Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Impressions of Korea



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Achille Ragazzoni

Knowledge of Korea

Achille Ragazzoni shares the story of his father Gianluigi Ragazzoni who served as part of the Italian Red Cross in Korea from 1951-1954. . He recalls his father talking about learning little about Korea in school except how before World War II Korea was part of Japanese Territory. Achille recounts how after Stalin's death, his father realized that, in reality, Korea was more of a victim of the Japanese than a possession.

English translations begin at 14:58 and 16:30.



Hospital Work in Korea

Achille Ragazzoni shares memories of his father Gianluigi Ragazzoni when he initially arrived in Seoul. He explains that his father found no Italian embassy in the country as it was covered by the embassy in Tokyo. He shares his father knew little of the Korean language and recalls how there were many Japanese words used in Korea. He describes his father's role in working for an Italian hospital which used medicines provided by the Americans and shares that when given days off, his father and others enjoyed traveling around areas in Korea.

English translations begin at 30:50, 32:39, 35:52, and 37:11.



Impressions after Return Trips to Korea

Achille Ragazzoni's father Gianluigi Ragazzoni returned to Korea ten or twelve times over his lifetime. His son shares how his father marveled at the improvements made, especially related to the sanitary situation of the country. He recalls his father expressing sadness that many Korean people had abandoned tradition and history but that Gianluigi Ragazzoni was impressed with one young woman he met along the way studying a medieval Italian map.

English translations begin: 51:05 and 53:46.



Adam McKenzie

A Picture of Before and After

Adam McKenzie offers a reflection on the Korea of 1950, compared to what he saw when he revisited in 2011. He describes a former Korea of ruins, and a modern society full of high rises and bullet trains. He shares his perception that South Korea has made advancements much more rapidly since the Korean War than the United Kingdom did during the Industrial Revolution.



Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Adolfo Lugo Gaston provides an account of his first impressions of the country upon landing in Korea. He vividly remembers an eerie silence and seeing bodies buried beneath the snow near Seoul. Additionally, he speaks about the difficulty of trench warfare and explains the fact that many soldiers were shot because they left their foxholes to complete mundane tasks.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón relata sus primeras impresiones al llegar en Corea. Recuerda el silencio que había y una tristeza porque había cuerpos enterrados bajo la nieve cerca de Seúl. Además, habla sobre lo difícil que era la guerra de trincheras y explica que muchos soldados fueron fusilados porque abandonaron las trincheras para tareas mundanas.



Alan Guy

Arriving in Korea and Placement

Alan Guy recounts his arrival in Korea. He remembers bitter cold and a horrendous smell as Koreans had just fertilized nearby rice patties with human manure. He recollects a band playing rousing music upon arrival and being transported to a transit camp in Busan. He details his placement in a field hygiene section.



Duties Following Cease-fire

Alan Guy recounts returning to Busan to assist with health aspects following the cease-fire and details several duties. Despite the cease-fire, he recalls an incident that involved a rope strung across the road as an attempted means of decapitating drivers. He shares an account of a situation he found himself in within the black market.



Alan Maggs

Early Days in Korea

Alan Maggs recalls arriving in Pusan and then taking the train to Seoul. He describes Seoul as largely devastated, with few buildings still standing. Despite the destruction, he remembers the local people as very welcoming. Maggs also provides details about his duties and the pay he received during his service.



Albert Cooper

Secret Mission

Albert Cooper talks about a secret counterintelligence mission alongside two British spies to uncover South Koreans working against American interests. He mentions that while this mission itself bore little fruit, he developed a "love affair with the Korean people."



Gift of Food and Spoon

Albert Cooper describes one of his most memorable experiences in Korea. While on patrol, he was invited into a Korean home for rice with beans. Having trouble with chop sticks, an elderly Korean woman gifted him an ancestral spoon. He talks about what that spoon means to him today and the bond between the US and South Korea.



Albert Frisina

Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Korean Now

Albert Frisina notes how free and prosperous South Korea is today. He expresses how proud he is that he was able to contribute to its success. He cites the successes that South Korea is witnessing now as reasons why the United States helped fight for what is now South Korea. He remembers witnessing Japan during leave time known as Rest and Relaxation and seeing how much it had progressed. He remembers hoping Korea would also progress. He expresses his pleasure in knowing that South Korea is now the tenth largest economy in the world.



Albert Gonzales

First Impressions of Busan

Albert Gonzales described what he saw when he first arrived in Busan. He explained how there were machine guns at every intersection as they rode in on the cattle cars. He remembered how terrified he and other soldiers felt not knowing what to expect during this war, yet they persevered.



The North Korean Soldier

Albert Gonzales explained that the North Korean soldiers were very intelligent and skilled. He said that they knew a lot of details about their weapons and supplies. He explained when there was something new they would stare to gain a better perception. He said it bothered Americans when they were being stared at by Koreans but it was how they learned new things.



Korea is Thankful

Albert Gonzales described how he believed South Korea is the only country thankful for what America has done for them. He explained how they have assisted in several other wars and have shown their appreciation over time. He stated that they are proud of us and we are proud of them too.

*There is some explicit language in this clip.



Severe Conditions for Korean Soldiers

Albert Gonzales described the poor situation of South Korean soldiers and those that helped the South Korean army. South Korea would draft soldiers by simply pulling men and older boys from off the street. The expectation was all men would be fighting for their country. Also, those that bore the weight of carrying weapons for South Korea did not received special privileges but were often the primary targets by the North Koreans.



Albert Grocott

Korea Then and Now

Albert Grocott mentions that he has made three visits to Korea since the war and provides a comparison between the past and present states of the country. He reminisces about encountering small villages with outdoor toilets during his service and contrasts them with the modern metropolis that Seoul has evolved into over the years, characterized by beautiful homes and towering high-rises. Grocott notes that while the landscape has undergone significant changes, the people have remained unchanged.



For the Love of Learning a Language

Albert Grocott remembers encountering several orphaned children in need of food and clothing during his Rest and Relaxation (R&R) in Seoul during the war,. He describes how he brought them food from the mess hall and obtained clothing for them through less conventional means. Grocott explains that his motivation was driven by his desire to learn the language, and in return for his assistance, he asked the children to teach him Korean words and songs as payment.



Albert Harrington

Modern Outcomes of the War

Albert Harrington shares that his experience during the war was very educational and that he grew up overnight. He discusses with the interviewer several outcomes of the war including political and economic ties. He expresses his sympathy regarding the current conditions between North and South Korea and wishes for them to unite.



Albert Kleine

Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



The Kindness of the Korean People

Albert Kleine was brought to tears when talking about his Korean revisit. When he revisited Korea, he was wearing his uniform and the adults along with the children were so kind to him since he was a soldier. In 2016 he went back for a funeral there and he wants to go there to live for the rest of his life because he has seen the evolution of the city.



Albert McCarthy

This Information is Classified

Albert McCarthy outlines his job responsibilities as a part of the National Security Agency. They had to assess whether the intelligence was covert or not. Many of the intelligence he was a part of collecting is still not classified information today. Due to this, he uses many metaphors to describe certain situations he was involved in.



Albino Robert “Al” D’Agostino

"After the War-Impressions of Korea"

Though he has never been back, Al D'Agostino had business dealings with Korean Airlines out of Los Angeles. He could not believe the level of fluency, sophistication, affluent business behavior, and growth of South Korea.



Alford Rodriguez Rivera

Living Conditions in the Foxholes

Alford Rodriguez Rivera recounts his meals and his living conditions during the war. He explains how he ate C-rations and slept in foxholes during his time there. He shares that he did not know anything about Korea before arriving. He recollects Korea being mountainous with many trees and there being snow in the winter.



Alfred Curtis

Headed to Korea and First Impression

Alfred Curtis describes how he felt when he learned he would be serving in Korea. He shares that hardly anyone knew anything about Korea and that he had honestly never even heard of Korea. He adds that he and other young soldiers thought they would go over and take care of business within a few months and be home. He recalls his journey to Korea, landing in Pusan, and the suffering of the South Korean people.



Harsh Weather Conditions in Korea

Alfred Curtis recalls the harsh weather conditions while in Korea. He describes extreme cold and heat and recounts excessive rain as well. He mentions specific gear--rubber-lined boots and a parka--that kept him from developing frostbite during the cold months.



Thoughts on Service, Memories, and the Korean War Legacy

Alfred Curtis offers his thoughts on service and memories of his brother who served in Korea. He shares that his brother was at Incheon and the Chosin Reservoir and that he died from wounds he sustained in battle. He comments on the legacy of the Korean War, sharing that what the country of South Korea has done for itself since the war is unbelievable.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Message to students / Mensaje Para Los Estudiantes

Alfredo Forero Parra shares his thoughts on war and its many consequences. His message to future generations is that war should be avoided as it is cruel and inhumane. He adds that it is important for future generations to remember the valor and stoicism of Colombian troops.

Alfredo Forero Parra comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y sus múltiples consecuencias. Su mensaje a las generaciones futuras es que se debe evitar la guerra, ya que es cruel e inhumana. El termina su mensaje pidiéndole a las generaciones futuras que recuerden el valor y el estoicismo de las tropas colombianas.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Alfredo Forero Parra remembers the complete devastation he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He conveys the disbelief he felt when he saw the destruction of most structures and bridges. He recalls the suffering of the civilian population as they begged for food. He states that suffering was most reflected in the eyes of the children.

Alfredo Forero Parra recuerda la devastación que encontró al llegar a Corea. Habla del horror que sintió cuando vio la destrucción de la mayoría de las estructuras y puentes en el país. Recuerda el sufrimiento de la población civil y como rogaban por comida. En su opinión, el sufrimiento se reflejaba más en los ojos de los niños.



Ali Dagbagli

Destruction and Living Conditions

Ali Dagbagli describes the poor conditions of the Korean people. Kids would beg for food and cigarettes. People lived in houses made of rice stalks. Ali Dagbagli traveled from Incheon to Daegu, before moving north to Kunu-ri, North Korea.



Transformation of Korea

Ali Dagbagli describes the transformation of South Korea. He describes what he saw during the war. Kids were begging for food and cigarettes for their fathers. Contrast this with today where Seoul was clean, no dirt and no cigarettes on the ground. Ali Dagbagli could never have imagined the transition in such a short period of time.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

Recounts From Post-Armistice Korea

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes post-Armistice South, Korea. He describes women with small feet from forced stunting. He also describes the suffering of the people from a war-torn land. People were starving. Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan gave food to the people. However, this was against military rules. He had to spend fifteen days in military prison for giving food. He also discusses the taboos of the suffering of the people.



Alice Allen

Thoughts on the Korean War Legacy Project

Alice Allen understands the importance of the Korean War Legacy Project and its potential impact on future generations. Her husband, Jack Allen, did not really discuss his Korean War experiences before the interview, and now he speaks freely about it. Alice Allen believes
that it is important that younger generation learn about the Korean War and the experiences of the veterans.



Alistair S. Rae

Training and First Impressions

Alistair S. Rae recalls Korea as a land with numerous hills and mountains that rise from the sea. He mentions having limited encounters with Korean cities and people, primarily during periods of rest and recuperation. Additionally, he shares his wartime training on more advanced planes beyond the Spitfires he initially learned on in South Africa.



Allan A. Mavin

Seoul: Before and After

Allan A. Mavin recollects here on his journey back to South Korea in 1998. He describes the hospitality of the South Korean people. He also compares and contrasts what he witnessed changed in Seoul before and after the Korean War.



Allen Affolter

Ceasefire Memories

Allen Affolter describes an event leading up to the ceasefire in 1953. He shares that Bed Check Charlie dropped leaflets the night before the ceasefire at Panmunjom stating that the North Koreans always knew where the US positions were and that they could have annihilated them at any time. He recalls that he and other soldiers were instructed to turn in all of the leaflets. He recounts that the leaflets had little impact and that he and others were glad when the ceasefire was announced.



Korea's Meaning

Allen Affolter describes South Korea as an amazing country. He recounts the progress made since the war after returning to Korea with a Korean War Veterans Revisit Program and comments on its differences compared to North Korea. He shares that he was greeted warmly by the citizens of South Korea and left the trip proud of the contributions he and his colleagues had made to the success of their nation.



Allen Clark

Allen Clark's First Prisoner of War

Allen Clark was establishing observation posts and was maneuvering around Gimpo Airport when he came across a family who had captured a North Korean soldier. He felt the process of handing him to the property authorities went well, but he was concerned that there were many more POWs with the possibility of being outnumbered. He wasn't sure how the Korean people felt about American's arrival during the conflict, but at that time, he felt they were happy and pleased the US soldiers were there.



US Marines Working with Korean Marines Throughout the Korean War

Allen Clark with Korean Marines were tough and they didn't put up with anyone who couldn't keep up. They were great Marines and were ready to fight whenever asked. There were translators to help with cooperation between US troops and the Korean Marines.



Korean Culture and Ceasefire

Allen Clark worked with and became friends with some South Korean civilians during his second tour in Korea. He observed Korean burials and was invited to eat octopus for the first time with the locals. During the ceasefire, Allen Clark used the help of civilians at the DMZ to find the enemy on the final days of the Korean War in July 1953.



Allen E. Torgerson

Knowing What You Are Fighting For

Allen Torgerson describes fighting alongside KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and ROK (Republic of Korea) soldiers. He explains that while there was a language barrier, the KATUSA and ROK soldiers knew enough English among themselves to communicate with Americans. He emphasizes that both groups showed pride in their country and knew what they were fighting for during the war. He adds that South Koreans show appreciation for what America did for them.



Off Duty & Rest and Relaxation

Allen Torgerson shares that one was never really off duty during the war as one was still involved in everyday army duties other than when on Rest and Relaxation (R&R). He recounts spending a few days in both Japan and Seoul during R&R and remembers there not being much to do in Seoul as the city was destroyed. He shares that if one found some spare time in camp, he would play cards to pass the time.



Alves James “AJ” Key

Korea in 1968-1970

Alves James "AJ" Key describes what life was life for him as a member of the Air Force stationed in Korea between 1968 to 1970. He describes the weather. He also explains how the base where he was stationed was too crowded and that aircraft were constantly leaving and arriving.



Korea in Transition

Alves James "AJ" Key was in Korea after the war, so he was able to witness its transition to a modernizing country. He describes the development both in Seoul and in the countryside. He explains that he really did not understand how remarkable this transition was until years later when he fully understood the harsh conditions Korea had been under when Japan occupied the country.



Alvin A. Gould

Arriving in Korea

Alvin Gould talks about arriving at Incheon in December 1953 and traveling to Seoul. He describes leaving the ship and his impressions of the capital city. He mentions that one of the few buildings standing was called the Chosin Hotel.



Alvin Jurrens

Withholding the Difficulties of War

Alvin Jurrens details an experience out on the front lines as a forward observer on the 38th Parallel. He recalls feeling safe in the bunker, but shortly after his departure, it was blown up. He shares a second close encounter he endured in a jeep incident as well. He acknowledges that someone was watching over him in both accounts. He also explains that he wrote letters home to his mother but withheld information regarding the difficulties there as he did not want her to worry.



The Legacy is Freedom

Alvin Jurrens expresses that freedom is a Korean War legacy. He shares it is an honor to have served, and it is worth the pain he endured. He states that it is simply something you do for somebody.



Amare Worku

No Hope for Korea

Amare Worku recalls a time in Korea when he thought there was no hope for the country to recover from the devastating war. He remembers the snow even being difficult to navigate, adding to the misery. He expresses a sense of relief at what Korea has become today.



Andrew Cleveland

Leaving Korea after the Armistice and Returning to Korea

Andrew Cleveland recalls leaving Korea earlier than planned in September of 1954. He shares how after the armistice was signed, soldiers who signed up for college could go home and attend school. He recounts attending the University of Texas after leaving Korea, thanks to the G.I. Bill. He shares how he returned to Korea twenty-eight years later on business, specifically to coordinate the manufacturing of new products for his company. He describes befriending a Korean manufacturer and visiting Korea multiple times a year for many years in a row. His shares how his grandson captured this friendship in a work of art.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Why We Fought in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap discusses his thoughts about why the United States defended Korea and the legacy of the Korean War. He details how the United States participated to prevent the spread of Communism across the world. He also elaborates on how his service has allowed South Korea's government and economy to flourish.



Andrew Greenwell

Returning to Korea

Andrew Greenwell describes his return to Korea in the 1980s. He recounts seeing multistoried buildings and other advances that left him in disbelief. He expresses his amazement at what the Korean people had done for their country in such a short span of time following the war.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza's initial encounter as he landed in Pusan was filled with shock because he never heard of Korea. One image that he will never forget is hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of the children were, as he described, "disfigured."



Police Action or War?

Andrew Lanza debated about the early onset of the Korean War being described as a police action by President Truman. The American foreign policy of containment provided Truman leverage to become involved in this conflict. Andrew Lanza felt that it should be considered a war.



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Air Raid Support for the Chosin Reservoir

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes working on airplanes heading out for raids on the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls not knowing what was occurring in the battle as Marines who were brought in were too traumatized to share much information. He adds that airplanes evacuated wounded soldiers from there to either Japan or to hospital ships off the coast of Korea.



Revisiting South Korea

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair shares his experience revisiting South Korea in 2009. He emphasizes that he never thought South Korea could pull itself up by its bootstraps in such as short time frame. He recounts how appreciative the South Koreans were during his revisit.



Angad Singh

Korea, 1953

Angad Singh reflects on his impressions of Korea immediately following the war. He remembers arriving in Incheon in 1953 when Syngman Rhee was Korea's President. He noticed devastation everywhere. He arrived at the DMZ and recalls seeing no buildings left. He remembers seeing huts made from mud and next to no industry in the area.



Modern Korea

Angad Singh reflects on his recent trip back to Korea along with the Korean Veterans Association. He shares how he was well-received by the Korean people and recalls his amazement of the Incheon airport. He remembers seeing a sixteen-lane highway, which was impressive to him considering there were few functioning roads there after the war. He reflects on the improvement and progress made in Korea.



Experience in Korea

Angad Singh speaks about his living arrangements in Panmunjom, along the DMZ. He describes their living quarters, U.S. tents, being well-built and remembers having kerosine heaters in the tents because the temperatures in Korea were very cold. He recalls some of his duties while in Korea and adds that he left Korea and arrived home in India in August of 1954.



Mandeep Singh, Grandson of Angad Singh

Mandeep Singh, the grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Angad Singh, joins the interview. He was born on February 11, 1992. He shares his reflections on his grandfather's service in Korea and explains that he was able to join his grandfather on a return to Korea trip in 2009. He recalls attending the United Nations Peace Camp run by the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs of the Republic of Korea.



Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez describes his first impressions of the war. He explains that within the first two weeks of combat, the kitchen at his camp was bombed and one sergeant was angry that they were brought rations and demanded, at gun point, that they should all get hot food. Additionally, he shares his memories of the Korean countryside.

Anibal Ithier-Rodríguez describe sus primeras impresiones de la guerra. Explica que, dentro de las primeras dos semanas de combate, la cocina de su campamento fue bombardeada y un sargento estaba enojado porque les trajeron raciones y exigió, a punta de pistola, que todos deberían recibir comida caliente. Además, comparte sus recuerdos del paisaje coreano.



Anil Malhotra

This Father's Experience in the Custodian Force

Anil Malhotra talks about his father's (Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra) experience in the Custodian Force from 1953 to 1954. This was when Syngman Rhee was the Republic of Korea (ROK) President. The five infantry battalions that made up the Custodian Force were called the CFI, the Custodian Force of India. He reflects on how much South Korea has improved since the war.



Aragaw Mselu

Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Homecoming for a Prisoner of War

Arden Rowley remembers the difficulty in signing an armistice. He describes his repatriation and his return to Arizona after being a POW for 33 months in the Korean War. He also shares what it was like to adjust to life back in the United States.



Aristides Simoes

Classroom Understanding of Korea

Aristides Simoes was educated about Korea while in school. He describes that in his middle school civics class, he learned about Korea in relationship to the Joseon Dynasty and Imperial Japan. His teachers were trying to have his class understand the significance of Japan bombing the U.S. at Pearl Harbor after that had happened.



Journey to the Korean Peninsula

Aristides Simoes describes in length his journey to Korea. During his time in Korea, he describes a variety of different tasks and responsibilities he had maintaining the aircraft radar systems. He also describes the purpose these missions had for the military at the time.



Devastation and Destruction of Seoul

Aristides Simoes reflects on his memories of the capital of South Korea, Seoul, after the war. Despite seeing civilians and soldiers on the streets, the city itself was filled with dust, destruction, and debris. He also details the extreme poverty many South Koreans were experiencing at the time.



Aristofanis Androulakis

From Ruins

Aristofanis Androulakis discusses how all he saw in Korea in the 1950s were ruins and destruction. He shares how he felt proud when he returned to Korea in 2007. He shared how it was so different and he couldn't believe it was the same place.



Arthur Alsop

Why Would They Fight for This?

Arthur Alsop remembers arriving into a really rough wharf on a hot day in June. He describes the “flimsy” houses that he saw. He said Seoul was bombed out. He shares how he asked himself a very important question- Why would anyone fight over a country like this?



Arthur C. Golden

Thoughts on Modern Korea

Arthur Golden and his wife joined a revisit program in 2010. He observes that while the Korean War has largely faded from memory in the United States, the Koreans have not forgotten. Recounting his experiences visiting Seoul and the DMZ, he also reflects on the improbability of a unified Korea.



Arthur Gentry

Legacy of the Korean War

Arthur Gentry believes that if it were not for the Marines, there would not have been victory at the Chosin Reservoir. Casualties were hight with 3600 U.S. soldiers killed in action, and another 6000 suffered from frostbite. Arthur Gentry believes that the Korean War, otherwise known as the "Forgotten War," was the last war the U.S. "won" and accomplished anything. He believes the victory lies within the Marines holding the line and the U.S. nurturing South Korea to flourish economically and democratically.



Arthur H. Hazeldine

Impressions of the Korean People

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes his encounters with Korean people while aboard the New Zealand Frigate HMNZS Taupo. Further, he shares his admiration for the youth who fought for their country. He recalls one occasion of rescuing fishermen and returning them to their village.



Returning to Korea

Arthur H. Hazeldine returned to Korea in 2015. Although stationed at sea during the Korean War, he recalls the powerful binoculars that allowed them to see the shore. He notes the tremendous differences in the Korea they left behind in the 1950s and the Korea of today.



Arthur Hernandez

White Horse Mountain

Arthur Hernandez recalls his journey from Japan to Busan, Korea, during the frigid winter. He remembers taking a troop train from Busan north towards the front lines. Upon reaching their destination, he describes being escorted up a mountain which lay on the front line. As they hiked up the mountain, he remembers seeing the remains of the enemy. He provides details of a ten-day battle which took place at the location known as White Horse Mountain.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

Strangers Left The Dead

Based on Korean culture, if someone died and the body was lying along the road, civilians would leave the body there, claiming that if they returned the body to the family, the helper would have to take care of the deceased person's family. Sometimes, bodies would lay in the road for three to four days before it was picked up. Arthur Sorgatz had to drive around bodies any times during his tour in Busan, Korea.



US and Korea Relations Today & The Importance of Military Service

Arthur Sorgatz felt that Koreans appreciate Korean and US soldiers more than citizens of the United States. He felt his time in Korea was a great experience. He wishes the draft was back to require young adults to experience discipline because he feels that it has been lost.



Impact from a Tour in Korea and Japan

Arthur Sorgatz was able to learn about how other people live when he was stationed in Busan starting in 1954. Poverty was very high in Korea after the war and America's poverty level is nothing compared to Korea's at that time. In Japan, Arthur shipped damaged trucks to the port while creating his own fun by scaring Japanese civilians by backfiring trucks right within busy towns.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Korea, like my Baby

Asefa Werku Kassa describes how Korea is like his baby. He sacrificed his blood for the freedom of South Korea. He describes how he would still fight for South Korea. Asefa Werku Kassa wants to revisit to see what his sacrifices look like seventy years later.



Asfaw Desta

Korean Battle

Asfaw Desta describes his Korean service. He describes being trained upon arrival in Busan. The M1 was the weapon he trained with. He also describes battles and rough terrain. Many people died and these memories stick with him. He recalls fighting conditions on Hill 1073, which is near the Iron Triangle.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Never Forget

Assefa Demissie Belete describes his excitement for the transformation of Korea. He feels that Korea and Ethiopia are brothers. Ethiopia helped Korea, now Korea helps Ethiopia. Assefa Demissie Belete wants Korea to continue to help Ethiopia. Korea should not forget Ethiopian sacrifices.



Augusto S. Flores

Augusto Flores Notes Poverty in Korea while He Works as a Clerk

Augusto Flores worked as a clerk for the Filipino army while in Korea. His quarters was in tents. His only assistant was a nine year old Korean errand boy whom he paid with his own money and chocolate. The poverty was so great in Korean, he also noted even a Korean colonel's wife had to work to make ends meet.



Augusto Flores Is Proud of His Service in Korea

Augusto Flores is proud to have fought the enemies of South Korea to preserve democracy. He is amazed at the economic boom South Korea has achieved. He was especially proud when the South Korean president came to the Philippines to thank the Filipinos for their service, knowing his service contributed in a small way to Korean success.



Augusto Flores Appreciates South Korea's Assistance to the Philippines

Augusto Flores appreciates South Korean aid to the Philippines. For example, South Korea donated two ships to the Philippines. He realizes South Korea is grateful and continues to acknowledge the sacrifices others have made to preserve their freedom. He believes there will be a lost lasting relationship between the two countries.



Austin Timmins

Korea: Yesterday to Today

Austin Timmins compares his observations from visiting Korea in 1998, to what he witnessed during the Korean War. He also details how impressed he is with Korea's development. He has knowledge of South Korea's development, but his legacy far exceeded his expectations.



Avery Creef

Impressions of Korea

Avery Creef shares the image of Korea he has in his mind. He recalls seeing many mountains. He recounts landing in Incheon at dark but remembers the city being destroyed. He also recalls seeing Seoul on his way out of Korea and remembers it being destroyed.



Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Barry McLean

Here to Tell Their Stories

Barry McLean shares his thoughts on why some veterans struggle with talking about their experiences in Korea. He reminisces about a female nurse in Korea who flew every mission to pick up the wounded soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir. He highlights how all of the people he is reminiscing about are gone, but he is still here wearing out.



Belay Bekele

Protecting a Country Being Attacked

Belay Bekele describes the reasoning for Ethiopian forces going to Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie made a promise to the United Nations to protect nations being attacked. Ethiopia was the only country in Africa to send troops to Korea. Belay Bekele also describes the suffering of the people. He says the people would eat food scraps from the soldiers.



Belisario Flores

Economy in Korea Today and Closing Thoughts

Belisario Flores says the time he spent in the war and the tremendous success of Korea today gives him great satisfaction. He feels he played a "little bitty" part in the recovery of South Korea. He is very proud and wants young people to know that freedom is not free. He emphasizes one has to fight and stand up for what he/she believes in.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Duties to Ensure Safety

The Combat Chemical Engineer Corps developed smoke screens over the rivers which would allow the battalion to lay the bridges without being attacked by the enemy. The worry was that while placing these bridges, the enemy would lay mines in the river bottoms, so the engineers were hoping they had done their job well without risking the lives their fellow soldiers. Ben Schrader hoped that all the bombs had be deactivated prior to coming so close to these rivers.



Language Acquisition was Crucial

Communication was difficult when working with the Korean infantry, so US Army trained Korean soldiers in Arabic numerals & map reading. They could help provide the coordinates to fire on the number of units, battalion or regiments they anticipated coming in. It proved crucial to know which weapons worked with the right fuse and how these weapons would effect the enemy.



Learning Japanese Headed to Korea and the Army Point System

While on the troop ship going over to Korea, the loud speaker system on the ship was only playing conversational language in Japanese, not in Korean. This showed the soldiers that no one had the opportunity to learn Korean before landing in this combat zone. While stationed in a war zone, the Army gave out 4 points for soldiers at the front lines, 3 for troops farther back, 2 for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and 1 point for troops on the home front. Ben Schrader was earning 4 points a month, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



10 Days and a Much Needed Shower

Everything was provided for the soldiers, so pay was always sent back to the US. Combat fatigues were provided and showers were only provided every 10-12 days. Charcoal was provided for heat and since you had to carry your water for drinking, water was scarce. Ben recalled the trucks carrying large containers of hot water pulled up and they had installed pipes that sprayed hot water to produce a "shower" effect for the men as they stood under in 20-degree weather.



We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembered before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembered while cooking the C-Ration that contained some form of meat, they would eat the whole onion raw and potato uncooked to add flavor. Koreans would have double rations so that they could share with the American military and the meals consisted of rice with fish.



Closure to the Present Hostilities with North Korea

Ben Schrader believed that the hostilities will continue because North Korea continues to threaten the US with bombs. It is just like the Cold War the lasted for many years. He would support reunification between North and South Korea since he went back to Korea for a revisit and he saw first-hand the civilian desire to become one country again.



Benito B. Arabe

I Liked to Fight with Communists

Benito B. Arabe describes his units pulling out from the battle at Hill 010. He shares how members of his unit had no idea where the enemy was and states he was not afraid as he "liked to fight with the Communists". He recounts how he remained in Korea until after the armistice concluded the fighting. He offers some detail of his return trip to Korea where he saw many houses and happy people and returned to the boundary between North and South Korea.



Benjamin Allen

Korea was War, Not a Police Action

Benjamin Allen remembers returning back to the United States and attempting to join a local VFW only to be told the Korean War was a police action, not a war. He shares how this official terminology kept him out of the VFW, but how he quickly became a member of the American Legion. He later speaks of an encounter with a Vietnam Veteran whom he had to educate about the Korean War.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

Medals after MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes the medals his brother, Fernando Arriola, received after being declared MIA and Presumed Dead in the Korean War. He shares that his brother received the Purple Heart, Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. He displays several certificates sent by officials in South Korea as well.



Bernard Brownstein

Everyone Looked Beautiful

Bernard Brownstein describes his arrival in Incheon and drive to his camp. He explains that the soldier driving him whistles at Korean women as they are driving. He explains that initially he didn't find the girl attractive but as time went on, everyone became beautiful.



No Windows Anywhere

Bernard Brownstein describes the condition of Seoul during the war. He explains what the food markets looked like at the side of the street. In addition, he explains the bullet holes and blown out windows of the capital's buildings.



Toilet Paper Was The Big Thing

Bernard Brownstein describes being able to visit his cousin Myron who was also serving in Korea for five days. He explains how pulling connections made it possible for them to visit in person. He also describes how the only thing that Myron wanted from him was toilet paper.



Ingenuity of the Korean People

Bernard Brownstein shares his memories of Seoul and its disheveled state. He marvels at the ingenuity of the South Korean people as he recounts how they constructed their homes and carried out everyday tasks. He adds that the automatic internal ingenuity of the Korean people led them from where they were to where they are now.



Bernard Clark

Coping with Loss and Memories of Korea

Bernard Clark is still saddened by the loss of his friends while serving. He dealt with those losses as a young man in a few different ways. He also attended several concerts during his time in Korea, and he remembers a road march while on reserve which entailed a fiery mishap. Napalm drops took place during the Korean War, and he describes the aftermath of this weapon.



Bernard G. Kenahan

Drafted With No Knowledge of Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan explains his plans to work at a lumber company office upon graduation. He describes how his plans changed in 1952 at the age of 21 when he was drafted into the Army. He remembers having no knowledge of Korea prior to his draft, never imagining he would be sent there.



Route to Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan describes departing for Korea in 1953 via ship. He describes making multiple stops along the way, including stops in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Japan. He recounts the living conditions regarding showering and explains that his duties aboard ship entailed overseeing the sleeping quarters.



Bernard Smith

What Adjective Would You Chose to Describe Korea during the war?

Bernard Smith described Korea as if the conditions and people during the war went "back in time." He said he could equate what he saw to living the harsh life in rural America where people had next to nothing, but were still happy. He described children would pull empty Hershey boxes with a string as if it was a toy truck and were so content.



Witnessing Seoul

Bernard Smith's encounter with Seoul when they arrived was a devastated and torn apart city. An example is a governmental business that had its windows blown out and walls collapsed, but what parts were still standing and areas safe enough to work, the government continued to work there. The area where Bernard Smith was stationed appeared to be untouched.



Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago

First Days at War / Primeros Días en la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describes his first impressions of Korea and the utter devastation he encountered. He remembers being immediately struck by the fact that the train which transported them to the front was riddled with bullet holes. Furthermore, he details the way in which Seoul was destroyed and the way in which a major bridge was blown up by the allies to prevent troop advancement by the enemy.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y la devastación total que encontró. Recuerda que le llamó la atención el hecho de que el tren que los transportaba al frente estaba lleno de agujeros de balazos. Además, detalla la forma en que Seúl fue destruida y la forma en que los aliados volaron un puente importante para evitar el avance de las tropas enemigas.



Bill Chrysler

Traveling to Korea

Bill Chrysler vividly remembers the nervous anticipation as they headed to Korea. They stopped in the Aleutian Islands and again in Hawaii to pick up American forces. Onboard, the daily routine involved regular exercise on the deck to maintain fitness. When they arrived in Pusan, he recalls seeing refugees suffering, struggling without food or shelter, leaving a lasting impression on his memory.



Bill Lynn

The Plight of the Korean People

Bill Lynn describes the destitute conditions the Korean people lived in during the war. He has revisited Korea and compares what he saw during the war with what he witnessed when he returned. Now he describes South Korea as a paradise and is completely astonished with the way the South Koreans have developed their country.



Bill Scott

Babies Starving

When Bill Scott arrived in Seoul, they were given 4-5 days worth of rations. After seeing the starving children with or without parents, the soldiers fed the babies with their own food rather than watch them starve. Soldiers knew they had to take care of the kids and they were proud to have done it for them.



Billy J. Scott

The Rubble of Seoul

Billy Scott describes civilian men, women, and children starving in the destruction of Seoul. He shares that he and other American soldiers had never seen anything like it. He recounts gathering c-rations along with other fellow troops and tossing them to those in need.



The Friendship of Two Strangers

Billy Scott describes his friendship with a KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) named Pyon during his time in Korea. He recounts the opportunity Pyon was given to pay a visit to his family he had not seen in roughly a year's time. He shares that American soldiers gathered food, clothing, blankets, and money and gifted them to Pyon to secure his family's safety. He adds that he will never forget him.



Bjarne Christensen

Korea Then and Now

Bjarne Christensen recalls being affected by the amount of poverty he saw in Busan, South Korea. He shares that upon his revisit, he could see much progress. He explains how he was impressed and overwhelmed by the differences.



To Be Young at War

Bjarne Christensen shares that he was just sixteen when he served aboard the Jutlandia. He describes exiting the hospital ship in Busan only to see great poverty among the Korean people. He recalls how he saw children begging and how much it bothered him.



Bjorn Lind

Return to Korea 60 Years Later

Bjorn Lind returned to Korea in 2014 after 60 years away having left service in 1954. He was surprised and impressed upon his return to Seoul. When he left in 1954, he remembers not being sure if South Korea would ever survive. He recounts how used X-rays would become windows in homes. Bjorn Lind is proud of how South Korea grew from a poor agricultural nation. He is impressed with their improvements and also respects how they treat veterans like him to this day.



Bob Couch

The Eye-Opening Trip to Pusan

Bob Couch discusses his basic training in California and his deployment to Korea. He recounts the "jolt" he experienced upon his arrival in Pusan after seeing the state of destruction and poverty level among civilians. He recalls trucks making rounds each morning to collect bodies of civilians who had died during the night.



Bob Imose

When I Went Back, I Could Not Believe It

Bob Mitsuo Imose recollects Korea as a region that was very rural with few high rises during his time there from 1967-’71. He notes that seeing much of the country was hampered by the 10:00 p.m. curfew which required them to be on base. Fortunate to return to Korea in both 2018 and 2019, he marvels at the growth of Seoul with all its high rises, condominiums, and new bridges. He recalls the traffic jams and the new cars he saw on each of his return trips.



But the Korean People Never Forgot

Bob Mitsuo Imose, following two return trips to South Korea, marvels at what the country has become. He shares his amazement at how the South Korean industry blossomed in such a short time. Although the Korean War is often called the "Forgotten War", he remembers an encounter with a little girl on his return trip in 2018 that showed that the Korean people never forgot.



Bob Near

You're In It For Life

Bob Near describes the role of Canadian forces during the Korean War. He explains that Second Battalions went overseas to assist in the war efforts. He expounds that once a Canadian is in the military, he/she is always considered a member through honor.



Our Guys Did A Great Job

Bob Near describes the importance of Canada's contribution to the Korean War. He describes the time period including the Berlin Wall and the march of Communism. He explains that Canadians were willing to give their lives for the defense of freedom and democracy.



Knowledge of the Korean War and Canadian Response

Bob Near shares that his knowledge of the Korean War stems from an interest in history and interactions with veterans his father worked with while growing up. He explains that the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War in Canada as it is overshadowed by World War II and the Cold War that followed. He adds that the relatively low number of Canadians who served in the war compared to the number who served in World War II has played a role regarding less publicity.



Bradley J. Strait

Animosity towards the North Korean Leadership

Bradley Strait shares the level of animosity he feels towards the leadership in North Korea. He weighs in on the benefits of reunification and suggests that South Korea is a good model of democracy. He highlights the economic gains South Korean has made as well.



Brian Kanof

Running a Petroleum Pipeline

Brian Kanof explains his role in leading a specialist group in the running of the oil pipeline which was built, maintained, and manned by the US Army. He shares this South-to-North pipeline helped supply petroleum to Seoul. He describes his role in operations and his battalion's interactions with the local South Korean people through cooking a meal to rival the spiciness of local cuisine.



An Appreciation for South Korea

Brian Kanof shares some of his thoughts about Korea and Korean culture. He recalls his first encounter with a Hyundai automobile and the driving habits during his visit in 1978. He speaks about the progress, including a reforestation project, he saw in Korea as a member of the U.S. Special Forces.



Bruce Kim

Unsettling First Few Days

Bruce Kim describes flying over the Han River and the disturbing experience of arriving in Korea shortly after martial law was imposed by President Park Chung-Hee. Shortly after their arrival, he remembers traveling to the DMZ. He recalls a strong military presence everywhere and being told to be careful in Seoul. He emphasizes how he was shocked by the number of checkpoints and the tense atmosphere.



Making a Contribution

Bruce Kim describes his experience at the middle school for boys in Samcheonpo. He particularly remembers the lack of heat in the school and the students in the simplicity of the resources. After getting into a routine, he explains how he tried to train them to move away from just memorizing the words and instead focus on making dialogue. He comments on how some of the students enjoyed the different teaching style. Overall, he remembers many excelled with this different approach. Furthermore, he shares he felt he made a contribution by showing them how they could use the English language.



Students Find Success

Bruce Kim reflects on the relationships he developed while in Samcheonpo. He thinks about the perception of the countryside communities in Korea and feels that sometimes they are underestimated. However, against all of their adversities, he shares that many of his students from that small fishing community were able to attend Seoul National University. During a trip back to Korea, he describes one encounter with a former student who became a dentist and returned to Samcheonpo.



Bruce W. Diggle

Picture Time

Bruce Diggle shares photos he took while in Korea. He shows photos of his travels from Pusan to Seoul through the countryside. His photos show the low level of development of Pusan and the destruction of bridges along with the city of Seoul itself.



Departure and Revisit

Bruce Diggle left Korea in 1954 by ship and went to London. In London, he met up with his soon-to-be wife who left for London when he left for Korea. They were married upon his arrival in London. He returned to Korea with a revisit program offered to New Zealand veterans. He is very appreciative of South Korea's efforts to bring veterans back and is impressed by the development of South Korea since the war.



Burley Smith

An Impressive Show of Gratitude

Burley Smith shares how impressed he was by Former President Moon Jai-in’s reaction to finding out that his parents traveled on the SS Meredith Victory. He explains how he connected with Moon Jai-in through letters. During a visit to Korea, he was honored at a ceremony at the Geoje-do Monument. 



Burnie S. Jarvis

Impact of the Korean War

Burnie Jarvis shares he received the South Korean Peace Ambassador Meal from the South Korean government and recalls not considering himself much of a hero despite what the Korean government said. He believes that it was important for the United States to be involved in the war as a matter of protecting the South Korean people from being overrun by the North and to preserve freedom. He describes how he proudly served his country and shares that his military service taught him many things including an appreciation for his own country. He add that following the war he took advantage of the GI Bill and trained to become an aviation mechanic, the field which he worked in the remainder of his career.



