 9677 Technical Service Unit (TSU), a branch of the military that worked on atomic and nuclear bomb testing in the United States to bomb anywhere in the world. He was assigned to a TSU unit in Hawaii because the island had large antennas necessary for the program. This testing was based on earth movement (electromagnetic force) and it used all the radio antennas to monitor radio waves.



Nuclear Fallout and Test Pigs

Myron Bruessel recognized all the United States soldiers who were "guinea pigs" during the nuclear fallout. In 1953, nuclear tests were from the air and balloon to see if buildings could withstand nuclear bombs. Pigs and cows were placed in testing areas and that scientists would subsequently examine their organs to measure the amount of radiation that was present after a nuclear test.



Myron Toback

A Coincidental Family Reunion

When asked if he wrote letters home, Myron Toback said that he only wrote once per month, but he was able to make a phone call home. It was while waiting for his phone call that he met his cousin for the first time. That was certainly a coincidence, but he never saw his cousin again after that.



Myron Vaughn

Different Jobs to Support the Military

Myron Vaughn earned the rank of Corporal for the 8th Army. He worked on rifles and small arms so that soldiers had working weapons to protect South Korea.



Narce Caliva

Keeping US Forces Supplied

Narce Caliva discusses the mission of supplying US forces. He explains that every infantry man has 8-10 people in support positions backing him, making sure he has everything he needs to fight a war. He lists the items that were carried on supply trucks: food, ammunitions, clothes were some of the most important items he transported. He goes on to describe the difficulties they encountered; for instance, driving large convey trucks on newly cut roads that had frozen over on the Korean mountainsides.



POW Trials on Geoje Island

Narce Caliva describes common occurrences at the Geoje Island POW camp. He explains that he was assigned several missing persons cases among the North Korean POWs. These cases had been reported to the Geneva Convention as mistreatments on behalf of the UN soldiers. He explains that through testimony it was understood that the missing persons had been perceived to be collaborators or were not friendly to the North Korean cause and were murdered and cut up into small pieces by other North Korean POWs and disposed of in the outgoing "honey buckets."



Nathan Stovall

Aboard the USS Blue

Nathan Stovall returned to active duty to take a destroyer, the USS Blue, out of mothballs to sail to Korea. Once they had readied the destroyer, the crew trained to look for submarines. After a brief leave to spend time with his father, Nathan Stovall sailed for Korea in 1951, a place about which he knew nothing upon arrival. The journey was difficult, and a heavy storm damaged nets and whale boats during the leg to Japan.



Nathaniel Ford Jr.

Korea after the war

Nathaniel Ford explains how he had never been out of the country prior to his first time in Korea. He recalls how he found it interesting to be in a country where people did not look like him nor speak the same language. He remembers that President Syngman Rhee did not want the American soldiers there. He goes on to describe how impressed he was with how hard the Korean farmers worked but having a problem with their using the contents of the latrines to fertilize their fields.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor never thought about Communism when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He just went there to do a job. After he flew in, he noticed the lack of cars and technology. Sanitation conditions were deplorable.



Living Conditions at K9 near Pusan

Neal Taylor lived on at the K9 Air Force Base located near Puasn. Luckily, he had a bed to sleep in each night and a place to store his supplies. During the night, huge animals would crawl into his footlocker. While stationed in Korea he had to eat stew for 35 days straight because of the "West Coast Strike."



Defusing a 500-Pound Bomb on a Runway

Neal Taylor had to clear a bomb off the runway at K9 Air Base near Busan after it fell off a plane in the middle of the night. It was the middle of the night and when he realized that all the men that defuse the bombs were on R&R, he had to do it on his own. Using a manual and a few simple tools, Neal Taylor defused the bomb with help from his lieutenant.



Under Enemy Sniper Fire

Neal Taylor survived being shot at by a North Korean sniper who fired down into the base from the hills. The sniper used a small gun at the beginning and many of the airmen didn't worry about the shots. Unfortunately, the sniper found a larger gun that started to tear up the cement, so the troops had to get rid of him!



Return To Korea

Neal Taylor felt pride when he revisited Korea. There was also a feeling of "closure" when he returned because of all the progress created by the people of Korea. He noticed all the trees and tall buildings that were built around the country.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Pain of Captivity

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the suffering in Busan. People were out of hope. Moreover, they had lost everything. Many children, four to six, were parentless. Turkish soldiers were well supplied and would give candies, biscuits and chocolates. The Turkish soldiers even had a Korean houseboy. Importantly, they treated him like their own. For example, the houseboy was listed in official Turkish government correspondence. Likewise, the houseboy would complete errands for the Turkish soldiers. His name was Zeki or clever.



Nelson S. Ladd

Prisoner Exchange

Less than a month after the dedication of the Libby Bridge, Nelson Ladd was a witness to a prisoner exchange between the North and South Koreans. He estimated on the day of the exchange, some 80,000 prisoners were returned to North Korea despite the South had detained about 400,000 North Korean soldiers. He observed that many of the prisoners had thrown the clothes that had been given to them at the camps along the roadside except their shorts and boots. The trucks headed back picked up the articles of clothing left by the prisoners.



Advancements in Korea: Then vs Today

After having visited Korea in 2013, Nelson Ladd is still amazed by the advancements Korea has made and how ambitious the people have been throughout the years. He had seen images of what Korea looked like before his revisit, however he had feared that Korea would have become like many East Asian countries, disparaged and unable to recover. Nelson Ladd described the Taft-Katusa Agreement (1905) between the US and Japan that led occupation of Korea and the Philippines that created the oppression upon the peoples of those countries.



Military Allowances during Korean War

When Nelson Ladd was drafted into the war, he was paid $88.50 a month. By the time he came home as a Corporal, he earned $135 plus 50$ in overseas pay. Nelson Ladd said he earned enough to buy his first car for $1,600 and he gave money to his family.



Nelson Skinner

Counter-Intelligence Officers

Nelson Skinner describes his duties as a forward observer and working with two Counter-Intelligence Corps officers from North and South Korea. He explains the CIC officers received one-fourth of a cent a month for pay. He recalls sharing his Coke rations with them and they, in return, gave him their blankets when his sleeping bag was wet. He later realized that that winter was the coldest winter Korea had experienced in many years.



Team Work was needed to Fight at the Nakdong River

Nelson Skinner describes being stationed at the front lines at the Nakdong River. He describes their daily routines which entailed eating, working, sleeping (when they could) and firing rounds 50 feet in front of the North Koreans. He goes on to describe the difficulties in maneuvering without any maps and not realizing the men on the next hill were not Allies but North Koreans.



Neville Williams

Not Easy to Handle

When asked about how he handled death, Neville Williams shares how everything about the war was about survival and how strong of a bond he had with the others. He remembers two of his comrades who struggled with the stress and circumstances, sharing how they were removed from the combat. He argues, however, that even when those situations occurred no one ever looked negatively at anyone else.



From Animals to Alcohol

Neville Williams shares some of the unique sides of life in Korea. He gives examples of some of the wildlife that they saw, learning about the animals from the Koreans. Another thing they learned about Korea was about the “hooch,” an alcoholic drink that Neville Williams remembers made many sick!



Nick Mararac

The Forgotten Armistice and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission

Nick Mararac describes the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), and its role in the armistice/DMZ area. It was created during the armistice with North Korea. The NNSC is used during talks between North and South Korea ever since 1953.



Naval Training

Nick Mararac discusses how he became a commissioned officer after graduating from college. He also discusses his basic training starting at the Naval Academy. During his explanation, pride can be heard in the tone of his voice.



Impmressions of Korea and Living Conditions

Nick Mararac recalls seeing Korea for the first time prior to serving there. He found the language intimidating and had difficulty with it. After moving to Korea he remembers being able to get around quite easily. He remembers living on the 26th floor on a high rise in a comfortable apartment.



Nick Nishimoto

North Korean Guard Allows Burial

Nick Nishimoto details a relationship he had with a North Korean guard while in a prisoner of war camp. He recalls speaking with him in Japanese and the guard allowing him to properly bury his dear friend. He details this moment, his tears, the cold, and taking his friend's possessions for survival.



Chinese-American in a Chinese POW Camp

Nick Nishimoto discusses how in his prisoner of war camp Chinese-Americans were imprisoned as well. He remembers when his dear Chinese-American friend suffered from a cyst that became infected. He recalls there being American doctors in the prisoner of war camp who tried to provide treatment, but equipment was lacking to do so.



First Captured Night

Nick Nishimoto describes the living conditions of the school room where he was captive when he first became a prisoner of war. He recalls the room being so crowded that he had to sit crunched down for hours. He remembers how hard it was to keep balance when he got up later to stand and relieve himself. He describes how another American prisoner had to help him as the Chinese soldiers laughed.



Niconas Nanez

Helping the Children

Niconas Nanez says that he will always remember the kids. He never wants any other child to have to go through what they went through. He used to buy them food to assist them because he remembers suffering when he was a small child.



Noel G. Spence

Conditions for Korean Children

Noel G. Spence describes his duty driving trucks of waste. He recounts how desperate Korean children would come to the dump to find supplies. Seoul was captured and re-captured many times. People were in desperate conditions. The "lucky" Koreans had boxes for houses, clothing from soldiers and and scraps for food.



Noreen Jankowski

Relations with Locals

Noreen Jankowski describes the "house boy" who was with her husband's unit in Korea. She recalls her husband sharing how he stayed mostly with them, worked for them, and would take what money he made home to his family. She mentions sending the boy toy guns via mail. Noreen also reads a letter the "house boy" wrote to Ed in 1954.



Sending Supplies from Home

Noreen Jankowski recalls a conversation about the cold winters in Korea. She mentions how she sent supplies to her husband in Korea to keep him warm. She details sending hand and feet warmers and shares that he endured some difficulties with his legs later on perhaps due to the cold exposure.



Norman Charles Champagne

Attacks on Chinese Outposts

Norman C. Champagne describes a mission to attack Hill 150 and 153, which were two Chinese outposts. As a Fire Team Leader, his goal was to blow up the Chinese bunkers and trenches to break the lower and upper trench lines. He explains why the Chinese were formidable enemies, despite the additional dropping of napalm by Corsair bombers.



Battle for the Berlin's

Norman C. Champagne shares a story about being under attack near the end of the Korean War. When asked to describe a challenging time, he talks about the Battle for the Berlin's and Boulder City. While he and another officer were driving to deliver supplies, they came under attack, experiencing a few terrifying moments that continue to live on in his memory.



Beautiful Korea

Norman C. Champagne speaks fondly of his opportunity to revisit Korea, and his pleasure at physical changes that have occurred since his time in the country. He describes coming in by airplane into Seoul, and his surprise at the beauty of the country. He discusses frustration at the political challenges that keep the Koreans from fully enjoying a unified country.



Norman Renouf

School in the Prisoner Camp

Norman Renouf describes the classes that he was forced to take in the prisoner camp. The Chinese used the classes to encourage the soldiers to reject capitalism in favor of communist ideologies. Some of the Chinese interpreters spoke good English because they had lived in New York City.



Norman Spencer Hale

Camp 5 Poem

Norman Hale recounts marching as a POW from December 1950 to February 1951. He recalls the loss of life. He shares a poem written by a POW about the one thousand six hundred servicemen who died that winter.



Ollie Thompson

Basic Training

Ollie Thompson received his basic training at Fort Polk, Louisiana. He received field training and hand-to-hand combat training. In Japan, he continued his training before he was sent to Korea.



Destruction in Korea

Ollie Thompson arrived in Korea at Inchon. When traveling by train through Seoul, he was able to see the destruction of the city. His first experience in combat took place in the Chorwon Valley in 1951.



Orville Jones

Life Aboard the U.S.S. Manchester

Orville Jones recalls life on the U.S.S. Manchester. He recalls sleeping in a bunk, eating hot meals everyday, and having the ability to shower each day if he wanted. He talks about how much money he made and what he could spend it on. He recalls being able to save some money by sending some of it home. He could also spend some of his money in Japan or Taiwan when on Rest and Relaxation.



Orville Oster

Daily Routine on board a Navy Ship

Orville Oster describes the daily routine on board the navy ship that he lived on. He tells of his job responsibilities on the team of the flight deck crew. Although he was not in combat, his occupation on the ship was very important and extremely dangerous.



Leaving for Korea

Orville Oster describes his time aboard the military ship as they were traveling from Europe to Japan and then to Korea. His crew was operating with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and he saw ships from other countries, even the HMS - Her Majesty's Ship - The Queen of England. Orville Oster gives the specific job that he had on the naval ship.



Letters to Home

When asked if he wrote letters to home, Orville Oster explains that he wrote to his siblings and that his parents could not read English well. He shares that he wrote about his job. However, at one point he could no longer send letters because of an atomic bomb task.



Osman Yasar Eken

Revenge

Osman Eken describes how the condition of the Korean people increased his fighting morale. The Korean people were hungry, wearing shabby clothes, and did not have a home. People were just wandering around begging for food. This condition made Osman Even even more determined as a fighter.



Othal Cooper

Civil War

Othal Cooper reflects on how the Korean War relates to the U.S. Civil War. He makes many parallels on what life would be like today in the U.S. if we had never ended our conflict. He explains what situations many Koreans must endure today due to lack of peace negotiations.



Otto G. Logan

Never Seeing Korean Soldiers

Otto G. Logan describes his experience in Incheon upon arrival. He explains that his days were mainly filled with drills and training. He adds that during his time there, he never saw a Korean soldier as he stayed on base, only venturing out on a bus ride once.



Pasquale G. “Bob” Morga

Living Conditions

Bob Morga explained that the company compound was a former Japanese school house. He also explains the food that he ate while in Korea, sharing what he could with the young children around the area. He remembers how he would give them whatever he could from his C-rations because no one else could take care of them.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

Cold Guns and Ingenuity

Patrick Hickey shares that he woke up at five each morning to remove guns from action for maintenance. He recalls that during the heat of summer the routine was fairly straightforward but adds that the guns froze in winter. He shares how he developed a mix of oil and kerosene to prevent the gun components from freezing, an innovation that spread quickly to other units. He describes the winters being so cold that soldiers had to disassemble their guns at night and place the parts by the fire so the guns would fire in the morning.



Three Trips to No-Man's Land

Patrick Hickey took cat naps to compensate for being awakened in the night to resupply the front lines with ammunition. He shares that one night he and three other soldiers volunteered to repair a phone line in No-Man's Land. He describes feeling invincible and not being worried, even when called to continue the phone line work on two more occasions.



Kids Taking Care of Kids

Patrick Hickey remembers all the little boys without parents. He recalls taking in a boy named Kim who was about seven years old to do little jobs around camp. He shares how he would cut off the legs of his trousers to give the orphans something to wear. He recalls how some children carried babies on their backs - kids caring for kids.



Paul E. Bombardier

"It Was Terrible"

Paul E. Bombardier describes first seeing Seoul in 1952. He described the city as "total devestation." He recounts most all buildings being destroyed. He goes on to describe the living conditions on farms outside of town and the work done by all family members.



House Boys

Paul E. Bombardier talks about his relationship with two Korean "house boys" that lived with his Army unit. He describes showing the boys a Sears magazine and he even purchased some outfits for them. He describes wishing he was able to adopt them.