Burt Cazden

Thoughts on Modern Korea

Burt Cazden shares that he supported US intervention in Korea and agreed with President Truman on the matter. He states that the war was won due to South Korea obtaining its freedom. He offers his thoughts on the accomplishments of modern Korea and describes it as a marvelous country.



Carl Hissman

Evacuating Heungnam, Off to Busan

Carl Hissman describes his experience at the evacuation of Heungnam. He remembers being the last one off of the beach. He recalls seeing many North Korean refugees and remembers the roads were so full of people. He shares they were able to save some but not all. He remembers seeing a blown-up village and two civilians frozen dead. After Heungnam, his unit went down to Busan and began pushing back up north towards Seoul.



Protecting Himself from the Chinese

Carl Hissman describes his sleeping arrangements. He remembers trying to find foxholes that were already dug out by the Chinese. He shares that the Chinese were better at digging foxholes than they were. He recalls it being cold but adds that he did not realize it was sometimes colder than sixty degrees below zero. He recounts how his mom sent him an additional gun so he could defend himself if the Chinese tried to take him as a prisoner while he was sleeping. He remembers the Chinese soldiers being very quiet and notes that it was an advantage seeing as they did not have the equipment the Americans had.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Legacy of the Korean War

Carl Jacobsen shares his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War. He elaborates on his fascination of the progress South Korea has made since the war. He comments on the appreciation Koreans have towards the United States and other countries which provided aid.



Carl Rackley

Never Going Back to Korea

Carl Rackley expresses his desire to never return to Korea. He describes how many of his fellow Korean War veteran friends have gone back. Despite their journeys back and hearing of South Korea's immense success, he insists he does not want to return.



Carl W. House

Destruction of Civilian Homes

After Carl House's unit left the Incheon landing site, they headed to Seoul. He said the first time he witnessed the capital, it was gone due to total destruction. When American tanks arrived, they would level the buildings to keep the North Koreans from using them. Carl House said they warned civilians to leave their homes before the soldiers destroyed them. However, recently, Carl House was was surprised at a doctor's office when he came across a magazine in the waiting room describing South Korea's accomplishments since the war.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen

Life in Korea After the War

Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen describes his daily life in Korea as a member of the Military Police after the Korean War had ended. He shares that it was not easy and that he and others there worked 7 days a week. He expresses that the only thing that really bothered him throughout the experience was not being with his family.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

A Destroyed Korea/ Una Corea Destruida

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the utter devastation of cities including Seoul and Incheon and other important villages. Amongst the destruction, he remembers the many orphans he saw while he was being sent to the front lines. This occurred while he and others were being sent to support troops from the First Battalion that were fighting with U.N. Forces.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto cuenta sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda la devastación total de ciudades como Seúl e Incheon y otros pueblos importantes. Entre la destrucción, recuerda a los muchos huérfanos que vio mientras lo enviaban al frente por ferrocarril y camión. Esto ocurrió mientras él y otros fueron enviados a apoyar a las tropas del Primer Batallón que luchaban con las Fuerzas de la ONU.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

First Impressions/ Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Julio Mora Zea reflects on his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he still feels pity remembering the terrible conditions civilians faced. He explains that children lined up along truck routes to beg and offer unthinkable things to soldiers. He remembers the destruction in most of the cities which had no buildings but were simply heaps of rubble.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea habla sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que todavía siente lástima cuando recuerda las terribles condiciones a las que se enfrentaban los civiles. Explica que los niños hacían fila a lo largo de las rutas de los camiones para mendigar y les ofrecían cosas a los soldados que ni entendían. Recuerda la destrucción de la mayoría de las ciudades y cuenta que no habían más edificios sino que eran simplemente montones de escombros.



Why Korea Transformed / Las Razones del Desarrollo de Corea

Carlos Julio Mora Zea offers his opinions on South Korea’s transformation. He surmises that the reason South Korea became an economic powerhouse can be attributed to the intelligence of the Korean government. He laments that the Colombian government does not seem to take care of the people in the same manner Korea has.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea ofrece sus opiniones sobre la transformación de Corea del Sur. Supone que la razón por la que Corea del Sur se convirtió en una potencia económica puede atribuirse a la inteligencia del gobierno coreano. Lamenta que el gobierno colombiano no aparenta cuidar a la gente de la misma manera que Corea.



Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Mora Zea shares his views on the legacy of the Korean War. He believes that all troops in the allied forces conserved liberty and demonstrated the ideals for all nations. He explains that while wars have negative consequences, Korea would not have the economy, peace, and stability it enjoys without the efforts of all that fought.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea comparte sus opiniones sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Él cree que todas las tropas de las fuerzas aliadas conservaron la libertad y demostraron los ideales para todas las naciones. Explica que, si bien las guerras tienen consecuencias negativas, Corea no tendría la economía, la paz y la estabilidad que disfruta sin los esfuerzos de todos los que lucharon.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

Memories of a Destroyed Nation / Recuerdos de Una Nación Destruida

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros recalls his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival. He remembers the shock he felt at seeing the utmost misery within the civilian population. He shares that he will never forget the manner in which people begged for food and the ways in which soldiers tried to help.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda la conmoción que sintió al ver la miseria entre los civiles. Comparte que nunca se olvidará de la forma en que la gente pedía comida y las formas en que los soldados intentaban ayudar.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Rivera-Rivera describes his first impressions of Korea and the people in the country. He explains that he was astonished by the abject poverty and need he witnessed. He reflects on the fact that he could not understand how civilians were able to survive without water and living under the conditions they faced.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y de la gente en el país. Explica que estaba asombrado por la pobreza y la necesidad que vio. No podía entender cómo los civiles podían sobrevivir sin agua y viviendo en las condiciones a las que se enfrentaban.



Carroll F. Reusch

On Patrol on the Front Lines

Carroll F. Reusch explains he served as a medic on the front lines in Korea beginning in 1952. Despite his role as a medic, his role encompassed more than taking care of medical issues. He notes that a medic always accompanied any groups larger than three soldiers on patrol at night. He recalls not really knowing what to expect on the first night but that the fear ramped up with later patrols.



Amazed by Progress

Carroll F. Reusch shares he took part in a revisit program in 2010 along with other Korean War veterans from the United States, Greece, Australia, Canada, and Ethiopia. He recollects Seoul, at that time, being the most beautiful city he had ever seen. He describes the city and notes that he had no idea things would shape up so quickly when he left Korea in 1954.



Cecil Franklin Snyder

Seoul, 1958-1959

Cecil Snyder describes Seoul based on his visits there in late 1958 though 1959. He talks about the condition of the city, its infrastructure, sanitation, and people.



Food for Korean Orphanages

Cecil Snyder, a clerk stationed at Osan Air Base, talks about delivering food to nearby orphanages. He describes collecting and delivering unused food, oftentimes used to feed the orphanages' livestock such as pigs.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker described the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during an especially cold winter. He described poor housing because so many refugees were crammed in the Busan Perimeter. He described how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Cecil Phipps

Chinese Houses

Cecil Phipps talks about the Chinese buildings he was housed in as a POW. He describes how these dwellings were built and what materials were used in their construction. He details the heating system that was important for cold Asian winters.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Experiences in MASH Hospitals in Korea

Cecelia Sulkowski arrived to Korea in 1949 and began working in a MASH hospital. She recalls seeing shrapnel, fire, and fireworks but was not afraid as she felt far enough away. She explains the MASH unit was set up in an old schoolhouse because it was well built.



Experiences with Patients and First Experience in Korea

Cecelia Sulkowski recalls the variety of patients she saw, describing them as seasoned soldiers, not new recruits. She describes the feelings of the patients and how they felt disheartened with the lack of supplies they were sent in to fight with. She becomes quite emotional when she recalls her feelings about these soldiers. She continues discussing her arrival to Korea and remembers the cold winters especially.



Feelings About the Army, Treating North Koreans, and Humor in Daily Life

Cecelia discusses a wide range of topics in this clip. She wholeheartedly recommends the Army for someone who wants a good and secure life. She recalls treating North Korean patients and how grateful they were for the good care they received. She speaks about the need for humor in their daily lives to help the medical professionals cope with the terrible things they would see on a daily basis. She remembers having to be very careful with their possessions as there was a lot of theft occurring for black market purposes.



Cecilio Asuncion

Let Me Tell You About the Economy

Cecilio Asuncion elaborates on the drastic difference between the Korean economy during the war and now. He remembers seeing the Korean people water and fertilize their crops with human waste. While comparing the Korea he remembers during the war and Korea today, he explains the rationale for why Korea was able to transform their economy. He admires how the Korean leadership properly used the aid from the United States and became the number one shipbuilders in the world.



Cengiz A. Turkogul

Leading Veterans back to Korea

Cengiz Turkogul led a group of veterans to return to Korea in 2010. He was very impressed with the growth of South Korea. When he first was in Korea he was astounded by the number of orphans and would take food to them. Now, those orphans have grown up and he loves to meet Korean people.



Charles Blum

Kinda Disappointed with My Own People

Charles Blum explains what the Korean War meant to him. He describes the pain from his wounds with every step he takes. He also elaborates on his thoughts towards South Korea appreciating their freedom while he feels that America may take it for granted.



You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Mass Grave Site Filled with Civilians

Charles Buckley drove all throughout Korea during his time there and witnessed the narrow roads, trees, and the damage incurred. He recalls a massive grave site that had been unearthed full of slaughtered children. It's predicted that this grave site was from when the North Koreans overran Seoul, South Korea and killed anything is their path.



Thoughts of an Airman: Get the Hell Out Of There!

Charles Buckley's initial thoughts when he reflects on his experience during the war was to "get the hell out of there." He remembers his contribution to the country by helping various people, specifically the orphaned children. Charles Buckley would order from the Sears and Roebuck catalog and he would look forward to seeing the smiles on the children's faces. He also recalled the living conditions of all of the children and the civilians were able to obtain supplies they needed to rebuild their own country.



The Korean People Are Different Than Other People Around the World

Charles Buckley traveled all over the world and he said the people of Korea are so different in such a positive way. He feels their conduct, willingness to help themselves, and loyal to their country is what sets them apart from other countries. Charles Buckley also said the Koreans were so loyal to the US soldiers and respectful to those who died for their cause during the Korean War. They are the only people that continue to thank US soldiers.



Charles Carl Smith

The Greatest Respect

Charles Smith talks about his experience with ROK Army and KATUSA soldiers. The only Koreans he encountered during his deployment, he describes his feelings about their service and fortitude.



Charles Comer

Korean Civilians

Charles Comer describes the Korean civilians that he saw upon his arrival at Seoul. He explains that the city itself was destroyed. He describes the sad state of the people who had been frequently moved around due to war evacuations. He goes on to describe the children, many of whom had been orphaned by the war and would crowd around the passing trains as the troops would give them their c-rations to eat.



Excitement Dissipated Quickly

Charles Comer describes his feelings of excitement as he left Japan for Korea. He explains that being a young man of eighteen, he was looking forward to seeing a new country but was quickly disheartened when he arrived at Seoul. He explains that the destruction he witnessed was a stark difference from the thriving city of Kobe he had just left in Japan.



Charles Crow Flies High

Entering Korea in 1993

Charles Crow Flies High was sent to Korea for his first deployment in November 1993. He flew into Kimpo Air Force Base, and then he was sent to Seoul to get finished setting up to protect South Korea. He recounts that they were "locked and stocked" at all times from that point forward. His job was to watch for Kim Jong Il and his North Korean troops to make sure that they did not take over Seoul.



Knowledge of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High did not know much about Korea before his deployment, except for the details about the Korean War. Since many of his relatives were in the military, he knew about the Korean War, and it made him really proud to protect the peninsula just like they did. For both deployments, Charles Crow Flies High stayed for fifteen months protecting a variety of areas along the DMZ.



United States and Republic of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High talks about why the relationship between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a good thing for both countries. He believes that Kim Jung Un is influenced by his father, but there is a lot of camaraderie between US troops and Korean civilians. The Korean culture has spread around the United States, and he feels that this is a very positive interaction.



Charles E. Gebhardt

First Impressions of Korea

Charles Gebhardt describes arriving in Pusan in July, 1950. He talks about contacting his unit by phone and being picked up by jeep to travel to Masan. On their journey, he talks about seeing the first signs of war.



"You Should Not be Afraid of Some Chinese Laundrymen"

Charles Gebhardt recounts the words the General Edward Almond in a meeting of officers and intelligence personnel on the morning after the first fighting of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Describing the meeting in which he attended, he mentions that several officers present were taken aback by the comment. The comment was "You should not be afraid of some Chinese laundrymen."



"We Won that War"

Charles Gebhardt gives his thoughts about the legacy of the Korean War. He talks about his pride in the transformation of South Korea. He discusses that although he hasn't returned to Korea, he has kept up on the country's successes since the war.



Charles Earnest Berry

Experiences with Chinese Soldiers and Rethinking War

Charles Earnest Berry discusses fighting the Chinese and how quick and mobile they were since they carried less equipment than the American soldiers. He explains how the Chinese would put human waste on their bayonets to increase the chances of wounds becoming infectious. He recounts finding an entire National Guard unit dead and hauling dead bodies from the front. All of this made him rethink war. He shares that when his mom asked what he would like her to package and mail, he requested liquor instead of cookies.



Capture and Escape

Charles Earnest Berry discusses the severe cold weather in Korea and being captured at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes how he was able to escape and safely return to American lines despite the challenging circumstances. He recalls the massive waves of Chinese soldiers and heavy artillery bombardments that he and his fellow soldiers endured during their time in Korea.



Charles Eugene Warriner

Korea After the Armistice

Charles Eugene Warriner talks about arriving at Incheon and his assignment near the DMZ in the time just after the signing of the Armistice. He describes building a bunker and collecting lumber. He shares how although the war was over, one could still feel and sense the horror of war overhead.



Korean Children

Charles Eugene Warriner speaks about seeing impoverished Korean children while on his way to his unit. He describes the emotional impact the experience had on him. He recalls how many of those children were starving and had lost their families and homes.



Charles Falugo, Jr.

What were living conditions like in South Korea?

After a twenty-two day trip from Seattle, Washington, Charles Falugo recalls being relieved that they finally landed in Pusan, South Korea. He recalls the poor living conditions he witnessed--all Korean houses were made of clay, the people used oxen to help them transport water, and they picked roots for food. He also recalls South Korean children taking his unit's leftovers home to feed their families. He felt very lucky relative to the South Koreans he encountered and feels immense pride for the advancements South Korea has made today.



What is Korea like today?

Charles Falugo revisited South Korea in 2016 and was amazed at the differences he witnessed. The buildings, the highways, and other improvements he witnessed were so different from how he remembers Seoul in 1951. It was totally destroyed then, with only a couple of buildings standing.



What did you experience driving through Korea?

Charles Falugo recalls the roads being so bad that their truck chassis would constantly break. Every time his division would stop to fix its trucks, they would encounter starving children begging for food. He would give his rations to the children. He recalls moving into Seoul and only seeing the blue capitol building and the railroad station. All embassies were blown up. There was one Shell Oil Company building that was guarded, located right next to his company's housing.



Rest and Relaxation

Charles Falugo recalls that when he was not on duty, he would hang out with the Korean people. Often he would give them supplies not being used by his unit. He recalls a good life in the Underwood house. He enjoyed all of the food that his Korean cooks would make and enjoyed saki with his friends.



Charles Fowler

Life After Korea

Charles Fowler reflects on life after Korea, his time in the war, and the change it brought to his way of thinking. He shares he is more appreciative of life and is thankful to be an American. He states that history has proven democracy works and points to South Korea today as a perfect example, sharing that its success would have never happened under a communist type of government.



Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Charles Fowler emphasizes that Korean War veterans should be honored has other veterans have been. He shares that the Korean War should be characterized as an event that proves Communism does not work as it enslaves people and their freedom to act. He also adds that it will take a strong leader to bring both Koreas together in the future.



Charles Francis Jacks

The Korean I Saw

Charles Jacks describes the Korea he saw in the 1950s. He remembers small villages and rice paddies. He describes civilian housing and recalls the unique heating system they used to keep their houses warm in the winter.



Korea Today and Lessons Learned

Charles Jacks draws comparisons between 1950s Korea and Korea today. He shares that South Korea today is far more modern than it was during the war and contrasts it to North Korea. He reflects on lessons learned from his time serving.



Charles Gaush

Leaflets After Korean War

Charles Gaush talks about his job in psychological warfare after the armistice was signed. He describes making leaflets which were dropped in South Korea to give civilians suggestions to improve health and water quality.



Charles Gregory Caldwell

From Peace Corps to Honorary Counsel

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares he served in the Peace Corps in Korea. He remembers the impact that the Peace Corps had on his life. He recalls how after serving three years in the Peace Corps in Korea, he was appointed and confirmed by both the U.S. government and the Korean government as Honorary Counsel for the Republic of Korea in Northern Oregon. He explains the duties of this position.



Why the Peace Corps

Charles Gregory Caldwell explains he was inspired by John F. Kennedy to join the Peace Corps. He shares he saw the program as an opportunity to travel as well as a means of potentially avoiding the draft during the Vietnam War. He recalls how his service in the Peace Corps deferred his service in the Vietnam War. He explains how after two years in the Peace Corps he asked for an extension for a third year which was granted.



Joining the Peace Corps

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares the process of joining the Peace Corps. He recalls requesting an assignment in a warm place. He remembers Korea was not necessarily on the top of his list, but in the end, he chose to go to Korea following extensive training in Denver, CO.



Heading to Korea to Learn

Charles Gregory Caldwell notes that his parents supported his work with the Peace Corps. He recalls his travels and arrival in Korea. He stresses that as a Peace Corps volunteer he was not there to help the Korean people and change their lives. He explains volunteers were there to learn from the Korean people and help with whatever they could do. He shares lived among the people, learned from them, and taught them what he could. He recounts how he spent much of his time in Korea teaching English as a Second Language.



Life in Korea

Charles Gregory Caldwell explains he arrived in Korea and quickly learned lessons of appropriate cultural practices and manners. He recalls how, while teaching in Jeongeub, he lived in a low class motel for the two years. He notes that his room was quite small and shares details of his living conditions. His explains his primary duties as an educator centered on teaching seventh grade English with seventy-two students in each class. He offers details about the students he taught.



Life of a Peace Corps Teacher

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares he taught English to Korean boys at the Jeongeub Boys' Middle School in Jeongeub, Jeollabukdo. He details what a typical school day was like for him and how he went about instructing his students in English. He recalls, at one point, wondering exactly why he was teaching them English as he feared they would never use it again except for acceptance into high school.



Challenges of Living In Korea

Charles Gregory Caldwell shares the challenges of working in Korea. He recalls medical issues that many people living in Korea, foreigner and natives alike, typically faced. He shares he found his time in Korea most rewarding as it opened the world to him and changed his career path.



Charles Hoak

The Reality of the Situation

Charles Hoak describes being seasick for three days and his brother being seasick for seventeen days on the way to Korea. He recalls their arrival in Korea and remembers taking a train to their base. He describes how he could see and hear mortar fire on the train and how, at that moment, the reality of war set in.



Charles Kutchka

Fundraisers for Korean Children

Charles Kutchka details fundraisers his brigade did in Germany to help raise money for youth in Korea. They had watched films that described the poverty suffered by Korean children and that many were orphaned after the war. Although he wasn't stationed in Korea, all US troops in the world, contributed to the effort there.



Charles L. Hallgren

An Overcrowded Voyage

Charles Hallgren describes his journey from basic training through deployment to Korea. He recalls boarding a troop ship containing six thousand soldiers though it was only supposed to carry two thousand. He describes the congested sleeping situation aboard ship as well as the limited food availability.



Back to Korea During the Vietnam War

Charles Hallgren describes being deployed to Japan in 1970 for the purpose of inspecting Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units in Korea. He explains that Korea had tactical nuclear weapons which had to be inspected in various base locations on the peninsula. He describes his impressions of seeing a modernized Korea in 1970.



Charles Rangel

Korean Resilience

Charles Rangel identified the determination of the Korean people in the aftermath of the Korean war. The resilience and kindness of the Korean people is something that he will never forget. He even has pictures of his time in Korea inside of his office as a United States Representative.



Charles Ross

Korea Now

Charles Ross shares his thoughts on the progress Korea made since his time spent there in the 1950s. He recalls the poverty he saw and compares it to Korea now. He comments on the speed at which Korea transformed itself.



Charles T. Gregg

Poverty in Korea

Charles Gregg talks about some of his experiences with Korean civilians in the mid-1960's. He describes seeing dead people beside the road, a Korean man killing and eating a dog, and how Koreans fertilized their fields.



Interactions with KATUSA

Charles Gregg talks about KATUSAs. He describes how KATUSA soldiers were organized and used within his unit. He tells the story of dealing with a KATUSA soldier that had killed another soldier in an argument.



Charles Walther

"They Liked Us, We Liked Them"

Chuck Walther speaks about working with and being around native Koreans during his time serving in Korea after the Armistice. He describes that they had a good relationship with each other. He shares the only thing that was hard for him to adjust to was Korean food, particularly kimchi.



Orphanage in Seoul

Chuck Walther tells a story about when he and several of his fellow soldiers went in search of an orphanage and what happened when they found it. He shares they often contributed donations to the orphanage; however, he and fellow soldiers wanted to see the local orphanage they were donating to. He details how they bought gum and candies and delivered them to the orphanage.



Chester Coker

What Was the Point of War?

Chester Coker talks about how senseless he originally thought the war was. He reports being confused about his purpose and why the U.S. Army was there. He shares how he later understood the great value the war provided South Korea. He mentions stopping the spread of communism and shares he has returned to South Korea five times.



Comparing Korea, Then and Now

Chester Coker compares what Korea looked like when he was there during the war to the Korea of today. He describes the homes as straw and mud huts and comments that there were basically no roads. He details witnessing the brick homes, elaborate highways, modern comforts, and major cities like Seoul and also recognizes the economic transformation of South Korea. He comments on how the Korean War was known at the Forgotten War back in the 50s, just as it still is today.



Chuck Lusardi

Heading to Korea

Chuck Lusardi recalls the process of learning he and his brother were both headed to Korea while he was at Camp Stoneman, California. He recalls how, from Camp Stoneman, they were consigned to a troop ship which took about three thousand five hundred men on a fourteen-day voyage to Yokohama, Japan. He remembers that upon arrival at Camp Drake, there were no ships left because they had been dispersed from the Heungnam Evacuation. He vividly recounts the masses of humanity upon arrival in Busan on January 11, 1951, estimating the throng of refugees to be about two and a half million.



Never Saw a Korean Cry

Chuck Lusardi recalls finding it difficult to see what humanity had to do just to survive during the Korean War. He shares he was impressed with the resilience of the Korean people. He notes that everything in his memory from his time stationed in Korea is in black and white.



Clarence G. Atzenhoffer, Jr.

Poorly Prepared for War

Clarence Atzenhoffer describes his opinion on the Korean War and how unprepared he felt the United States was for the conflict. He expresses that American soldiers lacked training and were under-equipped. He describes flying to differing arsenals across the United States gathering weapons to send over to Korea.



The Forgotten War

Clarence Atzenhoffer shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is seen as the Forgotten War. He explains that many young people do not know about the war and many of the Korean War veterans are no longer alive now to tell their story. He describes the South Korean government's efforts to help spread awareness regarding the war.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Chinese Were Everywhere

Clarence Sperbeck describes when he arrived on the front lines when the Chinese were all over the place they controlled everything. When he came back to the states, counter intelligence asked him how he knew the Chinese were everywhere dominating the region, and he said, "that was easy to detect." When you entered a traditional Korean home, you were supposed to take off your shoes outside and put rubber slippers on. Clarence Sperbeck said most of the houses he saw had Chinese Army Boots at the door, so that's how he knew they were sleeping in the Korean houses.



Frozen In Fear

Clarence Sperbeck recalls while on the move picking up extra men who had been displaced from their unit and abandoned weapons. He found one guy frozen (not literally), just sitting there whether fear or uncertainty, Clarence Sperbeck kicked him in the shin with his combat boot (said it hurt like hell), handed him a weapon, and told him to fall in line with the rest. The other soldier was a new replacement paralyzed again with fear who didn't speak or move even after being kicked by Clarence Sperbeck.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clarence Jerke

Memories of the Armistice and Returning POWs

Clarence Jerke shares his memories of the Armistice. He describes how he felt and what he did as he encountered returning POWs in August 1953.



Help from South Korean Soldiers and Civilians

Clarence Jerke recalls his experiences with KATUSA soldiers and South Korean civilians. He describes one particular South Korean soldier who was especially adept at laying communication lines. He talks about civilian boys who washed military uniforms for food or money.



Claude Charland

Miracle Society

Claude Charland describes his revisit to South Korea. He describes the economic growth of South Korea as a miracle. He explains how the comparison is so expansive to what South Korea was to know. He makes the argument that it is very important strategically to the region as a commercial hub.



Clayton Burkholder

Knowledge of Korea

Clayton Burkholder was going to junior college and worked at a grocery store in 1951 when the Korean War stared. He read about the war in newspapers and heard it on the television. After volunteering, he didn't know anything about Korea, but he did know about Japan. He knew that there was a conflict that needed to be taken care of in Asia, but that was it.



The Forgotten War and Korea Today

Clayton Burkholder felt that people call the Korean War the "Forgotten War" because people didn't know what to do with a communist country. He thought that great things came out of the Korean War because of the fortitude of its civilians. United States veterans are proud for their service in the war which led to South Korea's freedom today. Clayton Burkholder is surprised to see the change from dirt and huts to paved roads when he looks at Google Maps.



Cletus S. Pollak

Filling in after the War

Cletus S. Pollak describes the function of his battalion at the end of the Korean War. He explains Eisenhower becoming president and his desire to end the Korean War. He also describes how members of his battalion stateside would be selected to fill in missing members of units overseas in Germany and Korea.



Were you gone?

Cletus S. Pollak shares that the Korean War was not the topic of conversation and describes coming home after the war and the reaction from most people being one of ignorance. He explains that the American populace was tired of war after World War II. He describes how the nation was tired of rationing and this contributed to the Korean War becoming known as the forgotten war.



Clifford Allen

The Legacy of the Korean War

Clifford Allen shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is referred to as the forgotten war. He explains that he felt the United States had a duty to go and put up a defense against communist ideas. He also describes the legacy of the Korean War and the people who will never forget it.



Clifford Bradley Dawson

Maintaining Communications in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson recounts how he was assigned to B Company as a replacement in Korea. He describes his crucial responsibility of maintaining communication between the artillery batteries, headquarters, and the fire direction center. He explains how he operated a switchboard by connecting multiple switches together, ensuring that everyone was connected. He recalls that in Korea, wired communication was more commonly used than radio.



Cease Fire and Christmas in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson shares his experience of the cease-fire being called in July 1953. He describes watching across the Han River and seeing the final rounds going off that night. Despite the cease-fire, he remembers there being no celebrations and how he felt suspicious of the Chinese and North Koreans. He remembers celebrating Christmas in Korea even though they had no tree. He shares how, to pass the time, they played cards.



Clifford L. Wilcox

I Was Not Near as Happy as I Thought I'd Be

Clifford Wilcox talks about feeling bittersweet leaving Korea in 1953. He enjoyed the purpose of his service as well as his fellow soldiers. It was hard for him to say goodbye to the soldiers he served with, waving farewell to them.



One of The Greatest Experiences

Clifford Wilcox talks about the remarkable contrast between the Korea he saw during the war and the Korea he saw and experienced while revisiting in 2010. When he first arrived, he saw extreme poverty and destruction. In 2010, his experience was first class, seeing South Korea's progress.



Clifford Petrey

Living Conditions as a POW

Clifford Petrey comments on the food rations provided by the Chinese. He recalls suffering through cold winters in North Korea as a prisoner of war even after being given Chinese uniforms by his captors. He describes the healing of his wounds he sustained at the Chosin Reservoir despite being a POW with little medical attention.



Clyde D. McKenrick

A New Mess Sergeant

Clyde McKenrick talks about his duties as a personnel clerk in Korea. He was responsible for assigning new personnel to appropriate units. He tells the story of assigning a corporal to the duties of mess sergeant and the fortuitous results that happened.



Clyde Fruth

What it was Worth

Clyde Fruth talks about the gratitude of the Korean people that he experienced during his revisit in 2010. Every person he met in South Korea bowed down to him to thank him for his service. It was a very emotional experience for him.



Colin J. Hallett

Invitation onboard a Republic of Korean Ship

Colin Hallett describes pride in his Naval service. He attended a ceremony where he was able to go onto a contemporary Republic of Korea ship due to his military service. The Republic of Korea Navy Captain was a generous host and showed Colin Hallett around the ship, which made him feel proud of his Naval service.



Congressman James Conyers

Hopes for Reunification

Congressman Conyers speaks of the alliance between the United States and South Korea. He supports maintaining open lines of communication with North Korea. Congressman Conyers reflects on his activism promoting peace. He describes his work with Dr. Martin Luther King and toward resolving differences through peaceful means.



Conrad R. Grimshaw

The Houses of the Korean People

Conrad Grimshaw describes arriving in Korea and seeing the devastation of the Korean households. He recounts their homes being burnt and crudely replaced by stones, straw, and dirt. He shares that American soldiers were empathic and took care of the Korean people any way they could.



Cruz Sanchez Rivera

Cruz Rivera Serves Food to Koreans

Cruz Rivera pitied the starving Koreans. He at first got permission to take food American soldiers were going to throw in the trash and delivered it to starving Koreans. He collected the food by convincing his fellow soldiers to scrap their leftovers into a bowl instead of tossing it in the trash. He later was ordered not to do that because the food was reserved for Americans. He convinced his superiors it was okay because if he didn't feed them, the Koreans had to steal food from them anyway to survive.



Curtis Lewis

Travis Air Force Base During the Korean War

Curtis Lewis was not sent to the Korean War during his time in the military. He heard that the US Army didn't have enough guns and ammunition while fighting against the North Koreans. Many of the US regiments were run over by the North Koreans due to lack of weapons. He was stationed at Travis Air Force Base in California to perform maintenance and was paid 200 dollars a month and he earned his way up to Staff Sergeant.



Curtis Pilgrim

Orphans, Mama-sans, and Katusa!

Curtis Pilgrim talks about the Korean people and how he came to care for them. From the shoe shine boys to the mama-sans, he remembers how he and fellow soldiers would sometimes give their last dime to help buy them necessities, especially the orphans. He recalls having great respect for the KATUSA that served alongside him.



Cyril Kubista

The Influence of Korea

Cyril Kubista was impressed with the Korean community and the impact it made on his life. He never imagined it would give him the experiences and expertise necessary to become a twenty-seven year veteran teacher of small engine repair in a correctional facility. Furthermore, he believes the Korean work ethic and culture is fabulous because of the gratitude for those that helped during the war. He believes every man should be required to serve in the military to help them grow up.



Dadi Wako

Journey to Korea

Dadi Wako recalls not knowing anything about Korea prior to his arrival. He describes traveling by ship for the first time and experiencing unpleasant conditions at sea. He shares his excitement as a teenager upon seeing the shoreline of Korea for the first time.



Revisiting Korea

Dadi Wako discusses revisiting South Korea in 2018. He describes his amazement of the many changes he saw. He recalls feeling especially proud of how veterans were treated.



Dale Schlichting

Enlisting as a 17 Year Old

Dale Schlichting chose to join the Navy the day after he turned 17 years old. He prepared and studied for the Eddie Test for electronics with help from his favorite high school teacher. Dlae Schlichting chose the Navy since everyone in his neighborhood was active in this branch and he also wanted to follow after his relatives in the Navy.



Dan McKinney

Captured

Dan McKinney describes how he was captured by enemy forces. His entire company was nearly wiped out. He talks about how all the members of the squad he commanded were killed and enduring friendly artillery shelling before he was captured.



Food and Living Quarters in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes what he was given to eat during his journey to POW Camp #1. He describes the POW Camp and how it was in a former Korean village. He also details what the prisoners' small living quarters were like.



Day-to-Day Work at POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the day-to-day work of POW's at Camp #1. He describes going to nearby mountains to harvest firewood during the warm months for the upcoming winter. They would hike about four miles to and from, carrying the large logs.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Food, Clothing, and Propaganda in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the food he was given as a POW in Camp #1. He talks about the clothing that he wore during his captivity. He also tells the story of a captured photographer whose photographs the North Koreans used to create propaganda materials.



Infractions and Consequences for POW's

Dan McKinney talks about infractions and consequences for prisoners in his POW camp. He describes the cages that they were sometimes held in. He also discusses his perceptions of North Korean POW camps versus Chinese POW camps.



Life After the Armistice Was Signed

Dan McKinney talks about life in the POW camp during months prior to and days after the Armistice were signed. He mentions that their treatment became better or worse based on the state of the negotiations. He talks about the prisoners' reactions to the news of the Armistice as well as how he and his comrades were transported to be exchanged nearly a month after the ceasefire went in place.



Fifty Years of Silence

Dan McKinney talks about his reluctance to talk about his POW experience for the first fifty years after the Armistice was signed. He describes how he decided to start talking about the war to graduates of a leadership class at Cannon Air Force Base in 2005. He mentions that he has talked to every graduating class since (over 70 groups).



Daniel J. Rickert

"It Was a Miracle"

Daniel Rickert revisited South Korea in 1998. He compares and contrasts his Korean experiences that were 50 years apart. He describes the rebuilding and modernization as "a miracle."



Daniel M. Lopez

Bridge Over Barbed Wire

Daniel M. Lopez details capturing an enemy soldier. He explains that the North Koreans would make a man-bridge over the barbed wire separating American and enemy troops in an effort to attack. He recounts capturing an enemy soldier scratched up from the barbed wire and requesting an interpreter to translate. He shares that the enemy soldier escaped and ran towards the South. He also adds that the interpreter ended up joining the U.S. Marine Corps.



Daryl J. Cole

Impressions of Incheon

Daryl J. Cole describes the destruction at Inchon and his transfer from infantryman to artilleryman. He explains that the war torn city of Inchon had been thoroughly devastated by the time he arrived. He recalls the civilians hauling the "honey buckets," the refuse from the toilets to fertilize their crops. He goes on to explain his hasty transfer from infantry to artillery overnight, unbeknownst to him.



"People needed us."

Daryl J. Cole describes his motivations while in battle. He explains that his position was only two or three miles away from the front lines and all the while he was continuously thinking the war needed to end. He explains feelings of great sympathy for the South Korean people whose entire lives had been reduced to rubble.



David Carpenter

Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



David Carsten Randby

Electrician for NORMASH

David Randby served as an electrician for NORMASH. Electricity was important for a field hospital. The electrical equipment was very rudimentary and required skill to keep running. He kept the generators running in times of great need.



Medals and President Moon Jae-in

David Randby described the medals he earned for his service in the Korean War. He had personally met with President Moon Jae-in. President Moon Jae-in spoke with the veterans and reminded them that the North Korean leader is a dictator and South Korea is a democracy because of their actions.



David H. Epstein

A Destroyed City

David H. Epstein discusses seeing Seoul during the Korean War. He recalls that the city was a destroyed, flattened area in 1953, and describes the South Korean people as being very friendly. He describes seeing women and children walking on the roads, and remembers not being able to communicate with them.



David Heine

First Impressions of Incheon Harbor

David Heine describes the early morning sight of Incheon Harbor and the feelings he experienced that stayed with him during his time in Korea. As a young man, he remembers being very scared because he didn't know what to expect. He describes how they disembarked the ships and were then sent off to their units.



David J. Smith

The 47th MASH Unit

David J. Smith talks about his job as a medical technician attached to the 47th MASH Unit. He describes his job working with doctors during surgery, interviewing patients who came in off the field, and taking care of sick soldiers during sick call. He also describes the layout of the unit, comprised of seven quonset huts.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez shares his mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so he would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them being rather tall. He believes the prisoner was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but he tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



David Nevarez

Korea: Taste of the Manchurian Wind

David Nevarez shares that he went to Korea for the first time in 1984 as part of the 3rd Service Support Group headquartered in Okinawa, Japan. He describes setting up camp in Korea. He remembers the temperature drop from 40 degrees to 40 below zero in the span of less than 30 minutes and recounts the cold winds that hit him in the camp. He expresses he then understood what the 1st Marine Division experienced at the Chosin Reservoir during the war and adds that the memory of that level of coldness stays with him to this day.



More Observant of the World Around Me

David Nevarez describes his role as a combat support specialist and remembers walking around a South Korean camp with the pressure of North Korea looming. He recounts a time when a South Korean soldier cracked his gun and the shock sending him into a deeper appreciation for the possibility of war with the North. From then on, he describes his readiness to fight and awareness of the world around him.



Impressions of the Korean People

David Nevarez describes his interactions and impressions of Korea. He expounds upon his appreciation of the food as well as the people. He draws comparisons between the Hispanic community and the South Korean people.



David Simon

I Don't Think the North Koreans Want to Give up Their Little Empire

David Simon shares his thoughts on the transformation of Korea into an economic power. He focuses on current events related to the possibility of unifying the peninsula but expresses doubt that this will happen under the current North Korean regime. He closes by noting that he does not really consider himself a Korean War Veteran, but a veteran who was in the service at the time of the Korean War.



David Valley

"Do I Get a Purple Heart for This?"

David Valley tells a story about why he does not like kimchi. He talks about retreating through a village and inadvertently falling in a kimchi pot and injuring his leg.



David White

Working and Living Among ROK Soldiers

David White talks about working and living among ROK soldiers during his time serving as a Liaison officer to the 6th ROK Division. He describes the ROK soldiers as very disciplined. While he was there, he began to enjoy Korean food.



Demetrios Arvanitis

Marching into Busan

Demetrios Arvanitis describes arriving in Korea in 1953 with the Greek Expeditionary Forces and his first impressions of the country. While marching into Busan, he recalls an interaction with an American colonel who reached out to the Greek Army Battalion Headquarters to praise his unit. He shares his appreciation for the perseverance the people of Korea exhibited and feels lucky to have participated in the campaign for their freedom.



Dennis E. Hultgren

Sandwiches in a War Torn City

Dennis E. Hultgren explains that a stop to transfer trains allowed him an hour or so to wander through a war-torn city. He describes a young boy who was watching him intently as he took a bite of his sandwich. He recounts that he offered the boy the rest of his sandwich, and with a deep bow, the boy accepted it and ran behind a building.



Concrete Outcomes of the Korean War

Dennis E. Hultgren speaks highly of Korea and of his respect for the country. He expresses that the Korean War should not be forgotten and that it was a successful war as opposed to others. He agrees that no other war since the Korean War has produced such concrete outcomes.



Most Difficult Aspect of Graveyard Service

Dennis E. Hultgren expresses that taking care of the dead was the most difficult aspect of his service during the war. He previously shares that his duty was to transport bodies, search them, collect their belongings, and document the findings for them to then be mailed home to the deceased soldiers' families. He recounts several deceased soldiers' wounds and one disrespectful incident carried out by a soldier underneath him.



Dennis McGary

First Impression of Korea

Dennis McGary recalls his first impression of Korea, ten years after the Armistice. He describes the horror of seeing children rummaging through the garbage in search of food due to continued starvation from the decimation of war. He remembers a young boy crawling on his hands and knees under the seats on the train in hopes of finding scraps of food that passengers may have dropped and how upsetting it was not knowing how or when the child boarded or where he got off.



Korean Interactions Post-War

Dennis McGary recalls various interactions he had with Koreans during his time there, including KATUSA and R.O.K. soldiers as well as civilians. He discusses how civilians would take care of laundry detail for the American soldiers and how well they got along with the KATUSA and R.O.K. soldiers on duty. He describes leaving base and exploring Seoul, often interacting with the locals in town.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Dispatch Rider

Desmond Vinten initially lied on military documents to enlist in the military at nineteen. He arrived at Busan in June of 1951 and remained until the Armistice. He served as a dispatch rider based in the headquarters of the Forward Maintenance Area. He left July 27, 1953, as the cease fire came into effect. He has returned to Korea four times since his service.



War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



"The War That Never Ended: New Zealand Veterans Remember Korea"

Desmond Vinten displays the book he published about New Zealand veteran experiences in the Korean War. The book provides interviews and photographs of twelve veterans. He is proud of his service and has served as National President of the New Zealand Korean Veterans.