First Impressions of Korea

Paul E. Bombardier describes his first impressions of Korea after getting off a ship in October 1952. The first thing he remembers was the smell of food cooking outside. He remembers the smoke in the air from the food.



Getting Paid

Paul E. Bombardier gives a detailed description of his earnings as a PFC (E-3) in the US Army in 1952. He recounts getting paid a daily (24 hour) rate of $2.40. He notes $7 came out each month for life insurance, $25 sent to his mother, $25 sent to his girlfriend (future wife) and the rest he kept.



"Spotter" Planes

Paul E. Bombardier describes the mission of his unit, providing reconnaissance using what he called "spotter" planes, specifically the L-19 Cessna "Bird Dogs." He describes it as a two-seater airplane that rose up to 4,000 feet and were tasked with "spotting" targets.



Paul E. Newman

Sending Gifts Home To Loved Ones

Paul E. Newman shares his most significant experience regarding his duties during the Korean War. He explains the creation of the Army & Air Force Mail Order System and the process soldiers used to send gifts home to loved ones. He expresses his pride in having played a role in this process while in Japan during the Korean War.



Paul Frederick Steen

Polio Prior to Service

Paul Steen shares how he discovered he had polio as a child. He chronicles the story and details what he saw while being treated. He admits that he was worried he would not be accepted when volunteering for the draft years later due to his bout with polio.



Tied to the Ship

Paul Steen recounts his return to the States aboard the USS Gaffey, experiencing fifty-foot swells. He describes how knives, spoons, and forks were flying everywhere below deck. He remembers a soldier having appendicitis and being chosen with a few others to take the sick soldier to the deck to have the helicopter pick him up. He shares that they tied themselves to the side of the ship before the helicopter arrived, and after securing the sick soldier inside the basket, he recounts watching him spin around and around hooked to the cable, stating that if he was not sick before, he would definitely be sick by the time he reached the helicopter.



Paul Frommer

Air Force Yearbook

Paul Frommer recounts how he helped create the first yearbook for Air Force members that were not pilots at Ellington Air Force Base. He explains that his superiors were very impressed with the final edition. He displays the cartoons, pictures, and addresses that filled his yearbook which help him remember exciting events on the military base.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



The Most Difficult Experience in Korea

Paul Cunningham identified the lack of solid support from the US government as the most difficult experience in Korea because all of the troops were ready to follow MacArthur all the way to the Yalu River. He shares that he was a part of the Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 502 Tactical Control Group during his time in Korea. He adds that his squadron performed air surveillance for three hundred miles in all directions using radar machines that were used during WWII.



Paul H. Nordstrom

Generations Behind in Korea

Paul H. Nordstrom shares his memories of Seoul and of the country he saw while serving in Korea. He recollects the living conditions and way of life as being generations behind the United States at the time. He shares that the United States was more mechanized in comparison to Korea then.



Braving the Cold as a Minnesotan

Paul H. Nordstrom details his living conditions while in Korea. He comments on meals, sleeping arrangements, and the climate. He shares that he was more accustomed to colder temperatures than others due to having grown up in similar conditions in Minnesota.



Paul Hummel

Always Have a Backup Plan

Paul Hummel remembered when the enemy forces figured out the weaknesses of United States' planes. Due to this, there needed to be a back up plan created to outwit the Chinese. Mosquito pilots used a variety of maneuvers while in the Hamhung area.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Olsen

Korean Medical Experience

Paul Olsen describes the ailments of the civilians the Swedish Red Cross Hospital treated for. Tuberculosis and worms are generally associated with poor and/or crowded living conditions. Paul Olsen was the only X-Ray doctor in the camp and and no other doctor had experience with X-Rays.



Photos around the Swedish Red Cross Hospital

Paul Olsen provides pictures of the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He describes living conditions at the hospital and how free time was limited. He provides a picture around the hospital in Busan. Paul Olsen also provides pictures of the civilians he treated and describes the various ailments.



Life within the Confines of the Hospital

Paul Olsen describes life inside the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. The doctors could not go outside the converted high school. So, various lessons and lectures were provided to the doctors to provide excitement. Paul Olsen describes how his experience was different from other doctors, because his wife was with him.



Paul Spohn

Living Well on the G.I. Bill

Paul Spohn recounts using the GI Bill to continue his education. He shares that he received $110 a month and was able to live comfortably and purchase a car from the funds while attending school. He comments further on his economically sound living conditions.



Paul Summers

Friendly Fire on the Pusan Perimeter

Paul Summers was digging into a hillside on the Pusan Perimeter one night. Troops were lobbing artillery over the hillside where the Marines were setting up camp. Hearing the whistling of an artillery round, he suspected it would fall short. The explosion left four Marines dead.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Growing Up in Boot Camp

Paulino Lucino Jr. was taught responsibility by serving the in Army. In boot camp, he had a lot of hard times, but although it was rough, it helped him later in life to accomplish his goals. Perseverance was a major life lesson that Paulino Lucino Jr. learned while in boot camp.



Destination Unknown

Paulino Lucino Jr. was never sure of his exact location when he was fighting in Korea. Often, he was put on the back of trucks or trains and had no idea where they were headed next. He felt that this was the most troublesome experience of his time in Korea.



Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)

Paulino Lucino Jr.'s job during the Korean War was a 81 millimeter mortar man. He still knows all of the details that he was taught during boot camp including the weight of the plate, barrels, and stakes he used. It was very hard to transport the 81 millimeter mortars on the Korean Peninsula's mountainous landscape.



The Korean War Armistice and Ceasefire

Paulino Lucino Jr. remembers in detail what it was like to be in Korea when the ceasefire was announced. He continued fighting until the last moments of the war. Since Paulino Lucino Jr. was stationed in Korea until 1954, he saw and felt the change in Korea during the year after the war.



Pell E. Johnson

Protecting the Front Lines at Old Baldy

Pell E. Johnson understood the importance of protecting the battle lines at Old Baldy. It was difficult to drive the Chinese out of the area. He won't ever forget changing the troops out and celebrating Thanksgiving on a cold night.



Guarding Prisoner of War Camps

Pell E. Johnson guarded Chinese and North Korean Prisoner of War camps. It was a rough placement due to the prisoners trying to mutiny. He feared Bay Day, a communist holiday and a possible uprising of prisoners.



Welcome Home

Pell E. Johnson remembers all the details about returning home from his duties in Korea. When he got home, his outlook on life changed. United States civilians did not understand the lifestyle soldiers had lived. He also feared the uncertainty of the future to come.



Per Anton Sommernes

Morphine to Ease the Pain

Per Anton Sommernes describes being part of the Norwegian MASH (NorMASH) unit. Soldiers would come in wounded from the frontlines. NorMash would stabilize soldiers who lost limbs from combat. Men would receive morphine to ease the pain. Men would be stabilized in the field hospital and then transfer out after three to four days. Per Anton Sommernes also describes receiving supplies from the American military by helicopter.



To Stay or To Evacuate

Per Anton Sommernes describes an incident where there was a possibility of being overrun by Chinese soldiers. Evacuating every wounded soldier was not an option. Some nurses and doctors would have to stay. Per Anton Sommernes grew up in China and knew the language and volunteered to stay back.



Percy D. Mohr

We Never Saw a Bed!

Percy Mohr describes the worst parts of war. The cold weather made sleeping outside uncomfortable, and baths were rare. He also disliked the food.



Why Did They Miss Me?

Percy Mohr recounts the battle in which Chinese soldiers overran his division, pushing them back to headquarters. He was standing beside a captain who was shot by the Chinese, and he pauses to wonder why he survived. During the battle, Chinese soldiers overran his artillery division. When the U.S. soldiers returned to camp, they were greeted by a surprise.



Peter Elliott

Life as an Aircraftman

Peter Elliott shares his experiences working in airplane mechanics during the war as a leading Aircraftman. He explains what his responsibilities were as his specialty was repairing and maintaining the frames of airplanes. While they did not get paid much, he recalls how he was able to save money and buy a car when he returned to Australia.



Nothing Glamorous

Peter Elliott sheds light on the living conditions around the Battle of the Hook. He recalls how the men lived in dugout habitats with weather conditions that were either very hot or very cold depending on the season. He remembers that there was a lot of activity occurring before the major battle.



Peter Ford

Arriving and Korea

Peter Ford speaks about arriving in Korea in 1952. He describes driving through Seoul. He discusses how he had no idea why he was assigned to the 26th Field Ambulance, explains where the unit was set up, and recalls being told what his assignment was. He shares a story of being stopped for speeding.



Freezing Water and Oil

Peter Ford speaks about the cold weather. He gives an examples of how quick water would freeze. He shares that he had proper winter clothing and the effects the cold could have on vehicles. He explains a scenario where he made a mistake in the cold.



Games Anyone?

Peter Ford recalls how he received news that the Armistice had been signed. He recounts how the Commonwealth division he was assigned to was comprised of various nationalities and how it decided to hold a sporting event. He comments on his participation as a runner and recalls placing third in the event.



Peter Joseph Doyle, Jr.

Living and Working with Korean Soldiers

Peter Doyle explains that his division stayed several miles behind the front lines in the reserve area, sometimes for as long as two months at a time. He goes on to explain that the 7th division had some Korean soldiers mixed in with their nine man squads and what their exchanges were like. He says that their communication was limited but they were able to exchange some English, Korean, andJapanese words. He recalls one young Korean soldier, who he nicknamed Junebug, died after Peter left Korea. He describes how one day Junebug seemed bothered that the American soldiers get to leave the war to go home and the Korean soldiers do not get to leave.



Peter Ruland

Being a Weatherman at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

Peter Ruland describes going to military training in Norfolk, VA to become a weatherman. He later describes being stationed at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the weather and things to do. Peter Ruland's service at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba was prior to the revolution led by Fidel Castro.



Philip Davis

I narrowly escaped death

Philip Davis believes that he and his fellow soldiers at that time were not really ready to fight. He describes the ammunition they were given and how many American soldiers died helplessly in rice paddies in Korea. He was very fortunate to escape with an army captain, but still struggles today knowing that those soldiers were left to die without any help coming.



Philip Vatcher

Destitute Korea

Philip Vatcher's his first impressions of Korea were that of a desolate landscape. He there weren't any trees, roads, and barely any shops. Korea during the war was like slave country when the Japanese ran Korea.



Expendable Resource

Philip Vatcher was most bothered by the murder of a military officer in Korea. He witnessed an officer killed because his life was worth less than the value of a military jeep. Despite the circumstance, he understands that war is war.



Civilian Rescue

Philip Vatcher details a time when they rescued a guy on the road. This man's intestines were outside of his body. They had to clean up his intestines and wrap him up. The man's life was sparred and he kept communications with him after the war.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Letters, Cookies and War

Phillip Olson tried his best to consume his time while he was not on the front lines working with large equipment. He wrote letters to his family about Korea. They in turn sent cookies and letters back to him while he was stationed there from 1952-1953.



Transitioning From Basic Training to Running Heavy Equipment

Phillip Olson enlisted in 1951 and attended a variety of training while in the United States as part of the United States Army. His specialty was heavy equipment such as bull dozers, cranes, caterpillars, and earth movers. One of the roles that he remembered fondly was building an air strip between the 36th and 38th parallel so that the US Air Force could drop bombs on North Korea.



Death All Around While Landing in Pusan

Phillip Olson could smell the port by Pusan even before he entered the bay. Dead soldiers were still floating near the shore while dead fish also added to the smell of decay. He was shocked at the beginning because it was not what he would imagine it would look like in Korea.



Rafael Gomez Hernandez

Chosin Reservoir Experience

Rafael Gomez Hernandez describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls the deep snow, cold temperatures, cold food, and having to fight the Chinese. He shares that he saw many refugees at the time and that his unit was the last to leave the Heungnam port during the Chosin Reservoir evacuation.



Segregation in the US Military

Rafael Gomez Hernandez recounts the segregation in the US military at the time. He recalls squads within the 3rd Infantry Division being divided by backgrounds. He shares that there was a squad of Black soldiers, one of Puerto Rican soldiers, and two of White soldiers from the US.



Rahim Gunay

Being Drafted and Going to Korea

Rahim Günay describes how his regiment, Bergama Regiment, was drafted to go to Korea. He served as a Cryptanalyst. When first arriving in Korea the destruction of Korea amazed him. He also describes the conditions of the people. People were living in shabby shelters.



Ralph Blum

Not a Forgotten War in Korea

Ralph Blum revisited Korea in 2012 with his son. His view of Korea changed because of the advances he saw. He visited the DMZ, Seoul, and he wore his Korean War cap and jacket. Everybody thanked him for his service including cab drivers and school children. His revisit answered his question about why he served in Korea. 



A Tale of Two Seouls

Ralph Blum contrasts Seoul in March 1952 and May 2012 upon his revisit. He shares that Seoul was a mess and totally demolished in 1952. There were only a few bridges, and he recounts crossing the Imjin River on a pontoon bridge.  Seoul was totally different in 2012 with modern buildings and lots of traffic.



Makeshift Stove for Warmth

Ralph Blum said he built a bunker with a couple other Marines.  Their bunker had three feet of dirt on top.  Because it was cold they made a stove out of a fuse box, put sand in it, used fuses from shells, and used beer cans to make a chimney. They used a five galloon can with diesel fuel which kept them reasonably warm for when they were in there at night.



Ralph Burcham

First impressions

Ralph Burcham arrived in Busan in 1952. He felt that the scene was "heart wrenching" to see shoeless children running next to the trains in the hopes that U.S. soldiers would toss out food. Families were so poor and willing to do anything for food scraps.



Fighing in Korea

Ralph Burcham was busy as a forward observer in the Army. He valued the insight that seasoned soldiers imparted to new soldiers. As a soldier, Ralph Burcham was taught important skills that helped him survive.



Weather in Korea

Ralph Burhcam and other soldiers were negatively affected by the weather. The cold winters weren't the worst part, it was also the summer heat and mosquitoes. Soldiers tried to be creative to survive the elements, but their creativity was not always encouraged by military regulations.



Ralph Howard

The U.S. President Wants You for the US Military!

Ralph Howard recalls being in Alaska when the Korean War started and listed as 1-A (available for military service). He mentions he was disappointed after being drafted because he was making good money. He recounts being sent to training as a paratrooper after having his hair cut, passing the aptitude test, and taking a physical.



U.S. Paratrooper Training

Ralph Howard discusses how he was trained to be a U.S. paratrooper in January 1952 after being drafted into the Army. He emphasizes that a great deal of physical training and practice using the parachute was needed. He recalls how his job was to drop into battles, cut off supply routes for the enemy, and support the U.S. Marines who had been fighting in the war since 1950.



Chute-Packing Races, C-Rations, and Poor Civilians

Ralph Howard discusses how he was scared until his parachute opened. He recalls not having to pack his own chute but adds that during training, they would compete to see who could pack his chute first. He remembers how General Westmoreland tried to ensure all men on the front lines received a hot meal once a day. He recalls enjoying beanie weenies, sausage, and hamburger from C-Rations. He notes that during his downtime, he would share some of his rations with Korean civilians as they were very poor.



Ramon D. Soto

Going Back and Being Amazed

Ramon D. Soto talks about his return to Korean is 1961. He speaks about the new infrastructure that had been constructed so soon after the armistice. This was the only time he returned to Korea.



Raul Aguilar

Walking Like a Duck

Raul Aguilar describes his first impressions of arriving in Korea and how arriving as a replacement, he was completely unaware of where he was or how to go about things. He describes one night when he arrived in December when he went to visit the latrine. He remembers there was snow and ice on the building and having to wipe the ice off of the boards so he could sit down. He describes wearing a lot of clothing and having to take everything off when suddenly explosions began around him. He explains grabbing his gun, not having time to pull up his pants and finding his way back to his troops only to discover there was a friendly reason for the explosions.



Going Naked Up the Hill

Raul Aguilar describes bathing in a stream in Korea with a fellow soldier. Once shrapnel began hitting the water around them, they ran up the hill back to their troop. He explains what it was like to run naked up a hill in Korea.



Ray D. Griffin

A Cook for the Army

Ray D. Griffin was trained to be a Cook and Baker after he finished basic training in 1960. He had to monitor the military rations and supervise the functioning of the military mess hall. He recalls having to be prepared to feed troops and other military personnel around the clock. Military trash was required to be guarded from hungry Korean orphans, but he was able to bring surplus milk to the orphanages.



Military Camaraderie

Ray D. Griffin formed important bonds while in the military. He recalls that learning to make pizza while in Korea was a landmark moment for him. He gives credit to the military for causing him to be more mature and to develop more realistic perspectives of the world.



A Cook's Journey

Ray D. Griffin saw a lot of poverty when he was stationed in South Korea. Although the fighting was over, he found that it seemed life expectancy was not very long for the people due to severe poverty. He recalls multiple opportunities he turned down in the process of becoming a Military Cook and Baker. He describes the long journey he had to take to get to Korea.



Raymond H. Champeau

Journey to the Korean Coast

Raymond H. Champeau was a sailor in the Royal Canadian Navy. He explains his journey to being stationed on the HMCS Huron, a Canadian Destroyer with nearly three hundred men aboard. He recalls the weapons and ammunition aboard ship, and becoming acclimated to life at sea.



The Canadian Mission at Sea

Raymond H. Champeau explains that sailors in the Royal Canadian Navy aboard the HMCS Huron had a mission to patrol the east coast of Korea from September 1952 until the end of the Korean War. He recalls that they never met up with any enemy ships. He explains what conditions were present when the destroyer fired bombs on enemy trains that could be spotted emerging from tunnels with supplies.



Life Aboard the HMCS Huron

Raymond H. Champeau details the job of working as a cook in a small kitchen for almost three hundred sailors in the Royal Canadian Navy aboard the HMCS Huron. He explains the sailor's preference to American rations over Australian rations when they ran aground in Sasebo, Japan. He recalls watching movies aboard ship, and sleeping in cramped hammock areas.



Raymond L. Fish

The Pusan Perimeter

Raymond L. Fish recounts his role as a medic at the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls having to keep up with inventory, which was sometimes a challenge when it came to dealing with soldiers who had alcoholic tendencies. He explains how casualties were treated for wounds at varying locations.



Saved by a Canteen

Raymond L. Fish was sent on one-week detachments to provide aid to Chinese prisoners of war who were under supervision by the United Nations. He shares how a little while later, he was injured while running from the Chinese. He shares the story of how his canteen protected him from what could have been a fatal wound during the war.



Raymond Unger

Life in POW Camp #3

Raymond Unger describes the living conditions in Camp #3 during his time as a prisoner of war.



I Knew I Was Going to Survive

Raymond Unger talks about his will to survive as a prisoner of war.



Reginald V. Rawls

Life Leading into the Army

Reginald Rawls grew up living in a poor section of town and he had limited options to improve his quality of life. These circumstances served as the impetus for his enlistment in the Army. He rose up the military ranks because he was respectful to everyone and he went to a lot of training.



Returning Home

Reginald Rawls arrived back home after being gone for three years. He was stationed in Japan before being sent to fight in the Korean War. Most people did not know where he was, or what he had been doing since the media had not discussed the Korean War on the home front.



A Strong Love for Korean Civilians

Reginald Rawls believes that the Korean War should be recognized and remembered.
That's why many people call this war, the "Forgotten War." Any extra food, he gave to the Korean civilians because most were starving. During the war, Reginald Rawls had many interactions with Korean civilians, one man was even his driver.



Rex L. McCall

Battle of the Hook

Rex McCall discusses arriving in Korea and describes his experiences in the Battle of the Hook. He said there was sporadic fire from the Chinese and he went on night time patrols. He would try to get sleep in a bunker farther down the hill during the day. He says it reminded him of trench warfare during World War I. The Chinese were about 450 feet away.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Working and Living Conditions in Korea in 1977

Ricardo Torres Perez saw the green land and rice patties from the plane as he was coming into Osan. He worked with the ROK, the South Korean troops to be able to protect South Korea during his 18 month deployment in Korea.



Richard A. Houser

Leaving for Korean War in 1953

Richard Houser took a ship and landed in Inchon in April 1953 after a lonely 20 day ship ride to Korea. While traveling to his base in the Chorwon Valley known as the Iron Triangle, Richard Houser was able to see Seoul leveled, small thatched homes, and dirt roads all around him.



The Korean War Ceasefire

Richard Houser fought until the last second to hold Porkchop Hill in the Chorwon Valley right before the ceasefire. It felt great for him when the war ended because he was able to build new trenches farther off the 38th parallel.



Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



The Ceasefire, Korean Civilians, and the Death of a Friend

Richard Houser protected the 38th parallel throughout the winter of 1953 from a trench and Camp Casey. After the ceasefire civilians wanted to go back to their land to farm, but it was filled with mines which took the lives of many civilians.



Returning to the US After Serving in the US Army

Richard Houser returned to the US in the spring of 1934 and most of the people from his town didn't even know he was gone. Newspapers didn't publicize the Korean War since it was tired from WWII, so most of the veterans did not get a warm welcome home.



Korea Revisit

Richard Houser went back to Korea with his wife a few years before the interview was taped. The bright lights, huge buildings, and prosperity of the Korean people made him proud for fighting to free the Korean civilians.



Richard A. Mende

POW's after the Armistice

Richard Mende describes seeing POW's in Pusan after the armistice was signed. He talks about the prisoners being moved on trains and the poor condition of their clothing.



Richard A. Simpson

Civilian's Life

Richard Simpson describes the despair of the Korean people. He describes an incident of a woman trying to commit suicide by lying on train tracks and describes giving simple necessities such as a shirt to Korean people. Richard Simpson also describes the actions by troops.



Richard Bartlett

Radio Maintenance Specialty and a Civilian Encounter

Each soldier is trained with a specialty to strengthen the military. Richard Bartlett's duties were to keep the radio equipment working and operational as it was used to guide aircraft along the 38th Parallel. There was a lot of on-the-job-training. While stationed at Osan, Richard Bartlett encountered many civilians off base.



The Air Force's All-Korean Basketball Team Experience

Richard Bartlett played for the All-Korean Basketball Team while in the Air Force and stationed in Korea. He traveled to Seoul and played a variety of Korean teams. These experiences allowed him a chance to get to know some Korean civilians. The Korean teams were comprised of talented basketball players.



Legacy of the Korean Defense Veteran

Richard Bartlett believes that the defense veterans serve and fill the void after the Korean War ended. He feels defense veterans over the years have done a very good job keeping the North and South Koreans separated since the war. He wishes he had personally done more to help the Korean people while there.



Richard Botto

Amenities aboard the USS Salem

Richard Botto and other sailors had a variety of accommodations on the USS Salem. They had AC/Heat on the ship. They also had a cobbler shop, cigarette store, movies every night, and a readied helicopter. There were 1400 men aboard the ship and they had a crane that lifted the higher ranking officers' boats into the water.



Firing From the USS Salem

Richard Botto was on the USS Salem during his time in the Korean War. He was supposed to go in with a few friends, but he was left to join alone. After training in the Great Lakes, he was sent to Massachusetts and then he was stationed on the USS Salem. Richard Botto didn't go into Korea, but he was east of Korea and continued to follow the shoreline to fire 8 inch guns into the mountains during 1952-1953.



Duties While in the East Sea Along Korea's Shore

Richard Botto was busy on Quarter Watch because he had to do whatever he was told to do. He could see the mortar shells coming from his ship and landing into the side of Korea's mountains. He was not in danger while he was there, he thought, because Richard Botto was protected by 1,400 sailors. In February 1953, he was done with his time in the East Sea, so he was sent to the Mediterranean Sea to help NATO with a humanitarian mission.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Weekly Sermons Halted After Preacher was a No-Show

Church was usually done every Sunday on the hood of a cloth-draped jeep. The preacher would hold the bible in his hand and deliver the weekly sermon. One Sunday, the soldiers were present to start the service, but the preacher wasn't there. The soldiers saw in the distance a jeep driving about 90 miles an hour up the the soldiers to tell them that the preacher had checkout out a rifle to go pheasant hunting, stepped on a land mine and was killed.



Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Helping a Father See His Son

The most memorable moment in Korea was when a young soldier from Iowa ran up daily for mail call to get information about his new baby. Every time they got mail, the young soldier received many pictures of his son bathing in the tub (always naked), he was so proud. The young soldier asked Richard Brandt when he was going home and he replied that it was within two weeks, but after speaking to his commander, Richard Brandt allowed the young soldier to go home in his place to see his son.



Richard Davey

Working with Americans While Stationed at HQ

Richard Davey recounts being stationed at the Royal Army's Headquarters (HQ) during the May 1953, 3rd Battle of the Hook. Due to bombing and busy telephone lines, he recalls having to hot loop (go around the regular telephone communication system) to communicate with other HQs. During that battle, over thirty-eight thousand shells were used during the fight.



A Bunker and a Radio, What Else Would You Need?

Richard Davey shares that his job in HQ was to man the radio to maintain and assist communication between the frontlines and HQRA. Therefore, he had to store many pieces of equipment to keep the radio running all day and night. He recalls being able to stay in a bunker inside of a trench and adds that he was even able to maintain a bookshelf with books to share with the American soldiers that he was stationed with at the time.



Arrival in Pusan in the Midst of 1952

Richard Davey recalls arriving in Pusan to a band playing in the background and small camps set up with Canadian troops waiting to be shipped out. After a train and truck ride, he was stationed with the Headquarters Royal Artillery (HQRA). While stationed there, he was provided food, summer clothes, and guns.



Richard Davis

Chosin Reservoir Reflection

Richard Davis reflects on his experiences at the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts the bitterly cold conditions and being outnumbered by the Chinese. He describes the sleeping bag situation, digging foxholes, and the food available.



Desperate Times, Desperate Measures

Richard Davis describes the Thanksgiving meal offered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls airplanes dropping the food, it being cooked, collecting the food, and it being frozen by the time he could eat it. He recounts sitting on food to keep it warm. He mentions eating c-rations as well as vegetables from Korean civilian gardens which gave him and other soldiers worms due to being fertilized by human waste.



Richard Donatelli

Remember the Death March North

Richard Donatelli remembers that in spite of the heavy artillery being used, it was no match for the Chinese near Kotori who would over run their unit, forcibly moving them with bayonets north.
He explains that they lost a lot of men on this "death march" due to the rough, cold conditions and lack of water and food. During a few times, Richard Donatelli wanted to give up, but he kept going.



POW Camp-Teaching of Capitalism

Richard Donatelli explains that they tried to teach them about the downfalls of capitalism in the POW Camp. They placed them in a circle sharing stories of the businessmen ruining the country on a daily basis, an argument for socialism and communism. In addition to this, they would have to sing a patriotic song daily while living in the horrible conditions of the camp.



POW Camp 5 Morning Ritual

Richard Dontelli says that they hard a hard time sleeping and medical care was not the best. The Chinese doctors would only give them pills. He remembers that if you didn't eat what they gave you, you died. Richard Dontelli tells the story of one time he was caught stealing wooden shingles off of one of the cabinets and he was punished.



Release from POW Camp

After the armistice agreement in July of '53, Richard Donatelli was released from Camp 5 (August 17, 1953). He explains how they moved the prisoners and started to treat them better. He recalls that after their arrival at Panmunjom, the former prisoners started taking off and tossing the prison uniforms over the edge of the truck in exchange for winter clothes. He was so thankful to see the bright colors and beautiful women when they arrived back in the states.



Richard Faron

Soldier Pay

Mr. Faron describes his pay during the war. He explains how the money was used during the Korean War. He talks about how soldiers supported their families back in the U.S. He shares about the task of getting the money to pay soldiers.



Poverty Affected All

Mr. Faron recalls how people were starving. He describes the poverty of the South Koreans. He hired children to help so they could have food. He shares an interaction with a young boy who was stealing food to survive.



Richard Franklin

Introduction to the War in Korea

Richard Franklin describes the first night after joining his medical unit in Korea. He talks about sleeping between two oil drums and waking up to wounded soldiers.



Life in a MASH Unit

Richard Franklin describes life in his MASH unit during his tour in Korea. Specifically, he mentions his experience during the summer of 1952 and the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Inspecting Kitchens on the Front Lines?

Richard Franklin talks about his duties as a mortar, mess, and supply officer during the later stage of his tour. Describing his duties, he recalls inspecting kitchens on the front lines, requesting doughnuts to be made, and traveling the Korean countryside.



Richard Friedman

Adamant about Serving in Korea

Richard Friedman shares how his father used his political clout to pull strings in order to have him sent to Germany out of harm's way instead of Korea. Richard Friedman refused to leave his company despite his father's actions. To negate his current predicament, he specifically volunteered to serve in Korea against his father's wishes.



Prejudice Amongst the Ranks

Richard Friedman describes his reaction to prejudice among his company toward South Korean soldiers. He drives home the importance of respect. He shares how he personally treated South Korean soldiers as Sergeant 1st Class and the brotherly relationship he built with one soldier in particular.



The Loss of Friends

Richard Friedman shares that losing friends was the most difficult aspect of service. He mentions losing several friends during his time in Korea. He recounts how associations to one soldier in particular over the years continues to affect his emotions.



Richard Fuller

Wounded and Recovery

Richard Fuller recounts his wounds while in Korea. He incurred shrapnel in his legs on October 20, 1952, and was taken to Japan for treatment and rehabilitation. He returned to his unit in Korea 3 months later.



Helmets Without a Strap

Richard Fuller shares that his helmet was blown off 3 times. He, along with other soldiers, chose not to wear his helmet chinstrap. He describes his reasoning for his decision not to do so.



Richard H. Fastenau

Rush on the Red Cross

Richard H. Fastenau describes a rush on the Red Cross that involved crowds overwhelming the fence with items intended for relief ending up on the black market.



Richard Higa

Korean Refugee Retreat, 1950

Richard Higa describes witnessing streams of Korean Refugees fleeing south in late 1950. He talks about the difficult terrain and conditions that the refugees encountered that led to many of them dying during the journey.



Richard K. Satterlee

Working for the Big Guys

Richard K. Satterlee reinlisted with the United States Army, trying to go to Vietnam. Instead, he traveled to Korea. He didn't know much about Korea before his arrival, but he enjoyed the country and the fact that his paycheck stretched pretty far while he was there. Stationed at Camp Red Cloud and Camp Mosier, he reported to high-ranking Korean officers.