Dick Lien

Worth His Service

Dick Lien expresses his thoughts on serving in the Korean War. He shares that he is proud of the development that has taken place in South Korea since the war and feels that his service was worth the effort. He points to South Korea itself and what it is today as the legacy of the Korean War.



Diego Dantone

A Nice World without War

Diego Dantone lost his father, Sabino Dantone, at age nineteen. He remembers his father crying when Sabino first heard the news of the 1991 Gulf War, and he shares his father's sentiments that war is a shame. Sabino Dantone had joined the first Italian Red Cross team that served in the Korean War. The elder Dantone did not speak of the war to his young son, but Diego Dantone remembers his father and mother being proud of the friendship between the Korean and Italian people.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

The Relationship between American and KATUSA Soldiers

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls her husband's feelings towards KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and the Korean people. She expresses that her husband was truly impressed with the gentleness of the Korean people. She describes the Korean people as being grateful for the sacrifices Americans made.



Domingo B. Febre Pellicier

Landing in Incheon

Domingo Febre Pellicier describes what it was like when they landed in Incheon after a month's-long journey to Korea. He talks about climbing down rope ladders to get off the ship. He shares how they then went to the train which took them to the front lines. He remembers how cold it was when they landed. He recalls how friendly the Korean people were.



Domingo Morales Calderon

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Domingo Morales Calderon shares his first impressions of Korea. He describes a nation that was cold, mountainous, and devoid of adults. He recalls an incident in which he helped a small child and was hailed as a hero as he brought her to a doctor.

Domingo Morales Calderón comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Describe una nación fría, montañosa y desprovista de adultos. Recuerda un incidente en el que ayudó a una niña pequeña y fue aclamado como un héroe cuando la llevó al médico.



Not a Pacific Ocean / Un Océano que no es Pacífico

Domingo Morales Calderon describes his journey to Korea. He jokes about the fact that there is nothing pacific about the ocean as most of those on board the MacArthur Ship got sick on their thirty-day voyage due to the rough seas. He explains that his seasickness debilitated him to the point where he had to be hospitalized for ten days in Japan. He recalls understanding the devastation of war when he finally arrived in Korea in April.

Domingo Morales Calderón describe su viaje a Corea. Bromea sobre el hecho de que no hay nada pacífico en el océano, ya que la mayoría de los que estaban a bordo del barco MacArthur se enfermaron durante su viaje de treinta días debido a las olas. Explica que se enfermó tanto que tuvo que ser hospitalizado durante diez días en Japón. Recuerda como entendió la realidad de la guerra cuando finalmente llegó a Corea en abril.



War's Toll on a Country / La Destrucción de la Guerra

Domingo Morales Calderon shares his beliefs on why diplomacy is better than war. He recalls the hardships of civilians and the utter destruction of the nation. He provides an account of a mission in which they were tasked with finding North Koreans hiding in Seoul as evidence of the brutality of war.

Domingo Morales Calderón comparte sus opiniones sobre por qué la diplomacia es mejor que la guerra. Recuerda las dificultades de los civiles y la destrucción total de la nación. El comparte un relato de una misión en la que se les encomendó encontrar a norcoreanos escondidos en Seúl como explicación de la brutalidad de la guerra.



Don C. Jones

Understanding the Communist Perspective

Don C. Jones arrived in Korea in 1947. He describes the political situation between North and South Korea at that time. He describes how reunification was promoted although it never happened. He elaborates seeing signs intimating reunification would never happen, spurred by the Soviet presence backing the North Koreans. He also describes a conversation he had with a Communist late at night, attempting to understand the other perspective.



Korea Reborn from the Ashes

Don C. Jones has seen the Korean peninsula transition from before the onset of the Korean War through the present day. He witnessed it through his service in the Army and his work as a Christian missionary. He describes how when he first arrived in Korea majority of the people were illiterate and in poverty, while detailing this is not the case today.



Korea as a Symbol of the Cold War

Don C. Jones discusses what he believes the Korean War symbolizes. He details prior events that took place and led up to the conflict in Korea between Communist and Capitalist nations. He elaborates how Korea was a part of that greater conflict in the Cold War.



Don R. Childers

Arriving in Korea

Don R. Childers recalls his journey to Japan and Korea by ship, where some of the men suffered from severe seasickness. After landing in Korea, his company was loaded onto trucks and taken to a small, remote town called Wonju. There, they set up camp in a dry river bed and were immediately told to "dig in." It was only later, when someone yelled "incoming mail" - referring to enemy artillery shells - that he realized the importance of this command. He was then assigned to the Weapons Company and the Eighty-one Mortar Patrol, starting as an ammunition carrier and eventually volunteering to be a forward observer, responsible for identifying target locations.



Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Donald D. Lanternier

First Impressions of Pusan

Donald Lanternier describes what it was like arriving in Pusan in 1952. He explains that it was a very busy place, with lots of troop ships and supplies on the docks. However, he also notes how impoverished the people were. He remembers that the children were still happy regardless of their circumstances.



Revisiting Korea

Donald Lanternier shares he has revisited Korea three times since his service in the Army. He describes how different the modern country is compared to what it was like during the war. He makes notes of the cleanliness, the number of parks, and the new bridges across the Han River. He is amazed at the progress that has been made.



Donald Dempster

Legacies of Korean War

Donald Dempster feels that it is important to remember the accomplishments of the Korean War. He assisted in keeping democracy in South Korea instead of communism. He is very proud that South Korea has succeeded from emulating the government of the United States.



Why the Forgotten War?

Donald Dempster believes that since the Korean War was after WWII, the American public had enough of war. He further feels that the Korean War has been forgotten by the public because it was not reported by US media as much as other wars. He acknowledges that recruitment was not as large during the Korean War as it was during WWII.



Donald Dufault

Working Alongside Korean Soldiers

Donald Dufault describes his experiences working alongside Korean (ROK) soldiers while stationed near Pork Chop Hill in Korea during the Korean War. He explains that this soldier was a liaison to the other soldiers. He has some fond memories of their relationship.



Playing a Part in Preserving South Korea

Donald Dufault talks about the importance of preserving South Korea. He shares that he managed to be part of a Unit that made this contribution. He believes that South Korea has turned into a great country.



Donald Duquette

First Impressions of Korea

Donald Duquette describes his first impressions of Korea arriving on a boat from Japan and his journey to join his division. He shares what he remembers about the scenery, which had not yet experienced destruction. He explains how he headed north in the cold.



Donald H. Jones

Potatoes in the Sea

Donald Jones tells a story about his arrival by ship to Pusan and how Koreans dove into the sea to collect potatoes that the Army discarded.



Donald Haller

Revisiting Korea

Donald Haller recalls revisiting Korea, along with his family, in the 1980s. He shares how vastly different Korea was from how he remembered it in the 1950s. He remembers how poor Korea was in the 1950s, lacking basic infrastructure such as proper roadways and bridges. He remembers the Koreans as both honest and hardworking. He comments he is not surprised that the Korean economy is now booming.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Donald Haller recalls not learning much about Korea in high school. He does remember that an older brother of his friend was stationed in Korea after World War II and shares how he learned a little bit about Korea from him. He comments on his uncertainty about where Korea was on a map but notes how confident he was that the war would be over in just a few months. He realizes just how wrong he was. He mentions how much he enjoyed the service as he had not traveled outside of Michigan before the war. He shares how he joined the Navy Reserves so he could finish college but ended up being called to Korea in 1950.



Donald J. Zoeller

Adventures at the Battalion

Donald Zoeller describes some interesting events that happened while he was stationed near Chuncheon. He describes walking into a minefield with his commander and their duties while in camp. He also remembers an airplane trip he took over enemy territory.



Helping a Korean boy

Donald Zoeller says that he did not get to know many Korean people as he was always outside of the cities. However, he remembers a little Korean boy who was orphaned and slept with prostitutes. He invited the boy to stay with the soldiers and later brought him to an orphanage.



Revisiting Korea

Donald Zoeller states "No people anywhere are as grateful to the American troops as the South Koreans". He is incredulous that the South Korean government pays for veterans to visit. He says the legacy is that they saved the country from being under the grip of a terrible dictator, and now the country is one of the leading industrial nations. "I benefitted greatly by contributing to that war," he says.



Donald L. Buske

Knowledge of Korea

Donald Buske explains that he did not know anything about Korea even when he was in boot camp because it was never talked about even in the service. He recalls enjoying his time on the aircraft carriers. He says having never seen Korea itself, it felt more like a job to him. He does have a very good impression of Koreans he has met since the war, especially through his Veteran's Association.



Donald L. Mason

Revisiting Korea

Donald Mason discusses revisiting Korea in 2019 with his wife. He compares his visit then to what he remembered from his time in 1950. He remembers Seoul being destroyed during the war, with all the tall buildings gone. There were some huts still standing. But in 2019, he remembers seeing large skyscrapers from his hotel room. He was amazed at how the city was rebuilt to such an impressive scale.



Incheon Landing

Donald Mason discusses his experience during the Incheon Landing. He knew it was high tide and shares that he was in a LST landing craft. His unit, the artillery unit, went in after the infantry landed, and they pushed beyond Incheon to Seoul. He was surprised at all of the destruction he witnessed.



A Wife's Perspective

Donald Mason's wife, Sheri, recalls what he told her about the Korean War. She says he does not like to share much about Korea because it makes him emotional. She reflects on her visit to Korea, when she and her her husband visited. She shares that the trip was wonderful, and she notes how appreciative the Korean people are. They both enjoyed the food and say they were treated like royalty. Sheri recalls that their hotel bed had a large sign on it saying "Our Hero". One of the most memorable events for her was visiting the DMZ.



Donald Lassere

Conquering Communism and Personal Fear

Donald Lassere shares his personal fear in going to war for a country and a people he did not know. He describes the pride he felt while helping to halt the spread of communism for these very people.



Donald Lynch

Legacy of the Korean War

Donald Lynch recalls not learning much about Korea in school. He thinks the Korean War was one of the greatest efforts put forth by the United States as it was an effort to stem the growth of world Communism. He believes the war's effects continue to resonate today. He speaks about many of the atrocities that the Koreans have had to face, including the invasions by Japan. He shares how impressed he is by the successes of Korea today.



Korea Then and Now

Donald Lynch recalls thinking Korea would not thrive after what he witnessed. He remembers the terrible smells coming from all major cities due to the open and combined sewer systems. He notes Korea now has skyscrapers and is one of the tenth largest economies in the world.



Duties and Living Conditions

Donald Lynch recalls the patrols he went on along the Kansas Line, a line back from the frontlines. He details how he would help refill supplies and bring back any North Korean defectors they came across. He recalls there being a kitchen at the medical outfit and eating hot meals every day. He remembers showering opportunities varying based on his location and shares how, at one point, shampoo saved his life.



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Weather in Korea

Like many other soldiers in Korea, Donald Schneider talks about how cold it was during the war. He states that the weather was like that in Wisconsin- really hot in the summer and freezing in the winter. He said that the difference was the monsoon season, which would include massive amounts of rain in short periods of time.



Donald St. Louis

Two Attempts to Enlist

Donald St. Louis describes how he did not know much about Korea before joining the military. He elaborates that he joined the military because it provided a job at the time. He shares enlistment took two attempts before finally earning acceptance to the program.



The Destruction of Seoul

Donald St. Louis describes what he saw in Korea while serving overseas. He remembers the country's geography filled with rice paddies. He recalls how devastated the city of Seoul was during the war.



Donald Urich

Landing in Incheon

Donald Urich remembers first landing in Incheon which he describes as crowded. From Incheon he recalls heading north and seeing the DMZ. He served as part of the 45th Infantry Division but was later transferred to the 7th Division. He recounts duties as part of the motor pool where he eventually became Motor Sergeant in charge of one hundred seven vehicles and dozens of mechanics. He shares the living conditions in Korea especially living in ten-men tents on cots.



1954 Seoul

Donald Urich recalls Seoul being desolate in 1954. He remembers houses were in shambles and businesses were in bad shape. He recounts seeing kids without shoes and lacking clothes in middle of a severely cold winter. He describes interactions with the children through sharing candy with them. Despite the challenging circumstances, he remembers the Korean people as cordial.



Modern-Day Korea

Donald Urich shares his amazement in how much Korea has changed over the years since his time in the service. He comments Korean's economic success being the result of Korea outdoing itself and its success at producing a variety of goods for global markets. He supports having 30,000 American troops in Korea today as a strong deterrent to North Korea.



Doug Mitchell

Captured North Korean Soldier

Doug Mitchell and some men in his unit that were in their foxholes spotted a North Korean solider who was coming down the road towards them. Rather than shooting him, the soldier held up his hands in the air. The North Korean soldier surrendered to the US Army, and the men behind the lines took him back.



First experience with death

Doug Mitchell recalls a night where it was difficult to see, especially since there wasn't any light and the sites had glass installed in them which made it very hard to see through. While on duty as a machine gunner, he noticed a tank that was coming around a turn and they halted to tell them who it was or they'd shoot. It turned out that it was a lieutenant that walked up to present himself before they moved the tank any further. As they were standing on the deck, Doug Mitchell heard a mortar going off and he was able to get to safety, but the lieutenant was blown apart.



3 Dreadful Components of the Korean War

Doug Mitchell described 3 things that he hated about war: Patrol at night, crawling on the front line to knock out machine guns, and dreaming about the stress soldiers felt. He said it was scary when the guys behind you were firing at a machine gun while you were told to crawl close enough to throw a grenade at the machine gun while hoping a riflemen wasn't there to shoot you. Bayonets were another dreadful memory from the Korean War and Doug Mitchell said that no one needs to go through fighting against bayonets.



Duane Hatleli

Impressions of Korea Today

Duane Hatleli has seen films about what Korea is like today. He mentions that he has a book from South Korea as a thank you to the soldiers. He describes the trains that they used to ride during the war, a stark contrast to the Korea of today.



Duane Trowbridge

Landing at Inchon and Fighting to Seoul

Duane Trowbridge describes nearly non-stop activity after arriving at Inchon. He explains, in detail, coming under mortar attack on the way to Seoul and receiving shrapnel in his knee. He explains how his injury sidelined him for a little while but shares he was soon back in the line of fire. He explains the struggle of a fellow soldier who got trapped in a foxhole and how a friend, Bill, lost his eyesight due to a mortar attack. He shares how he received his Purple Heart.



Korea Then and Now

Duane Trowbridge discusses the changes he noted upon his return to Korea in 2010. He shares differences between how Korea was and how it has changed. He expresses his amazement in the quick growth not only of the people but of the infrastructure, including roads and buildings.



Earl A. House

Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Earl Coplan

Modernization

Earl Coplan describes the vast changes that have occurred in Korea since he was stationed there. He explains that the traditional homes that once existed are no longer inhabited; rather, they are only available to see as tourist attractions. He explains that homes in Korea have modernized in much of the same ways as American homes.



Ed Donahue

The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed Wuermser

Proud of Korea

Ed Wuermser shares he deliberately wears his Korean veteran's hat so people will ask him about the war. He shares he enjoys explaining to others how well Korea has done since the war. He acknowledges how the country changed from a feudal society to an advanced country in the past two hundred years.



Eddie Reyes Piña

Impressions of Korea and the Korean People

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls always being in danger while serving in Korea. He recounts how, prior to returning home in 1954, he assisted in building Camp Casey and protecting the DMZ. He reflects favorably on the country of Korea and the Korean people themselves.



"If You Do Not Know the Unknown Then You Are Going to Be Fearful"

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls how he returned from Korea while still a teenager. He reflects on the importance of learning about the Korean War and the country itself. He believes that by learning about the unknown we can eliminate much of the fear in the world.



Edgar Green

First Impressions and Relying on the Americans

Edgar Green reflects on his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the stench of human waste as they drew nearer to the dock in Busan and remembers an American band and Korean choir there to welcome them. He shares that they were part of the very first British land forces to enter the Korean War and comments on having to rely on the Americans for food and transport for the first several days.



Edgar Tufts

"What Do You Think of Our Country Now?"

Edgar Tufts describes a conversation, while revisiting Korea in 2008, when he was asked what he thought about Korea today.



Appreciation of The Korean People

Edgar Tufts describes the appreciation shown by Koreans, young and old, for the service of the United States in the Korean War.



Edmund Reel

Korea Prior to War

Edmund Reel recounts being stationed in South Korea prior to the war. He recalls the easy ability to see into North Korea from the mountains near the 38th Parallel. He comments on the peacefulness and shares that right before he left Korea, tensions started to mount.



Edmund Ruos

Post War

Edmund Ruos shares his post war thoughts on the state of Korea and its people. He describes his service and its impact on his life while acknowledging Korea's advancements since the war. He shares that he took advantage of the G.I. Bill and that he is proud to be a Korean War veteran.



Edmund W. Parkinson

Wounded on the Battlefield

Edmund Parkinson describes his role as a forward observer in the 161st Battery Regiment. He details providing targets and fire orders and acknowledges that he was often in dangerous positions on the front lines. He recounts the incident where a mortar landed near him which wounded both of his legs and being transported to Japan where his left leg was amputated below the knee.



Proud of Korea

Edmund Parkinson is joined by his wife to discuss modern Korea. They jointly recall their visit to modern Korea and speak highly of the Korean people and their fighting spirit for having rebuilt their country in such a short time frame. Edmund Parkinson shares that the loss of his leg was worth what Korea has become today.



Message to Students

Edmund Parkinson describes Korea as a marvelous piece of history and shares how proud he is to have served during the war. He offers a message to students stating that the war was not lovely, but it was necessary and worthwhile for the result. He is joined by his wife who shares that the Korea she knows now is fantastic due to its transformation in such a short time.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

From Bogotá to Korea / De Bogotá a Corea

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro describes his voyage by bus, train, and boat to Korea. His battalion started as the Bogota battalion and eventually became the Colombian battalion within the United Nations Forces. Hundreds of people waved them farewell in the streets of the Capital as they left for war. After a thirty-day voyage, they were received as heroes in April of 1951 in the port of Busan. He remembers a celebration with a military band, government officials, and President Syngman Rhee amongst the distinguished guests at the ceremony.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro discute su viaje en autobús, tren y barco a Corea. Su batallón comenzó como el batallón Bogotá y finalmente se convirtió en el batallón colombiano dentro de las Fuerzas de las Naciones Unidas. Cientos de personas los despidieron en las calles de la Capital de Colombia cuando se fueron para la guerra. Después de el viaje que duro treinta días, fueron recibidos como héroes en abril de 1951 en el puerto de Busan. El recuerda una bienvenida con una banda militar, funcionarios del gobierno y el presidente Syngman Rhee entre los distinguidos en la ceremonia.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Black Bean Soup

Eduardo Sanchez is describing his interactions with soldiers from some of the 22 nations that participated in the Korean War. As a navy repairman, he repaired ships for other nations. He provides specific details about one occurrence with the Colombian Navy where they shared black beans, something that was a rarity in the United States at the time. When repairing ships, he shared food and really enjoyed getting to know other cultures.



Edward A. Walker

Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Edward B. Heimann

Life in Korea

Edward Heimann describes life in Korea after his winter arrival at Incheon. He recalls his living conditions, being fed well, and being able to take warm showers most of the time. He explains that he was also able to enjoy leave (rest and relaxation) in Japan and received care packages from home.



Edward Brooks

I Never Wanted to Go Back to Korea Until Now!

Dr. Han asked Edward Brooks if he ever wanted to return to Korea and he said that he never wanted to go back. Edward Brooks changed his mind when he looked at a satellite image of what South Korea looks like today compared to the North. He couldn't believe it. He couldn't imagine Seoul looking the way it does today.



Was the Korean War a Police Action?

Dr. Han, the interviewer, made the statement that, "some say the Forgotten War was a police action. Do you agree with that?" Edward Brooks replied by saying that, "when someone is shooting at you and you have to shoot back, that's not police action." Edward Brooks continued by saying, "And with what's going on over there today we need to be there in case situations begin to flare up."



Edward F. Foley, Sr.

Impressions of Korea

Edward Foley describes Korea as being primitive when he arrived. He recalls traveling by truck with other soldiers to view the surrounding area and remembers seeing villagers out and about and children asking for food. He recounts very little evidence of a war torn country where he was stationed as no buildings had been bombed.



War Reflections and Impressions of Modern Korea

Edward Foley shares that he does not have bad dreams or resentment towards the war or even the North Koreans, stating that they were only doing what they were told to do. He comments on his revisit to Korea and the improvements made since he was there during the war. He describes Seoul as a Westernized city and compares it to New York City.



Korean War Legacy

Edward Foley comments on the grateful attitudes South Koreans have towards the U.S. He shares that the legacy of the Korean War, despite it being called a police action and the Forgotten War, is being kept alive by the veterans associations and the Korean people themselves. He adds his thoughts on how young people should serve their country in some form or fashion for a few years.



Edward F. Grala

The Korean War and Alaska

Ed Grala talks about the importance of the Korean war and his job helping maintain radar sites to protect the US during the Cold War. He tells a story of when his aircraft strayed into Russian airspace.



Edward L. Kafka

Inchon Landing and Radioman Training

Edward Kafka landed at Inchon in April 1952 and the military switched his MOS (military operational specialty) from surveyor to radioman while being stationed two miles from the front lines. While dealing with severe battles every day, he deciphered messages that were send through Morris Code from the outposts.



Edward Langevin

DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



The Ever Continuous Battle

Edward Langevin is a Korean Defense Veteran since he was in South Korea to protect it from North Korea. He said that these veterans contributed to the "ever continuous battle" He believes that the tense feeling between these two regions will continue until we stop China from helping North Korea.



Edward Mastronardi

Edward Mastronardi's Arrival at Pusan

Edward Mastronardi recalled the heavy pollution, dark clouds, and high noise level upon his arrival at Pusan. Young boys were at the dock being mistreated by their boss as their ship was unloading close to nightfall. They would later move to northeast of Pusan and would anchor next to a burial ground believed to be full of prisoners.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



It's Fantastic to See What Has Happened to Korea Now!

The Interviewer asked Edward Mastronardi how he feels about Korea today in the 21st century, knowing he has a clear picture of Korea during the Korean War. He said, "Fantastic! It shows the true strength, diversity, flexibility of what can be done. There is always a way to do it if you are willing to work for it." Edward Mastronardi is very proud to have been apart of saving South Korea.



Edward Parmenter

Impending Korean Conflict

Edmond Parmenter recalls preparations being made in 1949 while he was serving in the United States Army and stationed in Japan for an impending conflict in Korea. He comments on General MacArther's prediction of when the North Koreans would invade South Korea. He shares that he was privy to intelligence which verified MacArther's concerns.



A Response to Perceived Fiction

Edmond Parmenter explains that the publication of David Halberstam's book, The Coldest Winter, prompted him to write his own book about the Korean War, The Korean War: Fiction vs. Fact. He provides examples of what he feels is fictitious content in Halberstam's book and offers countering information based on his own experience. He further supports his claims by stating that he referenced Korean War archives.



Reduced Forces Build Enemy Confidence

Edward Parmenter shares his views on why the Korean War began. He attributes the United States' focus on reducing military forces at the time to the start of the war. He claims that reduced forces in the region gave the Communists confidence which led to the first attack, and he comments on President Truman's reluctance to allow General MacArther to bomb bases in Manchuria to prevent escalation.



Edward Rowny

Revisiting Korea to Oversee the DMZ

Edward Rowny shares he has revisited Korea about six or seven times. He explains how he went back a generation later and commanded the first combined U.S.-Korean corps at the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). He states that over the years, the Koreans went from not being very organized to creating a very effective and efficient military.



Two- Sided Legacy of the Korean War

Edward Rowny explains that he had no idea how industrious and successful the Koreans would become after the War. He mentions the Korean world leadership in technology and calls it an "economic miracle". He shares his own fears that the present-day generation does not realize the grave danger of North Korea today. He advises them to keep their military trained and equipped at all times, even with the US nuclear capacity.



Rowny's Book About the War

Edward Rowny shares he has written books and provides information about his experiences with the Teachers and Veteran's Youth Corps Convention in 2015. He comments on how his book, An American Soldier's Saga in the Korean War, received a lot of coverage and was translated into Korean. He encourages students to pay attention to what they learn in class to prevent events like the Korean War from happening again. He summarizes his book as it retells his experiences and accomplishments in the War.



Edward Wong

Image of Korea

When Edward Wong first arrived in Korea he remembers seeing small villages, non-modern homes, and no big buildings. Edward Wong went back to visit Korea in 2009 where he saw big buildings that were modern. He noticed how everything had changed so much. He was so happy and honored to get to return back to Korea.



What is Korea to you?

Edward Wong remembers Korea as being extremely poor when he was there during the war. He is glad to have helped in their improvement. He stated that Korea is prosperous now.



Edwin S. Leak

Line Crossers

Edwin S. Leak describes what he called during the war "line crossers". Line Crossesr were North Koreans defecting to South Korea after the war. He discusses reasons he felt they were defecting to the South post-war.



Living Conditions on the 38th Parallel

Edwin S. Leak describes living conditions on the 38th Parallel in post-war Korea. He elaborates about sleeping quarters and food provided. In addition, he explains improvements being made to improve the devastation caused by the war.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

Seoul - Then and Now

Eilif Jorgen Ness described the Seoul he knew in 1952 compared to the Seoul upon his return in 1995 and 2013. In 1952, Seoul was not a city, it was a ruined landscape. Upon his return years later, he described that there was no resemblance between the two. He was impressed with the efficiency of modern South Korea and their ability to deal with large numbers of people.



Seoul Was Nothing

Eilif Jorgen Ness's first recollection of Korea was of the cold wind from the north. When he had an opportunity, He would visit the front lines of the battlefield and occasionally went to Seoul. He remarked "Seoul was nothing...It was all ruins, a battleground." He noted there was lots of activity in Seoul but was amazed people could live there with no services and the city being totally destroyed.



Eingred Fredh

No Papa or Mama

Eingred Fredh comments on the living conditions of the people in Busan. She believes the people she cared for at the hospital were better off than the people in the city. In particular, she recalls seeing many orphans begging for money.



Helping the Korean People

Eingred Fredh describes the Busan she experienced in 1952. She reflects on seeing many refugees and people in need. She describes the various wards she worked in throughout her time at the hospital and treating a variety of patients. Yet, she recalls many of her patients were Korean people who sustained injuries from being in the streets.



The Beauty of Korea

Eingred Fredh remembers traveling to the sea and into the mountains on their days off. She elaborates on the differences between the coastline of Sweden and that of Korea. Despite being so far from home, she explains how they would attend a Swedish church every Sunday and rejoice with music.



Transformation of Korea

Eingred Fredh expresses her amazement with the transformation of Korea and discusses the differences she saw. Even though she likes the transformation, she admits preferring to live in a little calmer place free from the hustle and bustle. She expresses her appreciation for the citizens of Korea continuing to recognize their work.



A Happy Time

Eingred Fredh describes her service in Korea as a big adventure for them and a happy time. She shares one experience in which she and Roland were invited to a patient’s home. While there, she enjoyed tea and sang songs with his family. She explains how they sang Swedish songs for them, and the family sang Korean songs. She emphasizes how the Korean people are very thankful people.



Elburn Duffy

Recollections of a Revisit to Korea

Elburn Duffy shares he returned to Korea in 1987 as part of a trip sponsored by the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs. He recounts how, during his revisit, he noted tremendous changes between the Korea of 1952 and that of the country over three decades later. He recalls they visited Taegu, Suwon, and Uijeongbu/Seoul. He explains the pride he felt being a part of something that helped the people of Korea.



We Knew Why We Were There

Elburn Duffy remembers leaving Ft. Lewis Washington in early April 1951 and arriving in Busan by the end of the month. He notes they did not stop in Japan as most other servicemen headed to Korea did because troops were desperately needed at the time of his arrival. He recalls the shock of the total desolation of the country and in particular the state of the children.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Modern Korea

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis states he left Korea in July/August 1951. After returning to Korea twice, in 2008 and 2013, he was amazed by the significant advancements the country had made. He remarked that Korea's progress was a century ahead of Greece.



Destruction in Seoul

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis shares the extreme hunger and devastation he witnessed upon entering Seoul. The recalls the situation being so dire that he felt Korea was a century behind Greece in 1950. He remembers Korean children would beg UN troops for food as they left restaurants and food tents.



Eleuterio Gutierrez

It Is Very Cold in Korea

Eleuterio Gutierrez noted that it is very cold in Korea in the winter months. The thing he remembers most when writing letters home was discussing the cold weather. He was not prepared for it coming from the heat in the Philippines.



So Much Improvement and Clean

Eleuterio Gutierrez returned to South Korea in 2013 and 2019. He was amazed with the improvements made in South Korea, especially how clean the country is now. He remarked the Philippines is improving but he would like to live in South Korea.



Elliott Landall

Seoul During the War

Elliott Landall describes how Seoul was in a terrible state. He explains that the people were living in a shell of a city and he felt sorry for them. He was amazed at the spirit of the people, including how the people would listen and were good learners.



Forgotten War

Elliott Landall is satisfied with his service in the Korean War. He really liked helping the people of South Korea and feels he had a lasting impact. He explains that the Korean War is a Forgotten War because it was after the "Big Wars," World War I and World War II.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Landing in the Pusan Perimeter

Ellis Ezra Allen shares his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls landing in the Pusan Perimeter in August of 1950 and remembers enemy fire beginning shortly after arrival. He describes being in charge of all wheeled vehicles and supplying men with ammunition.



Elvin Hobbs

Less Than Modern Hospitals

Elvin Hobbs describes his job as an x-ray technician at 121 Hospital located in Ascom City. He describes the layout of the hospital. He explains the challenges he faced while working with less than modern medical equipment.



Daily Life in Seoul, 1964

Elvin Hobbs describes Seoul after the conclusion of the war in 1964. He talks about the rebuilding of the city and its transformation from total destruction. He expands in detail on descriptions of transportation and Korean daily life.



Maggot Medical Innovations

Elvin Hobbs talks about the innovative ways they treated patients at 121 Hospital in Ascom City, Korea. He describes one such technique involving maggots as a treatment. He explains that these insects were used to help burn victims.



Exploding While Searching for Metal

Elvin Hobbs describes the most common injuries they saw at 121 Hospital. He describes how many Koreans were injured while scavenging for metal. Many civilians were drastically wounded when they came across live ordnance that had not exploded during the war.



Emmanuel Pitsoulakis

Impressions of Korea

Upon arriving in Korea, Emmanuel Pitsoulakis was struck by the similarities he saw with his youth in Crete during the German occupation, especially the scarcity of food. He further explains that American forces often hindered Greek soldiers from providing aid to those in need of food and other assistance.



Epifanio Rodriguez Nunez

Christmas Propaganda / Propaganda en Navidad

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describes the moments of the war that were most impactful. He recalls how during the Christmas he spent in Korea, the Chinese broadcast propaganda over the radio aimed directly at Colombian troops. While he does not know if anyone was dissuaded from fighting, he shares that most of the soldiers laughed at the failed attempt to brainwash them.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describe los momentos de la guerra que más lo impactaron. Recuerda que durante la Navidad que pasó en Corea, los chinos emitieron propaganda en español por la radio dirigida a las tropas colombianas. Si bien no sabe si alguien fue disuadido de pelear, él cuenta que la mayoría de los soldados se reían del intento de lavarles el cerebro.



Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explains that he was sent as an advanced group to Korea and, therefore, his voyage was different from that of other Colombian troops. Upon arriving, he was sent to Busan to organize the training for troops that would follow. He recalls the warm greeting they received from dignitaries which included Syngman Rhee.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explica que fue enviado con un grupo avanzado a Corea y por lo tanto su viaje fue diferente al de otras tropas colombianas. Al llegar a Corea, fue enviado a Busan para organizar el entrenamiento de las tropas que seguirían. Recuerda que los recibieron bien con muchos dignatarios incluido Syngman Rhee.



Ernest Benson

The Personal Legacy of the Korean War

Ernest Benson characterizes his time in Korea as his most important coming of age event. He explains that he came out of the war not looking the same. He remembers not being socially the same when he returned because he was two years behind everyone.



Ernest Brant

Repairing Aircraft

Ernest Brant explains that they were servicing B52 bombers as well as other aircraft. He states he did not go to Korea. He remembers that the closest he came was watching film footage of bomb runs that were being reviewed.



Ernest J. Berry

"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



Basic Training and Meeting Refugees

Ernest J. Berry describes the training as a medic at Waiouru Military Camp and sailing to Korea. He knew nothing of Korea. As he arrived, the communists were penetrating southward. He remembers streams of refugees traveling south as well. He explains his first impressions of Korean people.



Ernesto Sanchez

Trench warfare like WWI

Ernesto Sanchez describes how serving in the Korean War was probably similar to World War 1, digging trenches, putting up fences and placing mines. As a result of creating a No Man's Land the forces were probably able to hold off the Chinese. Most noteworthy, Ernesto Sanchez also describes taking the Chinese soldiers as prisoners and how civilians would aid in this effort.



Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

The Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recalls feeling a sense of adventure as he left for Korea in 1951. He explains that the voyage lasted about a month with a one-day respite in Hawaii. He shares his memories of the devastation he encountered in Korea as he arrived after Busan had been attacked. Additionally, he remembers the poverty of the civilian population and the way in which civilians helped soldiers with everyday tasks.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recuerda la sensación de aventura que tuvo cuando partió hacia Corea en 1951. Explica que el viaje duró aproximadamente un mes con un respiro de un día en Hawaii. Comparte sus recuerdos de la devastación que encontró en Corea cuando llegó que fue después que Busan había sido atacado. Además, él recuerda la pobreza de la población civil y la forma en que los coreanos ayudaban a los soldados en las tareas cotidianas.



Eugene Dixon

Taking Terrritory in the Busan Perimeter

Eugene Dixon talks about the role of the United States Marines in securing the Busan Perimeter. He describes the sounds and smells he took in upon arrival in South Korea. He recalls the casualties he encountered during his first months in combat.



Incheon Landing

Eugene Dixon recalls landing at Incheon. He describes how this landing was a gamble on General McArthur's part as it relied heavily on high tide in the evening. He describes the reality of ships being stuck in mud during low tide.



Eugene Evers

Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions as a Prisoner of War. He explains the circumstances of his first seven months in North Korea. He elaborates on how he was treated by the Chinese and North Koreans.



You Are Going to Die

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being questioned by Chinese soldiers during his time a POW. He explains how a fellow soldier saved his life by telling them that he was an "ABC agent". He describes the feeling associated with being told you are going to die.



Why It Was Worth It

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about why the Korean War was worth the sacrifice.



I Hope We Did The Right Thing

Eugene "Gene" Evers reflects on his experience in the Korean War. He describes his hope that his contributions to the war effort were the right thing to do. He explains that he hopes that the United States involvement in the war was positive.



Eugene Ferris

Lessons from Previous Generations

Eugene Ferris expresses his concern about younger generations not fully appreciating the experiences and sacrifices earlier generations endured. To elaborate on this, he reflects on lessons he learned during his youth from a World War II veteran. He reveals how he has expanded his own understanding of Korea’s history through the Tell America Program. He describes South Korea’s transformation as unbelievable and how the United States will continue to support their progress.



Eusebio Santiago

Similarities with Home

Eusebio Santiago describes seeing villagers continuing their life with war around them. He recounts seeing Korean villagers catching and cleaning fish, reminding him of life back home. He highlights the similarities between his aunts and uncles salting and hanging fish to dry by a lake in Puerto Rico with the images of the villagers in Korea.



Everett G. Dewitt

The Advances of Korea

Everett G. Dewitt describes the Korea he saw and what he knew about Korea before the war and what it has become. He explains that the Korean people he encounters in the United States are always incredibly gracious and thankful. He goes on to explain his pride in his services in Korea and that he would probably do it again if need be.



Everett Kelley

Living Conditions in Post War Korea

Everett Kelley provides his impressions of Korea when he arrived in 1976. He recounts the living conditions of American soldiers during that time as well as the status of relationships between American and South Korean soldiers. He expresses that American contributions post-1953 were focused on maintaining peace between North and South Korea while maintaining a high readiness level.



The Impact of the Orphans

Everett Kelley shares how his service spent in Korea impacted his life in many ways. He describes his involvement in sponsoring orphaned children through various donations. He recalls the number of orphans in Korea at the time being extremely high.



Bridging the Divide for Peace

Everett Kelley opines on the closure of the Korean War. He states that there is both a military and political solution to the question of peace but does not profess to know the answer. He explains that if any solution were to occur, it would most likely stem from a uniting of both the North and South.



Ezra Franklin Williams

"The Older I Get, The Prouder I Am"

Ezra Frank Williams is very proud of his contribution during the Korean War to fight off the North Koreans and Chinese. He has admiration for Korean immigrants that came to the United States after the war. South Koreans really show that they appreciate everything the UN did to protect their country.



Federico S. Sinagose

The Most Difficult Time

Federico S. Sinagose, with the support of his daughter and granddaughter, recounts one of the most challenging moments he faced in Korea. They remember him sharing stories about the young Korean boys who helped the soldiers with daily tasks. He vividly recalls a sign warning everyone to duck due to a sniper threat. Assuming the young boy had seen the warning, he was devastated when the boy was shot and killed by the sniper.



A Nostalgic Revisit

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, provides details of their return trip to Korea. She remembers him being amazed by how much the country has progressed. The trip was nostalgic for her grandfather, who often shared with her as a child his fears of not knowing if he would see the next sunrise. Charlene adds that her grandfather feels that what he and the other soldiers did for the Korean people was ultimately worthwhile.



Duty to Defend People in Need

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, remarks on the stark contrast between the Korea of the 1950s, as described by her grandfather, and the country they experienced during their revisit. She recalls him speaking about his longing for home but also his determination to serve his country and assist the Korean people. Tearfully, she expresses her immense pride in her grandfather's service.



Fekede Belachew

Service After Armistice

Fekede Belachew describes his service after the Korean War. He explains how the thought at the time was the Communists would break the truce. Fekede Belachew patrolled jungle where he frequently encountered Chinese at a distance. He also describes his fondness for injera, an Ethiopian dish, that he missed in Korea.



Felipe Cruz

Training and Operating Heavy Equipment

Felipe Cruz shares his experience of basic training in the United States Marine Corps. He comments on his training in rifle qualification, infantry, and amphibian tractor school. He recounts how he spent six months as a crewman on amphibian tractors in Busan, Korea, before being deployed to the infantry on the Imjin River. He notes that due to his prior experience in driving trucks, he was reassigned to the Headquarters and Service Company as a heavy equipment truck driver.



Revisiting Korea

Felipe Cruz recounts his experience of supplying the infantry at the front lines during the Korean War. He proudly lists the medals he received for his service, one of which was the Ambassador for Peace Medal that he was presented with during his return to South Korea in 1998 through the Republic of Korea's "Revisit Program." He shares the highlights of his and his wife's trip to South Korea which included a visit to the location of the armistice agreement. He expresses he was initially reluctant to return to South Korea due to the devastation he witnessed during the war, but he acknowledges the positive impact the experience had on him.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describes his first impressions of Korea. He explains that even though Busan was a city, most of the civilians were farmers who were incredible different to the people he knew. He details the way in which Koreans built their homes and utilized heated floors.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que, aunque Busan era una ciudad, la mayoría de los civiles eran agricultores que eran increíblemente diferentes a la gente de Puerto Rico. Detalla la forma en que los coreanos construían sus casas y utilizaban suelos radiantes.



Fermin Cantu

First Impressions of Korea

Fermin Cantu gives his first impressions of South Korea. He shares how it was to go to a country he has never seen or heard of before. He explains how he saw first-hand how difficult it is for South Koreans to rebuild their country and improve their economy after so much devastation from the war. He shares how the infrastructure has changed and how the Koreans used to use American goods and now we use goods from South Korea.



Finn Arne Bakke

Bakke Met His Wife

Finn Bakke was an ordinary private in the 2nd and 7th contingents operating in the NORMASH field hospital. Although originally run by the International Red Cross, his unit was soon absorbed by the 8th United States Army. Staffed at first by Norwegian nurses and doctors, the hospitals began training Korean women just out of school. His future wife was one such nurse. When the NORMASH unit closed, she joined the Red Cross hospital in Seoul, working in a ward built to treat Korean children with tuberculosis. Pressed to describe his attraction for his wife, He spoke admiringly her, stating, "She was a very nice girl."



Service in NORMASH

Finn Bakke credited his experience in Korea to the first secretary-general of the United Nations, Norwegian Trygve Lie. Trygve Lie brought the plight of the Koreans to the Norwegian people, and Norway sent soldiers, doctors, and nurses to a field hospital to Korea. He explained there were three reasons he volunteered to go to Korea to work in a NORMASH hospital: he wanted to help, he craved the excitement of traveling to the other side of the world, and he needed money to begin his university studies. Although he was not trained as a nurse, he worked in a laboratory and was trained in basic first aid care at the field hospital.



Returning to Korea

When Finn Bakke returned to Korea with his wife in 1983, they were greeted by his wife's entire surviving family. He hardly recognized the Gimpo airport from 1953. Years later, the Korean government invited veterans' grandchildren to visit Korea in an effort to encourage the study of the Korean War. He struggled to choose which of his twelve grandchildren should go. When he contacted the board, they agreed to host all twelve. The trip turned into a huge family reunion with visits from family as far away as the United States. He was proud that his eldest grandson Dietrich learned so much about his Korean heritage.



Floyd Hanamann

They Called It C-17

Floyd Hanamann describes his experience working with psychiatric patients in the military hospital. He explains the symptoms he would see when soldiers would come back from the Korean War. In addition, he explains that there would be some soldiers who could only be furnished with a mattress as they would destroy the furniture if provided.



Forrest D. Claussen

Shell Craters Lining the Streets of Seoul

Forrest Claussen describes his first arrival in Seoul. He recounts walking streets destroyed by shell craters. He describes the rain filling each crater and the hazard they presented as evidenced when a soldier fell into one.



Francis Beidle

To Free You People From the Commies!

Francis Beidle explains what a difficult time he had while in Korea. He recalls being drafted into the military in 1951 and not understanding the reasons and motivations behind the war other than "to free you people from the Commies!" Even all these years later, he still questions U.S. involvement and how the war concluded.



Francis Bidle

Difficulties in Korea

Francis Bidle comments on the most difficult thing he experienced while serving. He shares that it was difficult trying to figure out why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing. He offers an account of the time he asked a colonel why and what he and his fellow soldiers were doing in Korea, and the colonel responded, "Son, if I knew the answers to your questions, we wouldn't be here." He adds that he did know he was fighting against Communism.



Francis John Ezzo

Korea Then and Now

Francis Ezzo describes walking through the countryside. He recalls seeing rice paddies and giving kids some food. He shares that even though he has never been back, he is thankful that Koreans appreciate the sacrifices American soldiers made for their country.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Return to Korea and Korea Today - Regreso a Corea y Corea hoy en dia

Francisco Caicedo Montua was an honorary member of the first group of Korean War Veterans invited by General Park to visit Korea. He was the sole representative for Colombia and traveled to Korea with two Americans, two Canadians, and one person from New Zealand. He describes that through this honor, he decided to give the president a copy of the book he wrote: Bansay, Diary in the Korean Trenches. He credits the rapid development and revival of South Korea with Park’s policies. On reflecting about South Korea today and the technological progress and strong economy, he believes it is resultant from the Korean virtues including the love of the country the people have for their homeland, the bravery of its people, and the honesty in the administration and command of the nation.

Francisco Caicedo Montua fue un miembro honorario del primer grupo de veteranos de la guerra de Corea invitados por General Park a visitar Corea. Fue el único representante de Colombia y viajó a Corea con dos estadounidenses, dos canadienses y un veterano de Nueva Zelanda. Cuenta que a través de este honor, decidió darle al presidente una copia del libro que escribió: Bansay, Diary in the Korean Trenches. Él atribuye el rápido desarrollo y el renacimiento de Corea del Sur a las acciones de Park. Pensando sobre Corea del Sur hoy, y el progreso tecnológico y su economía, él cree que es el resultado de las virtudes coreanas, incluido el amor al país de la gente por su patria, la valentía de su gente, y la honestidad en la administración y el comando de la nación.



Frank Abasciano

Landing at Incheon

Frank Abasciano describes landing at Incheon. He explains that there was a lot of small arms fire when he was there. He remembers how they dropped the LSTs and that the landing was not ideal.



Escaping the Chosin Reservoir with Frostbite

Frank Abasciano shares he was a radioman and sorted communication between the companies. He describes how cold the Chosin Reservoir felt and his frostbite. He explains that they only had a pair of combat boots. He notes that he still suffers the effects of the frostbite.



Frank E. Butler

Gratitude

Frank E. Butler describes going ashore in Seoul while serving in the New Zealand Navy. He remembers seeing millions of people in Seoul and describes it as being very busy. He reminisces about his later return visits. He appreciated the gratitude the South Korean people showed him upon return.



A Determined People

Frank E. Butler describes modern South Korea as an amazing recovery story. He was amazed at the massive city of Seoul and marveled at the determination of the Korean people. He said it is hard to believe that the two Koreas are so close geographically but extremely different in many ways.



"I Love Them!"

Frank E. Butler sends his heartfelt love to the Korean people. He is proud of the medals bestowed upon him by the Korean government, but he wishes the government of New Zealand would honor him as well. He feels the North Korean people did not fully intend the conflict that has split Korea, but he asserts that the world owes the South Koreans a debt of gratitude for standing firm.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

"War Just like Any War”

Frank Cohee served in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars and was asked about the difference. In Korea he says that they always knew where the front line was, but in Vietnam there didn’t seem to be a front line. He recalls that they both were “war just like any war.”



Returning to Korea

Frank Cohee has been back to Korea at least three times. He remarks about how many surprises there were- skyscrapers, women drivers, bridges. He ends with how important it is to remember the veterans.



Frank Seaman

Korean War: Forgotten and Its Importance

Frank Seaman shares his view on why the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War. He shares that when he came home, no one knew where he had been and that the war was not even talked about; life just went on. He also describes why he feels the Korean War was important and how the war changed South Korea.



Frank Torres

Modern Korea

Frank Torres describes the amazement of modern Korea. He explains that the growth he saw in the economy. He explains he has had the opportunity to return to Korea twice. He shares the importance of studying and learning from the Korean War.



Frank Zielinski

Fond Memories and Lessons Learned

Frank Zielinski describes the use of Korean "house boys" by various officers, though he himself did not take on a house boy. KATUSAS brought food up the paths to the front lines to feed soldiers. At Thanksgiving, the KSCs delivered much-appreciated turkey. Korea taught Frank Zielinski to respect and protect others.



Franklin M. Sarver, Jr.

Thought on North Korea and "The Forgotten War"

Franklin Sarver, Jr. shares his thoughts on the situation in modern North Korea. He contrasts North Korea with South Korea. He shares his thoughts on why the Korea War is considered a "Forgotten" War.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Surrender and Difference Between Chinese and North Korean Treatment

Franklin Gillreath describes the events leading up to surrendering and the difference between Chinese and North Korean treatment. He explains that the North Koreans were harsh and would hit any soldier who could not understand their directions in Korean. He compares this example to the Chinese approach which involved finding a translator rather than hitting a soldier who could not understand directions.



Daily Life in Camp Five

Franklin Gillreath explains what daily life was like inside of POW Camp Five. He describes the food mostly consisting of millet. He explains the wood and burial detail he was forced to conduct when fellow POWs died.



Fred Barnett

Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Fred Barnett says that his experiences during the war were good. He believes that that what the US accomplished for the Koreans was good and that we should continue to support them. While he has not gone back to Korea, he would like to, and was interested in the program of Korean Government helping veterans to visit.



Fred Haymaker

Witnessing Poverty in Korea in 1965

Ira “Fred” Haymaker describes empathetically how poor the Korean were in 1965. He shares a story of when he and a few other soldiers climbed on the top of the mountain and watched older men collecting twigs. Another one of the stories includes how the Koreans would risk their lives to collect scrap metal at night to resell.



Fred J. Ito

Unprepared for Combat

Fred Ito enlisted in the military and received basic training before going to Japan in 1948. However, his training as an auto mechanic did not prepare him for combat when he then went to the frontlines of Korea. He describes his training and how he felt as he found himself in a situation he never expected in August 1950.



Thanksgiving at Usan

Fred Ito describes Thanksgiving in Usan. The 25th Division came to relieve the 2nd Battalion while they enjoyed their turkey, but the Chinese unit, which had been hiding behind the mountains, made a big offensive against the 25th Division, including Fred Ito's friend. Fred Ito and some of the 2nd Battalion went back to help, but found themselves having to escape through the deep river.



Advice for Japan and Korea

As a Japanese-American who fought in Korea, Fred Ito has unique advice for the Japanese and Koreans. After he gives a brief history of the Japanese occupation of Korea, he advises everyone to move beyond their history and get along with one another. After providing some examples of differences in today's society, he says that there are "good people" everywhere.



Fred Liddell

Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



Korea Revisit Program in 1986: The Evolution of Korea

Fred Liddell could not believe that evolution of South Korea in 1986 when he revisited through the Korea Revisit Program. He remembered Seoul train station completely in ruins along with all the buildings, but when he saw it rebuilt, it was a miracle. When he visited the Suan cultural center, Fred Liddell was able to share all of the changes that he saw from 1951 to 1986 including straw huts to homes and women plowing fields to mechanization. Fred Liddell was invited to visit the hut where the peace treaty was signed, but he felt extremely nervous because it was so close to North Korea.



Fred Ragusa

Artillery Training Alongside Koreans at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Fred Ragusa talks about artillery training at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and a fellow class of Korean soldiers who were also training there at the time. He said that the Captain that taught him also taught a class of Koreans. He heard that there was an emphasis of extreme discipline in the Korean classes, but that this Captain was able to bring his class to the top.



Frederick Marso

Life with Underwater Demolition

Frederick Marso describes his job responsibilities as a part of the Underwater Demolition Team. He describes the training as tough and his platoon being the cream of the crop. He details everyday life living on a ship for an extended period of time.



Frederick Schram

Sheer Devastation and Poverty

Frederick Schram describes arriving in Incheon in 1953 and his first impressions of Korea. He recounts arriving in a city annihilated from shelling. As they began their journey north, he recalls interacting with groups of Koreans who were living in sheer poverty. As they traveled through communities, he remembers soldiers distributing bars of soap from the train and witnessing desperate people fighting over the bars.



KMAG's Critical Role

Frederick Schram describes his time with KMAG working on the reconstruction of the railroad near Busan. He discusses the critical role the KMAG played in the rebuilding of South Korea after the war. Since his MOS was a transportation specialist, he describes his role working on rebuilding the transportation corridor for the Korean railroad.



Fredrick Still

Running a Road Grader

Fredrick Still describes his job in Korea, maintaining roads as a part of the 116th Combat Engineer Battalion. Because of his experience on the farm, he was familiar working with heavy equipment, but his first hand road grader was too dangerous due to the rocky terrain. He explains that he then got a motorized road grader that was much easier to operate after a few days.



A Frames and Agriculture

Fredrick Still describes the way of life experienced by Koreans, specifically agricultural practices. He remembers the many huts lined up along the roads in areas he refers to as "slums." He explains that the Koreans would carry baskets of human waste to their rice paddies which were often irrigated by water from the mountains. Frederick Still also describes the A-frames that were used.



Galip Fethi Okay

In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



Garry Hashimoto

Life on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto remembers what it was like to be on the front lines in Korea. He recalls having to spend at least thirty days on the front lines, never having a shower or brushing his teeth. He remembers having to wear the same uniform and socks the entire time. He recalls how even if his boots were filled with water, he could not take them off until he made it to a safe place. He remembers his socks smelled so bad and how he ended up suffering from trench foot. He recounts how the allied forces would wear fluorescents so the airplanes knew where to drop food. He shares how they had c-rations to eat and remembers the ham or pork and beans being the best. He explains that he never went hungry and had plenty of cigarettes. He describes his bed being a foxhole, and he remembers it was very cold.



Gary Routh

Listening in on North Korea

Gary Routh describes his job secretly listening to North Korean soldiers on the radio in the 1990s. He explains that occasionally he would hear artillery practice and excitement on the other end of the radio. He describes that spying was mostly boring, hearing the same phrases every day from the North Korean soldiers.



American G.I.s and the KATUSA

Gary Routh describes his interaction with the KATUSA stationed with the American G.I.s. He describes how the American forces would view Korean culture as strange, such as bathing each other or eating ramen while seated on the floor. He then describes how Koreans would view the Americans as strange, including the harsh language and loud nature of the U.S. soldiers.



Like Living in a Ghetto

Gary Routh describes what it was like to live in the barracks stationed in Korea. He explains that the conditions were rough and that the buildings were falling apart. He describes being able to hang out with soldiers who were friends at a moment's notice but that the majority of the experience was similar to living in a ghetto.



Gene C. Richards

Poverty Stricken Villages

Gene C. Richards discusses how Seoul was when he left Korea in 1953. He describes Seoul as not the major city seen today. He describes how majority of Korea was agricultural villages rather than urban. He also describes how so many people at the time lived in immense poverty.



Satisfaction for the Sacrifice

Gene C. Richards describes how much South Korea has changed since he served there. Much of the places where he served no longer exist. He describes how he was amazed at the success of South Korea today. Gene C. Richards expresses how he is proud of his service and seeing South Korea's implementation of democracy has provided soldiers closure for their sacrifices.



Gene Jordan

A Pile of Rubble

Gene Jordan describes what it was like when he landed in Incheon. He describes the horrific scene and the utter despair of Korean children. He describes the shock he experienced from the damage and civilians begging for food.



Incheon Then vs. Now

Gene Jordan describes how hard working the Korean people were during the war era. He discusses how the Korean people have established a united, stable democratic society. He shares how he never thought much about Korea after he left, but when he attended the Marine Corp Reunion, he was amazed to see and hear about the economic growth.



Gene Peeples

The 7th Med Battalion

Gene Peeples describes his role as a combat medic in the 7th Med Battalion. He describes combat medics rotating between different units every two weeks. He explains that he would spend time with engineering troops, then switch to another unit such as infantry.



Mostly Gunshot Wounds

Gene Peeples describes his treatment of the most common wounds he encountered as a medic during the Korean War. He explains his quick treatment of gunshot wounds before sending injured soldiers off to evacuation. He also describes another of the most common conditions they saw in the hospital, venereal disease.



Gene Spicer

Revisit

Gene Spicer describes his two revisits to Korea. His first trip reminded him why he fought, to create the country he was now visiting. On his second trip, he retraced his steps from 1951. The contrast between the North and South from the DMZ and from the air moved him.



Geoffrey Grimley

Recollections of Korea

Geoff Grimley remembers seeing Korea for the first time and observing telegraph lines down and burning T-34 tanks. He speaks about having to sleep in a field and waking up with frost on his things, but he says it was better than school because he would get a beating every day. He briefly recalls the Battle of Kapyong.



George A. Edwards

Life at Kimpo (K14)

George Edwards recounts the living conditions while stationed at Kimpo Air Force base. He remembers that there were now permanent buildings, but there was a chapel and a chow hall. He states that the chow hall was “primitive” and the food was often cold when you sat at the table, but everyone was happy to be doing their job.



The Most Gratifying Mission

George Edwards remembers his most gratifying moments which included giving candy and other items to the Korean children. When his crew would take a plane to Japan for repair, they would spend all of their money on things that they could give out when they returned. George Edwards states that the Korean people were living in such destitute conditions, with only the clothes on their back and no standing buildings.



Like a Thousand Years of Progress

George Edwards says that when he returned to Korea it was like they made over a “thousand years of progress.” He feels that this progress is gratifying. He said whenever he would walk around, the Korean people would thank him for his service.



Korean Progress

When asked what Korea means to him, George Edwards says that he is proud that in some small way, he is proud that Americans contributed to the progress and freedom in Korea. He believes that those acts helped to provide the freedom necessary to progress like the country has.



Enduring Korean Friendships

George Edwards explains how he has developed strong friendships and affinity for the Korean people. He says that the internet has made these connections possible. He hopes that the new generations in Korea can be aware of what their father and grandfathers did to establish such a vibrant, progressive country.



George Brown

The Burial of a POW

George Brown shares he was only six years old at the time his family was notified of his brother Arthur's death in POW Camp 5 in North Korea. He states that Arthur was temporarily buried in North Korea in a shallow grave due to the ground being frozen solid. He explains that the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency lists Arthur as unaccounted for and shares that Arthur is memorialized on the Courts of the Missing at the National Cemetery of the Pacific.



George Covel

First Impressions of Korea and Living Conditions

George Covel describes his first impressions of Korea as shocking and recounts significant devastation. He recalls his living conditions, stating that he was one of the fortunate ones to have lived in an old sergeant's quarters with cots, houseboys, and enough clothing. He mentions that an officer peddled their food on the black market which rendered poor food options for the bandsmen.



A Rewarding Life, Legacy, and Message

George Covel discusses some of the challenges he faced regarding the GI Bill and choosing a differing career pathway when he returned to the States following the war. He emphasizes that the Army and his service made him a better man, and he offers his thoughts on the importance of the Korean War and the legacy of Korean War veterans. He stresses the importance of not forgetting history and encourages future generations to listen and learn from veterans so that they avoid the mistakes made in the past.



George Drake

The War's Innocent Victims

Dr. George Drake discusses his research on Korean War information found in various archival locations. He explains the repercussions of war on society. He describes the problem with poverty left in Korea because of war, and his passion for getting more information out about his humanitarian concerns.



The Poverty of War

Dr. George Drake explains how children were rescued from poverty during the Korean War. He recounts his journey to find photos that were taken during the war of orphans in Korea. He shares his concern over the children who became abandoned victims of the Korean War.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



Radio Transmitters, Ghost Towns, and Orphanages in Seoul

George Enice Lawhon Jr.'s job in the US military was to fix a BC 610 (a Collins radio Transmitter). When he arrived in Seoul, there was not anyone there and it was a ghost town. Sadly, some old and young people found in a rice field shot and bayonetted. He had a Chaplin in his group that started an orphanage for Korean children because there were so many that were left alone.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George H. Campbell

Seoul's Growth and Gains

George H. Campbell discusses how devastated Korea was after the war. He explains how he saw pictures of places that lost everything. He explains the changes in Seoul in the 1970s seeing the skyscrapers and the resiliency of the people.



Journey to Korea

George H. Campbell describes his military training. He shares his role as a medical equipment repairman. He explains how his job led him to live in Korea in the early 1970s.



George J. Bruzgis

I'd Seen A lot of John Wayne Films

George Bruzgis admitted that he'd never heard, seen, or knew anything about Korea before being shipped there. He remembered watching John Wayne films and the idea of going somewhere else in the world seemed like an exciting adventure. In actuality, he was really scared.



Befriending The KATUSA

Short on men within his own division, the KATUSA pictured with George Bruzgis is Corporal Yu daek yoo. He described him as a great man and he was considered a part of the division. George Bruzgis mentioned how little the KATUSA was paid, so the men in his division pitched in 5 dollars each, so that they could paying him over 20 dollars a month. This was a lot of money in 1953.



Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



Strong Appreciation for the Korean People

After his revisits to Korea and and a banquet in honor of soldiers who fought in recent years, George Bruzgis shared his sincere appreciation and gratitude for the people of Korea. The Korean population continues to show their love for the United States Military Forces. George Bruzgis was honored to go back and visit the country he had fought for all those years.



George Parsons

Bound for Korea and First Experiences

George Parsons chronicles his departure from the States and arrival in Korea. He comments on the ride over aboard the troop ship USS Anderson and recalls landing in Pusan. He recounts the cold weather as it was January of 1951 and recalls there being no lodging available, stating that he remembers sleeping out in the field and crowding around fires to stay warm. He details his journey to Incheon and through Seoul, sharing that Seoul was completely flattened from the fighting.



Returning Veterans

George Parsons shares that the Korean War is hard to describe as it was a war we could have won but simply did not finish the job. He describes how it felt to come back from Korea and not be given the same recognition that he had witnessed being given to returning WWII veterans and discusses why he feels the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War. He elaborates on how proud he is that the DMZ is still a boundary between North and South Korea at the 38th Parallel, protecting the people he fought for during the war.



Enduring Fondness for Korea and Koreans

George Parsons explains that the Korean War and veterans of the Korean War should be remembered as honorable and should be valued for helping render a free country. He comments on the enduring fondness he feels for the people and government of Korea due to their appreciation for the Korean War veterans and their efforts. He offers an example of the gratitude he was shown while in line at a donut shop.



Legacy of the Korean War and Korean War Veteran

George Parsons speaks on the legacy of the Korean War and Korean War veteran. He feels that veterans saved a country and a people worth saving willingly. He believes the United States did the right thing by fighting, saving, and then handing the country of South Korea back into the hands of its citizens. He feels strongly about the reunification fo the Korean Peninsula and offers supporting reasons.



George Sullivan

Impressions of Korea

George Sullivan talks about his experiences in Korea during the 1950s. He remembers how cold the weather was and how destitute the South Koreans were. He recalls many of them living in tents or broken down cars and shares that Seoul was totally destroyed. He is amazed at the transformation South Korea has made over the last half century and adds that he really enjoys kimchi.



George Tzouvalas

The Will of the Korean People

George Tzouvalas recalls his visits to Korea following the war. He credits the success and progress made in the country following the war to the will of the Korean people. He describes their love of education and pursuit of knowledge. He remembers how strongly they loved their homeland.



Troubled Countries

George Tzouvalas compares the country of Korea to his home country of Greece. He describes them both as troubled with many disasters brought on by wars. He recalls how he especially admired Korean teachers conducting class under the shade of the trees.



George Van Hoomissen

Arriving in Korea

George Van Hoomissen shares he was activated as a Marine during the summer of 1951 destined for Korea. He recalls leaving Camp Pendleton for Korea arriving in the spring of 1952. He explains he was stationed near Panmunjeom initially and remembers the Chinese to the the north occupying a high mountain. He notes there were no severe battles near where he was initially stationed but remembers constant artillery air strikes occurring.



Remembering Devastation

George Van Hoomissen remembers Seoul being absolutely demolished. He notes that the capitol was a shambles. He shares his thoughts on the Korea of today, especially as related to the successful economy of the country.



George W. Liebenstein

Assigned to Battery Supply

George "Bill" Liebenstein details his assignment beginning with his arrival in Korea. Initially, he was assigned to the motor pool, but when his commanding officer learned he was trained in supply, he was quickly transferred to battery supply. He quickly moved up to the rank of Battery Supply Sergeant. He describes his role in battery supply serving Batteries A, B, C, and Headquarters. He notes the types of products they were in charge of distributing but does share that most rations did not typically come through supply.



Celebrating the Armistice and Going Home

George "Bill" Liebenstein saw only limited parts of Korea beyond the area behind the front lines where he was stationed. He shares his experience seeing the damage in Seoul and taking a supply run to Uijeongbu. He was still serving in Korea when the armistice was signed and recalls how the celebration of the event was marred by the accidental death of a man in his unit. He concludes by fondly remembering his arrival home to his family, business, and community.



George Zimmerman

Well Worth It

George Zimmerman describes the landscape of Korea as "something else." Winters were especially cold near the DMZ and the Chosin Reservoir. At one point, he had permission to take R and R in Japan, but he felt too committed to his work in Korea and turned it down. He recounts his return trip to the states following his service in Korea. George Zimmerman reminds students of today that Korea was important, with terrible loss of life for an important cause.



Georgios Hahlioutis

Tears in My Eyes

George Hahlioutis vividly describes the scene of catastrophic destruction that greeted him when he first set foot in Korea. He recounts the profound suffering and pain of the locals, particularly the hungry children, which left a lasting impact on him



Georgios Margaritis

Witnessing Devastation

George Margaritis reflects on his first days in Korea as he traveled from Busan to Cheorwon. He recalls seeing fires on the outskirts of Seoul and absolute disaster in most places they traveled through. He shares is concern for the Korean people and their futures.

Note: English translations of answers begin at 12:12, 13:34, and 15:04



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Arriving in Korea at Age Nineteen

Gerry Farmer describes arriving at Pusan at age nineteen. He shares his surprise that it was all Americans there, and he recalls hearing an American band playing music. He remembers traveling from Pusan by train to Hill 159.



Gerald Campbell

Thoughts on Modern Korea

Gerald Campbell returned to Korea in 2008. He shares how he found Seoul upon his revisit. He describes being impressed by the towering skyscrapers. He discussed visiting the DMZ.



Gerald Edward Ballow

The Training Changed Completely

Gerald Ballow knew at the beginning of July 1950 that US troops were going to enter Korea after North Koreans invaded South Korea, so training started to change. Even though he volunteered to go, Gerald Ballow was asked to stay behind at GHQ to assist. He shares how it felt to find out that his friend was killed in combat.



Gerald Land

Forgotten War

Gerald Land was disgraced by the term police action instead of calling the Korean War, a war. He was also upset that people, particularly educators, didn't know anything about the war when he came home. With so many people who risked their lives for the people of South Korea and to label it the way people have, is just awful.



Released POWs Had a Blank Stare In Their Eyes

Panmunjom was the site of disembarkation at the time when Gerald Land left in September of 1953. He came across American soldiers who had been held as Prisoners of War. Gerald Land was overcome by sadness when he saw how sick the POWs looked. They just stared into space and this made Gerald Land reflect how lucky he was to come out alive. He couldn't imagine the type of torture those men had been put through.



Gerald Spandorf

Concerns About North Korea Today

Gerald Spandorf felt mad at North Korea because they are test bombing different areas around Korea. He's afraid that their bombing will start another war and he doesn't want anything bad to happen to the Korean people. Since he's been out of the Navy, Gerald Spandorf has been learning more about the Korean people and they have all been so sweet to him.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Helping Starving Civilians and Funding Orphanages

Germaye Tesfaye witnessed terrible destruction in Korea. Arriving in 1952, he encountered Koreans in dire circumstances. Many civilians lacked basic food. Rather than throwing away uneaten food as directed by fellow American soldiers, Ethiopian solders gave their leftovers to hungry Korean people. Further, many Ethiopian solders donated their salaries to fund the creation of orphanages for Korean children who had lost their parents in the conflict.



Stopped by the Armistice

Germaye Tesfaye left Korea in 1953. So many people had died by that time. He still wishes the Armistice had not prevented him and his fellow Ethiopians from continuing their fight. They really wanted to take over North Korea. Germaye Tesfaye praises Korea's surprising progress since the 1950s. He is happy that the nation he fought to protect has achieved such economic success.



Proud Grandsons Planning a Trip to Korea

When asked about his desire to travel to Korea, Germaye Tesfaye affirms that he wants to see a peaceful Korea before he dies. His grandsons also want to visit. They are proud of their grandfather's service. Germaye Tesfaye is thankful for the relationship between Korea and Ethiopia.



Gilbert Hauffels

First Impressions

Gilbert Hauffels remembers entering Korea with great curiosity. Notably, he recalls observing numerous mountains during his train journey to the Imjin River. Everything appeared vastly different from Europe, particularly the houses adorned with thatched roofs.



Giuseppe Ercoletti

My Father Carrying a Korean Baby

Giuseppe Ercoletti marvels at the transformation of South Korea. He recalls stories from his father about minefields and a picture of his father caring for a young child. After his experience in Korea, he feels as if Korea is more modern than Italy. He highlights how modern Korea is an example of intelligent people raising themselves up.



A Beautiful Country

Giuseppe Ercoletti and his wife, Maria, elaborate on Cesar’s stories about working with women and children in Korea. Maria discusses her interactions with Giuseppe’s father before and after his service with the Italian Red Cross. She recalls him discussing how the women and children needed his help. Based on her trip with Giuseppe to Korea, she marvels at what the people have accomplished and the beauty of the country. Giuseppe interjects his impressions of Korea and identifies the best weapon of the Korean people is their strength and intelligence.



Glen Collins

From Not Knowing to Growing

Glen Collins describes his feelings about modern Korea. He shares how the growth is much more than he could have even imagined. He was surprised to learn that Kia is a Korean company during the interview. He shares pride in helping Korea expansive growth but shares that PTSD still bothers him.



Glenn Paige

Tension Building

Glenn Paige talks about what happened after World War II. He describes not only the demobilization, but also the Soviet tension that was building. He explains that there is a lot that we didn’t know about the time, but that the soldiers did what they needed to do.



A Complex Situation

Glenn Paige discusses the politics surrounding the war, including the relationships before the war. He explains some of the actions that occurred in North Korea towards the South Korea that led the US into the war. He breaks down the parties that were involved and their clear goal.



Gordon Evans

Children of War

Gordon Evans describes how he felt children of war suffered the most. He tells of a young boy he came across who was alone in the cold with no coat and how he took that boy in as his own houseboy. He points out that this was not uncommon due to the orphanages being overrun.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Arrival in Busan and Seoul

When Gordon McIntrye first arrived in Busan, the New Zealand troops were met by an American Dixie band. He describes seeing Seoul's utter destruction, claiming it must have been one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Fronts of buildings were blown out on either side of the wide streets, but he encountered a relatively untouched brick cathedral.



Grace Ackerman

Speaking About War: A Healing Process

Grace Ackerman feels that the Korean War Legacy Foundation is important because it allows the veterans to speak about their experiences during the Korean War. Students and future generations will also be able to gain knowledge from the interviews. Experiences such as the cold weather, being away from family, and personal experiences endured during the Korean War.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Guidberto Barona Silva

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva feels it is unfortunate that the Korean War has become a “forgotten war.” In his opinion, the success of South Korea is an example to other nations as it has become a significant economic power and a beacon of democracy. He believes that it can serve as a model for nations which are still developing as South Korea is a symbol of the advancements of the human spirit.

El almirante Guidberto Barona Silva siente que es lamentable que la Guerra de Corea es una “guerra olvidada”. En su opinión, el éxito de Corea del Sur es un ejemplo para otras naciones, porque el país se ha desarrollado mucho y tiene una económica robusta y una democracia fuerte. Él cree que puede servir como ejemplo para las naciones que aún se están desarrollando, porque Corea del Sur es un símbolo de los avances del espíritu humano.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Guillermo Frau Rullán provides an account of his first impressions of Korea. He describes a nation full of starving and impoverished people. He laments the fact that some civilians had their houses burned because North Koreans used them to hide in and attack UN forces.

Guillermo Frau Rullán relata sus primeras impresiones sobre Corea. Él describe una nación llena de gente con hambre y empobrecida. Lamenta el hecho de que a algunos civiles les quemaron sus casas porque los norcoreanos las utilizaron para esconderse y atacar a las fuerzas de la ONU.



Gustave Gevaert

Seeing Seoul for the first time in 1953

After arriving in Pusan in 1953, Gustave Gevart traveled to Seoul where he spent two days before heading to the front lines. Gustave Gevart recalls Seoul being completely flat except the "old gate." The city was destroyed with few tall buildings. This image reminded him of Germany in the 1940's.



Modern Korea

Gustave Gevart reflects on the idea of a Peace Treaty in modern Korea. Gustave Gevart believes it is a good idea to see Korea united but also is cautious of the idea. In 2016 Gustave Gevart visited Korea for the second time and remembers it as "a miracle."



H. Douglas Barclay

Public Opinion

H. Douglas Barclay explains how the American public perception of the Korea was very different than during Vietnam. The country was happy, doing well, and glad to have the war over with. The people on the street were all very positive. He explains that they were stopping Communism, a mission everyone agreed upon.



Successful Korean capitalism

H. Douglas Barclay discusses how the war led to capitalism in South Korea and a successful economy. He explains how the principles that were applied to South Korea allowed their system to work. He argues that the capitalist system is a success for quality of life.



Korean Miracle

H. Douglas Barclay argues that Korea places a major role in the history of the United States. He explains that if you saw Korea today, it is a "miracle." He remembers taking a bus through Korea and seeing how built up it was compared to North Korea, recalling that North Korea then looked like South Korea in 1955.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Volunteering for the Greek Army and Bravery in his Heart

Haralambos Theodorakis entered the military in 1948 as an infantry soldier after 23 months of training. He found out about the breakout of the Korean War through the Army and he wanted to go there to fight without any fear. Even knowing that he could die didn't stop Haralambos Theodorakis from wanting to go over to Korea.



Korea at the Beginning of the War

Haralambos Theodorakis left for Korea in 1950 and came back in 1951. Everything was destroyed when he arrived and the people were very sweet people. Korean civilians didn't have a lot of clothes to wear or food to eat. If Haralambos Theodorakis had extra food, he gave it to the civilians and he saw a lot of Korean children running the streets during his 8 months there.



Modern Korea

Haralambos Theodorakis knew that he was fighting communists during the war. Now, Korea is the 10th strongest nation in the world and he feels that it was a destroyed country in 1950. Now, he's excited to see the progress that has been made in Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Message to the Korean People

Haralambos Theodorakis never experienced PTSD since the Korean War. He thanked the Korean people for allowing him to fight for them and he would do it again if needed. If he was able to speak to both North and South Korea, he would say that there were a lot of loss of life and these two countries should not reunite.



Harlan Nielsen

Living Conditions and the Front Lines

Harlan Nielsen explains the living conditions on the front lines and not wanting to talk about Korean War battles he witnessed from the front lines. He recalls that many soldiers were killed. He continues to say that he feels war is close again with the activity of North Korea.



Afterthoughts of War

Harlan Nielsen explains his thoughts on his service in the Korean War. He explains that serving in war can be necessary to a person's life and that American service during the war went to a good cause. He also describes how knowing the bad helps one recognize the good.



Harold A. Hoelzer

Experiencing a Whole New World

Harold Hoelzer speaks about his initial experiences with Korea during the war. He offers stark details contrasting what he saw in Korea with the world he was familiar with back in the United States. Coming from a world of cities, roads, and factories, he remembers how "crude" Korea seemed to him at the time.



Finding a Way to Gave Fun in Korea

Harold Hoelzer recounts seeking a little fun while serving in Korea. In this atypical war story, he describes how he adopted a hunting dog only to have it disappear during his time in Japan on Rest and Relaxation. He shares he found out the KATUSAs stationed with his unit likely used the dog as a source of food. Upon returning from Japan, he remembers the comedic scene when he convinced a Korean detachment to take him hunting and act as a flush for pheasants.



Harold Beck

Atrocities in Seoul

Harold Beck’s first impression of Korea was that of “atrocity.” When he drove into Seoul, he remembers how the building were “all shot up” having changed hands three times. However, among the most atrocious memories was that of the bodies hanging off the bridge- new ones were placed there daily.



Harold Don

Seeing and Experiencing Battle

Harold Don shares that he was apprehensive about arriving to Korea. He recalls witnessing the destruction from prior battles upon landing in Incheon. He remembers how his unit experienced fire from North Korean tanks at Yeongdeungpo and observed the destruction at Seoul. His unit then boarded another ship and attempted a landing at Wonsan but was forced to wait due to mines needing to be cleared.



Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Extremely Cold Conditions

Harold Don describes the challenges of digging foxholes in Korea's frozen ground during the winter. He details how one had to clear enough snow to make an indentation to rest in. He notes how, as he was assigned to heavy machine guns, his foxhole was located at the most vulnerable point. He explains how, in an effort to keep the machine guns' barrels from freezing, he had to utilize antifreeze.



Redeployed as Machine Gun Squad Leader

Harold Don discusses being redeployed to Korea during the Chinese major offensive. He shares he was unaware, at the time, that Chinese forces had retaken Seoul and that he became a machine gun squad leader. He remembers partaking in Rest and Relaxation, which meant moving back several miles from the front for a hot shower and food. He notes he remembers the country itself when asked what he remembers most from this eleven-month tour in Korea. He describes Korea as being like a third-world country at the time with primitive farming, sanitation, and construction methods.



Harold Huff

The Effects of War

Harold Huff speaks about the effects of war on him as an individual. He cites his time in the military as a time of true growth. He shares how he learned a greater respect for the world and gained a greater perspective. He says that the experience helped him grow up and that he will never forget his time during the Korean War.



Changes in Korea

Harold Huff discusses the differences seen in Korea before and after the war and compares the two Koreas today. He remembers hearing about the turmoil experienced in Korea prior to the war and recognizes the benefits Korea has amassed due to democracy. He talks about the hunger and sadness many North Koreans face in comparison to the fortunes of the South Koreans.



Harry Burke

Incheon Landing

Harry Burke describes his first days in the orient. He shares how he was surprised with the odor and stench in Japan and Korea. He recalls the initial landing on Incheon happened on the 18th but that he arrived on the 21st to see the devastation that had taken place three days prior.



My Most Difficult Days

Harry Burke is describing how eight men were killed and twelve were wounded is his company. After experiencing this, he was sent back to Incheon and went around from the west side of Korea to the east side to Wonsan. He describes their days in the war.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Training and the Inchon Landing

Harry C. Graham describes his arrival in Korea. He details the circumstances of training Republic of Korea (ROK) soldiers at Mt. Fuji, in Japan, before moving on to take part at the Inchon Landing in September of 1950. He describes his first impressions of Korea.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



Harry McNeilly

Becoming a War-Time Father

In this clip, Harry McNeilly recounts his brief time in Seoul during the war. In a truly unique war story McNeilly talks about building a strong relationship with a young, dutiful Korean orphan while staying in Seoul for a few months. The boy, who was "smart as a button", was left without a family during the Korean War and latched onto Harry McNeilly who tried to look after him.



Korea then Versus Korea now

Harry McNeilly recalls the Korea he saw during the war to the Korea he saw revisiting over forty years later. During the war he remembers a Korea had been made barren by being stripped of all its trees. Upon revisiting he was astounded by the development Korea had achieved in such a short time. Even more astounding was the respectful reception he received as a Korean War veteran.



Harry Olson

Best War Our Country Was In

Harry Olson recalls the feeling of nervous trepidation, in fear of the memories that would return if he returned to Korea. He describes his final decision to make the trip back to Korea and the overwhelming appreciation the Korean people showed him for his service. He compares this experience to his experience returning home from the war and his service not being acknowledged.



Henk Bos

We Were Going There to Help

Henk Bos, a volunteer in the Dutch Infantry who was attached to the 3rd US Army, recalls his enlistment and training. He remembers the journey to Korea taking a few weeks to travel by American transport boat and the sea sickness that many experienced. He notes that it was very cold when they arrived which many felt since most were still in their summer uniforms. He shares the mixed feelings he felt as his unit was transported to the Kumhwa area.



A Wonderful Feeling

Henk Bos shares he has returned to Korea twice since his service ended there in 1954. Each time it was to create documentaries based on the Korean War experience. He reminisces about his final trip in the 1980s when he saw a thriving country. He notes that at the time there was still a nighttime curfew with troops still walking the streets but that despite this he had a wonderful feeling knowing he had helped Korea continue to grow.



Henry Kosters

Assignment: Korea

Henry Kosters explains his decision to enlist with the US Navy after being drafted into the US Army. He describes his discussion with a Navy recruiter who explained that he could forego a four-year commitment with the Army and enlist with the Navy for two years instead. He recalls being assigned to the USS Gladiator (Mine Sweeper) and being transported to Korea.



Henry MacGillicuddy

First Impressions of Korea

Henry MacGillicuddy talks about arriving in Korea and describing Seoul as flat because it was devastated. He recalls that it looked like the farmers did just enough to stay alive.



A Visit Back to Magnificent Seoul

Henry MacGillicuddy describes going back to Seoul by invitation and being amazed and surprised at the transformation of Seoul from 1953 to 1980. He calls Seoul magnificent. He recounts seeing the South African monument and the DMZ.



Henry Martinez

Joining the Military at 16

Henry Martinez explains how he was able to get into the military at the age of 16, after deciding that he wasn’t learning anything in school and was struggling with his peers. He gives a basic overview of his basic training. He also explains why his parents allowed him to go.



Henry River, Jr.

The Korean War in World History

Henry River, Jr., states he has personally never thought of the Korean War as the Forgotten War because so many Americans served in the war and have served in Korean defense since. He shares that his grandson attended the Peace Camp in Korea during college and enjoyed the experience. He adds that the experience in Korea enlightened him on the what the world should be.



Modern Korean Economic Growth

Henry River, Jr., talks about the economic growth in Korea he witnessed by being a banker in the United States. He recalls being impressed by the Korean automobile and banking industries in particular. He discusses other South Korean advances and just how tremendously successful they have been as a country, especially given both where they came from and the constant stress created by their northern counterparts.



Korea in the 1950s

Henry River, Jr., recalls the living conditions of Koreans in the 1950s. He remembers life being tough for the Koreans and speaks about a nine-year-old Korean boy who did his clothes in exchange for bags of rice. Additionally, he recalls the human waste fertilizer smell in Incheon.



Living Conditions

Henry River, Jr., talks about his wife and how much he was paid. He recounts what his living conditions were like. He recalls his division having a tent compound which included the officer's tent, mess tents, and squat tents for the soldiers.