Riots and Road Construction

Richard Satterlee describes his various experiences while serving in Korea. Students rioted in 1965 to protest Park Chung-hee's efforts to trade with Japan. Labor issues arose when Korean house boys went on strike for better pay. Meanwhile, Korean women hauled rocks used in road construction. In one tragic incident, North Koreans killed two U.S. soldiers cutting down a tree in the DMZ.



Richard Knoebel

First Impressions of Korea

Richard Knoebel describes landing in Pusan near a pier where transports were waiting. He discusses sleeping on the pier that first night and remembers a salvation army was close by. Most of the focus there was on preparing and planning for the move up to Incheon.



Richard L. Boxwell, Jr.

Navy Injuries Led to Lifelong Pain

Richard Boxwell experienced lifelong injuries he incurred from his service on an aircraft carrier. A plane ran over part of his leg. Earplugs were not used on aircraft carriers during the Korean War and this led to his permanent hearing loss.



No Purple Heart

Richard Boxwell did not earn a Purple Heart for his war-related injuries. Even though he was injured doing war-related work on an aircraft carrier during the Korean War, he was not eligible for a Purple Heart because he was not in direct combat. It was ironic that he went into the Navy to stay away from injury, but he still ended up injured.



Alcohol on a Naval Ship

Richard Boxwell describes attitudes about beer and alcohol. Beer was not considered alcohol, at that time. Certain on-board personnel were given beer as any flight could be their last flight.



Richard P. Holgin

First Impressions of Korea

Richard P. Holgin describes arriving at Incheon at the beginning of the Korean War. He goes into detail about seeing burnt bodies all over and crossing through cities ravaged by the Chinese. Richard P. Holgin's his job responsibilities changed when he shifted from a rifleman to an infantryman.



Burning Bridges at the Chosin Reservoir

Richard P. Holgin experienced subzero temperatures and fierce fighting at the Chosin Reservoir. After his company's missions, they would have to blow up bridges and roads so that no enemy could follow them. The weather was a major factor in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Persevering through Frostbite

Richard P. Holgin experienced terrible frostbite on his leg. Despite this condition, he continued to serve to the best of his ability, until a superior noticed his injury. Richard P. Holgin was then cared for in Busan and in Japan.



Richard Perkins

Duty off the Coast of Korea

Richard Perkins describes the mission of the Navy destroyer, USS Charles S. Sperry during the Korean War. He talks about all-night firing missions aimed at Chinese beach patrols on the east coast of Korea. He mentions the ship encountering refugees and giving aid in the form of food and supplies.



Richard S. Smith

Patrolling the Coast of Wonsan

Smith spent 10 months patrolling the coast of Wonsan while stationed on the Battleship New Jersey from 1951-1952. He was excited about this experience since he knew he was well-trained and possessed weapons.



Richard V. Gordon

Life on the Ship and in the Navy

Richard V. Gordon describes life aboard the HMS Tutira. He describes making his hammock and putting it up every morning and the food. He also describes the pay in the Navy and sending money home to his new wife. Richard V. Gordon also describes the waves on the ship, even in a frigate.



Lasting Memory and Pictures from the Ship

Richard V. Gordon describes his one lasting memory, the loss of a fellow shipmate in the China Sea. He, also provides pictures of the USS Missouri and cold conditions aboard the ship. Richard V. Gordon provides a picture where people are covered in snow while on the ship during the winter.



Richard W. Edwards

Pocket Warmer Scarf

Richard Edwards describes developing a sore throat from sleeping in a pup tent his first night in Korea. He explains that his First Sergeant ignored his concern and so in an effort to feel better, Richard Edwards improvised. He describes how he assembled a makeshift treatment by wrapping his pocket warmer around his neck.



A Picture Tells a Thousand Words

Richard Edwards describes the condition of Busan during the Korean War. He shows his photographs that illustrate how rural the city was at the time. He explains that the soldiers would use a laundry near their encampment and pay very little money for their services.



You Can Tell They Are Hard Workers

Richard Edwards describes his admiration of the Korean people and their survival during the Korean War. He explains that he grew up during the Great Depression so that he feels a little relation to the plight of the Koreans in such dire circumstances. He describes his legacy as a Korean War veteran being easier for him growing up on a farm so that he further understood what the Korean people had to do to survive.



Robert Arend

POW camp life

Robert Arend explains how they housed 70,000 prisoners among different compounds, including one for females. For safety reasons, they tried to separate prisoner based on their political beliefs, i.e. noncommunist or communists. He adds that for the most part, the prisoners were well behaved, but recalls several uprisings and incidences of violence that occurred.



Camp Conditions

Robert Arend remembers the conditions in which the prisoners lived. He describes the prisoners as being well fed and cared for. The Red Cross would periodically conduct inspections to ensure decent conditions, including sports equipment to play with.



Poor Children in Orphanages

Robert Arend saw a lot Korean children, mostly orphans, looking destitute. He visited children in an orphanage, and shows pictures of him playing with them. He emotionally recalls spending time with these children as it was full of mixed emotions.



Robert Battdorff

Traveling to the Chosin Reservoir

Robert Battdorff moved through Seoul, Ko do Re Pass, and then went onto the Chosin Reservoir. Using a line of soldiers, 20 feet apart, he made his way to East Hill overlooking the Chosin Reservoir. Without any enemy resistance, Robert Battdorff sent out patrols to check the different possible enemy positions in November 1950.



The Chinese Take Robert Battdorff

Marine engineers were building an airstrip near the Chosin Reservoir when Robert Battdorff moved onto Toktong Pass to set up positions. That's where the Chinese took over the hill and he was taken prisoner while on watch. It was November 28, 1950 and he was on watch in a sleeping bag because the weather was 40 below zero.



A Near Death Experience with the Chinese

The Chinese put Robert Battdorff in a cow shed and then put him in their own foxholes because the sun was coming up, so they assumed the US would be bombing soon from the air. Two other men were captured with him, but no US soldiers came to resume them right away. On the first assault, there were 28 casualties during that attack. The guard that captured the 3 US soldiers had the men kneel near a frozen stream so that he could kill them, but another Chinese soldier stopped the killing.



Marching and Traveling all over the Chosin Reservoir as a POW

After a further search and surviving a shooting, Robert Battdorff had to hide in a foxhole because the Australians were shooting up multiple buildings where the Chinese were hiding. One guard walked the POWs all day to Yudam ni, near Hamgyong, North Korea. He was moved many places to hide throughout December 1950 while the Chinese were picking up additional British POWs.



Travel, Food, and UN Attacks on Chinese as a POW

Robert Battdorff and one other US POW were forced to walk south to the 38th parallel in May 1951 as the US soldiers were pushing the Chinese back in battle. He was told that he was brought down south just in case if the Chinese came across additional prisoners. He would walk at night 6 days a week and then take Sunday off. Since the Chinese were traveling with supplies during the night, UN pilots looked for the headlights of the trucks to know where to hit.



33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert Boyd Layman

First Impressions of Icheon

Robert Boyd Layman describes his first impressions of landing at Incheon. He explains that he had trouble understanding why Americans would be in Korea to fight. He also describes the immediate reminder that he was in a war zone from the stacked bodies he saw and the wounded being taken to hospitals.



Listening to a Barrage of Artillery Fire

Robert Boyd Layman describes where he was when the Armistice was signed. He explains that there was artillery being fired around the clock on both sides since no one wanted to carry it all back. He describes being incredulous that the war was actually stopping when he was used to hearing gunfire constantly.



Robert C. Jagger

Work on the Front Lines

When asked about any dangerous moments, Robert C Jagger describes his work on Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. He describes the shelling by the North Koreans. He also describes the various jobs he held while on the Hill as part of the artillery unit.



Challenges and Rewards

Robert Jagger discusses his greatest challenge and biggest rewards while in Korea. Like many, he remembers the bitter cold. He also remembers he was in Korea on Armistice Day and remembers warmly his relationships with other soldiers.



Impressions of Korean People

Robert C Jagger discusses his impression of the Korean people he met, both in 1952 and in visits back since. He is amazed at the progress Koreans have made since the war. He describes the poor living conditions he saw contrasted to Seoul today.



Robert Chisolm

Living conditions during the Battle at Pork Chop Hill

Robert Chisolm didn't get to shower until they came back to camp. He slept inside a bunker near his trenches with three other men in the company command post.



Robert D. Davidson

First Impressions of Seoul

Robert Davidson recalls landing in Incheon and his first impressions of Seoul. He describes the devastation and damaged buildings he witnessed. He shares that civilians lacked housing and food and adds that the city of Chuncheon was leveled. He comments on Korea's weather, comparing its similarities to the weather of Wyoming.



Feeding Hungry Civilians

Robert Davidson shares how sorry he felt for the Korean civilians while there. He speaks of how many had no food or proper clothing and of how GIs would give them candy or whatever they had to spare. He recalls an incident at the mess hall where GIs were collecting the food they were not eating to give to the Koreans. He recounts an angered lieutenant informing the mess sergeant that the GIs should be eating the food, not giving leftovers to civilians. He describes the mess sergeant standing his ground and stating that he was in charge of running his kitchen and would continue to do as he saw fit.



Robert Dahms

Punishment on a Naval Ship

Robert Dahms stated that if you didn't follow orders, you spent time in Brig 1 for misconduct. The brig was a steel stall that was very small with a hard bed with no mattress, and the room was the size of a large office. You had a place to sit and you ate out of your lap. They made sailors pay for whatever they did and a person could spend up to 2 days in the brig, depending on the severity. Luckily, Robert Dahms he never spent time in the brig.



Training for the Korean War in the US and Cuba

Once Robert Dahms graduated high school, he volunteered for the military. He was sent to the Great Lakes for 16 weeks of basic training. After training, Robert Dahms went to Pensacola, Florida to rescue downed planes by using a lot of different types of technology to aid the rescuers.



Training and Protecting Pilots While Purifying Water

Robert Dahms continued to work on the home front to train and protect pilots while they were learning to become effective soldiers. While doing so, he also ran evaporators to purify salt water in order to turn it into drinking water. Both of these jobs were important for the soldiers during the Korean War.



Robert F. Wright

North Koreans Must Be Upset at the Success

Robert describes how proud he is of what Korea has become today producing automobiles taking over their part of their world, and the success South Korea has had must make North Korea Upset at their success.



Robert Fickbohm

Friendships and Brotherhood among Dog Handlers

Robert Fickbohm explains that friendships were made within the 26th Infantry Scout Dog Division. He shares that a brotherhood has formed not only within his particular unit but among all dog handlers in the military, from World War II to present. He discloses that he continues to share his experiences with United States Army Special Operations teams.



Robert Fitts

Seasickness En Route to Korea

Robert Fitts details his journey to Korea aboard a ship. He experienced sea sickness and as did other servicemen on board. He recounts his arrival in Japan and narrates his transport from there to Korea and to his post in Korea via train.



Most Difficult Part of Service

Robert Fitts vocalizes his opinion on the most difficult part during service. He expresses that learning to get along with others was difficult due to constant rearrangements of servicemen. He attributes his ability to think on his own to this reality.



Robert H. Pellow

It Was Colder Than Hell

Robert H. Pellow describes the cold winters of the Korean War. He explains how his feet would freeze despite protection from the cold. He describes that his feet still hurt him to this day from his time in Korea.



Robert J. Rose

Military Airlift, Royal Canadian Air Force

Robert Rose talks about being a radio/navigation officer in the Royal Canadian Air Force. As a part of a Canadair North Star flight crew, he describes the mission of airlifting military personnel and supplies to and from Japan in support of the Korean War.



Robert Johnson

Surviving the Elements in a Tent

Robert Johnson describes his living conditions while in Korea. It was extremely cold during the winter as they lived in tents. He also recollects on the food. After winter, they had to prepare for the floods due to all the snow melting and the monsoon season beginning.



Robert Kodama

Finding His Assistant in the Apple Orchard

Feeling hopefulness that they would not find any survivors, Robert Kodama and his company went back to their base near Taegu. However, he eventually saw someone moving in the bushes of the apple orchards- it turned out to be his former assistant! This man ran towards him and explained that everyone had scattered when they got overrun and he ended up going the wrong direction. To survive, the assistant had to drink rice paddy water and had limited food for 10 days.



Robert Kohler

Living through Typhoons

Robert Kohler remembers experiencing many typhoons in Okinawa. The storms would lift the roofs off of the huts that they were in. Robert Kohler says his most difficult time was doing guard duty outside, during a typhoon.



Robert L. Atkins

A “Hot” Cold Place

Robert Atkins remembers that things were really “hot and heavy” from Thanksgiving to the first of December. He explains how they were ambushed often and how the Chinese crossed the Yalu River. Even though they were outnumbered, he shares that the Fox Company was able to fight the Chinese and it became a turning point.



Robert L. Wessa

Language Barrier bridged by Evershot Pen

Robert L. Wessa describes a particularly memorable evacuation involving a North Korean woman. He noticed the wounded woman was shivering so he handed her a blanket. The Korean woman was unable to communicate with the Americans due to language barriers but offered him an Evershot Pen as thanks, a token that Wessa still has to this day.



Robert M. Longden

Service Conditions, Cold, and Fear

Robert M. Longden constantly feared the Chinese and North Koreans would break the armistice while he was stationed near the DMZ. Winter was brutally cold. At one point, his hand stuck to a frozen chain while he worked with his truck. Soldiers had adequate winter gear and slept in military tents, but food was very basic.



Digging Tunnels North of the 38th Parallel

Robert M. Longden shows photos of his experience in Korea. One photograph features him serving as a wireless operator. Others include images of Hill 355 north of the 38th Parallel. His regiment dug a fifty-meter tunnel to get to the outpost while avoiding exposure to the enemy. He has agreed to scan his photos for young people to view as they study the Korean War.



Robert Mount

North Korean Refugees

On the road to Seoul, Robert Mount describes the devastated landscape and the streams of refugees that he witnessed heading south. He describes how they were carrying as much as they could on their backs, very disheveled and sick-looking. He shows a picture of a refugee in North Korea; he does not remember who took it.



Robert O. Gray

A Day in a Chinese Prisoner Camp

Robert Gray describes an average day as a POW in the Chinese prison camps. He describes how days from day to dark. He explains they had study periods but how he had to work. He explains how they survived by stealing food.



The Cake is a Lie

Robert Gray describes how people who are starving won't eat anything. He explains how some POWs who were starving to death would fixate on food items in their head. He discusses how he saw some people experience this in the POW camp.



Robert Stephens

Typical Day: North of the 38th Parallel

Robert Stephens describes a typical day North of the 38th parallel. He describes the extremely harsh weather, living conditions, and a near death experience where he almost drowned. The weather was cold enough to freeze tank tracks. At another point, Robert Stephens had to cross a river that swelled due to rain. The tank retriever stalled in the middle of the river and Robert Stephens almost drowned trying to make it to shore.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

Prisoner of War

Robert Hammelsmith describes being taken prisoner by the Chinese. He recalls being taken to a mud hut and given rice that had not been cleaned of worms and gravel. He goes on to describe being relocated to Camp 5 and sleeping head to toe in a hut of eight men.