Henry T. Pooley

Revisiting Korea and Memories

Henry T Pooley remembers his return to Korea in 2000. He recounts his amazement at the progress and compares it to his time in 1952. He shares his memories of the destruction and his hope that Korea reunites during his lifetime.



Herbert Schreiner

Landing in Korea and First Impressions

Herbert Schreiner describes landing in Korea for the first time as a soldier and his impressions of the smell and scenery. He recalls being greeted with a stench from what he believed to be the honey buckets used to fertilize fields with human waste. He adds that the area was ravaged and war-torn. He also recounts the houseboy who cleaned soldiers' clothing and offers his impressions of the Korean people during wartime.



Reflection on Korean War Experience

Herbert Schreiner describes his role with Tell America and states that the number one question he receives from students centers on whether or not he was afraid while serving in Korea. He shares that he was and that fear was present amid the troops in combat areas. He also reflects on his experience and his gratefulness for the opportunity to serve in Korea as he feels it made him a better person.



Herbert Taylor

Chingu (Friend)

Herbert Taylor describes witnessing the destruction of Incheon following his arrival in 1954. He shares how he saw just walls and shells of buildings there. He describes the trees and how they had been shot off and the land was barren in the countryside. He describes the straw huts people were living in. He shares his experiences with local children.



Thoughts on Modern Korea

Herbert Taylor reflects on what he knows about modern Korea. He shares the appreciation felt by the Korean government for the efforts made by American soldiers. He describes his understanding and pride in the economic and physical growth in Korea in such a short time.



Herbert Werner

Refugees During War

Herbert Werner became very emotional as he described being an 18 year old seeing war first hand. He said witnessing the wounded, being under fire, civilians fleeing, and children affected by war made him overcome with emotion. He never saw as much fear as he did while there and it still gets to him even today. Herbert Werner made an instant personal connection with the refugees during the Hamheung Evacuation since he was an orphaned child himself.



Korea Is My Second Home

After returning home from his service in Korea, it wasn't long before Herbert Werner was back in Korea as a professional boxing referee. He described after spending 3 full years of his life there, he was amazed at the resilience of the people despite the terror of war, how much the country of South Korea has improved, their patriotism, and the respect the civilians had for the soldiers who fought for South Korea. He felt like he was treated with so much respect and built an unconditional friendship.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Hiroshi Shima

The Hills were Bare

Hiroshi Shima recalls his earliest impressions of Korea. He speaks of the fear felt when he first arrived on the front lines and notes that since there was no action in the area how they were assigned to night patrol. He offers a good contrast between life on the front lines with life in Chuncheon where he was later assigned.



I Wanted to Come Home Safe

Hiroshi Shima offers an account of a one-time visit to Seoul. He recalls the joy people felt with the signing of the armistice and his return home to Hawaii. He admits that one of the greatest difficulties soldiers faced was fear, especially because everyone wanted to come home. He explains that many saw buddies die, but that really they were not there long enough to have real buddies.



Very, Very Proud

Hiroshi Shima expresses amazement at the transformation of post-war South Korea. He has been fortunate enough to make three return trips. He notes that he is proud of the role he played in the Korean War which allowed this transformation to occur.



Homer Garrett

First Glimpse of the Korean People

Homer Garrett described the Korean people when he first arrived in Korea as hungry and begging for food/supplies. It was the worst the worst catastrophic area that he had ever seen and Korea really needed a lot of help to rebuild. Korea was still in ruins 12 years after the Korean War ended.



Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Transportation Transformation

When Homer Garrett first arrived in Korea, the only means of transportation were ox-drawn carts for the wealthy, buses, and small taxis ("red birds"). The roads were only dirt roads that the Military Police shared with the civilians to transport goods and supplies. When Homer Garrett revisited Korea in 2007, (his wife visits often since she is from Korea- met and married her there and brought her back to Texas) he recalled the highway system in Seoul rivals that of our highway system in the United States, and that there are more cars on the road there, than there are in Dallas or Houston, Texas!



Hong Berm Hur

Recognition Not Going Unnoticed

Hong Berm Hur mentioned the gratitude the Republic of Korea has for the soldiers that sacrificed so much by honoring them with the Distinguished Ambassador for Peace Medal. He went on to share that during World War II, no countries ever thanked the US soldiers for extending their efforts to help rid the world of dictators. Hong Berm Hur believes that recognition and the sacrifice of soldiers should be done around the world.



Success in South Korea

Hong Berm Hur is very proud of the relationship between the US military and the South Korean government. The US soldiers and sailors worked very hard during the Korean War to protect South Korea. The alliance between the US and South Korea has led to the success in South Korea.



Horace Sappington

Half Dead or Captured

Horace Sappington describes his encounter with North Koreans and Russians a few miles outside of Osan. Ill-equipped and undermanned, he details the scene of a Major driving out in a jeep to meet and talk with the oncoming mass of North Korean and Russian troops. He shares that the enemy fired a cannon, blowing up the jeep and killing the major, continuing to advance upon their position. He adds that he was wounded during the fighting and was tended to by a medic who was killed shortly after during their retreat. He explains that over half of US soldiers there that day were either killed or captured.



Soldiers Pouring In Everywhere

Horace Sappington recounts his experience at the Pusan Perimeter. He shares that the North Korean soldiers were pouring in on them and they received assistance from the Air Force and the USS Missouri roughly 1 mile off of the coast. He explains he was in charge of providing the ship with coordinates for firing. He recounts an injury to his head and shoulder received from enemy fire.



Nothing Worse Than The Cold

Horace Sappington describes being cold as the most difficult thing during his service. He recounts low temperatures near the 38th Parallel and during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. As part of a task force, he shares that he was sent in to help bail out Marines before the Chinese took it all.



Howard A. Gooden

Landing at Incheon and Traveling to the 38th Parallel

Howard A. Gooden shares his experience of landing in Incheon, Korea. He remembers being on a barge with two hundred to two hundred fifty soldiers, heading to land, and being passed by another landing barge with the same number of soldiers who were ready to go home. He describes taking a Korean train from Incheon and how small the seats were. He explains that guards would ensure nobody was getting on or off at every stop. He recalls how trucks finally met the train and how he was dropped off at the 38th Parallel with the field artillery.



Housing, Coffee, and Warm Clothing

Howard A. Gooden describes his sleeping arrangements on the firing range and in squad tents while on the front line. He explains how they fired at a range due to the Armistice. He remembers having to set up the guns before going to bed since there was no time to do so under fire. He admits that he started drinking coffee in Korea to keep warm when on the firing range. He expresses his appreciation for warm clothing while in Korea, describing "Mickey Mouse" boots, parkas, and warm hats.



Howard Ballard

Training ROK Officers and Korean Culture in the Late 1940s

Howard Ballard recalls training officers for the Republic of Korea (ROK) before the start of the Korean War. He remembers how the ROK hated the Japanese because they had taken everything of value back to Japan during the Japanese occupation of Korea. He recalls training the South Koreans to become officers, shoot Howitzers, and become leaders before the Korean War began (1948). He describes aspects of Korean culture, noting the attention to respect and the practice of purchasing wives through the use of pigs.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Howard Lee

Landing at Incheon

Howard Lee recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon landing at Incheon. He remembers the early morning journey on a Landing Ship Tank (LST) and walking in waist-deep water towards the shore where he saw a city on fire. He recounts dead bodies floating in the water and the fear he felt as he and his company made land and rallied at the assigned checkpoint.



Water Velocity Readings

Howard Lee details his duties as a member of the 55th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company. He recounts having to take readings of the water velocity six times a day and make records for the related reports. He recalls that the readings had to be taken every four hours and describes the process.



Howard Street

Prior Knowledge of Korea and Basic Training

Howard Street expresses that he knew nothing about Korea at the time of his enlistment other than there was a war going on there. He recounts his basic training and shares that he specialized in amphibious tanks. He adds that he arrived in Pusan, Korea, right after the ceasefire.



Destruction Everywhere

Howard Street recounts Pusan's terrible condition. He remembers everything being destroyed, even in Seoul. He recalls that he and other soldiers rode a train north for 2 plus days with little food and that people were throwing things at their train.



Korea Today and Legacy

Howard Street shares that he is proud of his service in Korea and has no regrets. He offers his thoughts on the firing of MacArthur by Truman. He mentions that it was a big mistake and feels that they would have been better off had he stayed in command.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Howard Bradshaw's Love for Orphaned Koreans

Howard Bradshaw encountered many orphans during his time in Korea. He offered them candy and expressed his love for these kids.
Howard Bradshaw took pictures of these children while he was there during the Korean War.



English and the Mormon Church

Howard Bradshaw spoke of a professor from Cornell University and the soldiers who came to Korea during the war. They helped to organize English courses for the Korean civilians and they spoke about the Latter Day Saints. A Mormon temple is now located in Korea and it's estimated that over 125,000 Koreans are Mormons.



Writing Home

Howard Bradshaw wrote to his wife every day. In the letters, he described the impact he'd made on the Korean people through his faith. Howard Bradshaw felt that these letters saved his life by giving him comfort and joy.



Service To My Country

Howard Bradshaw felt so proud to be in a country where one can serve to protect the very freedoms we enjoy. He also believed that the ability to choose and honor is the greatest gift he received serving for his country. He's so proud to be able to wave the American flag.



Laverne Bradshaw's Perspective After Visiting Korea

Letters Howard Bradshaw wrote home described in such detail what is was like in Korea. Laverne Bradshaw was well-informed about his surroundings while away. When she had the chance to see modern Korea for the first time, they described the large amount of buildings from Seoul to Pusan and they thought it was gorgeous.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Hugo Monroy Moscoso remembers his first impressions of Korea. He details the destruction he encountered in every town as they arrived after the Chinese and North Korean invasion. He recalls that it gave them pleasure to share food with civilians because they understood how much they were suffering.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Detalla la destrucción que encontró en cada pueblo porque llegaron después de la invasión china y norcoreana. Recuerda que les daba placer compartir comida con los civiles porque reconocían la miseria y el hambre que sufrían.



Hussen Mohammed Omar

Atonement for Father's Killing

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes why he joined the military. Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians during the 1930's. His father imprisoned and later killed for causing problems. He wanted to help protect other families from his experience.



Relations Between Korea and Veterans

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes how the relationship between the Korean government and the veterans is strong. The Korean government pays soldiers a salary. They also help build schools in Ethiopia and provide a scholarship.



Ian Crawford

The Difference Between Westernization and Modernization

Ian Crawford cleverly describes the difference between westernization and modernization in Korea. He explains the beauty and brilliance of the Korean people in being able to maintain their culture and history in the midst of modernization. He discusses the success of democratization and how South Korea thrives today.



Ian J. Nathan

Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Civilian Suffering

Inga-Britt Jagland expresses her joy at being in Korea, where she encountered a warm and grateful people. The country's natural beauty, highlighted by stunning sunrises over mountains, captivated her. However, amidst this splendor, she witnessed the suffering of many people, including children without limbs. Inga-Britt also vividly recalls her efforts in providing food t to Korean children she encountered during her time there.



Ishwar Chandra Narang

Visiting Korea

Naresh Paul recalls the trip in which he accompanied his father-in-law to Korea in June of 2013. He remembers the amount of press that was there upon their arrival. All of the war veterans were interviewed and then taken to a lunch inside the National Assembly. The President of Korea invited the veterans to inaugurate a new memorial.



Madhu Patel's Reflections of her Father and Korea

Madhu Patel reflects on the stories of her father. She visited Korea in 2010 with her father for the 60th anniversary of the beginning of the Korean War. She remembers him telling her about the war and was excited to join him on the anniversary trip. She remembers visiting all of the war memorials around the country. She speaks about how down-to-earth and appreciative the Korean people are.



Is Korea Popular in India?

Ranjana and Naresh Paul discuss the popularity of Korean goods in India. They mention that Indians love Korean-made electronics and cars and that the products are of high quality. They highlight the multiple associations for Koreans in India, both for war veterans and civilians. At the time of this interview, there were only two Indian veterans from the Korean War still living. The Korean War Legacy Foundation has interviewed both of them.



What Would Your Father Say about Korea?

Ranjana and Naresh Paul and Madhu Patel reflect on what their father would have said if he were still alive today. They share he would say he was proud of the country Korea has become. He would say it has improved in many ways since the Korean War and that the Koreans are doing amazing things today. He would note that the war veterans are treated so well that they feel a part of Korea just as they do in India and that Koreans are so warm toward the war veterans. They share that he was very emotional and sentimental about his relationship with the Korean people and how he expressed he would never forget them.



Ismael Heredia Torres

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Ismael Heredia Torres offers his views on the war and the toll it had on civilians. He states that he believes that civilians suffered the most as they faced hunger, poverty, and attacks. He is proud that the allied forces stopped the spread of communism and helped save the people of South Korea.

Ismael Heredia Torres ofrece sus opiniones sobre la guerra y lo difícil que fue para la población civil. Afirma que cree que los civiles fueron los que más sufrieron al enfrentar el hambre, la pobreza y los ataques. Él está orgulloso de que las fuerzas aliadas detuvieron la expansión del comunismo y ayudaran a salvar al pueblo de Corea del Sur.



Ismail Pasoglu

Revisiting Korea with President Abdullah Gül

Ismail Pasoglu describes how he has re-visited Korea on two occasions. Korea has really transformed in the years since the war. He and his fellow veterans could not recognize any locations. On one trip to Korea, he attended with President of Turkey Abdullah Gül. Korea has rapidly developed since the Korean War.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Reflection of Service

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on his service during the Korean War and why the United States went to help South Korea. He expresses his fondness for the Korean people and culture. He shares his pride regarding the progress South Korea has made economically since the war.



J. Robert Lunney

The Heros of the Ship of Miracles

J. Robert Lunney shares his opinion of the true heroes of Huengnam evacuation and the Korean War. Furthermore, he acknowledges the sacrifices and contributions of the refugees and their descendants to the development of South Korea. Nevertheless, he expresses his appreciation to the Korean people for the gratitude shown to those who served in Korea.



Jack Allen

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Jack Cooper

A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



An Honor to Serve and Returning Home

Jack Cooper shares that he has no regrets from his time in the service. He emphasizes that the military was good to him as he drew some disability, bought his first house, and used the GI Bill to go to attend university. He states, frankly, that it was an honor to serve and recounts his return home in 1952.



Pride and Korea Today

Jack Cooper shares that he is proud to say that Korea is what it is today thanks to the efforts of the American military and the partnership created in Korea between both entities to stop Communism. He states that the Korean people are very grateful as they often thank him for his service. He also comments on Korea's economic status, the legacy of the Korean War, and offers a message to younger generations.



Jack Goodwin

People Who Fall in a Death March

Jack Goodwin describes the Death March as a POW which took place November 1st-9th, 1950. He shares that 86 men died along the way from either wounds sustained prior to the start of the march or from being shot by the North Koreans who were forcing them to march. He recounts civilians being forced to march with them as well, including nuns, priests, engineers, and politicians.



Crossing the Bridge of No Return

Jack Goodwin shares memories of crossing the Bridge of No Return in 1953 after having lived as a POW since 1950. He recalls men tossing their clothes off along the road and feeling emotional upon seeing the American flag. He briefly speaks of losing his faith during his time as a POW.



Jack Howell

Morale in Wonsan

Jack Howell describes landing in Wonsan, Korea, shortly after the Marines had taken over Wonsan. He recounts the morale of fellow soldiers and shares memories of a commander greeting them on the beach with a pep talk once they had landed. He recalls scenes of Wonsan and shares that there seemed to have been little resistance as there was no major destruction to observe.



The Rise of South Korea

Jack Howell offers his thoughts on Korea when he left in 1951 and then returning in 2000 for the 50th Anniversary. He recalls thinking that Korea would recover but not to the degree it has in such a short time frame. He expresses that it was amazing to see the country in 2000 and how the country has evolved as a world power.



Jack Keep

Returning Home from the Korean War

Jack Keep described how the Korean War was "forgotten." He remembers the Korean War was in the headlines in 1950, the beginning of the war, but quickly was shifted to the back of the newspapers. Jack Keep recalls how when Korean War veterans returned home, civilians were not interested in their war stories or had failed to realize that they had even gone away.



Jack Pettipas

We Really Did Not Understand the Repercussions

Jack Pettipas recalls learning very little while in high school about Korea or the Korean War. He notes that he did know there was a draft. He remarks that, in terms of the youth in both the United States and Korea, this really was a matter of "you didn't know us and we didn't know you." He shares that most of the young soldiers knew the effects of World War II but had little idea of the repercussions of the experiences in Korea that lay ahead of them.



Teaching English at the English Language Institute at Taegu

Jack Pettipas remembers being solicited by Colonel Orlando Stevenson, who established the English Language Institute at Taegu, to spend some of his off-duty time teaching conversational English to mostly Korean youth. He notes that some of these students would spend half of their day just getting to the site to learn English. He explains the importance of breaking the "ugly American" stereotype that was dominant at the time through working with the young people.



Jack Sherts

Retracing My Steps

Jack Sherts retraced the exact locations they traveled during the war the entire time he was in Korea. His work as a radio operator helped him to know the towns they were in at all times. He recorded these names in a Bible that he carried around the entire time he was in the war.



Engagement and Letters Home

Jack Sherts became engaged to his wife, Jane, just before he left for Korea. However, they kept it secret until after her birthday while he was in Korea. He would write letters to her about once a week and send her pictures that he had drawn. He also would send her money he earned. He is proud of his service and what South Korea has become after his tour was over. After he returned home, Jack and Jane got married and raised three children.



Jack Spahr

Traveling Overseas Near the End of the War

Jack Spahr details his journey overseas to serve in the Korean War. He describes his duties as a young serviceman in the Air Force nearing the end of the conflict. He shares that he served as a clerk in Daegu, assisting in keeping track of personnel while administering payroll and tests among other duties.



First Impressions of Devastated Refugees

Jack Spahr expresses that he knew nothing about Korea until he entered the service. He shares that his first impressions of Korea were depressing as he saw many refugees searching for food and assistance. He recounts servicemen trying to help them as much as they could. He recalls several South Koreans working on the base with them and states that they were paid well compared to what they would get elsewhere at the time.



Honoring the Soldiers Who Served

Jack Spahr expresses his interest in returning to South Korea to see the changes since the Korean War. He shares that Korean people were very thankful that U.S. soldiers were there to aid. He adds that South Koreans are dedicated to honoring the U.S. soldiers who fought for them.



Jack Whelan

Write About the People

Jack Whelan notes the first day of advanced training was an exercise of being terrified and luckily he was asked during this training to be a correspondent. He explains how the American government wanted family members to feel connected and know what was going on in Korea. Because of this, he recounts how his focus was on the people and not the ugly parts of war. He elaborates on the inspiring stories he wrote about Father Waldie.



Worthy of Applause

Jack Whelan admires the transformation of South Korea. He marvels at the human capacity of Korea to make lemonade out of lemons. He suspects modern Korea has taken on some of the negative attributes of the American experience, but the average life in Korea is now so much better. He emphasizes how this success is worthy of applause.



Jack Wolverton

Comparing Korea Then and Now

Jack Wolverton offers his impressions of Korea today versus what he experienced during the war. He shares he was never taught about Korea as a kid and recalls seeing a devastated country when he arrived. He adds that he recently bought a Korean car, a Hyundai Tucson, and loves it. He comments on the company's reliable reputation and how Korea's economic success impresses him given his first impression of the country during the war.



Jacques Grisolet

First Impressions of Korea

Jacques Grisolet describes seeing the Korean population being driven south. He notes massive numbers of refugees, some in traditional clothing, carrying what they could as they moved along. This mass of humanity trying to escape the fighting brought back memories of his childhood growing up as a refugee in German occupied France during World War II. He struggles to compare the Korea of his first arrival with that which he saw upon his return in 1990.



Courageous Hardworking People

Jacques Grisolet recalls being amazed each time he has returned to Korea. He shares that although it was difficult imagining the progress the country could make that he was impressed with the hard work he has witnessed each time he has returned. He shares views of people working harvesting rice and the reforestation of the mountains almost completely destroyed by the war.



Jake O’Rourke

No Regrets and Pride

Jake O'Rourke shares that he has no regrets and compares the experience to a baseball game in that one plays the game the best he can, sometimes winning and sometimes losing. He feels he played his best and had a good time while doing so. He describes being proud of his service and adds that while he has not revisited Korea since the war, he keeps up with its progress.



James “Jim” Cawyer

Close Calls and Rough Rides

James "Jim" Cawyer discusses the large amount of Korean War casualties. He raises the point that many losses of life were not combat-related. He describes three examples of his own close calls he encountered during the war.



James A. Newman

Nobody Argues with Padres

James Newman was sent ashore in 1951. Rare for a Navy man, he was able to see a devastated Seoul and fight on the frontlines. He had rare access due to accompanying an Anglican clergyman.



Return to Korea

James Newman has participated in five trips back to Korea since 2002. He is very impressed with the modern nation. He feels pride in the accomplishments of the Korean people and his part in freeing South Korea from North Korean rule.



New Zealand to Texas Connection

James Newman speaks to fellow veteran Larry Kinard. They talk about their efforts with veteran organizations and share some laughs. He never expected the phone call to take place!



James Bradshaw

Impressions of Korea

James Bradshaw delivered an emotional account of how bombed out Seoul was when he saw it. He became tearful remembering the children he felt sorry for, and recalled saving his rations for them.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



James C. Humphreys

Husband's Service in Korea

Lisa Lee discusses her husband's service during the Korean War. She shares he was twenty-one when he joined the US Army and served in a combat unit in Korea. She recalls him remembering how cold it was in Korea and adds that, despite the extreme temperatures, he enjoyed Korea.



James C. Siotas

It was the Day Opposite the Night

James C. Siotas revisited Korea in 2010 as part of the Korean War Veterans Association in Greece. He remembers being astounded by the remarkable transformation he witnessed. His amazement was at substantial growth and development of Seoul.



James Cochran

Duties in the Fire Direction Center

James Cochran recounts his transfer and arrival at post in the Punch Bowl area and details the living conditions there amid the artillery. He describes his role in the Fire Direction Center (FDC) which entailed providing the battery with information for aiming. He offers a shift rotation example for this particular role as well.



Softer Side of War

James Cochran offers a glimpse of the softer side of war. He recounts his living conditions in bunkers and recalls sleeping without heat from the bunker furnace at night despite the cold temperatures. He remembers being well fed and shares that he often wrote letters home during his service, detailing the weather and requesting items such as socks and camera film.



Modern Korea's Growth

James Cochran shares his thoughts on Korea, a country he knew nothing about prior to the Korean War. He marvels at the advances and growth of modern Korea in the automobile and electronics industries and shares that Korea's successful economic status is difficult to explain given the devastation inflicted by the war. He also acknowledges the competition between Korean businesses and Google located in his hometown despite the relatively short period of time following the war as a means of economic comparison.



James Creswell

Conditions in Pusan

James Creswell describes his first impressions of Korea. He recounts the horrible living conditions civilians faced in Pusan. He shares that people were living in river beds, freezing to death due to lack of clothing, and had no food or money.



James E. Fant

Guarding Prisoners of War and Living Conditions

James E. Fant discusses guarding prisoners at Yeongdeungpo outside of Seoul as he was pulled out of combat. He describes his living conditions and how sandbags and bunkers protected them from artillery attacks. He recalls eating cold C-Rations and how only the baked beans were good as they could warm them up. He expands on his description of food by recalling that hot food was only available when they were pulled off the front line.



James Ferris

Keeping the Memory of the Korean War Veterans Alive

James Ferris shares about his daily work to keep the memory of the Korean War alive, honor the fallen soldiers, and celebrate all the accomplishments of South Korea. He explains as State and then National Korean War Veteran Association President, he strives to reach out to all the Korean War defense veterans (soldiers after 1954) who have served at the DMZ. He expresses that the longevity of the Korean War legacy is with the next generation.



James Friedel

Repairing Damaged Ships at Sea

James Friedel speaks generally about the process of repairing ships off the coast of Korea while deployed on the USS Hector, an auxiliary repair ship. He discusses how divers would conduct underwater welding to repair damaged ships. He adds he did not participate in this specific duty.



James Hillier

Flying from England to Korea

James Hollier describes his assignment in the 64th Bombardment Squadron flying from England to Korea for three years. He describes his responsibilities as a tailgunner during the Korean War. He also elaborates bombing in high altitude attacking North Korea's fighter planes.



Secretly Stationed in England

James Hillier describes why his squadron was stationed in England and traveled to Korea. His unit was considered classified. The press believed they were in England to protect the European Alliance from the Soviet Union.



James Houp

Korea Today and the Honor Flight

James Houp recalls reading about Korea today and recognizes its great economic achievements. He remembers participating in an honor flight to the Korean War Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. He shares how three South Koreans stopped him to take a picture and were very grateful for his service in Korea. He emphasizes how he cannot believe the transformation Korea has made from a very poor country to one of the richest in the world today. He expresses his pride in being a Korean War Veteran.



James Jolly

Pure Destruction: Seoul

James Jolly describes the recapturing of Seoul in 1950 and the destruction that was endured. He explains that the majority of the city's buildings were destroyed in order to get rid of the enemy who were inside of them. He goes on to describe his pride for the strength and will of the Korean people to rebuild.



James Low

Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



James M. Cross

Impressions of Korea

James Cross discusses his first impressions of Korea. He remembers everything as small and ruined and recounts children being hungry as there was not enough food. He shares that he would give candy bars or whatever else he had to the children.



James M. Oyadomari

Arriving in Korea

James M. Oyadomari shares the story of his arrival in Korea and the travels to his station at headquarters, about four miles behind the front lines. He recollects traveling from Busan to Incheon and Seoul on a slow train. From Seoul, he recalls traveling via truck through the West Gate to Chuncheon and ultimately to headquarters near the Kunson River. He recalls building bunkers for the first couple of months before transferring to a radio relay station closer to the front lines at a location referred to as Hill 949.



I Couldn't Even Imagine: Returning to Korea

James M. Oyadomari shares he has been fortunate to return to Korea on two occasions. Although his recollections of what the country was like while he was stationed there are limited, he explains he was amazed by how much it has been rebuilt over the past 50 years. He shares he is proud of the country's success and the role he played in it. He articulates he would like to one day see the war officially come to an end and lead to a unified Korea, but he questions how this will be possible under the current leadership of North Korea.



James P. Argires

"Fearless" at the Inchon Landing

James Argires describes his experience in the Inchon Landing, explaining that there was some controversy around whether it would be successful. He describes the terrain and the struggles he faced. When asked if he was afraid, he explains how being young made him “fearless.”



Korea Became the Model for War

James Argires shares why he thinks that we do not talk about Korea in schools. He then gives a bigger perspective about how Korea was placed in the context of the Cold War and the climate political at the time. He shares a quote by General Walker about how Korea became the model for how all wars are fought today.



James Parker

Letters Home

James Parker recalls writing letters home to his sister. He produces a folder containing a letter he had written and offers the viewing of a magazine he was sent from the States pertaining to Heartbreak Ridge. He utilizes the map to show the routes he and other soldiers took during the campaign.



James Purcell

Retracing my Steps

James Purcell describes the devastation after the war that he witnessed around Seoul. He arrived after the war had ended to an almost devasted airport that has now been transformed into the largest airport in the world. He was so impressed with the Korean people and their industrious nature.



James Ronald Twentey

Cigarettes as Money

Ron Twentey describes the need that still existed among the Korean people during his time there.
He explains that though the war was over, the people were still terribly impoverished and begged for food. He describes the children begging for food and for cigarettes which they sold to make money. He explains that he has never smoked but he would pay for the cigarette rations so that he could use them as currency and for trade. He recalls paying for his clothes to be laundered with cigarettes.



James Sharp

Reflections and View of Korea Today

James Sharp reflects on the the Korean War and discusses the positive outcome. He expresses that his revisit to Korea was a life-lifting experience as he was able to witness the development that has occurred since the war. He shares that soldiers often carry bad memories of war, wondering if their service was of worth, but he expresses that after seeing Korea's development during his revisit, he is certain his service was of worth.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Asians Fighting Asians

James Shimabuku describes the names that Hawaiians used for different Asian cultures. He also shares how he felt about being an Asian-American fighting against other Asian cultures such as North Koreans and Chinese. He adds that the differing cultures in Hawaii saw themselves as island people rather than Koreans, etc.



James Shuman

Arriving in Korea

James Shuman remembers what it was like arriving at the beaches in Incheon. Having come over on a troop ship, he explains how the ship could not make it to the beach and they had to board landing craft. He describes how his crew spent the night on a nearby army base before being sent directly to the front lines the next day.



James T. Gill

Landing Troops on the Shores of Korea

James Gill describes assisting with the transfer of Army and Marine Corps troops from Japan to Korea and vise versa as well as up and down the coast of Korea throughout the war. He recalls one particular morning where their mission was to land 1200 military troops under fire on the shores of Korea. He shares that he later spoke with a soldier from that landing and learned that roughly 600 of those troops had died almost immediately.



Revisiting Korea

James Gill recounts the high rises and highways of modern Korea he saw during his revisit. He describes seeing the hills covered with trees and speaks of Korea's reforestation project. He also details the consequences for cutting down a tree without permission from the government.



James T. Markley

Message to the Younger Generation

James Markley gives students a message on the achievements of the Korean people. After the devastation of World War II and the Korean war, the Korean people have set a great example for the entire world. They have become a resilient nation of people.



James Warren

The Surface of the Moon

James Warren describes his first impressions of Korea. He explains how it felt as the plane he was aboard was landing. He explains how he had thought it would look compared to what he really saw.



The Korean People

James Warren explains his adoration of Koreans. He discusses his wife, who was Korean, to whom he met and married while stationed in Korea. He discusses the close-knit community, and how he is still involved even after her passing.



Janice Feagin Britton

Experiences in Korea after World War II

Janice Britton discusses her time in Japan and Korea at the end of World War II, during which she helped transport patients from Korea to the station hospital in Japan. She marvels at the progress that has been made in Korea. She comments not the changes from the first time she went there, throughout her service during the Korean War, to modern day.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

First Impressions of Korea

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his first impressions after landing in Korea. He recounts the destruction, seeing few trees and buildings. He shares that it was hard to believe how poor the living conditions were for the Koreans as he witnessed malnourishment, naked children begging in the streets, and women working in the rice fields with their babies.



Jean Paul White

The Greatest Reward: Korean Progress

Jean Paul White describes how he felt rewarded after the war. He expliains the change in Seoul from then to know. He describes a place of ashes with little remaining and to see the huge city now so modernized is a reward. He was proud of the South Korean people. He explains feeling has done so much with the freedom that he fought for.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

Concerns About Recognition KDSVA

Jeff Brodeur wishes that the US Government could replicate the Korean Service Veterans Memorial that is in Seoul here in Washington DC. There isn't any monuments in the US represents the Korean Service Veterans. He believes that veterans won't want to join or become members if they're not being recognized.



Korean War Veterans Response to KDVA Accomplishments

Al Jenner responds that if the veterans could see the impact that was made by their efforts to deter against communism, they would see a country that is now the 11th largest economy in the world. They would also see that it's the first nation to go from a debtor nation to a creditor nation while enjoying the freedoms they have there. Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner are very proud of the progress and success in South Korea.



Jeremiah Johnson

First Impression of Busan

Jeremiah Johnson recalls traveling to Korea aboard the General Black troopship and describes the experience. He recounts arriving in Pusan and seeing Korean men in boats he was unfamiliar with. He remembers men from his ship tossing down fruit to the Korean men in the boats and watching them put the fruit into boxes.



Hiring Orphans to Help

Jeremiah Johnson remembers two orphaned South Korean boys who worked for the unit. He describes the jobs they were given. He shares how they paid them and comments on how they learned from the soldiers.



Jerome Jerry Clement Olinger

Things to Do in Korea

Jerome Olinger recalls some of the recreational activities they got to do in Korea. He describes going to the movies in a theater with a roof that had been destroyed. He also went to church in a beautiful cathedral that had been hit with bullets.



Jerry Bowen

Personal Impact of the War

Jerry Bowen the 'horrors of war' always being in the back of his mind. He will only talk about it with others that have been through it. He says he is puzzled at how the Korean War is often forgotten, saying his family never has.



Jesse Sanchez Berain

War on the Korean Peninsula

Jesse Sanchez Berain remembers being stationed close to Seoul during the war. He uses a map to demonstrate how North Korean and Chinese forces attacked and pushed the United States military forces south of the 38th Parallel. He mentions that he spent eighteen months in Korea and Japan.



Rifle Platoon Leader

Jesse Sanchez Berain discusses his role as a Rifle Platoon Leader and the tasks he handled. He mentions that he organized his men to scout both sides of the mountain for enemy activity by scheduling point men. He remembers that his platoon consisted of around forty soldiers, including a heavy weapons unit.



Jesus L. Balaoro

Koreans Happy to See Filippinos

Jesus Balaoro arrived in Korea and the Korean people were happy to see the Filipinos. They were happy the Filipinos were trying to save them. He noted there were actually a few villages that were not destroyed by the war yet.



Jesús María Cabra Vargas

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Jesús María Cabra Vargas shares his first impressions of a war-torn Korea. While he was not able to see many cities, he recalls that there was rubble everywhere. He reminisces being naïve upon arriving at the front and thinking that mortars during the night were fireworks from a celebration nearby.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea que estaba devastada por la guerra. Si bien no pudo ver muchas ciudades, recuerda que había escombros por todas partes. Recuerda que era tan inocente que al llegar al frente pensó que los morteros y los tiros de noche eran fuegos artificiales de una celebración cercana.



The Progress of South Korea / El Progreso de Corea del Sur

Jesús María Cabra Vargas speaks about his views on modern Korea. He states he is incredibly proud of their advancements and believes the changes are marvelous. He attributes the progress to the fact that Korea had to start over and decided to industrialize every aspect of its economy.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas habla sobre la transformación de Corea del Sur. Afirma que está muy orgulloso de los avances del país y cree que los cambios son maravillosos. Él atribuye el progreso al hecho de que Corea tuvo que empezar de nuevo y decidió industrializar todos los aspectos de su economía.



Jesus Rodriguez

Korea over the years

Jesus Rodriguez talks about his return to Korea. He tells about how he was invited to go to Korea after talking with the major of Seoul at a Veterans Day function in his city, Lahabra, which happens to be the sister city to Seoul. He discusses the changes he saw in Korea during his visit and describes the hospitality and gratefulness of the Korean people during his visit.



Jim Morris

Jim Morris's First Horrific Impression of Korea

Jim Morris described first entering Korea at Yeongdeungpo. He described Korea as the worst smelling place because of human waste and filth as well as the smell of kimchi. He was astounded by a woman's dead body just left along the side of the road, allowing to rot there for several days. He also was amazed by the amount of bombed out buildings and utter destruction.



Jim Morris Reflected on South Korea Today

Jim Morris was impressed with the growth of South Korea. He regretted not going back to South Korea earlier in life but said it was cost prohibitive. He saw pictures of the growth of the country and explained it is beautiful, especially Seoul. He also recounted that South Korea is a great ally of the United States.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Korean War Rarely Taught

Even as a school teacher, Georgia rarely had time at the end of 2nd semester to teach WWII, but definitely not enough time to teach about the Korean War. She said if teachers were creative and found a way to integrate the Korean and Vietnam Wars into discussion, they were lucky. Textbooks covered little, if any, information on the Korean War. She said the textbooks skipped over the Korea War by going from World War II straight to the Vietnam War.



You'll Remember This Someday

The term "Forgotten War" upset a lot of people. Georgia remembered when she watched her black and white TV as a little girl. When her family who served in the Korean War came back to the US, her parents always said, "Remember what you are watching on TV. This will be history some day."



Fear of Communism and its Affect on the US

Georgia remembered as a child the reports about Communism and her family built a "basement" that was constructed using directions from the Civil Defense. This "basement" included provisions just in case of attack. This indoctrination was a big part of US entry into the Korean War. The Interviewer mentioned the Kennan Telegram written during this time and they explained how it unveiled the Russian's plans and the Korean War made it clear that Russia and US were not partners at that time.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



An Outpost Harry Survivor

Jimmy A. Garcia shares his experience of patrolling for Chinese activity at night. He recalls a time when he was ordered to patrol alone, which was a perilous and nerve-racking task. He provides an overview of the sieges of Outpost Harry that took place in June 1953. He speaks of the casualties his company suffered as they defended the hill and expresses pride in being called a survivor of Outpost Harry.



The Last Days of Service

Jimmy A. Garcia pays tribute to two of his closest comrades who lost their lives during the Korean War. He acknowledges they all experienced moments of fear but did their best to conceal their emotions. He narrates two incidents where some soldiers he knew had trouble coping with the uncertainty and horror of war. He shares how he found solace and happiness by joining the regimental choir during his last days of service in Korea which brought joy to those who heard the performances.



Joan Taylor

Personal Understanding of the Korean War

Joan Taylor emphasizes the importance of the work of the Korean War Legacy Foundation because she believes the program will create a personal understanding of the Korean War through interviews of veterans. She recalls taking a trip to South Korea with her second husband and how the visit enabled her to better understand what he went through during the war. She describes the generous hospitality of the Korean people.



Joe Henmuller

Military Jobs

Joe Henmuller describes his different tasks during his time in Korea. He explains that, initially, he was with a Field Artillery Observation Battalion and his job was to ensure the helicopter used for artillery spotting was maintained. He shares that he was later assigned to the 13th Transportation Helicopter Company where he maintained an H19 Chickasaw and was eventually promoted to Crew Chief. He recalls that his duties were not only maintenance but also transporting supplies and people, including Marilyn Monroe and General Matthew B. Ridgway.



Korea after the Armistice

Joe Henmuller describes what Korea was like when he arrived after the Armistice was signed and what he knows about South Korea today. He recalls how Korea was devastated by war and that Seoul had been destroyed. He explains that the destruction after the war makes the transformation Korea has gone through all the more amazing.



Daily Life in Korea

Joe Henmuller describes what life was like in Korea. He explains that they lived in quonset huts and slept on canvas cots with rubber air mattresses. He recalls his weekly shower routine which entailed driving down a dusty road to the shower stalls and back when they finished. He recalls how the trip left them dirtier then they were before showering.



Joe Larkin

Girl In The Picture

As his battalion moved from the south to northern Korea, Joe Larkin's battalion passed through several villages coming in contact with the Korean people. The civilians were very thankful for what the US troops were doing. One little girl saw a picture of Joe Larkin's niece in his pocket, and kept pointing at the picture, but Joe Larkin didn't understand. He called over an interpreter and he said the girl couldn't believe that his niece had a flower in her hair.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Love Your Country

When asked what lesson he learned from his experience, Joe Lopez replied emotionally to love your country. He has seen a lot and if you go to another country, you would discover how lucky you are to be living in America and people should be thankful to those who served in the US military. Joe Lopez said that It is your duty to learn about your country and become educated so that you know the decisions that were made on behalf of the US. Many soldiers who are injured or don't return, did it for their country.



Joe O. Apodaca

The USS Henrico in Korea

Joe O. Apodaca discusses his time in Korea while aboard the USS Henrico. He shares he witnessed U.S. Marines disembarking from the ship via nets onto LCMs and other boats which then transported the units to shore. He remembers how the ship traveled roughly one to two miles from the beach near Incheon, Seoul, and Busan. He recalls seeing flashes of light on land throughout the night and passing enemy planes.



Joe Rosato

The Most Difficult Conditions Were Being Constantly Cold and Wet

Joe Rosato described that in most places around Korea, it wasn't safe to walk around. During the winter months, the scariest times were when they lived in the fox holes and it rained so much that it would fill the fox holes with water. Sleeping in a foot of water made Joe Rasato fear that he would freeze to death or drowned, so they had to make the choice to stay where they were or sleep outside the fox hole and risk getting shot.



Ox Steps on a Field Mine-We have meat!

Joe Rosato did have C-Rations that he took advantage of for meals. As he was passing through villages, he was aware that the food was grown in human waste, but that didn't stop him from eating the cucumbers, watermelons, peppers, and beans. Joe Rasato saw an ox step on a field mine and blew itself apart, so the soldiers built a fire and made sauce with the chili peppers to go along with this fresh meat.



John A. Fiermonte

Impressions of Korea

John A. Fiermonte describes how he felt upon arriving in Korea as a young man. He also describes seeing how the Korean people lived.