Robert W. Hill

We Always Carried Ax Handles

Robert W. Hill explains what his impression of North Korea was and the conflict that took the lives of his predecessors. He describes how some were killed with axes by the North Koreans while cutting down trees. He also explains that you can find a memorial to the men there made from the hood of their truck.



Thought They'd Be Unified Now

Robert W. Hill describes that after all his experience in Korea, he was sure they would have unified by now. He explains that everything in the news when he was there seemed to be pointing towards unification, including a drought in North Korea and the loosening of culture in South Korea. He describes a factory supplied by South Korea where North Koreans can work as an example of the Koreas getting along.



Robert Whited

Living Conditions in Korea

Robert Whited talks about the difficult living conditions that his unit found themselves in upon arriving in Korea.



Rodney Ramsey

From Rubble to Riches!

Rodney Ramsey is the president of his Korean War regiment's organization and ever since 1989, they meet for a yearly reunion. The year of the interview was the 27th reunion and about 50 members attend. During his Korea revisit in 1991, Rodney Ramsey was shocked to see the improvement in living conditions. He took a picture when he was in Seoul, South Korea in 1952 and it only had an ox cart and a military jeep, but in 1991 during his revisit, it was filled with cars.



Life as an American Soldier on the Front Lines: From Bunkers to Bullets

Rodney Ramsey was supported by Korean Augmentation to United States Army (KATUSA) and these troops were seasoned fighters by the time Rodney Ramsey entered the war in 1952. While sleeping in sand-bag bunkers at the front lines in Geumgang, North Korea, he was comfortable with his summer fatigues including a field jacket. Some of the most dangerous times were when Rodney Ramsey was going on patrol or raids where the Chinese were dug in. He was shot through the helmet with a minor wound when an African American soldier standing next to him was shot with the same bullet and died.



The Happiest Times Within the Bunkers

Rodney Ramsey experienced a few pleasant times during the Korean War. He loved that he had a hot meal every day because a chow bunker was hidden behind the hill where he was dug-in, so a jeep would bring the men fresh food. Another great time was when he was brought off the front line and had a delicious Thanksgiving meal.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Working His Way from Wyoming to Korea, What a Ride!

Rodney Ramsey studied petroleum jelly at the University of Wyoming. He graduated from there in June 1951 and was activated to right away because he was in the United State Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After receiving basic training at Fort Benning, GA and additional training in California, he received his orders for Korea in 1952, but Rodney Ramsey figured that he was being sent there because he had been tracking the war since 1950.



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



Food Scarcity and Living Conditions

Roland Brown recounts the food scarcity he and fellow soldiers experienced on the front lines. He recalls being surrounded by the Chinese and North Koreans, a situation that required an airdrop of provisions. He shares that he and fellow soldiers had to fight the enemy for the goods dropped, which included food and ammunition, as the Chinese and North Koreans had acquired U.S. weapons from American soldiers they had overrun and needed ammunition. He additionally comments on the living conditions, stating that they often slept on the ground and sometimes in foxholes or old bunkers.



Reflections on Korea

Roland Brown expresses that he wanted to be in Korea as it was his goal to fight for his country. He recalls his first vision of Pusan and compares it to modern Korea. He reflects upon how poor the Korean people were during the war and comments on the thriving conditions in Korea today.



Roland Fredh

Songs from Korea

Roland Fredh describes music during his service. He sings a classic Korean song for the viewer. He recalls his favorite Swedish music that he would sing in Korea. Yet, he is much more impacted by the Korean music and songs that he learned while in Korea.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Marine Corp Hymn and Japanese Whiskey

Rollo Minchaca talks about spending Christmas and New Years during the Korean War. Many of the men were collapsing due to the stress of being in the extreme cold and living in tents. They evacuated to Pusan and had to regroup because of the extreme temperature.



Ronald Bourgon

Sleeping Near the Enemy

Ronald Bourgon describes moving towards the front lines near Jipyeongri. He remembers counting eighty-nine dead American soldiers along the way who had been killed in their sleeping bags or while attempting to run away from the North Korean enemy. He shares that many were African-American soldiers and that they had been stripped of their clothes and equipment. He recalls orders being given to not sleep in their sleeping bags despite the cold February temperature after the incident had been discovered.



Rain of Steel

Ronald Bourgon recalls being completely surrounded by the Chinese for three days. He details the plan to combine weaponry from the US, New Zealand, and Canada to open an artillery barrage on their location. He recalls orders given to his company to get down in foxholes and to not come out as fire would be opened on their location in an attempt to stop the Chinese. He remembers the ravaged scene of dead Chinese soldiers once the barrage had ceased.



Ronald L. Swift

Cold Winters

Ronald Swift describes the living conditions in the camp. He remembers having fuel to keep the stoves hot because the winters were so cold and they only had “horse blankets.” He is thankful that he made it through those conditions.



Ronald Rosser

Modern Korea

Ronald Rosser describes how South Korea has changed since when he was there for the war. He explains that the roads, high rises, and many other aspects of the country have changed. He also shares about his affection for the Korean people, including donating money to start an orphanage.



Ronald Yardley

Home to Mommy

Ronald Yardley explains his basic training into the Royal Navy. He describes a commanding officer coming into the room and declaring that anyone who wanted to 'go back to mommy' had twenty four to decide that he wanted to do so. There was one gentleman who did ask and he was sent home with his things.



The Whole Picture Changed Dramatically

Ronald Yardley describes the intense cold upon arriving in North Korea. He explains that temperatures went thirty degrees below zero. He describes that no one could touch the upper parts of the ship for fear of losing that hand from freezing to the metal.



What Made It Worse

Ronald Yardley describes sleeping in hammocks aboard the HMS Belfast when the 6 inch guns of the ship would fire. He explains that the blast would cause soldiers to be lifted in their hammocks and then dropped. He also describes how the entire ship would turn to the side whenever the guns would fire, then settle back into the ocean.



Rondo T. Farrer

Living on the Front Line

Rondo T. Farrer describes the food and living conditions on the front line during the Battle of Kapyong. He discusses how he felt being a part of the Battle of Kapyong. He shares his personal thoughts about the possibility of dying in Korea.



Roy Aldridge

Prisoner of War

Roy Aldridge describes his first interrogation with the North Koreans and the Chinese. He explains his experience as a prisoner of war starting April 13, 1953. He explains that many soldiers died in the North Korean prisoner of war camp. He identifies his camp as Pak's Palace.



Roy Painter

Food Could Have Been Better

Roy Painter describes his living conditions in Korea during the war. He explains that the food was frozen solid just from walking away from where it was cooked. He also explains how the location was full of rats, so he used his mosquito nets to keep them out of his bed.



Rudolph “Rudy” J. Green

2,000 Riflemen On Board

Rudy Green describes taking a train from Busan that was so heavy with smoke that it was very difficult to breathe. He describes how when they arrive at their destination, there was no way to distinguish the white soldiers from the African American soldiers because they were all covered in soot. He explains his amazement in surviving that train ride.



South Korea Then and Now

Rudy Green describes the images that he saw as he was leaving South Korea. He explains the vast poverty and devastation he saw. He compares it to what he knows of South Korea today.



Russel Kingston

Conditions in the POW camp

Russel Kingston describes the conditions he faced, including the limited food and freezing conditions. He remembers their captors would tell them lies about the status of the war, trying to get them to convert to Communism. In the spring, the captors would take their shoes to prevent them from escaping.



Russell J. Kolmus Jr.

Life Aboard the USS Valley Forge

Russell J. Kolmus, Jr. describes life aboard the USS Valley Forge. He recalls it was a congenial crew of about 2,500 men on the ship. He describes the sleeping arrangements: aluminum framed canvas cots closely spaced together. He goes on to note the poor quality of the food on a Navy ship.



Boxer CV21

Russell J Kolmus, Jr. describes his last tour on the Boxer CV21. He explains that during the early morning, they were arming a plane before its take-off, but there was a miscommunication and the pilot fired his gun into a jet, causing a fire. He suffered smoke inhalation as a result and spent a week in the sick bay.



Salvatore Buonocore

The Breakout of the Korean War

Salvatore Buonocore shares that he knew immediately when the war broke out as he was in the Naval Reserves at the time. He states that he was teaching at the Naval Reserves Station and recalls being put on standby. He remembers some of the men he was teaching being put directly aboard ship as they had prior experience.



Air-sea Rescue

Salvatore Buonocore shares his thoughts on the Navy providing clean bunks and decent meals but mentions the dangers of drowning. He compares his naval experience to the experiences of those who served in Korea. He recalls high jump training to prepare servicemen for an emergency and comments on his time in the Air-sea Rescue, detailing his duties and one particular rescue he conducted.



Salvatore R. Conte

Capture and Traveling to the POW Camp

Salvatore Conte remembers traveling toward Hagalwoori when his vehicle was hit and the men went into a ditch. All three of the soldiers were injured in his group and then they were taken by the Chinese. Salvatore Conte recalls being taken to Geojedo POW camp in January 1951. He gives a thorough account of what it was like in the camps.



Propaganda Lectures from the Chinese

Salvatore Conte explains his struggles with his faith and beliefs. He and the other POWs had to listen to Chinese propaganda lectures stating that they were fools for believing in Wall Street and America. He explains that they were also told that they should sign a petition to be released, but they all refused. Salvatore Conte became a political activist for the soldiers which led to him being isolated from the rest of the POWs.



Isolation Box

Salvatore Conte explains that he was placed in an isolation box for eight months since he was considered a leader among the POWs. He remembers being in the box from May through December 1952 and was only let out twice a day to use the bathroom. One time he was marched over to a hillside to be killed by the Chinese, but they allowed him to live and he was placed back into the box.



Liberation

Salvatore Conte recalls his transfer to another camp where he was placed with 21 other soldiers who were considered the most dangerous POWs. On May 1, 1953, he was transferred out of this section with the rest of the soldiers and he was given better food. On Aug. 27, 1953, he remembers he was released at Panmunjom where he told his story to newspaper reporters who published his story across America.



Salvatore Scarlato

Possessions from Korea

Salvatore Scarlato presents a battle banner given to him by a Korean marine during the war and shares its significance. He presents a poncho he used while in Korea and elaborates on its many uses. He recalls a poncho being used as a stretcher to carry the wounded, covering to bury the dead, and as a tent.



Salvatore Schillaci

Always C Rations

Salvatore Schillaci doesn't recall where he landed when he arrived in Korea in 1951. As part of a reconnaissance team, they slept in foxholes or even on the open ground. He remembers extreme cold and C Rations. Once he tried unsuccessfully to heat up a can of pork and beans on the exhaust manifold of a truck.



Sanford Epstein

Army Basic Training

Sanford Epstein, from the perspective of growing up in poverty, describes his Army basic training at Fort Dix, New Jersey. He shares how excited he was to receive seconds during meals, an option he was never given at home due to his family's lack of resources. He recounts going to classes, receiving new clothes and shoes, participating in exercises, and he details a drill he thoroughly enjoyed.



Heartbreak Ridge Memories

Sanford Epstein describes the living conditions he experienced during his first winter in Korea. He recounts how cold it was and comments on the food available. He recalls a fellow soldier's death during the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



"Captain" Sanford Epstein

Sanford Epstein, an Army Staff Sergeant during his time in Korea, shares a story of when he took advantage of a trip to Seoul. He recounts being the only soldier from his outfit who wanted to participate in the Passover service held in Seoul and remembers traveling alone in a jeep with a driver which is generally only reserved for officers. He recalls being saluted along the route as soldiers thought he was an officer.



Sangmoon Olsson

Japanese Imperial Control

Snagmoon Olsson describes life as a child under Japanese Imperial control. The Japanese restricted children in school from speaking Korean. Students lost a coupon when speaking Korean. Other punishments and control measures included the Japanese changing the names of the people of Korea to Japanese names.



Life During the War

Sangmoon Olsson describes her life during the Korean War. Her brother had a high position under the Japanese Imperial control and when the communists took over, they wanted to capture her brother. Sangmoon had to go into hiding for a total of eight months, interrupting her nursing studies. When the Allies eventually pushed back the Communists, Sangmoon Olsson was able to complete her nursing studies.



Santos Rodriguez Santiago

Life in the Punchbowl

Santos Rodriguez Santiago remembers not knowing much about the area as they traveled to the Punchbowl. A lot of his time was spent observing the enemy among the hills. He remembers some of his officers being hit by snipers as the two sides often exchanged gun fire. He says that after 2-3 months they began to get used to this lifestyle.



Shirley F. Gates McBride

To This Day, That is Unfair

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes discovering racism when she first went to basic training. She explains that growing up, one of her best friends was African-American. When she arrived at basic training, she discovered that she was not allowed to sit on the bus or eat lunch with any of the African-American women soldiers.



Cry Until You Cannot Cry Anymore

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes arriving at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania. She explains that she walked into a room and he tells her to go cry into a room until she can't cry anymore. He then explains after she has cried that she will now be seeing a lot of death and that she will be prepared to handle it.



The Best Doctors Came There

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes different types of patients she treated while serving at Valley Forge. She explains treating frostbite by opening soldiers' abdomens. She explains soldiers who were dealing with severe PTSD as well as the Korean women who came to the United States as wives of the American soldiers.



Soonae Enberg

Difficult Decisions in the Family

Soonae Enberg and her family had to make a lot of difficult decisions during the war, including separating so that some could stay and run the family business. She recalls going south with her uncle. When they arrived, there were many patients in need of care and Soonae Enberg shares how she had to put into practice what she learned in college.



Stanley Fujii

Glorious Mail Call

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of mail call for soldiers, and the camaraderie that came along with getting communication from loved ones on the homefront. His heartwarming testimony reflects on his writing letters for a fellow soldier from Minnesota who was illiterate. His friend from Minnesota later died in a bombardment.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Process to Receive an Award

Once Stanley I. Hashiro found his station in Korea, he was assigned his duties while in Korea. He worked on paper work to deliver special awards/decorations to combat soldiers. He reveals even how this had to be done in secret for soldiers who were Prisoners of War, due to their delicate situation.



Moving from Place to Place

Stanley I. Hashiro moved around a lot with his unit in Korea. He had to live in desolate conditions, taking baths in the river, and living in bombed out concrete buildings. Within the desolate mountain valleys was another location that Stanley I. Hashiro had to stay in the extreme weather conditions.



Stanley Jones

Experiencing the Front Lines

Stanley Jones describes the differences he saw between the National Guard and the traditional Army. He shares an experience he had where officers were relieved and chaos and mistreatment ensued. He describes where the ballistic stations were located and a situation of a fuel bur in Busan that happened.



Stephen Frangos

What Did You Do While Not Working with Radios?

Stephen Frangos recalls spending a great deal of time in the fields. He mentions the poverty that was still common. He shares that he befriended a group of Irish priests, and together, they helped build orphanages. He recalls how the orphans would often go to the Army camp to have meals. He adds that many Americans also sent food and clothing over to help the orphanages.



Impressions of Korea and of Koreans

Stephen Frangos reflects on his impressions of Korea and of Koreans. He describes a Seoul that was devastated but adds he did see signs of revival. He remembers having tremendous optimism for Korea because of the hard working and industrious people. He comments that he knew they would be successful but states he did not realize just how successful they would turn out to be.