John Atkins

Preparing for Korea

John Atkins gives a very detailed account of his time in the service, including when he was activated. He left for Korea and Japan in December of 1951. He also explains some of his training.



Mr. Veteran

John Atkins describes an incredible experience he has with some youth in South Korea when he and his wife returned there in 1999. He remembers that these youth called him "Mr. Veteran" and gave him a tour of the area. John Atkins states that South Koreans are still showing their respect to the veterans who served in the war in such a gracious and hospitable manner.



John B. Winter

Typhoon During Inchon Landing

John Winter participated in the Inchon Landing in September 1950. He explains that they met other ships near Japan before moving towards Korea. He describes what it was like on the ship since there was a typhoon occurring.



John Boyd

Traveling to Korea in 1952

John Boyd details his travels to Korea. He was sent by ship and many trains to meet up with his brigade at the 1st Commonwealth Division Headquarters north of Uijeongbu. As he had never traveled so far from home, he recalls the excitement of seeing dolphins, flying fish, and much more. He explains the various places they stopped on the way to Korea.



Korea 1953 - The Last Few Months of the War

John Boyd recalls the last few months of the war were full of anticipation as the talks were taking place at Panmunjom between the Chinese, North Koreans, and the United Nations. He recalls seeing a barrage balloon hovering over the site of the talks. As the weather began to heat up while they were waiting for the conclusion of the peace talks, valley fires increased in numbers and things became quite dangerous.



John Cantrall

Sleeping and Eating Conditions for US Troops

John Cantrall described how fortunate we was to experience the living conditions that he was assigned, but the food was never something that he could report that he enjoyed. He also reported that the housing arrangements for the American and Korean soldiers were quite different. He expressed concern that it was an unfair situation.



Returning to Modern Korea

Mr. and Mrs. John Cantrall described their trip to Korea in 2005. Although they did not get the opportunity to visit Pusan, they were impressed by how modern and industrialized everything was that they saw. They felt appreciated by the Korean citizens because of John Cantrall's service right after the Korean War ended through 1955.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

John Candrall was very sad when he went to Korea at the end of the Korean War in 1953 because he saw what true poverty looked like even compared to the US during the Great Depression. The advancement that took place from 1955 until he went back for his revisit was huge and John Candrall included the advancements in transportation in addition to housing. He was very proud of his service in the military and the help that he was able to provide for Korea between 1953 and 1955.



John Cole

The Legacy of the Handmade South Korean Flag

John Cole recounts how a South Korean soldier wanted to trade his handmade South Korean Flag for his U.S. flag in order to protect himself so that people did not think he was Chinese. He shares how he agreed to trade the flag. He describes how he held that flag until he presented it to a Korean War Veterans Organization.



John Cumming

Was Never Supposed to Be There

John Cumming shares how he did not have experience loading the Dakota aircraft and how a commanding officer quickly taught him the ropes. He describes quickly realizing there were many soldiers doing the same job from other nations. After the group decided to work together, he admits there was no original plan for him to travel to Busan, and he was never supposed to be in Korea. He recalls his first flight into Busan and common issues during the landing process.



John Davie

Stories from Friends in Combat

John Davie recalls stories he heard about Korea from childhood friends. He received a letter from a friend who was fighting in Korea in 1953. This friend told him he was lucky to not be in Korea, that it was a cold, and a tough time. He had another friend who was wounded as a paratrooper in Korea. That friend lost part of one of his leg calves in gunfire and didn't talk much about his experience beyond that. Korea seemed so distant to him, but many of his friends were affected directly.



The Forgotten War?

John Davie speculates about the reasons why the Korean War is known as the forgotten war. He thinks many people got callous feelings about the war and took the war for granted. He also thinks the Second World War and Vietnam War were more of a focus for much of the country.



John Denning

Life in Korea then and now

John Denning describes the living conditions of the South Korean people when he was there compared to when his son was in Korea more recently. He describes the people living in packing crates and huts with thatched roofs and the unpaved roads that were just mud and rubble. He describes the pictures he saw that his son recently took and being amazed at the vast developments and modernization.



John Fry

Not a Substantial Building Standing

John Fry gives a tremendous comparison of what Korea was like in 1953 and when he returned in 2014. He remembers the war-torn state of the country that had no substantial buildings standing, people living in cardboard boxes, and too many orphans. He shares that compared to the “unbelievable” progress that Korea has made, it seems like Australia has gone backwards.



Impressions of Pusan

John Fry describes his impressions of landing in Pusan and then the rest of Korea in 1953. He remembers being welcomed by an American military band when they arrived at the wharf before taking a train north. He recalls what the villages and homes were like during this time.



John Funk

First Impressions of Korea

John Funk shares how he saw sadness the first time he laid eyes on Korea and the Korean people. He recalls people being hungry, sad, and poor, and he offers an account of their impoverished living conditions at the time. His adds that his time in Korea made him and other soldiers realize that they needed to help the Korean people.



John G. Sinnicki

Modern Korea

John Sinnicki explains his pride for having fought in the war. He describes his experience revisiting Korea and being impressed with how well the country has recovered and modernized and continues to do so. He goes on to describe the great appreciation the Korean people showed him for his service.



John Goldman

The Sight of Korea

Veteran John Goldman describes the cold and harshness of Korea in wartime, different than its reputation in modern times.



John H. Jackson

Fighting During the Pusan Perimeter

John H. Jackson shares he fought from the second he arrived in Korea and participated in the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls how the the most difficult part about the battle was that he did not know who was the enemy since the North Koreans dressed up as civilians and then attacked the US soldiers.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson explains he was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He shares he fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He recounts how he continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John Hartup, Jr.

Korean Reaction to the American Soldiers

John Hartup, Jr., recalls the Koreans loving the American soldiers. The American soldiers operated the port of Incheon, so the Koreans depended on them to provide jobs. He recalls there were probably one thousand workers hired to operate the port. He remembers the presidential election of 1948 when Syngman Rhee was elected as the first president of the new Republic of Korea. He remembers being paid roughly fifty dollars a month, saving some of it in a U.S. bank and spending the rest in the base exchange (PX).



Stories of His Experience in Korea

John Hartup, Jr., recalls his experiences in and around Seoul when he and his friends had time away from work. He remembers USO (United Service Organizations) shows would happen about once a week. He recalls renting a jeep on the weekends for cheap to go sightseeing and mentions staying in a nice U.S. Army hotel in Songdo to get away from work. He remembers Songdo being very nice.



Mixed Emotions

John Hartup, Jr., discusses his mixed emotions about his time in Korea. While he shares that he did have some fond recollections of his time, he describes the living conditions as miserably cold during the winter. He remembers their heaters not working most of the time and feeling the need to try anything to get warm. He recounts his relief to leave Korea and return to college at Washington State in November 1947. He shares that he studied civil engineering.



Comparing Korea: Before, During, and After the War

John Hartup, Jr., compares the Korea he witnessed in 1946-1947 to the Korea he experienced in 1951. He recalls seeing many refugees going south in 1951. He remembers the city of Incheon as a bustling metropolis in 1947, and in 1951, it was completely leveled and destroyed. He remembers the same about Seoul. He recounts how there was no farming or agriculture taking place in 1951. He shares that he revisited Korea three times after the war and emphasizes that he was very impressed by modern Korea. He notes that it is difficult to compare modern Korea to the devastation he witnessed during the war.



John I. Reidy

KATUSA Soldiers and First Impressions

John Reidy explains the connection between the U.S. Army and KATUSA soldiers. He comments on his fondness of those attached to his unit and the camaraderie they shared. He recalls ways he and fellow soldiers entertained themselves to pass the time, and he offers his first impressions of Korea, describing it as primitive.



Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

We Knew War Was Going to Happen

John J. Baker recalls being a student in Japan when men were rotating in and out of Korea. He recalls General Hodge coming to Japan in 1949 to see General MacArthur, but the General would not see him at the time. He expands on how he knew the war was coming and remembers having a conversation about how the North Koreans were training with the Russians to prepare for war. He shares about a message he remembers coming from General MacArthur.



Not What They Expected

John J. Baker describes how the Korean people were forced to deal with the physical destruction around them. He recalls men heading down to the village and finding food consisting of rice and meat. He shares there was an older Korean woman cooking the food, and speaking to her in Japanese, he recounts his discovery that the food was not what they had expected.



No Longer Embarrassed

John J. Baker offers a passionate reply when asked about what Korea means to him. He explains feeling embarrassed about the war and ashamed to come home. He recalls feeling concerned about what his family would think about him. However, he shares he is proud today of what Korea has accomplished.



John Jefferies

Arriving in Korea

John Jefferies recalls landing in Pusan, South Korea, in 1953 and the reality of war sinking in as he disembarked. He recalls being assigned to a Medical Clearing Company and describes his role while there. He shares that he worked in a POW camp where North Korean soldiers were detained.



John Juby

Expertise as a Pioneer

John Juby had a variety of jobs while serving in the Pioneer detachment, including purifying water for the troops and fulfilling patrol duties. He recalls having to take a course on how to test and treat water. He explains that living in dugouts and trenches during warfare calls for the need for expertise on clean drinking water.



John K. Barton

Duties in Korea

John Barton describes the details of his job duties at the supply unit. He explains how he liked being with his friends and comrades overseas. However he also details that it was ultimately uncomfortable because he had just been married right before shipping overseas.



A Dangerous Moment

Reflecting upon the most dangerous elements of war, John Barton describes his experience with life threatening elements. He replies that there were a few moments during the war where he might have lost his life, but ultimately doesn't want to discuss it. He notes that that "the powers that be took care of us, we were all in it together."



Pride in Service

John K. Barton describes how he feels about his service and mission in Korea. He explains that America had to contribute to better the country and people of Korea. He explains that he is proud that he served his country.



John Koontz

Worth Fighting For

John Koontz believes that Korea was worth fighting for even though he did not think that at the time. He remembers in detail seeing the starving children who were without their parents. He would like to return to Korea now if he could.



John L. Johnsrud

Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



Special Services

John L. Johnsrud shifted from the Intelligence and Reconnaissance group to Special Services with the help of a friend from boot camp. He was supposed to take care of movie stars, but none came, so he was in charge of transporting food and beer rations for the US soldiers.



John Levi

Escaping Heungnam by any means necessary...

John Levi talks about his emotional encounter with Korean citizens in Heungnam. Fleeing the war zone, many Korean citizens looked for any way out with backs that were loaded with children and anything they could carry. He shares how he saw the plight of his people, the Native American people, in the same struggle that many Koreans had to endure during the war.



John McWaters

Korea, Then and Now

John McWaters compares his memories of Korea in the 1950s and Korea today. When he left Korea after the war, there were only three buildings still standing in Seoul. When he returned in 2016, he witnessed a very modern and highly developed city. He shares how continuously impressed he is by the changes Korea is undergoing.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



John Munro

Growing Up in a Korean Orphanage

John Munro shares that he did not experience any dangerous moments while patrolling the DMZ in early 1954. He recounts how, as part of 1 Battalion, he went to Seoul to spend the day at an orphanage. He recalls his time spent at the orphanage and how he was given six children to eat with and play with throughout the afternoon.



John Naastad

Then and Now

John Naalstad describes the state of Korea during this time. He recounts a local Sunday school service he attended and the rough state of the church. Later, he contrasts that image with his pride in what Korea has become today.



John P. Scott

Changing Tours of Korea

Veteran John P. Scott describes his tours of Korea throughout the years and how he observed Korea changing into a major power following the Korea War.



The Aftermath of the Korean War

Veteran John P. Scott describes the rural nature and destruction still experienced in South Korea in the 1970s following the war.



The Culture Shock of Modernization

Veteran John P. Scott describes the difference of buildings and Korean society between his two tours of duty in Korea, including how quickly Korea seemed to become a metropolis.



John Parker

No Longer Bitter

John Parker explains that when he left Korea he hated it because his friends had been killed. However, he shares how his feelings have changed since he has revisited Korea twice. He believes that his friends died for the betterment for the country. He comments on on his amazement of Seoul and adds that the mountains had trees on them again.



John Pritchard

First Job in Korea

John Pritchard was dropped off in Pusan and was shocked to see civilians living in cardboard boxes without any sanitation. After one day, he was sent to Geoje Island to work in an American workshop to fix a water tanker. He was impressed with the tools available to the American Army.



The Various Jobs of a REME Engineer

John Pritchard helped a group of English entertainers by fixing the ambulance they were transported in after breaking down in transit. They kept a very unique souvenir hanging from their flagpole. This humorous episode was balanced by the realities of war, including one episode where John was sent off base to tow a mortared tank and came face to face with human loss.



John Rolston

Close Encounter with a North Korean Pilot

John Rolston describes being a flight leader and bringing people to Japan and they were returning. He shares how he was very close to shooting down a North Korean pilot who went below the 38th parallel. He shares how he could have shot the pilot, but he didn't want to murder someone who was lost.



Life at Osan Airbase in 1954-55

John Rolston shares his fourteen-month experience at the Osan Airbase. He shares information about the F-86 planes there and the number of pilots that would be there. He states the weather was so cold that the fuel would freeze in the planes. He shares information about food during this time and missing his family. He explains the stability at the DMZ during this time since both the North and South didn't want to restart the war.



John Shea

War in Seoul

John Shea describes the conditions in Seoul, saying everything was wiped out. It was what he expected, he says, knowing what war was all about through his brother's stories of WWII and from watching war movies. He shares he knows why he was there, to do his job to free the Korean people.



Fears for the Future

John Shea, while he does not wish it, says he "feels sorry" for the South Korean people because he believes North Korea will again try to take it over.



John Singhose

Working with Koreans

John Singhose recalls being reasonably warm in his sleeping bag when he had to sleep in a tent while in Korea. He describes interacting with Koreans in several capacities, and speaks of them with admiration. He shares that everyone he encountered, from their cook to construction workers, were industrious and honest workers.



John Snodell

From Busan to the Punchbowl

John Snodell describes his first impressions of Busan, Korea. He recalls having a negative experience getting on a truck in Busan, then connecting with the 1st Marine Division for the Battle of the Punchbowl. He recalls being in Korea during a very cold winter.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Combat Engineering and South Korea in 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes the duties of an Army Combat Engineer. He explains that although they are trained to handle explosives, the primary mission is bridge construction and demolition. He recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon his arrival in 1957, near Musan-ni, just below the DMZ. He describes observing the farming methods used by the people of South Korea, and having to carry out the duties of extending a run-way and building a wooden bridge across a river.



Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



Memories of South Korea, 1957

John T. "Sonny" Edwards describes his experience getting to South Korea in 1957. He recalls seeing meats hanging in the market, honey buckets, and the smell of kimchi. He describes his impression of Korean people and his appreciation for their warm sentiment toward Korean War Veterans.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



Leaving Korea and Remembering a Reemerging Seoul

John Tobia recalls being given his discharge papers and being sent home in 1953. He talks about the weapons he collected from the Russian and Chinese soldiers. His commanding officer told him he could not take any weapons for souvenirs; otherwise, he would end up in prison for some time. He also recalls how the South Koreans quickly began rebuilding Seoul as he was leaving.



Memories of Korean Friends from the War

John Tobia gets very emotional regarding a memory he had of a young boy his company encountered while clearing buildings. He shares that the boy lived with his company for about a month. He also recalls a young Korean interpreter that worked with his company who became as close to him as a brother would be. He recalls giving cigarettes to the interpreter so he could trade them for food for his family.



Experiences in Battle

John Tobia discusses his recollections of being in battle. He recalls most of the fighting he witnessed occurred at night, and the next day, he and others would often go to the front lines and see how many troops were killed. He recalls how severely cold the winters were. His company used heaters and stoves to stay warm and often saw rats in their bunker also wanting to warm up. He also mentions how important it was to keep toilet paper in one's helmet.



War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Turner

What was Korea like when you were there?

John Turner discusses what Korea looked like on his journey north towards the 38th parallel. He recalls the destruction he witnessed in Incheon, Seoul, and Panmunjeom. He recalls starving people begging for food. He would give them some of his rations, as would other soldiers. His unit went on patrol near the 38th parallel, walking along deep trenches, and spying on North Koreans at Outpost Kate, about five hundred feet beyond the front lines .



John Wallar

"You Needed Letter from Home"

John Wallar talks about writing and receiving letters from home. He describes the things that he wrote about to his thirteen "pen friends."



John Y. Lee

The War Breaks Out

John Y. Lee, a resident of Seoul in 1950, speaks about the day the Korean War began. He describes what he saw and his subsequent flight from the city. He recalls swimming across the Han River to safety.



Johnney Lee

Reflecting on Experiences

Johnney Lee reflects on his experiences while working with the United States 8th Army at Panmunjeom. He recalls that in his younger years when asked about his time serving, he would simply say that he was working and trying to survive. He shares that he now speaks of how good the experience was for him as he understands the difference between Communism and Democracy.



Long Negotiations

Johnney Lee shares that the negotiations at Panmunjeom lasted nearly two years. He recalls feeling frustrated that the negotiations seemed to be going nowhere while soldiers died. He adds that he wanted peace quickly, but the same story seemed to be playing out after each meeting.



Johny Bineham

The South Gate

Johny Bineham describes the beauty and awe of the South Gate in Seoul, and how it stood so stately amidst the ruins of the city. He remembers it standing on the main road and having to march through it on different occasions. He recalls being quite impressed with its architecture and style, as well as the fact that it had withstood so many battles.



Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro

First Days in Korea / Primeros Días en Corea

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro provides an account of the devastation and poverty he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He explains that he will never forget the way in which civilians begged for food and clothing at every train station. Additionally, he describes the living conditions the Colombian army faced in Korea.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro describe la devastación y pobreza que vio cuando llego a Corea. Explica que nunca olvidará la forma en que los civiles pedían comida y ropa en cada estación de tren. Además, relata las condiciones de vida que enfrentó el ejército colombiano en Corea.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recalls the living conditions he faced while he was in Korea. He remembers the cold temperature and how bundled up they were to cope with the freezing temperatures. He adds that he never saw snow, but instead he recollects ice pellets falling from the sky.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentó mientras estuvo en Corea. Él recuerda la fría temperatura y lo abrigados que tenían que estar porque no estaban acostumbrados al frio. Añade que nunca vio nieve, sino hielo que caía del cielo.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

"I Didn't Know What Poverty Was"

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes the difficult living conditions for refugees in Pusan (Busan). He describes the crowded nature as well as the difficulty in acquiring foods due to the lack of good roads and transportation.



Keeping Warm with Newspaper

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes what he found most difficult during his time in Pusan (Busan)--the cold. He recalls layering in heavy clothing yet was still cold. He shares that he took part in a local Korean tradition of using newspaper to help him stay warm.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describes the destruction he encountered in Korea. He explains that it is difficult for anyone that lived through a war to explain what happened. He recalls being saddened by the fact that Koreans, including professionals from universities, were forced to take menial jobs.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna describe la destrucción total que encontró en Corea. Explica que es difícil para cualquiera que haya luchado en una guerra explicar lo que vio. Recuerda que le entristeció el hecho de que los coreanos, incluidos los profesionales de las universidades, se vieron obligados a aceptar trabajos manuales ayudando a los soldados.



Message to future generations / Mensaje a las Futura Generaciones

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna shares his ideas regarding the effects and causes of war. He explains that he fought in Korea with pride and valor but would not want others to experience war. He concludes by stating that without the veterans that fought, there would be no South Korea.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna comparte sus ideas sobre los efectos y las causas de la guerra. Explica que luchó en Corea con orgullo y valor, pero que no querría que otros tengan que sufrir con la guerra. Concluye afirmando que sin los veteranos que lucharon, no existiría Corea del Sur.



Jose E Hernandez Rivera

Guarding the Prisoners at Koje-do

Jose E. Hernandez Rivera describes what it was like to guard the Prisoner of War camp at Koje-do Island, Korea. He explains that they used to take the prisoners to the LSTs (ships) to load oil and equipment in the morning. He shares a memory of a time when a prisoner would not do what he was told and then moves on to tell of the deaths that took place in the camps.



Big Switch of Prisoners

Jose E. Hernandez Rivera describes the “Big Switch”, which was the exchange of prisoners after the Armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. He recalls that they took the prisoners to the ships and then received American prisoners. He explains why the prisoners they were releasing did not want to go back to their home country.



The DMZ After the Armistice

Even after the armistice was signed, Jose E. Hernandez Rivera served in Korea until 1954. During that time, he served near the DMZ. While there were no shots fired, he explains how it was still scary because they never knew if the North Koreans would retaliate.



Jose E. Colon

The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



Poor and Dangerous Living Conditions

Jose E. Colon presents an overview of their living conditions in Korea. He describes the South Koreans’ primitive farming and sanitation methods, which led to an infestation of snakes and rats in the unit's living quarters. He explains how the rats carried insects, causing some soldiers to develop a fever by penetrating their veins. He discusses the low quality and limited supply of food and shares his unit had only C-rations to eat while on the front lines.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that any time they were on the move it was incredibly dangerous as they were always met with mortar attacks. He remembers how they were ambushed one night, and his friend was killed. He wonders if he killed anyone as they shot in all directions as they could not see the enemy. Forever etched in his memory are the hardships of civilians and what they had to resort to in order to survive.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Él explica que cada vez que se movía del sur hasta el frente era increíblemente peligroso porque siempre lo atacaban con morteros. Recuerda que una noche los emboscaron y mataron a su amigo, y ellos disparaban en todas direcciones porque no podían ver donde estaba al enemigo entonces él no sabe si mato a nadie. Las miserias de los civiles y lo que tenían que hacer para sobrevivir le han quedado grabadas en su memoria.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his first impressions of Korea. As soon as they landed in Busan, they were transported by truck to the north, and he recalls the terrible condition the country faced. He was especially taken aback by the misery of civilians. Within hours of arriving to the front, he witnessed an American airplane shot down.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz explica sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Tan pronto como aterrizaron en Busan, fueron transportados en camiones hacia el norte, y él recuerda las terribles condiciones en las que se encontraba el país. Mas que la destrucción, se acuerda de la miseria de los civiles. A las pocas horas de llegar al frente, el enemigo derribo un avión estadounidense.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Memories and Lessons Learned / Recuerdos y Lecciones Aprendidas

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflects on his feelings about leaving Korea at the end of his tour. He explains that he learned what it meant to be a soldier and could have only done so through his experience during the war. Additionally, he laments what the people of Korea experienced during the century of conquests which culminated in the war.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflexiona sobre sus sentimientos cuando se fue de Corea. Explica que aprendió lo que significa ser un soldado y solo pudo haberlo hecho a través de su experiencia en la guerra. Además, lamenta lo que vivió el pueblo de Corea durante un siglo de conquistas que termino con la guerra entre el Norte y el Sur.



Jose Leon Camacho

Stay Away From Memories

Jose Camacho explains why he is glad that his son did not have to serve in the military. He describes his experiences with memories of Korea and how hard it is on him. He shares how his wife tells him to stay away from his memories of Korea.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José María Gómez Parra shares his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival. He recalls how he was immediately struck by the weather. Arriving in winter, he shares he was astonished at the barren landscape in which everything was frozen. He comments on the terrible state that civilians were in at the time.

José María Gómez Parra comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea al llegar al país. Inmediatamente fue impresionado por el clima. Al llegar en invierno, se asombró que no había nada en el paisaje porque todo estaba congelado. Además, comenta el pésimo estado en que se encontraban los civiles en ese momento.



Jose Ramon Chisica Torres

Impressions of Korea and Its People / Impresiones de Corea y su gente

José Ramón Chisica Torres describes the extreme poverty the Korean people faced in the last year of the war. He explains that the soldiers were well taken care of even though the weather was bitterly cold. He goes on to describe the extreme measures taken by some Koreans in order to find food and other necessities.

José Ramón Chisica Torres discute la suma pobreza del pueblo Coreano en el último año de la guerra en Corea. Él comenta que hacía mucho frio cuando llegaron, pero los soldados tenían todo lo que necesitaban. Después, el discute las medidas extremas tomadas por algunos Coreanos para encontrar comida y otras necesidades.



The Legacy of the Korean War / El Legado de La Guerra de Corea

José Ramón Chisica Torres provides his analysis of the legacy of the war and that of the veterans who participated in it. He marvels at the economic transformation of the country and discusses the role that the United Nations played in helping Korea after the War. He mentions that all the Korean veterans can leave to the next generation are their memories.

José Ramón Chisica Torres analiza el legado de la Guerra de Corea y el de los veteranos de la guerra. Se maravilla de la transformación económica del país coreano, y habla sobre la ayuda que Las Naciones Unidas le dio a Corea después de la guerra. Finalmente, menciona que todo lo que los veteranos de la guerra pueden dejarle a la próxima generación son sus recuerdos.



José Vidal Beltrán Molano

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José Vidal Beltrán Molano describes his first impressions of Korea and the living conditions they faced. He shares the awe he felt upon witnessing the complete destruction that resulted from the first offensive wave. Moreover, he describes the living conditions they faced and the supplies they were given.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y sus condiciones de vida en el frente. Comparte el asombro que sintió al ver la destrucción completa de la primera ola ofensiva. Además, describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron y los suministros que recibieron.



Forever Changed / Cambiado Para Siempre

José Vidal Beltrán Molano explains that the war had a huge impact on his life and left him forever changed. He marvels at how well he was treated upon returning to South Korea. He shares there were parades by the military, high schools, and elementary schools in their honor. In sum, he is thankful to all whom have recognized their sacrifices.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano explica que la guerra tuvo un gran impacto en su vida y lo dejo marcado de por vida. Se maravilla de lo bien que lo trataron al regresar a Corea del Sur. Él comparte que hubo desfiles de militares, escuelas secundarias y escuelas primarias en su honor. En suma, está agradecido a todos los que han reconocido sus sacrificios.



Joseph C. Giordano

War Declaration and Draft Choice

Joseph Giordano shares that he knew nothing about Korea until the day war was declared. He remembers reading about it in a newspaper at his father's barber shop. He recalls the significance of being drafted on January 12, 1951, and a choice that landed him in the Korean War. He comments on the value of his Korean War experience.



Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Typical Day for a Combat Engineer

Joseph Giordano describes a typical day a combat engineer in the US Army while in Korea. He speaks of waking up, eating breakfast, and then being assigned that day's duties. He recalls that they could range from clearing out trenches at the front lines to building an outhouse for a general several miles back behind the front lines. He includes that he dreamt of three things during his 18-month deployment to Korea and claims that hot and cold running water always reminds him of Korea.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Korean Service Corps

Joseph Giordano describes the Korean Service Corps. He shares that the members were mainly older Koreans who were too old to fight. He recalls Korean Service Corpsmen being assigned to each platoon to help do various activities, and he speaks of the friendship that he developed with one such worker named Kim.



The Forgotten War

Joseph Giordano discusses why he thinks the Korean War has come to be known as the Forgotten War. He describes how he was treated when he returned home from Korea, sharing that there were no bands or recognition of his service. He speaks of how public sentiment regarding the war has evolved though.



Joseph Calabria

Thoughts on Peace Treaty

Joseph Calabria speaks about how he would like for the Koreas to be reunified. He believes that he would then sign it. He gives the suggestion that North Korea should follow the model of South Korea.



Korean Then and Now

Joseph Calabria discusses his war memories of Korea. He juxtaposes his memories of Korea with what he saw on a recent return visit. He shares the growth of the industry in South Korea. He expresses his pride in seeing South Korea going from destruction to a place of growth and infrastructure in such a short time. He shares how the South Koreans are very appreciative of the veterans for what they did for their country.



Joseph F. Gibson

Working with Korean Civilians

Joseph F. Gibson shares how he worked daily with Korean civilians who helped take care of the wounded soldiers. He shares how he was often invited into the village to eat within the homes of civilians. He explains that he built a relationship with South Koreans. He shares how he learned some bad words in Korean.



Joseph Hamilton

Seoul during the War

Joseph Hamilton describes Seoul as he saw it during the war. He explains that it was pretty “rustic,” especially because they had suffered the bombing. He describes how there were a few open shops, but for the most part, there was not much there. He states that the capital city was completely destroyed.



Joseph Horton

Revisiting Korea

Joseph Horton recalls the two occasions he revisited Korea. He shares how he revisited in 1998 and then again in 2000. He expresses that South Korea was breathtaking and applauds the Korean people and government for the transformation.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Cross Cultural Training

Joseph Annello describes training Korean civilians to fight in the Korean War. He explains that they were unable to communicate well with either side not speaking the other's language, so they identified soldiers by the numbers written on their hats. He also discusses Korean soldiers getting sick from the American diet that was served to them.



Stacked Up Like Cordwood

Joseph Annello describes the cold winter's affect on dead bodies during the Korean War. He explains that bodies would be stacked up like wood and frozen limbs would have to be broken to evacuate them. He describes the horror of the situation not setting in until after the fighting had ended.



Joseph Lissberger

Korea is a Good Friend

Joseph Lissberger describes his feelings about Korea and likens the country to a good friend. He talks about how he thinks it is one of the finest countries in the world and how it is dependable.



Joseph M. Picanzi

The Greatest Gift

Joseph Picanzi describes marching through Seoul as part of the Armed Forces parade on May 15, 1954. During his time in Korea, he remembers three KATUSA soldiers working with his platoon. Among the three soldiers, he shares memories about one KATUSA soldier who was in his fifties and still in the Korean Army. Because he was fond of the man, he shares how he brought back a harmonica while on Rest and Relaxation (R and R) to replace the soldier’s broken harmonica.



Joseph P. Ferris

South Korea Rebuilt

In this clip, Joseph P. Ferris compares the rebuilding of South Korea to that of Europe after World War II.



Joseph Quinn

Arriving in Incheon

Joseph Quinn recalls what he saw when he first landed in Incheon on April 4, 1952. After landing on barges that took them to the beach, he noticed that nothing was there. He remembers that they then got aboard a train, but there were no lights, no water, and no food.



First Thoughts in Korea

Joseph Quinn describes that he was thinking when they first arrived in Korea. He remembers that they arrived at the staging camp and were given their mail, a meal, and some blankets. He then explains his first wakeup call.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Revisiting Korea

Joseph T. Monscvitz describes when he went back to Korea approximately 15 years ago. When he first landed in South Korea, he was extremely impressed with how modern everything was. He recalls not only how nice the country was, but also how welcoming the people were.



Joseph T. Wagener

From a Nation of Poor Farmers to Beautiful Reconstruction

Joseph Wagener describes many return trips to Korea since leaving in 1951. He marvels at the transformation of South Korea from a nation of poor farmers to a beautiful country filled with new construction and economic development. Along with admiring the progress of the Korean people, he fondly remembers the South Koreans who fought with the Belgian battalion.



Luxembourg Joins the War

Joseph Wagener shares the history of Luxembourg joining United Nations forces in Korea. After hearing about the invasion of South Korea, he recalls feeling compelled to volunteer and determined to help the people of South Korea. After a short ceremony, he remembers the volunteers leaving Luxembourg and integrating into the Belgian Army. He chronicles the intense training they received and their arrival at the UN reception center near Busan in January of 1951.



Josephine Krowinski

A Nurse's Duty in Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not know anything about Korea before she was assigned to go, but she always trusted that wherever the Army needed nurses, that's where she was to go. She always did what she knew best, how to nurse people back to health ever since she graduated from nursing school in 1942. Josephine Krowinski was never scared and she always felt prepared for anything.



Josh Morimoto

Expectations of Korea

Having learned about Korea while growing up in Hawaii, Joshua T. Morimoto had some expectations as to what he thought Korea would look like when he arrived in 1974. To his surprise, Korea was much more modern than the images he saw in textbooks. He explains the advancements that Korea made and how thankful the Korean people are for their help.



Modernization of South Korea

Joshua T. Morimoto further explains how modern South Korea was in the 1970s compared to North Korea. He explains how this was similar to the differences between East and West Germany. He states that traveling throughout the world can really be eye-opening.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

Returning to Korea / El Regreso a Corea

Josue Orlando Bernal García marvels at the transformation of South Korea following the war. He describes both of his return visits to the country and includes details about how they were treated. He sees the Korean people as his brothers, and after the welcome he received on his return, he believes that Koreans reciprocate the feeling. He states that they were treated like kings and their wives like queens when they too were invited to visit South Korea.

Josue Orlando Bernal García se maravilla ante la transformación de Corea del Sur después de la guerra. Describe sus dos viajes al país e incluye detalles sobre como lo trataron. Considera al pueblo coreano como a sus hermanos y, tras la acogida que recibió a su regreso, cree que los coreanos sienten lo mismo. Afirma que fueron tratados como reyes y sus esposas como reinas cuando ellos también fueron invitados a visitar Corea del Sur.



Jovencio P. Dominguez

They Were Asking for Food

Jovencio P. Dominguez remembers seeing the people of Korea living in extremely poor conditions during the war. He recalls seeing children asking for food. He shares how the soldiers would give the children biscuits and some of their extra rations.



They Improved Their Lives

Jovencio P. Dominguez reflects on what he experienced during his trips back to Korea in 1996 and 2013. He marvels at what South Korea has become and how people have improved their lives. He shares that when he left Korea in 1953, he was not fully convinced it would improve but is happy to see the changes.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



The Battle of Taejon

Juan Andres Arebalos provides an overview of the North Korean's advancements in Taejon. He recounts retreating from the city to reinforce his troops. He remembers observing the city burning after the North Koreans seized it. He provides information about General William Dean, the United States general who was captured during the retreat from Taejon.



Tales of Survival

Juan Andres Arebalos admits he did not feel he would survive the situation in Taejon. He comments on how enemy troops would snatch the food and supplies dropped by United Nations airplanes. He recalls being so hungry he ate fly-infested rice in a South Korean village. He recalls an enemy sniper shooting at them as they filled their canteens with water at a creek. He admits to being unable to sleep at night because of his fear.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado

Devastation in a Tranquil Place / Devastación en un Lugar Tranquilo

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado describes Korea as quiet upon his first arrival as troops were no longer engaged in combat. While there was no fighting, there was destruction and human misery everywhere. He shares that it was difficult witnessing the poverty and hunger in Korea, especially seeing children rummage for food in the debris.

Juan de Jesus Cortes Jurado describe a Corea como un lugar tranquilo al llegar por primera vez porque ya se había terminado el combate. Si bien no hubo lucha, hubo destrucción y miseria humana en todas partes. Él comparte que fue difícil ver la pobreza y el hambre en Corea, especialmente ver a los niños rebuscar comida en los escombros de sus pueblo.



Juan Figueroa Nazario

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Juan Figueroa Nazario recalls his first impressions of a war-torn Korea. He describes the civilian living conditions and the plethora of refugee he encountered. In his opinion, the poverty of the Korean people was worse than that of Haiti. He shares he could not believe the way in which the infrastructure of the nation had been decimated.

Juan Figueroa Nazario recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea devastada por la guerra. Describe las condiciones de vida de los civiles y los refugiados que encontró. En su opinión, la pobreza del pueblo coreano era peor que la de Haití. No podía creer la forma en que había sido diezmada la infraestructura de la nación.



Juan Manibusan

Searching for Food Amidst Destruction

Juan Manibusan recounts his first impressions of Korea upon arrival. He remembers the poor shape of the country as well as observing people desperately searching for food. He compares it to his time spent as a child in a Japanese concentration camp during World War II. He also shares how his experiences there impacted his marriage.



Thoughts on the War

Juan Manibusan shares a few of his thoughts on the 60th anniversary of the Korean War and emphasizes that he would like to see a permanent resolution take place. He counts himself as a supporter for the reunification of Korea. He also adds his thoughts on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains that he did not have any prior knowledge of the war in Korea had never heard anything about the country. He remembers that they boarded the ship without being told where their destination was. He shares that the only thing they were told was “Good luck and Good aim” by the honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín at Fort Buchanan.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica que no tenía ningún conocimiento previo de la guerra de Corea y nunca había oído nada sobre el país. Recuerda que abordaron el barco sin que les dijeran a dónde iban. Comparte que lo único que les dijeron fue “Buena suerte y buena puntería” por parte del honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín en Fort Buchanan.



Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales

Lost Battalion / Batallón Perdido

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales describes his first memories of Korea. He recollects feeling uneasy in Busan and being struck by the smell of the fertilizer used. He remembers that the first few days were difficult as his battalion, Company L, was lost for days during a training mission, and they were forced to drink contaminated water. He recalls that the news of this disappearance made headlines in Puerto Rico.

Juan R. González-Morales describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda que se sintió incómodo al llegar en Busan porque el olor del fertilizante que usaban era tan desagradable. Recuerda que los primeros días fueron difíciles ya que su batallón, la Compañía L, estuvo perdido por días durante una misión de entrenamiento y se vieron obligados a beber agua contaminada. Él se acuerda que la noticia de esta desaparición llego hasta Puerto Rico.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

The Poverty of Korea and Puerto Rico

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez recounts sad memories of Pusan when he arrived. He remembers seeing hunger in the war torn areas of Korea. He compares the poverty to that he had witnessed in Puerto Rico and emphasizes that war is a terrible thing. He adds that Korea has changed immensely since then, becoming a major world power.



Befriending Charlie

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares that seeing the children in Korea experiencing poverty made him more family oriented. He recounts a touching story about a boy he befriended in South Korea. He shares that he offered food to the boy, receiving hugs in return.



Living in Peace with Others

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares his hope for all war and discrimination in the world to end. He emphasizes the importance of living in peace with others. He encourages everyone to treat others kindly.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Combat and Being Tested

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses his first days in Korea after landing in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes how his unit was pulled out of his regiment because some in the United States Army doubted the effectiveness of all-Black units. He shares how his unit was positioned in a valley between North Korean and American troops, and was caught in the crossfire from both sides, which resulted in him receiving his first injury.



Medical Care and Rejoining the Unit

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. explains how he was wounded in September of 1950. He reflects on a situation where his patrol encountered the enemy, but his report was not believed by his officer. Despite his insistence, he was forced to go back to his position where the injury occurred. He admits he was not pleased with the officer who did not believe him. He remembers showing his wound to the officer and asking, "Are you happy now?"



Jutta I. Andersson

Busan: September 1950

Jutta Andersson describes Busan when she arrived in September of 1950. She describes the despair of the people living around Busan. She also describes life as a nurse and how nurses could not freely move about. However, she did visit the hills surrounding Busan and go to a Buddhist Temple with an escort.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

The Voyage / El Viaje

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas details the voyage to Korea. He describes the way in which they travelled through Colombia to reach the coast and then by ship to Hawaii, Japan, and finally Busan. He remembers the cold they encountered arriving on the peninsula in January.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas detalla el viaje a Corea. Describe la forma en que viajaron a través de Colombia para llegar a Cartagena y luego en barco a Hawái, Japón y finalmente Busan. Recuerda el frío que sufrieron al llegar a la península en enero.



Kaku Akagi

Collecting Intelligence

Kaku Akagi describes the significance of his duties in the 500th Military Intelligence Service Group. He recalls how the unit gathered accurate and helpful information from North Koreans in a POW camp in Koje-do. He explains why most of the detainees spoke Japanese in addition to Korean. He notes he questioned the prisoners in Japanese and mentions that some of them even spoke English.



Karl Hauser

First Impressions of Korea

Upon arriving in Korea, Karl Hauser recalls being struck by the openness of the landscape, dotted with destroyed buildings. Initially lodging in small dwellings, he shares his team later relocated to an empty school. He remembers the Koreans' perception of Germans as highly skilled, believing they could fix anything.



Moments in Korea

During his time in Korea, Karl Hauser remarks that he there were many contrasting memories. He found it challenging to witness those afflicted with leprosy who required isolation. On a brighter note, he cherishes the memory of having their private beach. Additionally, he recalls fondly driving on Sundays to explore the area.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Arriving in Korea

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his arrival in Korea. He had no previous knowledge or experience with Korea. He was part of the First Kagnew Battalion arriving in 1951. Kebede Teferi Desta describes the situation as bleak for the people. Buildings were destroyed, with lots of destruction overall.



Korean Transformation

Kebede Teferi Desta describes the worst and best parts of his Korean War experience. He has since revisited Korea. Korea has undergone a complete transformation. He describes the large train stations and road network. Overall, he is happy about the transformation.



Keith Gunn

A War That is Worthy

Keith Gunn recounts his first impressions of Korea upon landing, expanding upon his opinion regarding the worth of the war. He details Korea's poor state at the time, comparing it to England. He speaks highly of the progress Korea has made since the war, ultimately agreeing that the war was worth the effort.