Sterling D. Mestad

Switchboard Duties and Rest Rotations

Sterling D. Mestad describes his communication duties on the switchboard. He explains shift rotations as well as how one was able to work himself up the ladder in rank. He shares his experience in Japan during his Rest & Relaxation (R&R) rotation.



Breaking Ice to Bathe

Sterling D. Mestad recounts bathing experiences during the winter months in Korea. He details having to break ice and heat water and recalls the winter shower point experience which involved a big tent with warm water followed by a clean clothes distribution. He shares that a group of soldiers were headed to the shower point on one occasion and were hit by a mortar.



Steven G. Olmstead

"High Diddle Diddle, Right up the Middle"

Steven Olmstead describes his unit's movement through "Hellfire Alley" on its way to Hagaru. He talks about being engaged by enemy Chinese soldiers and the esprit de corps among the marines in his company. He recalls the actions of Rocco Zullo, the first sergeant in his marine unit, during the movement to Hagaru. He describes Sergeant Zullo's heroic actions which were thought to have led to his death and shares surprising news about the first sergeant.



"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Writing Letters Home

Steven Olmstead talks about writing letters home. He mentions that there were not opportunities to write when on the front lines and that while he received letters from family and friends, he did not write back very often. He recalls a fellow marine asking his permission to write to his sister and shares that the marine and his sister were eventually married.



Stuart Gunn

Korea Then and Now

Stuart Gunn revisited South Korea in 1995. He noticed all of the changes to the land and advancements in technology during his revisit. A strong work ethic was needed by the Korean people to be able to reap such benefits and success in Korea today.



The Dreaded Capture

Stuart Gunn had a confrontation with the Chinese military at the Battle of Hill 187. The Chinese were very organized. He remembers the moment him and his partners were capture and the pain they all endured. These moments lead to his capture as a Prisoner of War.



Red China: Brainwashing

Stuart Gunn had a very difficult time living in a Chinese POW camp. While at the camp, the Chinese Communist government had educational materials promoting their government for the prisoners that were printed in English. Other POWs at the camp responded to these materials and the mandatory classes in a variety of ways.



Stuart William Holmes

Heard of Them, But Didn't Know Much About Them

Stuart Holmes describes going to breakfast with American and Australian soldiers. He describes his incredulity at observing American soldiers drinking tea and Australian soldiers drinking coffee, when he had assumed the choices would have been switched. Both sides confess that they found the coffee/tea offered as weak imitations of what their country offered and, so, opted for the opposite preference.



T.J. Martin

POW Experience

T.J. Martin recalls being turned over to the North Koreans and spending one month in a North Korean POW camp. He compares and contrasts the treatment of American soldiers by the Chinese and North Koreans, stating that the North Koreans were more merciful in a sense as they would simply kill a soldier rather than let him suffer. He details being turned back over to the Chinese and a long march to another camp which resulted in many prisoner deaths.



Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya

Ethiopian Donations Create an Orphanage

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes donating money that opened an orphanage in Korea. Ethiopian soldiers had endured in battle. In addition, they also donated money to Korean people suffering during the war. The orphanage was able to help many Korean children. Korea has not forgotten about this donation.



Transformation of Korea

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes the transformation of Korea. He describes the war-torn Korea. Buildings were destroyed by the enemy. Even the water was contaminated. However, now Korea has become green and everything is clean. This is a major difference from his war-torn experience. He is happy that Korea has undergone this transformation. He is not asking for compliments.



Ted Kocon

Memories from WWII Resurfacing in Korea

Ted Kocon shares his soft side of service and well as some memories from World War II. He recollects his earnings and sending money home to his wife. He shares that seeing wounded during the war brought back memories from his time serving in World War II. He recounts his departure from Japan in 1953 and receiving the Air Force Commendation Medal for his service during the Korean War.



Telila Deresa

Heaven to Hell

Telila Deresa describes living conditions during the war. Soldiers would battle for three months and rest for one month. During one rest, he was able to go to Japan. In Japan, men could go to nightclubs. Comparing nightclubs in Japan and going to the front is like heaven and hell.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Arriving in Korea

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes his voyage to Korea. Men aboard the ship were mixed between Ethiopians and Greeks. At first, both countries were friendly but soon erupted into constant fighting. Upon arriving in Korea, Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen did not see anything memorable. He describes one farmer having an ox, but that was it.



Daily Non-Combat

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes the living conditions for the soldiers. He describes that there were no beds and soldiers slept on the ground. He provides his pay in the Ethiopian dollar. His pay could buy a sing good chicken and two medium chickens per month. Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen also describes life upon returning to Ethiopian. People did not care, however, the majesty did receive the soldiers for a dinner.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Humble Beginnings to Big City

Teurangaotera Tuhaka grew up on a farm in New Zealand. His life was simple, and people were considered wealthy if they owned a bicycle. Once he passed the Navy test and traveled to the big city of Aukland, he had to get used to city life with cars and ships. He was also trained on an island outside Auckland.



Patrolling the Han River and Frigate Life

Teurangaotera Tuhaka spent a lot of his service patrolling the Han River (also known as the Hangang River) while receiving support from additional United Nations ships. He had to focus on his job so that he did not have fear while fighting the North Koreans. Conditions were rough at sea because he had to break through ice to get the frigate through the water.



Tex Malcolm

Shallow Graves in Wonju

Tex Malcom discusses his experience in the push off offensive against the Chinese and North Koreans in Wonju. He had an "unsettling" experience as they dug into the hills, and realized they were digging into shallow graves where the North Koreans had buried their dead. During this offensive, supplies were air dropped into a valley.



Arriving to Korea in Dec. 1950

Tex Malcolm was shipped to Korea on Nov. 1950 after stopping in Japan. All the different US branches were on one ship and the conditions were packed with multiple soldiers getting seasick. He landed at Pusan on Dec. 12, 1950 on his 21st birthday.



Arriving at Masan

Tex Malcolm arrived at Masan by train and he assisted other Marine Reserves out of their LST, but they looked terrible. In the city, he only saw fox holes and no buildings. After being assigned to Baker Company, 7th Marines, Tex Malcolm volunteered to shoot the 3.5 guns to protect the command staff.



April 1951 Attacks From the Chinese

On April 23, 1951, Tex Malcolm was protecting another hill when the Chinese were trying to take Charlie Company out. By 2am, the Chinese started to attack his hill and the US Marines were running out of ammunition. Sadly, a Marine right next to Tex Malcolm was shot and killed.



Theodore Paul

We're Going to War!

Theodore Paul describes how he received the news of the outbreak of the Korean War. He recounts playing baseball with other fellow corpsmen when a truck drove onto the field with the driver yelling for them to get in the truck because they were going to war in Korea. He adds that he knew where Korea was due to having a grammar school teacher who taught his class where countries were.



Thomas B. Smith

Bunker Destruction

Thomas B. Smith shares the details of an incident which cost the lives of two American soldiers and wounded others. He recounts Chinese soldiers overshooting their target and hitting a bunker being dug to serve as a warming place during the winter months. He adds that two soldiers were killed; two were wounded; and the other three involved were deeply shaken by the event.



Transfer to Safety in the Back

Thomas B. Smith describes his transfer off the front lines to a safer location in the back. He shares that his section leader who had become his friend helped him secure a typing job. He explains that he merely typed a sheet of paper and was offered the position.



Thomas F. Miller

The Job of a Korean Defense Veteran and the Draft

Thomas Miller was a Korean Defense Veteran since he served in Korea after the Korean War from 1965 through 1966. He was drafted even though he was an only child, farmed for his family, and he had only one good eye.



Basic Training and Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller went to basic training in Georgia and then he was shipped to Inchon Harbor to start his tour of duty. After landing, he noticed poor living conditions of the civilians which looked like America in the early 1800s.



Living and Working Conditions in Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller was a supply specialist who helped provide clothes, oil, and food rations to the troops. He stayed in quonset huts, had cold showers, and ate a hot meal most of his time in Korea.



Thomas J Dailey

Chosin Reservoir Recollections

Thomas Dailey recalls his arrival in Korea and time spent at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes collecting injured and frozen soldiers and placing them on the back of armored tanks due to the lack of space inside the tanks. He remembers one occasion where he was forced to pull his pistol on a soldier who kept attempting to get inside the tank due to thinking it was warmer.



Thomas LaCroix

Graphic Encounters in the Bay

Thomas LaCroix describes his experience in the United States Navy aboard an aircraft carrier that was guarding ocean bays along the coast of Korea. He explains the task of taking enemy remains to a location that appeared to be quarantined due to the presence of severe illness. The location was in a bay area off the southern coast of Korea. He explains seeing people with sickness, leaving the impression that he likely encountered a leper colony.



Thomas M. McHugh

What is a Korean War Veteran?

Thomas M. McHugh describes his size as particularly smaller than the other soldiers because of his young age, a reason he thinks he was not sent to serve in Korea during the war. He discusses his life after the Korean War, and having difficulty finding a job in his field of expertise. He explains what a veteran of the Korean War is, and that although he served without seeing combat, he considered the combat soldiers his as his peers.



Thomas Norman Thompson

The Forgotten War

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls seeing small children who were bare feet in the snow as he describes devastation in Korea during the war. He says it seemed that civilians only had the choice of going to the rice paddies or mountains to get away from combat areas. He tells that although a cease-fire was ordered, some people did not realize it, causing him to be ambushed a few times as he attempted to make his deliveries. He tells why the Korean War is the forgotten war.



Laundry on the War Front

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls the winter conditions faced by men on the Korean war front. He tells that after he washed his socks in the cold river, he had to put them in his underarms, using his body heat to dry the socks. He remembers that Korean women would do laundry for the entire company he was in. Additionally, he would pay $1.00 for the women to clean and press his uniform. He tells of how much gratitude the Korean people continue to show American veterans.



Troops and Camaradarie

Thomas Norman Thompson discusses being happy that a fellow soldier from Nebraska took him under his wing when he arrived at his post in Korea. He states that it was difficult to get too close to people due to the fact that soldiers were constantly coming and going. He describes awaiting word that it was time to go home, saying he had to be ready within five minutes of hearing his name called for leave. He tells about building a type of "club" like a "VFW" for other soldiers before his departure from Korea.



Thomas Nuzzo

The Forgotten War

Thomas Nuzzo felt that the Korean War was the forgotten war. Since it was so close to the end of WWII, the civilians in the United States didn't want to fight. Soldiers didn't even have supplies that they needed, so this hurt the moral.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Nuzzo was attending Fordham University when he was drafted for the Korean War. Unlike most draftees, Thomas Nuzzo knew about Korea from stamp collecting and his schooling. Being sent to Korea was not scary he said because he found the Korean culture so interesting.



Fighting With and Training the ROK

Thomas Nuzzo went to bootcamp and specialized as an infantryman. Once he was sent to Korea, he was stationed with the 1st Republic of Korea (ROK) to train the South Korean troops. By the end of his time in Korea in 1954, Thomas Nuzzo was able to participate in a changing of the guard for the 10th Headquarters which made him very proud.



Thomas O’Dell

Using DDT to Cook in Korea

Thomas O'Dell used DDT for killing insects including gnats and fleas. He even used DDT for cooking C-rations by adding it to his fire in the trenches to warm he food. Hot water for baths were also warmed over a DDT-created fire.



Chinese Propaganda Leaflets and Speeches

Thomas O'Dell fought against the Chinese and North Koreans. There was propaganda slogans broadcast over loudspeakers throughout the night to try to brainwash the US troops. Leaflets were shot over the trenches by the Chinese to convince the US troops to surrender or to switch to the Chinese's side.



Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Korea: Unbelievable Differences Between 1952 to 2000

Thomas Parkinson shares how he saw unbelievable differences between the time he was stationed in Korea in 1952 to 2000 during his first revisit. He describes going back four times since 2000 and recalls how the advancements in buildings, technology, and bridges was astounding. He shares how the changes from the Korean cardboard houses to the multi-stored houses was a visible difference.



Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Tine Martin

Living Conditions in Korea

Tine Martin shares his memories of the living conditions he experienced while serving in Korea. He recalls living in 12-man tents and the cold temperatures. He comments on the food offered at Kimpo Air Force Base which included only one hot meal a day and the others consisting only of C-rations. He mentions trading items from his rations he was not fond of for Coca-Cola.



Titus Santelli

Air Force Selection and Knowledge of Korea

Titus Santelli explains his reasoning for joining the Air Force in 1950. He details his experience in basic training and shares his view of the war. He admits he could not figure out why the US, at that time, felt required to protect Korea, but he offers his opinion.



Bed Check Charlie

Titus Santelli describes the bombings, known as Bed Check Charlie, that took place many nights while he was on base. He explains that the bombings were meant to tire them by keeping them up at night and to damage the runway. He shares that this was the most life threatening experience he encountered during the war.
*Note: This segment contains explicit language.



Tom Collier

Pusan and Seoul Living Conditions

Tom Collier describes a rough trip to Pusan by ship and overall conditions of the people. People would make houses of anything they could, mostly tin and cardboard. The people did not know English and lived in poverty. Tom Collier then transferred to Seoul and describes the conditions of the people as similar to Pusan.



Tom Muller

Not M*A*S*H

Tom Muller describes life on the front lines and compares this to the TV show M*A*S*H*. He likes the show, but disagrees with the drama and the antics of the show. He describes having a potbelly stove that was adequate up to 10 feet away. He goes further and describes the South Korean people, scrawny and begging for food near Busan.



Tommy Clough

Escape Attempt

Tommy Clough recalls his escape attempt from a Chinese POW camp. He shares that he and his friend, Dave, gathered their kit and waited for the roll call one August night. He recounts making it to the bushes near the river, and right as they were about to cross, he remembers hearing the cock of a gun. He details lights coming on and whistles sounding as they were recaptured. He describes how he was handcuffed and locked in an outhouse for roughly six weeks following the attempt.



News of the Ceasefire

Tommy Clough describes the day he and fellow POWs were told that the peace treaty had been signed. He recalls gathering in the center of the compound and the Chinese surrounding them with fixed bayonets. He relates that he was confused about what was happening as he listening to a Chinese commander. He shares that they had been told the war was over for them and that he and others were hesitant to believe them. He recounts how they heard cheering from the American compound shortly after, and he states their cheering was confirmation.



Tony and Tom Bazouska

PTSD: Hidden Alcoholics

Tony and Tom Bazouska describe dealing with PTSD for the first five years after returning from war. They share that at the time it was not identified, and they remember trying to deal with its symptoms while working and managing new families. They recall having dreams and screaming fits and share that they turned to alcohol to ease their minds.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

Korea - Then and Now

Tsege Cherenet Degn describes the conditions in Korea in 1954. He stayed in a destroyed home with no roof and used to watch movies on a destroyed wall. He returned to South Korea in 2013 and shares his thoughts and admiration for the vast improvements.



Vartkess Tarbassian

Headed to Korea

Vartkess Tarbassian spent time training for war at boot camp. After that, he was given a 10-day leave to spend time with family. On the train to the coast, he was treated like royalty by the the train's workers.



First Impressions of Korea near Busan (Pusan Perimeter)

Vartkess Tarbassian was surprised when he saw the devastation in the Pusan Perimeter (Busan). There were shell holes from the mortars all across the land. Korean civilians were staving and missing shelter.



Welcome to Your Duty Station

After arriving in Korea in 1953, Vartkess Tarbassian was stationed in the Iron Triangle. He had to live in a foxhole to protect the area from the North Koreans. After surviving the cold and terrain, Vartkess Tarbassian was sent home in November 1954.



Returning Home

Vartkess Tarbassian struggled with nightmares once he returned home from Korea. His mother would have to wake him when he was screaming in his sleep. After about a year, the nightmares began to go away.



Veli Atasoy

Captivity

Veli Atasoy describes life after being taken as a Prisoner-of-War (POW). He, along with other prisoners were held near the city of Pyoktong, a city in North Korea near the Chinese border. While a prisoner, the Chinese military tried, unsuccessfully, to use propaganda to convince the Turkish troops to switch sides. There were massive infestations of lice in the camp and even a "fake" Sergeant. Veli Atasoy describes how, above all, even in the most dire of situations he turned to Allah above.



Vern Rubey

Supporting Infantry behind the Front Lines

Vern Rubey comments on his branch change from infantry to artillery which he was pleased with and recalls landing at Incheon. He describes the role of the service battery that he was assigned to as a First Sergeant in the Army. He shares memories of the scenery he saw while traveling throughout Korea supporting differing artillery units.



Harsh Weather

Vern Rubey recalls the harsh weather he experienced during his time in Korea and likens the cold conditions to Minnesota weather. He shares how a monsoon delayed his rotation back home. He recalls his journey home aboard ship.



Vernon Walden

Life as one of the first soldiers in the Korean War

Vernon Waldon was exposed to the elements of weather, lack of food, and limited supply of ammunition. He explains what it was like to be one of the first soldiers in Korea, including hills, muddy roads, and rough terrain were all around the soldiers. He remembers a night of shooting a plane from North Korea.



Fighting Through the Winter of 1950

Vernon Walden was only seven miles from China's border when General MacArthur wanted to invade, but he was told to pull his troops back. Vernon Waldon explains that when his regiment began to retreat in 40 below zero weather, gas began to run out along with food and ammunition. He describes how snow blindness was a condition that troops had to deal with while traveling on foot with snow up their knees.



Football in the Military

Vernon Walden remembers playing football in the military for two years, having to stop the year broke out. He explains that while he was small, he knew a lot about the game and that was definitely an advantage. When he had to make the choice between becoming a paratrooper and playing football, he chose airborne school because he didn’t think he would make the team that year.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Racial Segregation Issues

Victor Spaulding details how racial segregation was an issue while he served in a mixed troop. He elaborates on a memory in basic training when one of his fellow Black soldiers was denied a drink at a bar despite fighting for the country in the United States Army. He describes how these racial tensions were commonplace then.



Puerto Ricans: Cultural Barriers

Victor Spaulding describes the difficulties when working with Puerto Rican soldiers due to cultural barriers (e.g., language). He shares how it was hard for Puerto Rican soldiers to adjust to the change in climate from their native land. He adds that despite these challenges, Puerto Rico's regiments were strong, and he recounts how he successfully integrated with them.



Victor Max Ramsey

From Hot Summers to 10 Feet of Snow

Originally from Louisiana, Victor Max Ramsey recalls his time in basic training in the cold Wisconsin winters. He discusses a train ride going from positive temps to below zero temperatures. During training exercises, cadets were required to be out in harsh cold conditions to prepare for Korea.  



A Boy named "Slick"

Victor Ramsey discusses having a houseboy named Slick. He describes the young boy who worked running errands for his unit. He was so small there were misconceptions of his age. With the taste of American food and help, he grew and his family even got jobs.



Vincent A. Bentz

Scavenging for Fresh Food

Vincent Bentz describes how soldiers got food to eat other than the issued C-Rations. He remembers catching chickens and cooking them. He explains how he lost weight because they were not eating regularly.



Vincent Ariola

The Tank on the Front-lines

Vincent Ariola remembers that South Korean soldiers were present in camps with American soldiers, but not brought north with tanks to prevent them from getting killed by American soldiers who could confuse them with the enemy. He describes fighting against forces atop Hill 266, at the Battle of Old Baldy. He remembers seeing a young American soldier in a foxhole before closing the tank hatch when firing broke out, and then seeing the same soldier dead after the firing stopped. His recollection includes his description of the hot atmosphere inside the tank.



Revisiting Life in a Tank

Vincent Ariola describes his reasons for not wanting to go back to visit South Korea. He explains that although he spent many hours in his tank, he did not sleep in it, but tanker operators slept in tents. He describes his experiences with having guard duty very often and being very tired from not being relieved. He further explains that artillery came very close to his tank and to his astonishment, he was never hit.



The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



A New Beginning

Vincent Ariola reflects on his difficulty forgetting things he encountered during his time serving in the Korean War. He calls the experience of being drafted a new beginning and describes why he believes it is. He description paints a picture of what life is like for a young man who is drafted and has never been away from home.



Virbel Trotter

Job During the War

Virbel Trotter explains what his job was during the war. He explains that they were a support group that had to ensure the front lines had the supplies that they needed. He remembers it being somewhat dangerous because of mortar fire.



"Get Through and Get Out"

Virbel Trotter was attacked by mortal 2-3 times during the war. He describes how you would need to get into a ditch to try to get away from it. He remembers thinking wanting to “get through and get out.”



Virgil Malone

Life in Daegu During the Korean War

This clip shows primary source pictures that Vigil Malone took in Daegu, South Korea. The pictures illustrate living and working conditions of the South Koreans in Daegu. The primary sources touch upon the economic disparity among South Koreans during the war; some lived in farmhouses, while others lived in huts.



Running From the Draft

Virgil Malone knew that the draft was after him, so he tried to get into the Marines, but since he's color blind and missing a lot of teeth, he could not join. He didn't want to be in a foxhole with the Army, so he joined the Air Force with a friend. He did not know a lot about the Korean War when it started until he saw multiple trains with German POWs roll right past his town.



Air Policeman

Virgil Malone was sent to Lackland Air Force Base for basic training. He went to Florida to get training to become a Air Policeman. It's the Air Force's version of the military police. When he was in Daegu, he was attached to the 5th Division to guard the headquarters, but nothing near the front lines. Later on, he was moved to Seoul after the headquarters moved there.



A Typical Day of an Air Policeman

Virgil Malone's typical day in Daegu included riding shotgun to protect the military vehicles. There was guerilla warfare activity along all the roads. There were 3 shifts on post to protect the 5th headquarters.



Voelia Thompson

Women in the Military

Voelia Jeanne Thompson describes what is was like to be a woman in the service in her era. She particularly remembers difficulties with bathroom facilities. She also comments that women could not carry weapons at the time which required her to have an armed guard when she delivered top secret documents.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Growing Up during the Great Depression

Walter Kreider Jr. shares that he grew up as an only child. He recalls his family experiencing hards times as many others did during the Great Depression, but he fondly remembers the love and support his parents, aunts, and uncles shed on him during his upbringing. He recalls the willingness of neighbors to help one another.  



Contrasting Korea: 1950s vs 1980s

Walter Kreider Jr. contrasts the Korea he saw in the the 1950s to the Korea he revisited in the 1980s. He shares his recollections of Seoul and the destruction he saw while serving. He comments on how the war left many children orphaned. He shares that the Korea he saw on his return visit starkly contrasted his memories as there were many cars and buildings, and he comments on its beauty. He attributes the transformation to Korea's quest for education.



Walter Steffes

Life inside a Destroyer Vessel

Walter Steffes describes life on a Navy Destroyer. This clip describes the differences between those in the Army on the front lines and those in the Navy participating in the war behind the scenes. The role of the Navy in contemporary American wars is often not discussed in history textbooks, so Mr. Steffes provides a great introduction to the role of the Navy.



Warren Housten Thomas

Revisit to Korea

Warren Thomas revisited Korea and he appreciated how well the Korean civilians and the Republic of Korean government treated him. The streets were filled with civilians and he was excited to see the population surviving so well. Even after returning home to the United States, he continues to receive letters and presents from South Koreans.



Fighting in the Punch Bowl

Warren Thomas was stationed in the "Punch Bowl" which was an area in Korea surrounded by hills and mountains. The Punch Bowl is an area south of the 38th parallel in the Gangwon Province. In between the mountains, drifts were 20 feet high which made it difficult to travel using his tractor.



Letters Home

Warren Thomas had difficulties communicating with family back home. Most soldiers in the Korean War used letters to stay in contact with family. It took about 4 to 6 weeks to receive a letter.



Hearing Trouble

Warren Thomas was affected by the artillery fire since it was so loud that it hurt his hearing. Airplanes flying over and mortars were going off all the time, but none of the soldiers received ear plugs. These are the reasons Warren Thomas believes he has hearing loss.



Warren Middlekauf

Basic Training and Specialty Training to Join US Army

Warren Middlekauf was drafted into the US Army in 1952 and he was informed of this event from a letter through the mail. After attending multiple training locations, he was prepared as a Stevedore to load and unload ships during the Korean War. Stevedores were also known as the transportation corps. After that, he was trained to use amphibious duck vehicles to transport supplies to troops.



The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



School, Letters, and the Excitement of the Armistice

Warren Middlekauf's military base was located near a Korean school that continued through the war. During the armistice of 1953, he was in Korea and was excited to send the US soldiers home. Throughout his time in the war, Warren Middlekauf wrote letters to his wife along with money to save for after the war.



Warren Ramsey

Air Transport Duties and Making Connections With the Injured Soldiers in Flight

Warren Ramsey started serving at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii in 1949. Before the Korean War started, he would service and repair air planes. Once the war began, he deliver supplies and troops from Hawaii while pulling out the injured United States soldiers.



A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Early Entry into the Military and Loving Every Minute of It!

Before the Korean War, Warren Ramsey was in high school and joined the Air Force before he graduated high school in 1947. After graduating high school, he went to Lackland Air Force Base for boot camp. Thankfully, warren Ramsey thought that the transition to the United States military was not difficult because we grew up in Boy Scouts and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After training, he was stationed at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where he worked with troop and supply transport.



Wayne Derrer

Living Close to Headquarters

Wayne Derrer describes his experiences living close to company headquarters. He explains that living close by afforded him easy access to good food. He says that he only ate C-rations when away from the company mess hall because it was more convenient than driving a couple miles. He goes on to explain that he slept in a tent with three or four other men and they did not have a Korean house-boy so they cleaned their own tent. He explains that living close to company headquarters also allowed him access to showers and plenty of ice cream.



Wayne Dierlam

Living Conditions

Wayne Dierlam describes the living conditions in Korea in the early 1960s. He shares how there were various living quarters and talks about the names of the camps he slept in. He explains that he had food, but it was cold.



Reflection of Service

Wayne Dierlam reflects upon his service while in Korea. He remembers the mountains and valleys and gives his thoughts on a unified Korea. He shares the importance of training.



Wayne Mitchell

Life in an Artillery Unit

Wayne Mitchell recalls his experiences in an artillery battalion stationed roughly three to five miles behind the front line. His unit had hot food and beds every night during the war- a privilege that not many soldiers in the war had. In his unit, many Americans worked side-by side with Koreans in jobs that ranged from manning the artillery guns to cooking in the kitchen. He goes on to describe the cold weather and living in tents.



Wendell Murphy

Living Conditions in Korea

Wendell Murphy describes what they ate in Korea, including listing some of the C-ration options. He recalls not being able to sleep much because the Forward Observer team was understaffed. Additionally, he said that he couldn't sleep at night because he was too scared.



Werner Lamprecht

Cryptography in Japan

Werner Lamprecht discusses going to Japan in March of 1952 and remaining in Japan during the Korean War. During his time in Japan he folded maps all day long for Navy and Marine pilots, was a typist and then served as a cryptographer receiving classified information. He said some of the messages he decoded were disheartening.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Up To My Knees In Mud

William "Bill" Beasley describes his Unit arriving in Inchon in September 1950. He describes the troublesome deboarding of the Amtrak due to his equipment. He describes that because of the weight instead of just getting mud on his feet like the others when he jumped off, he sank into the mud up to his knees. He describes three unknown men that helped him get to the shore.



Did Taking My Shoes Off Stop the Pain? Frostbite.

William "Bill" Beasley describes the suffering and cold at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes that it was so cold that if he stopped crystals would form on his feet. He recalls being told since he couldn't feel his feet to remove his boots and socks while on a listing post, which resulted in him getting severe frostbite.



Midnight Requisition-We Had Two Christmas Dinners

William "Bill" Beasley describes being transferred to the Chosin Reservoir. He describes being transported by train from Pusan to Masan (Bean Field). He explains that next to their train was an Army loaded with provisions and food, which is known by the Marine's as the "Midnight Requisition". He explains how they had Thanksgiving Dinner but had to replace all of those supplies that they used.



William “Bill” Hoyle

Sleeping Bags Unzipped or Die

William Hoyle explains he was given the nickname "The Most Horseshit NCO" due to his ordering his men to sleep with their sleeping bags unzipped. Word got around that an Army unit slept with their sleeping bags zipped up and the enemy came in without even having to fire a gun and killed everyone in that unit with a bayonet. He explains that his men slept with their M1 at their sides and a 50/50 two hour watch.



William Alli

Land of the Morning Calm

William Alli describes his arrival to Korea at Busan. As he was leaving the ship, there was a morning calm that quickly disappeared with a horrible stench, people in rags, and the anxiety of not knowing what comes next. He describes travelling deeper into Korea by trains and trucks, and his realization of his being a part of the sixth replacement draft. He describes his experience with being a machine gun ammo carrier and his first encounters with tracers and sniper fire from the surrounding hills.



In the Midst of Combat

William Alli explains the details of getting sick while in a fox hole. After his recovery, he went back to the line to face combat with North Korean and Chinese enemy fire as a part of the stretcher crew, carrying bodies of the wounded out of the combat area. He describes having to find his way to safety in the dark, with only the light of flares that were being dropped by planes from above.



William Arnaiz

A "Typical" Day

When asked to describe a typical day or battle he remembers, William Arnaiz describes how most people carried weapons even when they were delivering messages and picking up packets. He remembers times when they were under heavy fire and other times when they had to rebuild the bunkers. He describes how the North Koreans did a blanket raid on a barrack that was typically full of men showering-- it was only because the pipes had froze that many lives were saved that day.



Under Siege

William Arnaiz remembers a time when they all got alerted there was to be a mass attempt to overrun the "Punchbowl". During this time, he was assigned to a self propelled vehicle with Quad 50 machine guns. All remained on heavy alert for a 54 hour siege, but it ended up being a small skirmish fortunately.



William Beals

Brothers in Korea at the same time

Beals describes a time he was able to meet up with his brother while they both served in Korea. He doesn't remember what they discussed, but they were able to meet up briefly. They shared stories about their experiences.



Stuck in the Mud

William Beals explains what happened when they landed in Incheon. The first thing that he noticed was the Union Pacific switch train and then a house that had been destroyed. He explains how they then moved to a hospital tent in a muddy, freezing area.