No Major Danger

Keith Gunn details life in Korea regarding his living conditions and everyday matters. He recounts showering roughly once a week, eating both rations and cooked meals. He adds that he encountered no major danger or difficulties while serving in Korea compared to troops on the front lines.



The Forgotten War

Keith Gunn shares that the Korean War, also known as the Forgotten War, received little attention during the effort as well as today despite the positive outcome. He adds that the Korean War was the first major United Nations effort and therefore should receive more attention. He also offers his opinion on political correctness and the role he feels it is playing today regarding content being taught in schools.



Ken Thamert

Reimagining the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert recalls traveling to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers, learning not to take the bottom bunk due to all of the vomiting. Upon arriving in Incheon, he describes the overwhelming feeling when imagining what other soldiers experienced during the infamous Incheon Landing at the start of the war. He remembers seeing devastation all around.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Ken Thamert recalls being given a book about Korea from the United States military once he received his orders for Korea. He remembers the book containing information about Korean culture and the games Korean children played. He adds the book also included etiquette and protocols for the country.



Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro

Answer Me in Japanese

Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro describes his job translating and interpreting in Japanese during the Korean War. He explains his interaction with ROK and Korean civilians. He also describes his interaction with North Korean prisoners of war.



The Horrors of War

Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro describes his letters back home explaining the horrors of war. He explains his feelings for the civilian population and their absorption of the war. He describes that once he left the Korean War, he wondered what happened to those people he had seen.



Kenneth D. Cox

Korea Past and Present

Kenneth Cox shares memories of Korea past and present. He comments on the major changes made in South Korea since the time of the war he noticed while on his revisit and recounts a story centering on firewood. He adds that he is proud of the outcome.



A Unique Meeting in Hawaii

Kenneth Cox shares a story of meeting a Korean waitress in Hawaii years after his service in Korea. He recounts that she lived near the hospital the 44th Engineer Battalion built near Teagu. He recalls exchanging a few memories and catching up on its present state.



Kenneth David Allen

Journey to Korea

Kenneth Allen explains his journey to Korea which started shortly after he graduated college. He remembers attending basic training in Ft. Dix, New Jersey before being sent to Japan then Pusan before headed to Seoul. He describes the train ride and how they had to be very careful.



Kenneth E. Moorhead

Casualty Reporting

Kenneth E. Moorhead describes his job responsibilities in Korea as a Battle Casualties Reporter. He explains the details of this job included accounting for anyone who was killed, wounded or injured in action and prepare reports and statistics on these soldiers. He goes on to explain that this job was very shocking and caused him to reflect upon who was fighting in war.



Kenneth F. Dawson

Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth Gordon

Impressions of Korea

Kenneth Gordon recounts landing in Busan before making his way to Daegu where his musical career in Korea began. He recalls the terribly rough trip from Seattle to Tokyo on board the Colonel Black where so many men, including himself, were sea sick. He details the conditions of Busan when he arrived and remarks on the incredible changes made when he returned in 1965 with Leonard Bernstein.



Playing for the President

Kenneth Gordon shares he was invited to play for South Korean President Syngman Rhee and his wife at the palace in Seoul. He recalls how General James Van Fleet suggested him as a performer. He explains that since the president's wife was Viennese, tunes were carefully selected for her enjoyment. He shares his belief that Syngman Rhee was president at the right time.



Kenneth J. Winters

"What are We in For?"

Kenneth Winters described his first impressions of Korea when he arrived at Kimpo Air Base in late 1967. He talked about the sights and smells of being in Korea for the first time. He noted the mountains looked amazing but had no trees at the time because of napalm.



The Second Korean War

Kenneth Winters talked about the aftermath of the Liberty Bell Attack. Since his detail was only cutting trees, they only had two guns that were loaded with ammunition. He described his wounds and the heroic efforts of others in the battle. He went on to talk about other incidents during his tour in Korea, calling the period from 1967-1968 as the Second Korean War.



Going on Leave, Coming Back to Korea

Kenneth Winters talked about his time in Korea from 1967 to 1968. He described going back to US after he was wounded. However, he returned to Korea and the DMZ, near the site of an ambush he was involved in just a few months prior. While he was writing a letter home a North Korean bullet pierced his desk when North Koreans raided the border to steal weapons from the ammo dump.



Reflections about the Korean People

Kenneth Winters described the Korean people he encountered during his deployment to Camp Casey from 1967 to 1968. He remarked about the friendliness and industriousness of the people in nearby Tongduchan Village. He was amazed at what citizens were able to carry on bicycles. He also described his interactions with Korean children and how they would take donated food home for their families instead of eating it themselves.



Kenneth Newton

Unaware Why We Are Here

Kenneth Newton describes his arrival in Korea during the Inchon Landing. He details being sent to Wolmido first to secure the location before moving into Inchon. He shares his first impressions of Korea and explains that he and other fellow soldiers were unaware of the political reasons for initially being there.



A Message to America's Youth

Kenneth Newton offers a message to the younger generations. He shares that American youth could learn a lesson from the South Korean people regarding gratefulness. He encourages younger generations to find a love for their country if they do not already and to become stewards of good citizenship.



Kenneth S. Shankland

A Peaceful Solution for a Divided Country

Kenneth Shankland recalls how he knew nothing about Korea until he was sent to the East Sea to patrol the Korean coast. He shares that since his service in Korea, he has closely studied the developments of the Korean War, from the actual fighting to the Armistice that has not resolved the war. He adds that he would like for Korea to find a peaceful solution between the North and South.



Retrofitted Ships and Bombed-Out Cities

Kenneth Shankland recalls how his ship, The HMNZS Royalist, had been modified for atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. He shares how the ship sailed all over the Pacific Ocean, eventually landing in Incheon and Pusan in 1957 to enforce the peace. He recounts how Korean civilians were living in terrible conditions among piles of rubble. He remembers naked and hungry children begging for food.



Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



The Korean War Legacy and Hope for Reunification

Kenneth Shankland explains that the lag in understanding about the Korean War arose from soldiers in the Royal New Zealand Navy being under orders to maintain secrecy about their maneuvers. Until the 1970s, soldiers risked death by firing squad for talking about their service in Korea. He believes the legacy of the Korean War is the recovery and modernization of South Korea, but he laments to separation of the two Koreas. Kenneth Shankland shares that he does not trust either Donald Trump or Kim Jong-un to successfully reunite North Korea and South Korea.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Return to Korea

Kevin Dean comments on his return visit to Korea. He recalls the physical destruction of Incheon during the war and compares it to the modern city into which it has blossomed. He describes Seoul and Busan's progression and shares that the transformation is mind boggling to him. He states that South Korea is one of the only countries in the world that thanks those who helped secure its freedom.



Armistice Experience

Kevin Dean elaborates on the lead up and immediate aftermath of the Armistice signing. He recounts the positions of the Kiwis, Americans, and Chinese during the final days leading up to the signing and describes the heavy weapon fire. He recalls how calm it was after the signing, sharing that the killing stopped, and he elaborates on the death toll the Chinese suffered. He shares that he and other soldiers near his position narrowly missed a planned Chinese explosion.



Kim H. McMillan

First Impressions of Korea

Kim McMillan describes his journey to Korea by boat to Busan. The terrible smell met him as he sailed into the port. Passing through Seoul to join his unit, he was dismayed at the sad and backward state of the country. The Korean people looked depressed. Initially assigned as a driver in the transportation unit of 10 Company, his superiors later assigned him to the workshop unit as a carpenter.



Transformation and Learning About The Korean War

Kim McMillan contrasts impressions about South Korea's modern economy and the miraculous turnaround with his experiences during the war. His daughter, Deborah, joins the interview and explains that New Zealand students do not learn much about Korea. She has asked her father questions about his experiences in order to better understand his role in the Korean War.



Kirk Wolford

Perspective

Kirk Wolford discusses his perspective as he recalls being an excited twenty-year-old looking for adventure, not initially realizing the seriousness of the situation. He remembers the utter destruction of Korean cities and remarks on the recovery made by sheer determination of its people. Having never returned, he wonders if the division will ever be resolved.



Kullabhol Fakfaipuag

Beauty From Ashes

Kullabhol Fakfaipuag recalls seeing the devastation and destruction of Korea and how he thought recovery was impossible. He describes his surprise upon seeing the remarkable development of the country upon a revisit there many years later. He remembers feeling proud for the Korean people.



L. Timothy Whitmore

Treating Disease at K-2 Airbase

L.T. Whitmore describes his job as a lab technician at K-2 Airbase just after the armistice, treating airmen and soldiers afflicted with venereal diseases.



What Could I Do?

L.T. Whitmore recalls some of his most vivid memories of his time in Korea, describing refugees and how they lived and caring for Koreans in hospitals.



Living Conditions at K-2 Airbase

L.T. Whitmore describes the living conditions at K-2 Airbase (Daegu) in Korea in 1954.



Lakew Asfaw

Hardworking People

Lakew Asfaw recalls some interactions with the Korean people because they would bring them food. He shares there was not a great deal of interaction because the Ethiopian soldiers fought alone. He expresses his appreciation for the Korean people because of their work ethic.



Lakew Kidane Goshene

Korea in 1954

Lakew Kidane Goshene describes the conditions of the country upon his arrival. He describes how Korean women would scavenge for wood. He also explains how his unit would share their rations with civilians. He is amazed at how different the Korean people's lives are now from then.



Modern Korea

Lakew Kidane Goshene never thought that South Korea would become what it is today. He remembers the poverty and poor living conditions in 1954. He thinks the transformation is a miracle and nothing he thought could happen.



Larry Kinard

Revisiting Korea

Larry Kinard explains how he was able to return twice to see Korea after the war. He shares how he brought his son in 1997 and his whole family in 2009. He shares how he saw the 38th parallel. He shares how he was able to show his family where he was approximately located from the DMZ observation deck. He shares how he was proud to see all the progress that was helped by US soldiers who defended South Korea from Communism. He shares he was one of the finding members of his local Korean War Veterans Charter.



Lawrence Cole

Korean War Legacy

Lawrence Cole agrees that while it did take 30-35 years after the war before South Korea became democratic politically. He shares how he feels that Korea has transformed its economy into one of significance. He shares that industrialization has changed family relationships and old traditions in Korea. He shares how he thinks students going back and forth from South Korea to the US are an influence on modern South Korea. He explains how the United States is still trying to learn from the fighting in the far.



Lawrence Dumpit

Impact: Economic & Military Relations with Korea

Lawrence Dumpit described the economic impact Korea has had on the US and its boom in technology throughout the 1990s. He mentioned that even on base at Miramar in San Diego, soldiers had a lot of LG and Samsung products which were made in Korea. He observed that there are a lot of cars on the road today that were manufactured in Korea (Hyundai, Kia).



Prior Knowledge of the Korean War

From 2004 to 2008, Lawrence Dumpit's second tour, was filled with working with tanks on the ground. This was a change from the first tour in 1997. He didn't know a lot about Korea before he was stationed there, but he did know about the war because he learned about it during school.



First Impressions of Korea in 1997 and Korean Culture

Lawrence Dumpit was not a lot to go off base when he went to Camp Casey until he was given a one-week training about the Korean culture including the food, language, and civilians. The living conditions in Camp Casey were old WWII barracks because they were the oldest on the base and it was a lot better than the Koreans living in one room. He was paid 3,000 dollars a month.



South Korean Soldiers Work With US Troops

Lawrence Dumpit worked with South Korean soldiers, but they were not professional soldiers because they were drafted into the military. Therefore, many of the soldiers were not as professional as the US troops. The Korean soldiers made rank, but the US soldiers felt that they didn't earn it, so this started some problems with the US troops.



Lawrence Elwell

A Bright Spot in the War: Humanitarian Evacuation of North Korean Refugees

Lawrence Elwell, despite all the horrors he witnessed while serving in Korea, describes witnessing the evacuation of ninety-seven thousand North Korean refugees from Korea to the United States. He muses they almost depopulated North Korea in doing so. He recalls meeting some of those refuges who were successfully settled in the Dallas, Texas, area.



The Marine Corps did a Great Deal for Me

Lawrence Elwell reflects on his gratitude for experiences in the Marine Corps while serving in the Korean War that helped shape him into being a productive adult. He recalls the influence of his superiors that helped impact his life beyond the Marine Corps. He names one of his superiors, Captain Milton Arthur Hull, as an individual who was an inspiration to his men.



Lawrence Hafen

Airirang and Other Memories

Lawrence Hafen recalls three KATUSA soldiers that were attached to his unit. He mentions their names and talks about his interactions with them. He remembers a song that "Willie," one of the Korean soldiers taught him, "Arirang." In this clip, he sings the song from memory.



Leo Calderon

You Can't Blame Them for Having Nothing

Leo Calderon describes his job maintaining security of the planes while being stationed in Suwon in South Korea. They had to guard the planes 24 hours a day. He worked 8 hour shifts. He describes how a papa-san tried to steal a tip tank and he had to chase him to retrieve it.



Selling Their Mothers and Sisters

Leo Calderon describes the atmosphere of South Korea after the war. He notes that some of the people did not like the American presence. He also describes the crime and poverty after the war. The people sold anything, including their mothers, sisters, haircuts and boot shining for cigarettes. Bars eventually popped up though American soldiers were not allowed to go beyond the MSR (Main Supply Rode).



They Have Everything Now

Leo Calderon describes the difference between first seeing Korea during the war and the country it has become today. He explains the physical characteristics of Seoul at the time: buildings no taller than half a story, potholed roads, homes made of hay and mud. He says at that time the people had nothing compared to today, that they have everything.



Leo Ruffing

Missionary Work in Korea

Leo Ruffing shares how he became a minister after retiring from the military. He changed his mind about his future plans after helping friends and even himself with alcoholism. He would later return to Korea for ministry, including helping young children.



A Happy Moment

Leo Ruffing describes one of his “happiest moments” as it relates to Korea. He shared about his work in orphanages with his mother’s friend. He remembers that this woman then made dolls with matching dresses for the girls.



This was God's plan

When Leo Ruffing first went to Korea, he was very frightened. He remembers crying in the compound. However, after that first night of crying, he never had that kind of fear again. He shares that he believed that he was fulfilling the will of God.



Leon Steinkamp

Typical Day of a Military Cook

Leon Steinkamp describes a typical day of duties as a military cook. He explains that he would get up in the morning at 4:30 a.m. in order to serve breakfast by 6 a.m. to 250 men. He reflects on their favorite foods while serving in the military, primarily having a fondness for baked ham.



Leonard Nicholls

First Impressions of Korea

Leonard Nicholls recounts his first impressions of Korea as he arrived by ship to Pusan in early 1952. His boat was greeted on the pier by an American band playing music. They then climbed aboard a slow train toward the front lines. He remembers flat lands and rice paddies until they reached the north.



Leslie John Pye

Covering Little Gibraltar

Leslie Pye provides a description of his experience as a signaler covering Hill 355, known as Little Gibraltar, in the Battle of the Hook. He offers an overview of the amount of artillery activity during the period of March to the end of April 1953. He does not recall receiving incoming fire but did experience a projectile exploding just outside of one of their gun barrels.



Reassignment to the British Royal Tank Unit

Leslie Pye elaborates on his transfer to the 1st British Royal Tank Regiment and the training process for the British Centurion British Tank. He recounts his experience as a gunner sent to Hill 355 as a replacement tank supporting night patrols. He shares how most of the firing was done at night and explains some of the limitations they experienced.



Dangerous Moments Gathering the Wounded

Leslie Pye describes his mission on the 24th of July 1953 to retrieve wounded soldiers on Hill 111. While moving up the hill, he admits he did not warn his driver before test firing the gun on the top rail of the tank. He provides sound advice that one should not go into battle without knowing your machine gun will work. With the battle raging around them, he describes the successful retrieval of Australian and American wounded soldiers.



Haunting Memories

Leslie Pye remembers what it was like going back up HIll 111 to gather reusable material for the new line of resistance. He reflects on the experience of arriving on the 28th of July and seeing the carnage of the previous battle. He shares the memories of what he saw that haunt him.



Leslie Peate

Landing in Korea and Train to Pusan

Leslie Peate describes landing in Korea at Incheon and recalls the devastation he witnessed when he first arrived. He recounts sleeping on wooden planks aboard a train, describing the experience as something from an old "Wild West" movie. He remembers there being nothing for miles and being served American C-Rations at mealtime.



Korean Porters

Leslie Peate elaborates on the work of the Korean porters. He defines them as mostly farmers and/or anyone who would help out during the war. He shares that those men worked harder than any other group of people during the war and stresses that they received no recognition at all and most likely no payments for their efforts.



Modern Korea and Appreciation for Service

Leslie Peate recalls the differences between South Korea in 1951 and the South Korea he saw later on during his revisit experiences. He states that the South Korean government as never failed to recognize or appreciate the efforts they contributed to helping secure a free South Korea. He comments on the industrial powerhouse South Korea has become and refers to the country as a place where his friends live.



Lester Ludwig

When We Were There, There Was Nothing

Lester Ludwig describes his impressions of Korea as a soldier and that he wouldn't be able to return with his knee that needs replacing. He describes what Seoul looked like during the Korean War. He explains that his entire trip, all that he saw was destruction and no civilian life.



Lewis Ebert

The Ebert Boys Heard the Calling to Arms

In June 1949, Lewis Ebert enlisted in the US Air Force a few weeks out of high school. He took his basic training in Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and then he was trained at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado for military supply training. While in Colorado, the Korean War broke out, but Lewis Ebert already had a lot of prior knowledge about Korea since his brothers all fought in WWII with one stationed in Korea.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



Lewis Ewing

Arriving in Korea

Lewis Ewing talks about his arrival in Korea, his journey to his unit in Chuncheon, and his first impressions of war. He explains how he felt about his deployment, and describes his rapid journey to the front lines. He recalls the living conditions on the base where he arrived.



A Bird's-Eye View of Destruction

Lewis Ewing speaks about seeing vast areas of destruction across the Korean landscape. He describes seeing devastation of mountain areas, which he viewed from helicopter flyovers. He recalls his impressions upon seeing the war-torn areas of Seoul and Busan from a bird's-eye view.



Lisa Humphreys Hwaja Lee

Husband's Service in Korea

Lisa Lee discusses her husband's service during the Korean War. She shares he was twenty-one when he joined the US Army and served in a combat unit in Korea. She recalls him remembering how cold it was in Korea and adds that, despite the extreme temperatures, he enjoyed Korea.



Lloyd Thompson

Civilians Digging in the Trash to Survive

Lloyd Thompson had a relatively easy life compared to other soldiers and especially citizens in Korea. He had more comfortable quarters and warm meals. As a naive young man who had never witnessed much beyond a small midwestern town, he saw Korean civilians digging in the US soldiers' trash for scraps. The realization enabled him to understand why the UN was fighting. He recognized the hope to give Korean civilians a normal life again.



Finding Body Bags

As Lloyd Thompson was shoveling sand on a 2 1/2 ton 6X6 truck near a flood plain at Kimpo Air Force Base, he unearthed a wooden box and unveiled an abandoned burial ground filled with body bags. He reported the incident, but nothing ever came of it to his knowledge. The bodies were left there in the flood plain.



Loannis Farazakis

Korea Then and Now

Loannis Farazakis explains his amazement in South Korea's growth in such a short time. He was impressed by the economic growth. He also shares his pride in being part of the war and seeing the South Korean people become democratic.



Louis G. Surratt

Killed in Action Versus Missing in Action

Louis Surratt served in the 8th Fighter Bomber Wing at Suwon. Suwon had the longest runway in Korea and housed three different Air Force squadrons of about 30 pilots each. The 8th Fighter Bomber Wing oversaw the F80 Shooting Star. Louis Surrat's job was casualty reporting and awards and decorations. He estimates that around thirty pilots were reported as either killed or missing in action.



Lucie Paus Falck

Beauty From Ashes

Lucie Paus Falck recalls knowing little of Korea prior to the war but comes to know the country through her father's association there with NORMASH, as well as experiencing the country through her many visits there throughout her life. She describes how the country rose from the ashes to become beautiful and productive. She discusses how Norway went on to adopt many of the Korean children displaced by war.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describes his voyage to Korea and his first impressions of the country. He explains the route the boat took from Colombia including the many ports in which they stopped. He then goes on to describe the sadness within Korea and marvels at the intelligence of the Korean people.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describe su viaje a Corea y sus primeras impresiones del país. Él explica la ruta que tomó el barco desde Colombia, y da detalles sobre los puertos en los que se detuvieron. Luego describe la tristeza dentro de Corea y se maravilla de la inteligencia del pueblo coreano.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

First Impressions and Religion / Primeras impresiones y religión

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recalls his first impression of a devastated Korea. He expresses the sorrow he felt given the terrible conditions that civilians were forced to endure. Furthermore, he shares a story of how he heard a calling from God when one of his friends needed help on the battlefield.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recuerda su primera impresión de Corea cuando recién llego. Lamenta las terribles condiciones que los civiles se vieron obligados a soportar como la tristeza y el hambre. Igualmente, comparte una historia de cómo escuchó un llamado de Dios cuando uno de sus amigos necesitaba ayuda en el campo de batalla.



Volunteering for a Dangerous War / Voluntariado Para una Guerra Peligrosa

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández offers his views on why he decided to volunteer for the war even after seeing friends return to Korea with amputations. He explains that they embarked with courage and discussed their futures on the voyage to Korea. The reality of the war instilled fear within him upon arriving and he was unsure he would return as he heard his friends die over the radio.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández ofrece sus recuerdos de por qué decidió presentarse como voluntario para la guerra incluso después de ver a sus amigos regresar de Corea con amputaciones. Explica que se embarcaron el barco con coraje y discutían su futuro en el viaje a Corea. La realidad de la guerra lo lleno de miedo al llegar y no estaba seguro de si regresaría cuando escuchó a sus amigos morir por la radio.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

The Armistice / El Armisticio

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explains how the news of the armistice was received by Colombian troops. He details the day of the signing of the armistice and the joy he felt at the thought that he would be returning home. He credits South Korea’s peace with the service of all the individuals that fought during the war.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explica cómo fue recibida la noticia del armisticio por las tropas colombianas. Detalla el día de la firma del armisticio y la alegría que sintió al pensar que volvería a su país. Él atribuye la paz de Corea del Sur al servicio de todos los que lucharon durante la guerra.



Luis Perez Alvarez

The Front Lines / Las Líneas del Frente

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his memories about the first time he saw the front lines in Korea. He remembers it as being hell on earth. Additionally, he shares his impressions of the impoverished civilians and the Korean country ravaged by war.

Luis A. Pérez Álvarez comparte sus recuerdos sobre la primera vez que vio las líneas del frente en Corea. Lo recuerda como un infierno. Además, comparte sus impresiones sobre el país devastados por la guerra y la pobreza de los civiles coreanos.



Luis Rosado Padua

The Draft / El Reclutamiento

Luis Rosado Padua discusses his feelings on being drafted and joining the war effort. He was immediately struck by the cold weather as he had never experienced freezing temperatures. He describes his feelings about the Korean people.

Luis Rosado Padua habla sobre sus sentimientos al ser reclutado y unirse al esfuerzo de la guerra. Él explica que lo más impactante al llegar fue el clima frío, ya que nunca había salido de Puerto Rico. Describe sus sentimientos sobre el pueblo coreano.



Lynwood Ingham

Modern Korea

Lynwood Ingham appreciates all the soldiers today who are trying to end communism on the Korean peninsula. Like many other countries around the world, the US wants to help the people by getting rid of communism. The US and South Korea have a strong friendship and trade-relationship because of the Korean War.



Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez

Different from Home

Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez recalls that when he arrived in Korea, it was very different from his native Puerto Rico. He explains that living conditions were so poor that his troop had to make a lot of makeshift items for survival. He also describes the various things needed to be done to survive in the extreme cold.



Modern Korea

Madiam Lamboglia Alvarez explains that though he has not revisited Korea, he would like to return and see what he missed while he was there. He explains that during his time in Korea, all he saw were small villages and rice paddies but he would like to see the large, modern cities. He reflects upon the success of the Korean people since the war.



Manuel Antonio Gaitan Briceño

Korea Then and Now / Corea Antes y Ahora

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describes the changes he witnessed in Korea between the time he was stationed there and when he returned in 2010. Compared to the sadness, hunger, and destruction of Korea when he served in 1954, he marvels at what Korea has become. Indeed, he expresses being amazed at the cleanliness, infrastructure, and even the underground stores near the subway system that exist in modern Seoul. He credits the intelligence of South Koreans for their advances.

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describe los cambios que vio en Corea entre el tiempo que sirvió en el Batallón Colombia y cuando regresó en 2010. En comparación con la tristeza, el hambre y la destrucción de Corea cuando sirvió en 1954 se maravilla como Corea se ha cambiado. De hecho, expresa estar asombrado por la limpieza, la infraestructura e incluso los almacenes subterráneas cerca del sistema subterráneo que existen en la Seúl hoy en día. Le da crédito a la inteligencia de los surcoreanos por sus avances económicos y políticos.



Marian Jean Setter

Serving in Korea with the Army of Occupation

Marian Setter discusses her next assignment, which was to Korea prior to the war. She shares she served for two years at the 34th General Hospital, about twenty-five miles north of Seoul, with the Army of the Occupation (later the Army of the Liberation). She remembers the hospital being housed in a former training academy and states they were lucky to have an actual facility rather than living in tents. She recalls her patients were all military with some Korean civilians as well.



Second Tour in Korea

Marian Setter remembers her second tour to Korea in the 1960's, where she served as Assistant Chief Nurse at the 121st Evacuation Hospital for five months and as the Chief Nurse at a hospital in Busan for seven months. She reflects on the difference in Korea from her first assignment, pre-Korean War to her second assignment, post-Korean War. She notes that during this assignment, she had much more contact with Korean civilians since she was also working with Korean graduates and students from local hospitals. She recalls helping a former soldier who was on a church mission to South Korea set up an operating room in a hospital the church was building.



Treating the Rescued Hostages from the USS Pueblo

Marian Setter recalls a notable experience while serving her second tour of duty in Korea. She explains that upon their release by the North Koreans, she was one of the nurses that cared for the hostages of the USS Pueblo on Christmas Eve 1968. She remembers how she and her fellow nurses gave each of them physical examinations, treatment if needed, and fed them a Christmas dinner.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Mario Nel Bernal Avella details his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls arriving in Busan and being received very well by American and Korean dignitaries before being sent to a training camp nearby. The human misery and terrible sadness of Korea at that time is vivid in his memories and exemplified by one incident in which a Colombian soldiers threw a tin of C-Rations over the truck, and they watched a malnourished child, a starving dog, and man running towards the can of discarded food. He also bears witness to the devastation and utter destruction of Seoul and explains that it looked like a ten-magnitude earthquake hit the city.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda haber llegado a Busan y haber sido muy bien recibido por dignatarios estadounidenses y coreanos antes de ser enviado a un campo de entrenamiento. La miseria humana y la terrible tristeza de Corea en ese momento están vívidas en su memoria y ejemplificadas por un incidente en el que un soldado colombiano arrojo una lata de C3-Ration fuera del camión y vieron a un niño desnutrido, un perro hambriento y un hombre viejo corriendo hacia la lata de comida desechada. También es testigo de la devastación y destrucción total de Seúl y explica que le parecía que un terremoto de magnitud diez arrasó la ciudad.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post-War Readjustment

Marion Burdette recounts walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed U.S. Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he recalls being able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. He describes how the impact of war on his life led him to feel that he needed to traveled the U.S. to release his stress. He recounts how he decided to reenlist in the Army for three years. He adds it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Marjorie Elizabeth Cavanaugh

Knowledge, Firing, and Perception of the Korean War

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the extent of her knowledge of what was occurring in Korea and reflects on the slow communication during that time. She remembers her reaction to General MacArthur's firing. She comments on the American public's opinion of the role the United States played in the war and the difference in opinion compared to World War II.



Treatment of Korean War Veterans and Women Veterans

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the difference in the treatment of World War II veterans upon the war's ending compared with Korean War veterans. She reflects on the impact of joining the American Legion after her discharge, saying it gave veterans a sense of belonging. She details her experience as being a woman veteran of the Korean War, remembering that women in the military were generally looked down upon.



Marshall E. Davis

Former POWs sabotaging their generators

The location of their headquarters was near a fence line that once held POWS that had integrated with the locals but some became apart of a guerrilla style action that would sabotage their generators and effect the transmitter that was far away from the headquarters. When the transmitters would go out it was usually because of the generators. Marshall was assigned night duty and was always on the lookout for possible saboteurs affecting their generators.



Awesome Doesn't Describe What Korea is Like Today!

Marshall informed veterans who plan to revisit Korea that the word Awesome can't begin to describe the amazing changes that have occurred since its reconstruction over the years. (Marshall returned in 1996 for business reasons and the company took him back to where he was originally located). He said Daegu has completely transformed as a high rise city with over 3 million people compared to the several thousand that lived there when he was there and when he arrived at Kimpo Airport he could see the bridges suspended over the Han River.



Martin Goge

Living Conditions, R&R, and sharing war stories

Martin Goge recalls having to face crude living conditions and food that was just as bad. He describes feeling great satisfaction with being able to pay his dues. He goes on to explain how his friendships made life bearable.



Martin Rothenberg

First Impressions of Korea

The train ride from Pusan to Seoul was incredible. Martin Rothenberg saw so much beauty on the trip, particularly with the rice crops. While the rice crops were in their stages of growing, the vistas of patterns within the fields was beautiful. Poverty was all around, especially at Seoraksan Peak where people were living in cardboard straw-thatched-roofed homes. The villages always smelled because the sewage laid in a trench that ran through the middle of the street.



Civilians' Lives in Poverty-Stricken Villages

Martin Rothenberg was stationed at the base of a mountain during the winter of 1954 near a village that was poverty-stricken. This village had a wood-burning flute that ran under the houses to keep the floors warm and the villagers slept on the floor. He also saw a round stone based where the villagers had planted colored flowers. Martin Rothenberg thought that it was nice the way South Koreans took the time to make their homes special.



Mission Impossible: Speaking a Foreign Language

Martin Rothenbert was proud that the US Army had provided soldiers with a book containing Korean instructions and he used it to ask simple questions to the Korean people he met. He recalled a time while in the village at the base of the hill, an older Korean man wasn't friendly to anyone and never spoke. Therefore, Martin Rothenberg took the time to learn some basic questions to get to know the older Korean man and his attitude totally changed. This made all the difference to build a bond between soldiers and civilians.



Literacy Would Prevail

Martin Rothenberg noted that there was a little girl he befriended who's mother worked in the wash tent and she would talk to him because she wanted to learn English. When Martin Rothenberg left Korea in 1955, he knew there would be a massive economic boom in South Korea because the majority of the people were literate. Plus, South Koreans had a desire to be educated and work toward the reconstruction of their country after the Korean War.



Martin Vasquez

Not Much Experience with the People Until Later Years

Martin Vasquez explains that he didn't have much experience with the people of South Korea during wartime. He recalls his only experience with the people was with the South Korean military men who were fighting along with him. He explains that he has seen a very different Korea during the times he has revisited compared to during the war. He goes on to describe the purpose for the United States entry into the war.



Korea Then and Now

Martin Vasquez explains how different modern Korea is compared to the Korea he knew during the war. He describes Seoul of 1951 having very few bridges and today having many beautiful bridges. He goes on to describe the buildings in Seoul that are even bigger than the buildings in the United States. He recalls the warm reception he and other American veterans received upon their arrival during their Revisit Korea trips.



Marvin Denton

Seoul: A Sad Sight

Marvin Denton recalled the hardships many Korean people faced during the Korean War. Men and women yoked with long poles carrying heavy buckets filled with sewage (honey pots).
Groups of children ransacked the soldiers for anything they had (pencils, papers, etc.). Marvin Denton felt so sorry for the civilians in South Korea.



Marvin Ummel

Landing at Incheon, Impressions of Korea

On August 1, 1952, Marvin Ummel's unit made it to Incheon, South Korea. The entry into Incheon was challenging due to bad weather and the fact that the communists had destroyed most of the harbor. The ship captain had to improvise their landing. Shortly after landing, he boarded a railroad car to his first duty station near Seoul. He noticed garbage and destruction all over the landscape of South Korea. He acknowledges not knowing what it looked like prior to the war, but his first impression was a total mess. There was no building that had not been at least damaged by the war. The condition of Seoul was pretty distressing.



Impressions of South Korea, Then and Now

Marvin Ummel revisited South Korea in 2017. He reports that the opportunity to travel back with Revisit Korea was incredible. He recalls the development in Seoul being impressive, as there were no undamaged buildings present when he was there in 1952. Now, the buildings, houses, and roadways are numerous and well-constructed. He rode the bullet train from Seoul to Pusan and was impressed that it went over one hundred and eighty miles an hour! He also remembers just how thankful the South Koreans were to Americans for their help during the war.



Why is the Korea War the Forgotten War?

Given the wonderful transformation South Korea has seen between the 1950s and today and the deep gratitude Koreans have for American Veterans, the Korean War is still known as the Forgotten War. Marvin Ummel recalls people not knowing much about Korea, even after he returned from the war. Many people were still thinking about World War II.



Mary L. Hester

Revisiting Korea

Mary Hester reflects on her revisit to Korea in 1997, alongside her husband, Kenneth, who was also a Korean War veteran. She marvels at the progress South Korea has made and discusses how meaningful the trip was. She expresses how meaningful the gratitude from the South Korean people was to her and her husband.



Mathew Thomas

Mission in Korea

Mathew Thomas recalls his job description. He and his battalion were in charge of taking care of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the role being dangerous because some POWs were not checked for weapons when they were brought into the camp facility. He shares how there were times when POWs tried to escape.



Life in the POW Camp

Mathew Thomas discusses the living situation in the POW camp. He describes how they lived in wooden structures and canvas tents and remembers having heaters because it was very cold. He recalls eating goats, having good morale in the camp, and the bathrooms being outdoors. He shares he was able to mail letters home if he wanted.



Matthew D. Rennie

Witnessing Poverty and Devastation

Matthew Rennie vividly recounts the poverty and devastation he witnessed in Busan upon his arrival. He recalls the refugee camp there with hundreds of thousands of civilians living in cardboard boxes and children begging for food. He comments on their suffering during the cold winters as they possessed inadequate clothing and heating. He describes the countryside as he made his way up to Euijeongbu.



Battlefield and Memories

Matthew Rennie details suffering a head wound during an encounter with Chinese soldiers. He recalls a bullet grazing the back of his head and spending several days at a MASH unit to receive care. He reflects on the fear he experienced on the battlefield and his feelings of helplessness as he watched fellow soldiers die. He shares that he suffers from PTSD and nightmares despite so many years having past since his service in Korea.



Maurice B. Pears

Korea Revisit: A Time to Remember the War

Maurice Pears shares how he traveled back to Korea in the early 1990's as a guest of the Korean government. He describes remembering how Seoul was in rubble and there was poverty everywhere while traveling around the nation. He shares how impressed by the evolution of the shops, modern businesses, and transportation he was upon his return.



The Forgotten War Being Remembered in Australia

Maurice Pears states that the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because it came right after WWII and that was a time when the world was tired of war. He shares how he worked with many organizations to gather donations for a monument in Australia to help people remember the Korean War. He recalls how after thirteen months, he was able to reveal the beautiful Korean War memorial.



Maurice Morby

First Days in Korea

Maurice Morby describes his first impressions of Korea and the journey from Busan to Seoul. He talks about arriving at Busan harbor, picking up vehicles, and the arduous 3-day drive to Seoul through difficult terrain.



Unbelievable

Maurice Morby talks about his revisit to Korea. He describes the his amazement at the transformation of the country and his appreciation for the courtesy shown to veterans by the people of Korea.



Max Sarazin

Incheon Harbor, 1953

Max Sarazin describes his visit to Incheon harbor. He recalls helping a young Korean man dock his nine-foot-long boat and afterward, the young man allowed him to take the boat to try it out on his own. He goes on to describe the beautiful sampans and junk boats in the harbor. He recalls boarding a beautifully painted junk boat and being in awe of its copper and brass steam engine.



Mayo Kjellsen

Enlisting in the US Marine Corps

Mayo Kjellsen joined the US Marine Corps at the age of 20, anticipating an imminent draft, a common practice at the time. He underwent training at Camp Pendleton in California. With no prior exposure to Korea, Kjellsen was taken aback when he witnessed a Korean woman openly nursing her baby near Inchon.



Wounded in Korean War

Mayo Kjellsen recalls being injured twice during the Korean War. He was struck by shrapnel in his knee during one incident and was blown out of his bunker by another shot. Following his second injury, he explains he was transferred to a hospital ship in the harbor and then sent to Japan for rehabilitation. After six months of recovery, Kjellsen returned to the US to complete his remaining time in the military.



Mehmet Aksoy

Condition of Seoul

Mehmet Aksoy describes the condition of the people in Seoul. He describes the people as desperate. Moreover, people were constantly begging for food and supplies. For example, the people would constantly be saying "chab chab." The Turkish soldiers were well supplied and would give food to people. Most everything was destroyed. Consequently, the buildings left standing were pock marked by bullets. The situation was desperate.



Pride for Service

Mehmet Aksoy describes his return to Korea. Above all, he is amazed how the people of Korea are thankful for the Turkish sacrifices during the Korean War. He wishes people in Turkey would be so grateful and considerate as the Korean people. Consequently, Ahmet Aksoy considers the people of Korea his brothers and sisters. He could never imagine the change of Korea. He is proud of his service during the War.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recalls the desolate scenes he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He describes Busan as a ghost town, with bullet-riddled buildings and a haunting sight of only one person who had frozen to death. The war, he notes, brought widespread hunger, misery, disease, and death. He highlights the constant danger, with numerous traps set by the enemy adding to the perilous conditions.



Mekonen Derseh

Condition of Busan

Mekonen Derseh describes the condition of Busan. People were starving and Ethiopians gave them leftovers. Ethiopians were supplied by the Americans and needed the supplies also. He tries to make a comparison between Ethiopia and South Korea. The main difference was Ethiopia was not going through war.



Excitement for War

Mekonen Derseh describes an excitement for going to war. He went to Korea partially because of his personal experience with Italy trying to conquer Ethiopia. He did not want this to happen to another country. Mekonen Derseh still has some resentment for Italy and aggressor nations.



Melesse Tesemma

Children Crying in the Streets

Melesse Tesemma arrived in Pusan with the first detachment on May 6, 1951. The city lay in ruins, with orphaned children crying in the streets and poverty widespread. During his revisit, he was astonished by the progress of modern Korea. He notes that during the war, Haile Selassie donated $400,000 to Korea before the Ethiopian units arrived.



Testament to the Bravery of Korean Soldiers

Melesse Tesemma attests to the bravery of South Korean soldiers, vividly recalling their hand-to-hand combat during the Battle of Triangle Hill. Although his memory remains sharp, he has not kept his letters. He wrote many, mostly to his mother and a few to his girlfriend, knowing that as an only child, his mother missed him terribly. His happiest moment during his service was returning to Ethiopia in June 1952. Since then, he has hoped that Ethiopia could learn from South Korea's economic successes.



Melvin Colberg

Impressions of Korea in the 1960s

Melvin Colberg recalls his impressions of Korea in the 1960s during his service, a perspective which centers on the years between the war-ravaged Korea of the 1950s and today's modern Korea. He recounts that infrastructure was still in the development stage as there were many dirt roads at the time and few factories present. No large farming equipment as water buffalo were mainly used in the agricultural setting along with a few rototillers here and there. Most people were still poor, living in one-room houses heated through the floor, and many civilians still wore traditional Korean clothing.



American Weaponry and Transfer of Knowledge Contributions

Melvin Colberg offers an account of his life as part of the 83rd Ordinance Battalion in Gimpo, South Korea, which was responsible for special ammunition and served as the northernmost depot. He summarizes the weaponry at the time and Melvin Colberg assisted in the testing and maintenance of the weaponry. There was a transfer of knowledge from American soldiers to the South Korean civilians in many forms and he agrees that these contributions should be highlighted.



South Korea: A Success Story

Melvin Colberg shares his views on the relationship between Korean War veterans and defense veterans along with the legacy of the Korean War. The outcome of the Korean War is a success story for both the South Koreans as well as the Americans. South Korea has changed so much, for the better, since he left, and he acknowledges that it is a shame that this success story is not taught in schools today.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Incheon Destruction

Melvin D. Lubbers talks about the physical destruction he saw in Incheon upon his arrival in Korea. He explains that they didn’t get to a see a lot because it was nighttime, and they had been loaded up to move to another part. He remembers thinking “how could anyone even survive?”