William Beastrom

Life Inside A Destroyer

William Beastrom describes the terrible living conditions aboard the USS Radford. He recalls the profuse sweat and horrible smells inside the ship that did not have air conditioning. He explains that due to a water shortage, the shower routine had to be altered; the men would have to wet down, shut the water off, soap up, and rinse off. Some men even chose not to take a shower.



Food and Entertainment on the Destroyer

William Beastrom describes the only form of recreation aboard ship was watching movies whilest standing. He explains that hot meals were usually available, but they were often low on food and had to eat everything that was given to them. He recalls that much of their food was bug infested and describes finding a cockroach in his macaroni and the baker picking weevils off of the bread.



William Burns

Catch Them if You Can!

William Burns never captured any Chinese soldiers while fighting in Korea. There was an incentive program created by the armed forces to capture the enemy to earn additional Rest and Relaxation (R & R) time in Japan. Even though he didn't earn any additional R & R, William Burns did receive one rotation to Japan for time away from the front lines.



Hey Bill Where Have You Been?

William Burns was very excited to come home after his time in the war because he missed his mother's favorite chicken dish. After meeting up with a friend back on the home front, he did not remember that William Burns went away to war due to the lack of media coverage. The Forgotten War was definitely evident in his hometown of Auburn, NY because WWII was so publicized and there were not a lot of information coming to the US about the Korean War.



Conditions in the Korean War

It was trench warfare in 1952 and it was hit or miss fighting because the Chinese were very savage. The United States fire power is what saved William Burns' troops. The soldiers slept in the ground during the winter and it was just as cold as New York because it was not as bad as the winters of 1950-1951. Hill 1062 was a huge hill that was located near William Burns' trench and the Chinese had hospitals built into the hill along with military weapons.



US Soldiers Fighting Along Side KATUSA

William Burns worked with many KATUSA and Korean civilians during his 11 months in Korea during the war. The Koreans who worked with the US troops worked hard, but had a difficulty with communication. William Burns showed personal pictures of two KATUSA that he worked closely with during the war, but he remembers about 10-15 were stationed with this regiment.



William C. Hoehn

Quite an Arrival to Korea

William C. Hoehn describes arriving in Korea by first taking a slow boat from San Francisco to Japan. They then transferred by plane with standing room only passengers. He explains that when they came onshore, they came across a train wreck of Korean civilians.



Pot Bellied Stoves Running on Gas

William C. Hoehn describes the cold winters of Korea. He explains that all the Army tents were equipped with pot bellied stoves to keep men warm. Most stoves were fueled with oil, but William C. Hoehn describes taking gas from the garage where he worked to fuel their stoves better.



Pants on Fire

William C. Hoehn describes the furnace that was used to keep the garage where he worked in Korea warm. He explains that a young Korean boy was standing in front of the furnace to get warm himself and caught on fire. He explains that the boy ran down the road on fire and that he had to chase him to put the fire out.



William D. Freeman

Hoengsong Massacre

William Freeman describes a little known event during the Korean War, the Hoengsong Massacre. He recalls his capture as a Prisoner of War (POW). He describes the details of the event as well as his project archiving the experiences of the American soldiers captured there.



Recaptured as a POW

William Freeman details his experiences being recaptured as a POW after his release in Panmunjeom. He recalls the rough march to the camp and being buried alive after US forces blew up the camp. He discusses the differences in treatment by Chinese soldiers versus North Korean soldiers, describing the North Koreans as being the most brutal.



Life at Camp One

William Freeman elaborates on his experience as a prisoner of war at Camp One. He shares that Camp One was managed by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he purposely acted "crazy" at the camp because the Chinese would treat him better due to their superstitions of people with mental illnesses. He recalls acquiring roughly forty-two dozen eggs over a period of one and a half years which helped keep him and his comrades alive.



William Duffy

What was it like in Korea?

William Duffy shares what it was like in Korea. He recalls it being freezing cold, calling it "the coldest place on Earth." He talks about his day-to-day duties and cites water being very difficult to find. He also recalls filling sand bags at his bunker with snow. Once the weather warmed, he recounts losing all protection in his bunker.



What was it like being a marine?

William Duffy describes his boot camp experience as a rude awakening. He recalls having to be up very early in the morning for drills and shares how it was the hardest thing he ever went through. He describes his journey from San Diego to Japan and then eventually to the east coast of Korea.



A Episode to Remember

Wiliam Duffy talks about a time when he went to NCO (non-commissioned officer) school. He shares how the experience was like a different world from the front lines. It had warm food, barbershops, showers, a pub, etc. While there, he recalls how his officer offered him multiple drinks. He shares that he suspected there was some bad news and learned that his squad was attacked. He recounts how only four of the twelve men survived.



What were living conditions like?

William Duffy recalls his life on the frontlines. He remembers living in bunkers, which was basically a hole in the ground. He recalls cutting down a lot of trees to get material to build structures. He also remembers not wanting to be at the bottom of a hill when it rained because the bunker would fill with water.



Comparing Korea, Then and Now

William Duffy recalls Seoul being in rubble. He remembers Korea being totally destroyed and adds that he could touch the top of any building that was still standing. He remembers going back to Korea years later and seeing a beautiful and impressive Seoul; the skyscrapers were numerous, and the traffic around the city was heavy. He shares that the Korea today is not the Korea he left in 1952 and adds he never would have imagined Korea would look like it does today. He recalls the South Korean people being exceptionally nice.



William Edwards

Base Life in Korea

William Edwards describes daily life at the 607th Aircraft Warning Squadron.



William F. Borer

The Korean People Had Nothing

William Borer describes his shock at the terrible sight of the Korean people and how desperate they were. He explains that the starving civilians stole and begged for food and dug through the trash looking for scraps the soldiers had thrown away. He explains that being a child from the Great Depression, he knew what being hungry was like but the Korean civilians literally had nothing. He recalls feeling disdain for President Truman for not helping the Korean people.



"Made me reappraise my opinion of the American Army Officer"

William Borer describes his capture by the North Koreans and their executing about two-dozen men simply because they were American. After marching north, they arrived at a large village and were placed in a compound dividing officers and enlisted men. He recalls one particular night when two enlisted POWs were placed in the not-so-crowded officers quarters but the officers quickly sent them to the very crowded enlisted side. Sergeant Estrada, who was in the same room as William blocked the door and wouldn't let the men in, saying the room was too crowded. Both men froze to death that night and though Bill reported Estrada, the Army's criminal investigation said there was nothing they could do.



Maggots Covered My Face I Was Pronounced Dead

William Borer describes being moved to Camp 5 where he spent over a month and became ill with pneumonia. He describes the school house that cared for the sick as an an "ant-hotel" where you check in but don't check out. He recalls after being pronounced dead, he awoke among stacks of bodies and maggots encrusted on his eyes and nostrils. He explains that the Chinese were superstitious and when they saw him as he left the morgue, they ran the other direction thinking he had been resurrected.



William F. Honaman

First Experience with Death

William Honaman describes what his living conditions were like when he first encountered the death of other soldiers. He explains that he was encamped in ditches surrounded by barbed wire with only one entrance from the back. He recalls how homemade alarms were fashioned out of empty beer cans filled with rocks. He remembers the entrance was adorned with the bodies of the dead who had tried to get in.



William Gortney

Inchon Landing

William Gortney's first mission was to take out oil tanks at the Inchon air field before the Inchon landing started. During the landing, William Gortney provided air cover for soldiers who were landing. He explains that the biggest problem in that area was the tides.



Life on a Korean War Carrier

William Gortney explains what life was like on the aircraft carrier. He shares that they used a straight deck in order to land on the carrier, which varies from how it is done today. There were 5 barrier cables that were used to catch planes that missed the deck hook.



William Herold

Inchon Landing & Seoul Recapture

William Herold describes landing in Inchon around amid Korea's heavy rain. He recounts having to wait the night out by himself until daylight when his company could regroup. He adds that there was little resistance other than sniper fire. He explains that he did not have a chance to really look around Inchon as he and his platoon members had no opportunity to get out. William Herold describes the march to Seoul following the Inchon Landing, adding that there was resistance.



Living Among the Cold and Bullets

William Herold shares his experiences with the freezing cold of Korea. He describes keeping his shoes in his sleeping bag in order for them to keep from freezing and adds that one's urination was ice by the time it hit the ground. He explains how war made one reckless and offers a relating story of a WWII veteran who removed his helmet and was momentarily shot in the head. He recounts the changes he experienced in weight due to lack of food.



William Jacque

Talking to the Dead

William Jacque recounts his experience at a M.A.S.H. (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) after sustaining a shoulder and hip injury. He describes waking up to use the restroom and tripping over a person on the way. He shares that he felt so badly about the incident that he spent the next 2 hours talking to the soldier only to find out that the unidentified man was deceased when morning came.



William Kurth

The "Modern" Port of Busan

William Kurth offers a description of his experience in the port of Busan. He describes the modernization of the harbor by the Japanese and details the differing outlets available. He recounts a Japanese built railroad yard, describing some of the everyday operations taking place during the war.



The Songs and Culture of Korea

William Kurth offers his experiences with the deeply saturated Korean culture. He describes physical appearances of the Korean people, the Korean alphabet, and a folk song. He performs his own rendition and shortened version of the Korean folk song, "Arirang."



William MacSwain

Horrors of War

William MacSwain describes some of the horrors of war experiences. He portrays a vivid image of scenes of war that illustrate the hardships Korean War soldiers faced. These first-hand accounts show the fear in every soldiers' mind.



Tricking the US Government to Join the National Guard

In 1945, William MacSwain lied to recruiters at the age of 15 when he told them that he was 17 so that he could join the National Guard with friends. Due to the low number of military divisions, recruiters signed him without a second thought. In 1949, he was put to work in Oklahoma to protect businesses after a tornado tore through the state.



Military Leadership Training

In September 1950, William MacSwain reported to a military leadership school that was led by WWII veterans. Since he was already trained on a variety of weapons, William MacSwain felt that psychological warfare treatment was important lessons that he learned. Once he returned to Fort Polk, he was in charge of 4th platoon (an infantry division) who were all older than him.



Training for War in Japan

In May 1951, William MacSwain was sent to Japan to train with his platoon on terrain that was similar to Korea. General Ridgway said that the US National Guard should not be sent to Korea because they were not trained well enough. After watching William MacSwain's platoon in Japan practicing a maneuver, he was impressed with what he saw, so the National Guard was free to fight in the Korean War.



William O’Kane

Arrival in Korea in 1952

William O'Kane arrived in Korean in 1952 at Sokcho-Ri. He was assigned his job as a wireman with Head Quarters Company 2nd Battalion 11th Marines. He remembers a lot about the conditions in Korea when he arrived and the conditions of the villages.



Interaction with Korean Marine Corps and Anzacs

William O'Kane worked with a seventeen year old Korean interpreter for his battery group. The Korean Marine Corps were tough and they worked on the left side of William O'Kane's regiment. He also fought along side with the Commonwealth Division of New Zealand (Anzacs/Australians) and had fun sharing stories about politics.



William Puls

The Impact of the Forgotten War

William Puls describes his revisits to South Korea in 2000 and 2010. He explains his amazement at the cleanliness and modernization of the cities in South Korea. He praises the South Koreans for their admiration and respect toward Korean War veterans. He shares his opinion on what can be done to resolve the continued division between the countries of North Korea and South Korea.



Nightwatchman and No Bath

William Puls describes arriving in Korea, and recalls a number of soldiers who were sick from the journey at sea. He tells of the landing at Incheon, and being transported to the front on Christmas Hill. He describes the circumstances of fighting for twenty-one consecutive days without being able to stop to shower because of the intensity. His references are in reflection of the fighting shortly before the Armistice.



William Watson

On the Hunt for Enemy Submarines

William Watson recalls his speciality as a boatswain's mate aboard the USS Philip during the Korean War. He elaborates on the destroyer's mission to locate enemy submarines. He shares that several enemy submarines were encountered during his service but that none were ever fired upon.



Daily Life on a Navy Destroyer

William Watson describes daily life as a Boatswain's Mate on a Navy destroyer. He comments on the size of the ship and enduring rough seas. He recalls practicing the procedure for rescue if a man fell overboard and details duties such as keeping the ship clean and participating in regular trainings.



Navy Destroyer Layout and Living Quarters

William Watson recalls the living conditions on a Navy destroyer. He describes the layout of the ship and the small spacing they used as living quarters. He recounts the showering situation and remembers eating sandwiches when the waters were too rough for the cooks to prepare a hot meal.



William Wienand

USS Pine Island's Work in the Korean War

William Wienand and the rest of the soldiers on the USS Pine Island participated in many reconnaissance missions as the flagship which hosted the Admiral of the Navy. He explains the breakup of the groups and their responsibilities. As a radioman, William Wienand worked his way up to a 3rd Class Petty Officer since he worked around the clock as the Supervisor of the Radioshack.



William Wienand's Role and Missions for the USS Pine Island

William Wienand's role in the Korean War was to radio all information from the soldiers stationed in Korea to naval leaders across the world. All messages were encrypted, but he knew that many messages gave instruction to the admiral of his flagship in addition to supplying assistance to ground troops. While he doesn’t remember all of the messages, he knew that they were important.



Playing an Important Role: Basketball

William Wienand explains how the operations assisted with the Korean War even though he was mainly offshore. He had to convey weather information, which was extremely important. As the supervisor of the radioshack, he had to make sure that all of the others were doing their job, including helping the basketball team.



Willis Remus

Passing the Time

Willis Remus describes the different activities that he and other captured soldiers did to pass the time when they were not working in the camp. They played cribbage, chess, basketball, volleyball, and soccer. The chess board was made by one of the Prisoners of War.



Food

Willis Remus describes how difficult it was in prison camp to make sure that the other soldiers were eating their rations and what he did to try to encourage soldiers to eat the food they were rationed by the Chinese.



Captured

Willis Remus describes how he and his whole platoon were captured by the North Koreans and marched to Chongsong. He said they were captured without a fight because they were sleeping and surrounded when they woke up.



Willis Verch

We Needed Some Sleep

Willis Verch describes transporting rockets to Kimpo Airforce Base in Korea, from Haneda Airforce Base in Japan. He discusses his main job, which was actually to take American troops or freight from Tacoma, Washington, to Japan, by way of the Aleutian Islands. He explains his role as Loadmaster, and having to move from the American barracks to the Austrailian barracks because of lack of sleep.



Military Allowance

Willis Verch describes the amount of money he was paid in the Royal Canadian Air Force while serving during the Korean War. He gives insight into the use of his money during the recovery of the Japanese economy after World War II, as he spent most of it in Japan for essentials. He explains that after his six months was served he went back to Ottawa to a different squadron.



Yilma Belachew

Another Life

Yilma Belachew describes the condition of Korea upon arrival at Busan. He describes the destruction he observed. For example, there were deceased people lying in fields and destroyed buildings. However, the people of Korea were still working in the fields during the Civil War. Yilma Belachew also describes having to retrain on newer American weapons in Korea.



Yusuf Artuc

Supplies on the Front

Yusuf Artuc describes how the US military would re-supply Turkish soldiers. The US military would use helicopters to bring food to the soldiers. Also, the same helicopters would also bring weapons that needed to be assembled. Soldiers did not suffer from a lack of supplies.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.