Living Conditions

Melvin D. Lubbers discusses the living conditions he experienced while stationed in Korea. He shares how they were unable to shower after crawling around in the mud. He remembers having to use his helmet for lots of different things and that the food was not enjoyable.



Merl Smith

Serving as a Merchant Marine

Merl Smith discusses his role as a merchant marine in the Korean War. Merchant Marines were a civilian unit supplying troops with whatever they needed. He recounts his time at the Incheon Landing. He remembers taking on four North Koreans who wanted to surrender. He also recalls seeing the invasion from afar on his boat. He, alongside a friend, rode up to Seoul, following the American troops.



First Impressions of Korea

Merl Smith recalls his first image of Korea. One of the first sights he remembers seeing was that of destroyed tanks. He remembers the Korean civilians he met were all very stoic and never crying. He is still amazed at how well they handled the effects of war. He recalls how each time he would cross paths with children, he would give them something and shares a warming story of giving a shivering girl his winter coat. He adds that he witnessed a totally devastated Seoul.



Revisiting Korea

Merl Smith discusses his impressions of Korea during a visit in 2007. He recalls not believing the recovery of Seoul. He was amazed at the prosperous and happy people, which was in complete contrast to what he witnessed in 1950. He believes the Korean people are resilient people and have a positive outlook on life.



Merlin Mestad

Basic Training After Being Drafted

Merlin Mestad was drafted in March of 1952. He explains that most men knew they would inevitably be drafted and chose to volunteer. He describes arriving at Fort Snelling, Minnesota and being told someone volunteered for the Marine Corps; thus, he was allowed to choose if he would rather join the Army rather than the Marines. He goes on to explain that he was sent to Fort Sheridan and Fort Riley for infantry and truck driving training after joining the Army.



Mert Lassere

First Impressions of Korea

Mert Lassere recounts his first experience with stepping on to Korean soil. Having just landed due to mechanical difficulties, he remembers being met with sniper fire while stepping off the plane. He shares no one had ammunition due to in-flight regulations, so they take cover in the ditches. He remembers how they proceeded through a burning town in the cover of night as they marched to form their perimeter, being told to make no noise along the way as Chinese were in the hills waiting for them.



Michael Berardi

Experience in Incheon

Michael Berardi describes what he remembers about landing in Incheon, which was already occupied by the United States. As a member of the Headquarters and Service company, he said that his job was to supply the telecommunication needs to those on the front lines. As a corporal, he said he often did not have first-hand experience of what was going on in the field.



Michael Corona

Sheer Strength

Mike Corona honors the strength of both the US soldiers and the Koreans loading 1-ton jets onto the Landing Ship Tank (LST). South Korean soldiers harnessed wooden boards to their shoulders and connected chains to the jets. Together, four South Korean soldiers sang a song while they dragged the 1-ton jet onto the LST.



Korea: A Huge Empty Lot

When Mike Corona first arrived in Korea, he said it was just a huge empty lot without big buildings, sidewalks, and streets.
Now, Korea looks like Las Vegas, NV because of the beautiful streets, landscapes, and multi-story buildings. After going back for the third revisit, Mike Corona experienced the Korean government's reenactment of the Inchon Landing.



House Boys and Sleeping Conditions

Everywhere Mike Corona's unit went, no matter how long they stayed, they had to dig a hole to sleep. He still remembers the two house boys the soldiers named "Pat" and "Mike." These boys cleaned and helped the soldiers with basic daily needs. In return for payment, US soldiers provided the boys with food and clothing.



Michael Daly

Bedtime Prayer

Michael Daly's earliest political recollection of the Korean War was when he was 5 years old. He and his dad knelt by the side of the bed to say their prayers and he remembers his dad praying, "We thank God tonight for the armistice in the war in Korea." Since Michael Daly was born right before the Korean War, he was too young to remember the draft and other small nuances of the war.



Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Korea Today

Michael Daly recognized the economic and political impact Korea has had both on themselves and countries around the world. Aside from the technological advancements and automobile, the political landscape has exploded since 1987. The events of that period that further progressed democratization in South Korea too.



Michael Fryer

The Realities of Warfare

Michael Fryer recalls broken buildings, poverty, and the state of destitution of the Korean people. He describes the poor conditions in Seoul in late 1951. He recounts the shock he received when he encountered battered and dead American soldiers on the front line.



Michel Ozwald

Impressions of Korea

Michel Ozwald shares his travels from Camp Drake to the front lines in Korea. Much of his travel was via train through Busan and Sasebo. He recalls one incident on the train when his food rations seemed to disappear. He recalls a short stay in Seoul which he remembers as completely destroyed.



Miguel M. Villamor

Impressed with Korea's Progress

Miguel M. Villamor recalls traveling between Seoul and Pusan during his time in Korea. He describes a desolate land with no buildings. He expresses admiration for the industry and resilience of the Korean people in rebuilding their nation into the success it has become.



Mike Mogridge

Arriving in Korea

Mike Mogridge recalls being met upon arrival in Korea by an American band. He notes they were in Pusan for two or three days before heading to his assigned unit on the front. Although his recollections of their food was positive, he remembers being told to head to the American mess tent as their food was like eating at the Ritz.



Mike Scarano

Orphanage

Mike Scarano was stationed in Korea in 1948 before the war broke out. He remembers about visiting St. Teresa's Orphanage in Incheon while he was there, including candy for the children and playing with them. He also recalls the poor living conditions of the people he saw on the streets.



Mmadu Onyeuwa

Korea Revisit

Mmadu Onyeuwa explains that he would love to return to Korea to learn more about the culture and language. He goes on to explain that he has not had the opportunity yet, but he has looked into teaching where he served as a Korean War Defense Veteran. Though he is not familiar with the economic strides South Korea has made, he would like to spend upwards of five years in Korea to have a truly fulfilling experience.



Korea making an Impression

Mmadu Onyeuwa was sent to Korea during the winter of 1968. He describes seeing very deep, waist high snow. He explains that though he spent a good deal of time with the Puerto Ricans, his instinct told him to spend more time immersing himself in the Korean culture. He describes learning the Korean language as well as customs and music.



Monte Curry

Cruelty of the Turks

Monte Curry felt sorry for the Chinese (Chinks) who were being picked off so easily by the Turks and other UN soldiers that were shooting them. With three waves of Chinese soldiers, the first round, only 1 out of 10 carried a gun, so the second wave picked up the weapons on the ground. The 3rd wave had more weapons and fought using guerrilla tactics hiding behind bushes. Monte Curry described how the Turks carried leather satchels to bring back the ears they had cut off of the enemy.



Kitty Movie Experience

Kitty Curry, Monte Curry's wife, was not told a lot about what her husband was experiencing during the Korean War. Before a movie began, instead of previews of other movies, a black and white news reel would review what was life like for the US soldiers in Korea. This included fighting and bombs dropping on the enemy. Kitty Curry's reaction about the news worried her, but her friends and faith kept her going.



Morris J. Selwyn

Patrolling for Communists

Morris J. Selwyn describes his arrival in Korea in 1954 as "bloomin' cold," with not trees of forests. Since the Korean war had ended, the Kaniere patrolled the Han River in 1954 to contain the spread of communism, but he faced no confrontations. During his second tour in 1957-58, patrols were much more intense, but he still encountered no real threats as his ship patrolled the sea.



Rude Soldiers at the American PX

Morris Selwyn's memories of his time in Korea do not involve any direct fighting during his service. Rather, he describes losing a fellow solider and friend to the Asian flu. Another particularly troubling memory is the way U.S. soldiers treated Korean women. While visiting an American PX, he disliked the way U.S. soldiers made rude demands on the Korean women. He has never forgiven the Americans for their behavior.



Seeing the World at Age Sixteen

Morris J. Selwyn enjoyed his experiences in Korea and beyond. As a boy of fifteen, he traveled around much of Asia, visiting Singapore, Hong Kong, and Korea. He celebrated his sixteenth birthday in Japan.



Wish

Morris J. Selwyn feels proud of his service in Korea and describes his amazement at South Korea's expanding economy. He wishes for the reunification of North and South Korea and hopes that Kim Jong-un will be able to help Korea reach that goal.



Myron “Jack” Leissler

First Impressions of Seoul

Myron “Jack” Leissler recalls what it was like when he first saw Seoul. He describes how it was destroyed and how tough the street fighting was. He remembers a train station that had a glass dome destroyed. A veteran friend went to Korea in later years and brought back pictures of that same dome restored.



A “Safe” Foxhole

Myron “Jack” Leissler recalls a “humorous” moment in Korea. While advancing toward a group of Chinese troops in Kotori, he had a chaplain, medical corpsman, and machine gunner join him in the foxhole. They joked that this is the “safest they felt since being in Korea.”



Thankful for Tootsie Rolls

Myron “Jack” Leissler explains how he is thankful for the Tootsie Roll company for sending over the candy. He describes how it was so cold that the C-Rations froze, but that they were able to put the Tootsie Rolls in their parkas and soften them with their body heat. He halfheartedly jokes that Tootsie Rolls kept them alive.



Myron Toback

First Impressions of Pusan

Myron Toback describes what he saw when he first arrived in Pusan in 1952. He remembers that there were no brick buildings except for the rail station. Additionally, he recalls that there were a lot of mountains.



A Coincidental Family Reunion

When asked if he wrote letters home, Myron Toback said that he only wrote once per month, but he was able to make a phone call home. It was while waiting for his phone call that he met his cousin for the first time. That was certainly a coincidence, but he never saw his cousin again after that.



Myron Vaughn

Stationed in Korea After the Korean War

Myron Vaughn was stationed in Seoul, South Korea after the Korean War. He had fun in Seoul as part of the 8th Army.



Nam Young Park

Life as an Interpreter

Nam Young Park explains what it was like to be an interpreter for the Army during the Korean War. He recalls serving along many important military officials. He believes it was due to his service that he was able to study in the United States.



Changes in Korea

Nam Young Park shares how he visits Korea at least once per year. He explains what has changed, including the beautification and modernization of Korea over the past fifty years. He details how after studying in the United States, he became a scientist and was asked to go back to work in his home country by President Park, who he believes as a great leader.



Narce Caliva

Korea then and now

Narce Caliva compares his memories of his time in Korea during the war to his return to Korea as Assistant Director of the Red Cross in the Far East. He recalls being a young man "on a great adventure," despite the devastated Korean nation. He describes returning to Korea eighteen years later and marveling at the remarkable changes that had taken place in the interim period.



Nathan Stovall

Planes Sinking into the Sea

Nathan Stovall served as an electrician in the engine room of the USS Blue. One night, he opened the hatch to watch planes launch from the air craft carrier nearby. As he watched, the Corsair launched but dropped straight into the sea. The pilot probably didn't survive.



Nathaniel Ford Jr.

Korea after the war

Nathaniel Ford explains how he had never been out of the country prior to his first time in Korea. He recalls how he found it interesting to be in a country where people did not look like him nor speak the same language. He remembers that President Syngman Rhee did not want the American soldiers there. He goes on to describe how impressed he was with how hard the Korean farmers worked but having a problem with their using the contents of the latrines to fertilize their fields.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor recalls having never given communism a second thought when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He remembers feeling a call to duty and wanting to do the right thing for his country. He describes how far behind the times Korea was when it came to living conditions.



Closure

Neal Taylor discusses the absence of closure from the war until he revisited Korea. He describes how seeing all of the progress and feeling the love and appreciation from the Korean people helped reinforce what he did was worthwhile. He describes the impact of reforestation and how green the country looked as well as the tall buildings that now stood in a country that was once decimated by war.



Nelson S. Ladd

Prisoner Exchange

Less than a month after the dedication of the Libby Bridge, Nelson Ladd was a witness to a prisoner exchange between the North and South Koreans. He estimated on the day of the exchange, some 80,000 prisoners were returned to North Korea despite the South had detained about 400,000 North Korean soldiers. He observed that many of the prisoners had thrown the clothes that had been given to them at the camps along the roadside except their shorts and boots. The trucks headed back picked up the articles of clothing left by the prisoners.



Advancements in Korea: Then vs Today

After having visited Korea in 2013, Nelson Ladd is still amazed by the advancements Korea has made and how ambitious the people have been throughout the years. He had seen images of what Korea looked like before his revisit, however he had feared that Korea would have become like many East Asian countries, disparaged and unable to recover. Nelson Ladd described the Taft-Katusa Agreement (1905) between the US and Japan that led occupation of Korea and the Philippines that created the oppression upon the peoples of those countries.



Neville Williams

First Impressions

After some time in Hong Kong, Neville Williams remembers traveling to Busan. He shares that his first impressions of the city were not good as he remembers the shanty town that surrounded the city and the orphans. They remained there for 4-5 days to transition to their next post on the front lines.



From Animals to Alcohol

Neville Williams shares some of the unique sides of life in Korea. He gives examples of some of the wildlife that they saw, learning about the animals from the Koreans. Another thing they learned about Korea was about the “hooch,” an alcoholic drink that Neville Williams remembers made many sick!



Niconas Nanez

Helping the Children

Niconas Nanez says that he will always remember the kids. He never wants any other child to have to go through what they went through. He used to buy them food to assist them because he remembers suffering when he was a small child.



Nikolaos Filis

Graphic Memories

Nikolaos Filis identifies his wife who recounts a few of his observations while serving in Korea. She shares that he saw disaster and found ruins of houses, people massacred, babies crying on the bodies of their dead parents, and poverty. She adds that he did not think solely of protecting himself and that he had even made preparations to ensure he would not be captured alive by the Chinese.



Nils Sten Egelien

Jikji predates the Gutenberg Bible

Nils Sten Egelien discusses one of his greatest discoveries about Korea, Jikji. He explains that Europeans had always considered the Gutenberg Bible as the oldest known printed book, however he finds that the Koreans had been printing some 200 years prior to that with a moveable metal print known as Jikji. He considers it one the most finest discoveries he made when learning about Korea.



Arirang (Traditional Korean Folksong)

Nils Sten Egelien sings Arirang, a traditional Korean folksong. He describes the many versions of the song throughout Korea and how it is endearing to the people. He mentions that it is sung every year at an annual Autumn meeting that he attends.



Nom Supaphol

Life on the Front Lines

Nom Supaphol shares he found military training to be the most challenging aspect of his time in the Thai Army. Homesickness crept in, especially during moments of complete exhaustion. He remembers sleeping outdoors and receiving canned food rations and cigarettes daily while on duty. During their downtime away from the front lines, he fondly remembers how the Korean people would sell them food and even take him on trips around the area.



Noreen Jankowski

Yankee, Go Home

Noreen Jankowski recalls her husband sharing memories of Korean civilians telling him and other American soldiers to go home as they did not want them there. She points to pictures stating that the Koreans wanted unification or death. She remembers meeting a Korean American years later, and he expressed his thanks for the sacrifices American soldiers had made for South Korea.



Norman Charles Champagne

Beautiful Korea

Norman C. Champagne speaks fondly of his opportunity to revisit Korea, and his pleasure at physical changes that have occurred since his time in the country. He describes coming in by airplane into Seoul, and his surprise at the beauty of the country. He discusses frustration at the political challenges that keep the Koreans from fully enjoying a unified country.



Norman Lee

Prior Knowledge of Korea

Norman Lee recalls having no prior knowledge of Korea, nor much of Asia in general before the war. He remembers getting a thorough education about the kings and queens of England and how many referred to the United Kingdom as home. He describes the shock of seeing how Korea transformed itself after the war upon revisiting the country years later.



Norman Renouf

Impressions of Korea

Norman Renouf describes his first impressions of being in Korea. He highlights a sense of fear, but also describes seeing rice paddies for the first time.



Orville Jones

Korea Today

Orville Jones speaks about the possibility of visiting Korea today to see the amazing progress the country has made to lift itself out of the devastation of war. He recalls learning about a great deal of poverty and undeveloped land.



Othal Cooper

Civil War

Othal Cooper reflects on how the Korean War relates to the U.S. Civil War. He makes many parallels on what life would be like today in the U.S. if we had never ended our conflict. He explains what situations many Koreans must endure today due to lack of peace negotiations.



Otto G. Logan

Never Seeing Korean Soldiers

Otto G. Logan describes his experience in Incheon upon arrival. He explains that his days were mainly filled with drills and training. He adds that during his time there, he never saw a Korean soldier as he stayed on base, only venturing out on a bus ride once.



Tornado Devastation in Incheon

Otto G. Logan shares his memories of Incheon. He likens the sights he saw to the damage from a tornado and expresses that it was devastating as he had never seen anything like it. He adds that he would like to return to see its transformation as he has heard it is rebuilt and beautiful.



Reflections on Kindness

Otto G. Logan reflects on how his military service affected his life. He shares that his service taught him to love his neighbor as he would anyone else. He also commends the Korean people for job well done restoring the country following the war.



Paciano Eugenio

They Built Up Quickly

Paciano Eugenio elaborates on his experience returning to Korea. He comments on the impressive transformation of Seoul and similarity to buildings in the United States. During his return visits, he remembers becoming emotional seeing the people and the overwhelming appreciation the Korean people showed him. He admits when he left in 1953, he did not believe Korea would become what it is today.



Pastor Scott Kavanagh

Artifacts

Pastor Scott encourages the inclusion of all sorts of mementos and artifacts from veterans. He tells of one recent veteran interviewed who brought a field map. This map had been entrusted to him by his lieutenant during the war, and he has kept it all this time. Unlike road maps we are used to, he thinks it is important for us to be exposed to this unique information.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

Kids Taking Care of Kids

Patrick Hickey remembers all the little boys without parents. He recalls taking in a boy named Kim who was about seven years old to do little jobs around camp. He shares how he would cut off the legs of his trousers to give the orphans something to wear. He recalls how some children carried babies on their backs - kids caring for kids.



Paul E. Bombardier

"It Was Terrible"

Paul E. Bombardier describes first seeing Seoul in 1952. He described the city as "total devestation." He recounts most all buildings being destroyed. He goes on to describe the living conditions on farms outside of town and the work done by all family members.



House Boys

Paul E. Bombardier talks about his relationship with two Korean "house boys" that lived with his Army unit. He describes showing the boys a Sears magazine and he even purchased some outfits for them. He describes wishing he was able to adopt them.



First Impressions of Korea

Paul E. Bombardier describes his first impressions of Korea after getting off a ship in October 1952. The first thing he remembers was the smell of food cooking outside. He remembers the smoke in the air from the food.



Planes, Trains, and Automobiles

Paul E. Bombardier describes his long journey North from Incheon to his unit, the aviation section of the 159th Field Artillery Battalion. He rode on a truck on dirt roads to get to his unit headquarters. He remembers having a rough first night with cold, hunger and unknown feelings.



Paul E. Newman

Post Office Soldiers Sent to Korea

Paul E. Newman shares that upon his return from Europe following World War II, he served as a civil service officer in the US Army Post Office in Yokohama, Japan, during the Korean War. He explains that when the war broke out, his post was directly impacted as roughly half of the military personnel there was sent to Korea. He offers a specific account of an officer from his post sent to Korea to establish a post office there for correspondence purposes during the war.



Main Hub of Communication

Paul E. Newman describes his main job working in the US Army Post Office during the Korean War. He explains his role as a money order clerk. He also details the importance of the particular post office he worked in as it served as the main hub for letters shipped to and from soldiers serving in the war.



Sending Gifts Home To Loved Ones

Paul E. Newman shares his most significant experience regarding his duties during the Korean War. He explains the creation of the Army & Air Force Mail Order System and the process soldiers used to send gifts home to loved ones. He expresses his pride in having played a role in this process while in Japan during the Korean War.



Paul Frederick Steen

Revisiting Korea

Paul Steen recounts his revisit Korea experience. He describes the contrast between the Korea he saw years ago and modern Korea. He comments on the warmth and thankfulness of the Korean people.



Paul H. Cunningham

Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



Paul H. Nordstrom

Generations Behind in Korea

Paul H. Nordstrom shares his memories of Seoul and of the country he saw while serving in Korea. He recollects the living conditions and way of life as being generations behind the United States at the time. He shares that the United States was more mechanized in comparison to Korea then.



A Flourishing of Rats

Paul H. Norman shares a particular memory from his time on the mail route in Korea. He recounts driving at night and seeing numerous large rats. He adds that the Korean people were eating cats and dogs as a means of survival, leaving the rats to multiply due to fewer predators.



Paul Hofwolt

"That's not the Korea I remember!"

Paul Hofwolt sees an image of modern day Seoul, South Korea. He cannot believe how much South Korea has advanced since he served there. He describes how happy he is for the South Korean people and his pride for his service.



Paul Hummel

Always Have a Backup Plan

Paul Hummel remembered when the enemy forces figured out the weaknesses of United States' planes. Due to this, there needed to be a back up plan created to outwit the Chinese. Mosquito pilots used a variety of maneuvers while in the Hamhung area.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Ohlsen

Photos around the Swedish Red Cross Hospital

Paul Ohlsen provides pictures of the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He describes living conditions at the hospital and how free time was spent. He provides photos depicting life around the hospital in Busan. His photos also share glimpses of the civilians he treated, offering rare insight into what life looked like following the Armistice.



Life Within the Confines of the Hospital

Paul Ohlsen describes life inside the Swedish Red Cross Hospital. He recalls not being allowed to go outside the converted high school due to the enemy being close at hand. He remembers various lessons and lectures provided to the doctors as a source of entertainment and intellectual stimulation. He reflects on how his experience was different from other doctors because his wife was stationed with him.



Paul Spohn

The Transformation of Korea

Paul Spohn offers his thoughts on Korea's transformation since the war. He shares that it embodies a lot of what is good about Western civilization. He adds that humankind's main emphasis should be that everyone experiences a good life.



Paul Welsh

Dealing with Guilt

Paul Welsh describes a time when he had to make a difficult decision. He recalls a woman and a young boy were on a bridge with a wagon that was carrying a hidden weapon. He explains that when the woman opened fire, he ordered his men to fire on them--a decision he still struggles with today.



"Korea is Special to Me"

Paul Welsh states that Korea is special to him because he shed his blood there. It is apparent that there are a lot of emotions intertwined in his memories. Like with many veterans, the time in Korea had a lasting impact on him.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Destination Unknown

Paulino Lucino Jr. was never sure of his exact location when he was fighting in Korea. Often, he was put on the back of trucks or trains and had no idea where they were headed next. He felt that this was the most troublesome experience of his time in Korea.



The Korean War Armistice and Ceasefire

Paulino Lucino Jr. remembers in detail what it was like to be in Korea when the ceasefire was announced. He continued fighting until the last moments of the war. Since Paulino Lucino Jr. was stationed in Korea until 1954, he saw and felt the change in Korea during the year after the war.



PD Sharma

Revisiting Korea

Rajeev Sharma recalls his visits to Korea. His father, a Korean War Veteran, was able to accompany him on the first of his two trips. He remembers his father noticing the huge transformation Korea has made over the years. He compares Korea's rise to India's and believes Korea has surpassed India in development. He was very amazed at the infrastructure in Korea. He also mentions how hardworking the Korean people are.



Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández

Hopes for Korea's Future / Esperanzas Para el Futuro de Corea

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández describes the hopes he had for Korea after he left the country. He remembers the tremendous pain and suffering endured by the civilian population and wished they could find peace. He marvels at the progress of the nation and shares that he believes Korea could serve as an example for nations that have not fully developed.

Pedro Hernando Vergara Hernández describe las esperanzas que tenía para el pueblo coreano después de que se fue del país. Recuerda el tremendo dolor y sufrimiento que padeció la población civil y deseó que pudieran encontrar paz. Se maravilla ante el progreso de la nación y comparte sus pensamientos en que cree que Corea podría servir como ejemplo para las naciones que no se han desarrollado.



Percy D. Mohr

We Never Saw a Bed!

Percy Mohr describes the worst parts of war. The cold weather made sleeping outside uncomfortable, and baths were rare. He also disliked the food.



Pete Arias

Serving in Korea

Pete Arias shares his experiences of being discharged from the military in 1946 and later enlisting in the United States Reserves. He recounts how his brother was captured while serving in the U.S. Army overseas and spent thirty-four months in a prisoner of war camp. He remembers when the military planned to send him home, but he refused as he wanted to stay and fight for his captured brother. As a result, he was transferred to an outfit in Seoul, which he admits was the best living conditions he had experienced while serving in the military.



Pete J. Nadeau

From Rubble to Democratic Metropolis: The Rise of South Korea

This clip articulates the epiphany Pete J. Nadeau had while revisiting South Korea. He frequently contemplated the legacy and purpose of the war as well as the lives lost, including some of his good friends. He came face to face with that legacy when he revisited South Korea in 2000. He recalls being in awe of the roads, the cars, the children going to school, the growth in population, and the complete renewal of a country he left in 1951. When he left, the country lay in ruins.



Peter Elliott

Not a Surprise

When Peter Elliott is asked to compare the Korea of today against the Korea he saw in the 1950's, he gives a remarkable contrast. He says that the war made it very difficult for the people and he remembers seeing young children who had lost limbs using beer cans to walk because they had no legs. However, he adds that if you were to meet the Korean people it should not be a surprise that they have made so much progress.



Peter Ford

Freezing Water and Oil

Peter Ford speaks about the cold weather. He gives an examples of how quick water would freeze. He shares that he had proper winter clothing and the effects the cold could have on vehicles. He explains a scenario where he made a mistake in the cold.



Phan Toophijit

HTMS Tachin

Upon arrival in Korea, Phan Toophijit was stationed aboard the HTMS Tachin. He explains the primary duty of this vessel was to escort and provide protection for other ships traveling through the area, especially those carrying oil. He describes the size of the boat and crew and explains the weaponry aboard.



Phanom Sukprasoet

First Impressions

Phanom Sukprasoet witnessed the complete destruction of Busan upon arriving in Korea in 1950 as part of the first rotation of the Thai Army. Although the cities were devastated, he noticed that in the rural areas, some houses were still standing, albeit with only a few elderly people remaining. Reflecting on the devastation, he couldn't help but think that the war should never have happened especially when considering the destruction of cities and the loss of many lives.



Korean Children

As Phanom Sukprasoet reminisces about his time in Korea, vivid memories of numerous small children come to mind. These children, found in the streets of the city, were living in extreme poverty and hunger. He distinctly remembers observing some of these children rummaging through garbage bins for food. Whenever he encountered these children begging for food, he recalls generously sharing whatever he had with them.



Philip Davis

"I Was Not Afraid"

Philip Davis is recounting his first duties in Pusan. He remembers that the soldiers were young and had a lot of passion- not understanding what was really happening. Philip Davis admits that he wasn't afraid either.



A New South Korea

Philip Davis describes the commemoration events that he has attended for Korean War Veterans. He is grateful for how the veterans are treated and honored at celebrations throughout their community and nation, stating that it is different than how the Vietnam Veterans were treated. He is amazed at how well South Korea has continued to establish their economy and democracy.



Philip E. Hahn

From Inchon to Seoul and on to Pusan

Philip E. Hahn remembers encountering minimal resistance leaving Inchon until they entered Seoul. Describing Seoul as severely damaged, with nearly everything destroyed, he recalls taking cover in a pigpen to avoid gunfire during the night. Though he didn't expect to survive, he expressed gratitude for being a Marine.



Philip Lindsley

Encounters with the Korean People

Philip Lindsley explains that because of his role with radar, he did not have a lot of contact with the Korean people. He recounts one interaction with a Korean family and the generous hospitality the family provided them. During another experience, he remembers the Korean army protecting their station and never interacting with any of them.



Philip S. Kelly

From Inchon to Wonsan

Philip S. Kelly describes the amphibious landing at Inchon. He recalls seeing the extreme poverty of the Korean people and how his life was changed after he saw children fighting for scraps. He explains why he had limited information about his missions before they were carried out.



Philip Vatcher

Destitute Korea

Philip Vatcher's his first impressions of Korea were that of a desolate landscape. He there weren't any trees, roads, and barely any shops. Korea during the war was like slave country when the Japanese ran Korea.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Death All Around While Landing in Pusan

Phillip Olson could smell the port by Pusan even before he entered the bay. Dead soldiers were still floating near the shore while dead fish also added to the smell of decay. He was shocked at the beginning because it was not what he would imagine it would look like in Korea.



Pradit Lertslip

Chocolate for the Children

Pradit Lertslip elaborates on one experience while clearing and checking roads. While on duty with his driver, he describes seeing two children walking on the side of the road. Because he did not speak Korean, he shares he was unable to communicate with them. He recalls asking his driver if he had chocolate or water in the jeep and remembers him indicating he did not have anything. After a quick search of the jeep, he notes he found chocolate in a compartment and gave the children his water and the chocolate. Due to the lack of houses along the roads, he wonders where the children were trying to go.



Preecha Pamornniyom

Reflecting on 2010 Revisit

Although he never set foot in Korea during his service in the region, Preecha Pamomornniyom vividly recalls observing the devastation along the shoreline. He was fortunate to visit Korea in 2010 and noted the strong development and improvement of the country, even remarking that it is more developed than Thailand.



Prudencio Manuel

Unexpected Friendship

Prudencio Manuel describes an unexpected but welcomed exchange with a local resident while stationed in Korea. He shares a story of how he found himself the recipient of an act of kindness while taking a walk one evening. He remembers how this local resident invited him to stop for conversation and then gifted him with sugar.



Rafael Gómez Román

Legacy of the War / Legado de la guerra

Rafael Gómez Román explains the necessity of the war in his opinion as stopping the spread of communism was imperative. He shares the belief that his eleven months and twenty-one days were not in vain. While he is not against reunification, he notes that South Korea should never allow the politics of the North to infiltrate its government.

Rafael Gómez Román explica que, en su opinión, la guerra fue necesaria porque era imperativo detener la expansión del comunismo. Comparte la creencia de que sus once meses y veintiún días no fueron en vano. Aunque no está en contra de la reunificación de las Coreas, indica que Corea del Sur nunca debería permitir que la política del Norte se infiltre en su gobierno.



Rafael Rivera Méndez

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Rafael Rivera Méndez shares his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival. He explains that he was unable to get a sense of the country upon landing on the beaches because he had to run for his life with his equipment. He recounts his impressions of civilians and their lifestyle when they were sent to different villages in search of guerrilla groups.

Rafael Rivera Méndez comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no pudo tener una idea de lo que era el país cuando desembarco en la playa porque tuvo que correr con todo su equipo. Luego comparte las impresiones que tuvo de las familias coreanas cuando salieron a los pueblos a buscar grupos guerrilleros.



Rahim Gunay

Brothers and Relatives

Rahim Günay shares his amazement of the thirty to forty-story steel buildings he saw during his revisit to South Korea in 2008. He expressed appreciation of how Korean textbooks acknowledged Turkish involvement. Rahim Günay feels a strong connection with Koreans, considering them as relatives and brothers.



Rajindar Chatrath

Stories from His Father

Rajiv Chatrath shares stories of his father's experience in Korea. His father went to Toyko and Hiroshima, Japan for Rest and Relaxation. He also reads some of his father's notes about the war and postwar when he was able to revisit Korea in the 2000s. His father attended the Revisit Korea program and was able to meet the Korean Ambassador. He recalls his father mentioning how hard-working the Korean people are.



Ralph A Gastelum

My First Experience at Inchon Landing September 15, 1950

Ralph recalls being very anxious, had arrived just before nightfall and was circling out at sea for awhile. He remembers watching the beach being heavily shelled (Just like you see in the movies," he said.) which he thought was incredible before they went in. Once they landed they had little resistance but found a large foxhole they stayed in for the night (with no sleep) and something kept crawling around in the hole but he couldn't figure out what it was. The next morning he realized it was a frog, but being in a foreign land he wasn't sure what to expect.



Death Results in PTSD Chosin Reservoir

Ralph describes the number of bodies on the battlefield as far as the eye could see both the enemy and their fallen comrades frozen the way they had fell. The bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up.The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and the bitterness they have. Their wives didn't talk at the time but when they sleep they tell them what they say and their reactions to it. Both Ed and Ralph live with this daily they just learn to cope with it.



Ralph Blum

Not a Forgotten War in Korea

Ralph Blum revisited Korea in 2012 with his son. He shares how his view of Korea changed because of the advances he saw. He recounts wearing his Korean War cap and jacket while visiting the DMZ and Seoul. He shares how everyone thanked him for his service, including cab drivers and school children. He explains that his revisit answered his question about why he served in Korea. 



A Tale of Two Seouls

Ralph Blum contrasts Seoul in March 1952 and May 2012 upon his revisit. He shares that Seoul was a mess and totally demolished in 1952. He recalls there were only a few bridges at the time, and he recounts crossing the Imjin River on a pontoon bridge. He explains that Seoul was completely different in 2012 with modern buildings and lots of traffic.



Ralph Burcham

First impressions

Ralph Burcham arrived in Busan in 1952. He felt that the scene was "heart wrenching" to see shoeless children running next to the trains in the hopes that U.S. soldiers would toss out food. Families were so poor and willing to do anything for food scraps.



Ralph Hodge

Arrival in Korea

Ralph Hodge vividly details his trip from Ft. Lawton, WA, to Seoul beginning shortly after Thanksgiving 1951. He recalls the fourteen awful days and nights aboard ship which included traveling through three or four typhoons. He notes how when they arrive in Yokohama, Japan, on December 7, 1951, they wrote their wills before heading to Sasebo and onto Pusan. He shares it was in Pusan that he was assigned to the 2nd Infantry Division, 38th Regiment, Company B Mortar Platoon as a replacement. He recounts his early experiences in country.



Ralph Howard

Chute-Packing Races, C-Rations, and Poor Civilians

Ralph Howard discusses how he was scared until his parachute opened. He recalls not having to pack his own chute but adds that during training, they would compete to see who could pack his chute first. He remembers how General Westmoreland tried to ensure all men on the front lines received a hot meal once a day. He recalls enjoying beanie weenies, sausage, and hamburger from C-Rations. He notes that during his downtime, he would share some of his rations with Korean civilians as they were very poor.



Ralph M. Wilkerson

Ralph Wilkerson Recounted a Special Forces Mission after the War

Ralph Wilkerson noted the differences between 1951 and 1971. He returned to Korea in 1971 on a Special Forces mission called Freedom Vault while a Green Beret. This decoy mission included false radio traffic, false landings on the coast, and tried to convince North Korea of sending agents across the DMZ. The United States even dropped dummies made of dry ice that would leave evidence of infiltration but the "soldier" bodies melted away.



Ralph O’Bryant

Recollections of Korea

Ralph O'Bryant shares is recollections of the Korean people during his time stationed in Taegu, Busan, and Seoul. He notes that he was not very close to most of the fighting as he was stationed largely in Seoul. He states unit spent most of its time building airstrips for the U.S. Air Force.



Ramon D. Soto

Going Back and Being Amazed

Ramon D. Soto talks about his return to Korean is 1961. He speaks about the new infrastructure that had been constructed so soon after the armistice. This was the only time he returned to Korea.



Raul Aguilar

Walking Like a Duck

Raul Aguilar describes his first impressions of arriving in Korea and how arriving as a replacement, he was completely unaware of where he was or how to go about things. He describes one night when he arrived in December when he went to visit the latrine. He remembers there was snow and ice on the building and having to wipe the ice off of the boards so he could sit down. He describes wearing a lot of clothing and having to take everything off when suddenly explosions began around him. He explains grabbing his gun, not having time to pull up his pants and finding his way back to his troops only to discover there was a friendly reason for the explosions.



Going Naked Up the Hill

Raul Aguilar describes bathing in a stream in Korea with a fellow soldier. Once shrapnel began hitting the water around them, they ran up the hill back to their troop. He explains what it was like to run naked up a hill in Korea.



Raul Martinez Espinosa

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Raúl Martínez Espinosa shares the memories of his arrival in Korea. He describes a desperate Korea full of orphans, widows, hunger, and indigence who resorted to desperate measures to survive. He discussed these conditions with fellow soldiers and Puerto Rican troops, as he notes that even the South Korean army was decimated.

Raúl Martínez Espinosa comparte sus recuerdos de su impresión de Corea a su llegada. El describe una Corea destruida que estaba llena de huérfanos, viudas, hambre e indigencia y habla sobre las medidas que tomaban los civiles para sobrevivir. Discutió estas condiciones con soldados compañeros y tropas puertorriqueñas, ya que nota que incluso el ejército de Corea del Sur fue diezmado.



Raul Segarra Alicea

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Raúl Segarra Alicea describes his first impressions of Korea and the war. He remembers that he could not understand how a nation that was so poor could withstand such brutal winters. He laughs at the memories of being yelled at for falling asleep while on night patrol during the cold winter months.

Raúl Segarra Alicea describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y la guerra. Recuerda que no podía entender cómo una nación tan pobre podía soportar los inviernos tan brutales. Se ríe de los recuerdos de cuando le gritaban su teniente por quedarse dormido mientras patrullaba de noche durante los meses de invierno.



Ray D. Griffin

A Cook for the Army

Ray D. Griffin was trained to be a Cook and Baker after he finished basic training in 1960. He had to monitor the military rations and supervise the functioning of the military mess hall. He recalls having to be prepared to feed troops and other military personnel around the clock. Military trash was required to be guarded from hungry Korean orphans, but he was able to bring surplus milk to the orphanages.



A Cook's Journey

Ray D. Griffin saw a lot of poverty when he was stationed in South Korea. Although the fighting was over, he found that it seemed life expectancy was not very long for the people due to severe poverty. He recalls multiple opportunities he turned down in the process of becoming a Military Cook and Baker. He describes the long journey he had to take to get to Korea.



Raymond L. Ayon

The War’s Painful Memories

Raymond L. Ayon vividly remembers his deployment to Korea, just two days after news of the war breakout on his base in Japan. Upon arrival in Suwon, he shares he could hear the sounds of artillery in the distance. He recalls how, as soon as he disembarked from the C-47 transport plane, he and other medical personnel immediately tended to the wounded and attended to casualties. He emphasizes he was taken aback by the number of pine boxes he saw, which he later discovered were caskets made by South Korean carpenters. He shares how his experiences treating young soldiers, many of whom were no more than eighteen, nineteen, or twenty years old, left him with painful memories he still carries with him to this day.



Caring for Wounded Enemy POWs

Raymond L. Ayon shares how, during his time in Daegu, he was responsible for the care of wounded enemy POWs for a period of two years. He recalls the conditions of one particular POW who required an inoculation but was afraid of the syringe. As a corpsman, his duty was to provide the necessary treatment and release them once they were fit to go. He remembers a moment when General McArthur passed by in a motorcade while they were waiting to cross the Han River on a pontoon, which was an exciting experience for most of the men. He briefly discusses the numerous medals he was awarded due to his military service.



The Risks of Being at War

Raymond L. Ayon vividly recalls the day when he was in the back of one of the last vehicles in a truck convoy. He recounts how, as they were passing a road raider that was clearing the area, their driver had to swerve to avoid a collision. As a result, he shares he was thrown out of the truck bed and was left suspended in midair. He remembers feeling like his life was flashing before his eyes before hitting the ground which he believed would be unsurvivable. He notes he and the other passengers were injured and remembers applying first aid to himself shortly after the crash. He states the accident impaired vision in his right eye, which is now officially blind.



Raymundo L. Bumatay

Korea Before and Now

Raymundo L. Bumatay reflects on his two return trips to Korea, one in 2018 and another in 2019. During his 2018 visit, he was honored with the Gold Medal Peace Award by the Philippine government. Expressing his awe at the country's development, he describes Korea as incredibly green and exceptionally clean. These trips, he notes, have filled him with pride for the part he played in the country's history.



Reginald Clifton Grier

Third Return to Korea

Reginald Clifton Grier discusses returning to Korea for a third time in 1969. He remembers witnessing the handover of border guarding duties from the United States to South Korean forces. He recalls having the opportunity to volunteer with an orphanage in Korea and forming a close bond with a little girl who would follow him around. He shares that he adopted the little girl, and he now has four grandchildren.



Reginald V. Rawls

Life Leading into the Army

Reginald Rawls grew up living in a poor section of town and he had limited options to improve his quality of life. These circumstances served as the impetus for his enlistment in the Army. He rose up the military ranks because he was respectful to everyone and he went to a lot of training.



A Strong Love for Korean Civilians

Reginald Rawls believes that the Korean War should be recognized and remembered.
That's why many people call this war, the "Forgotten War." Any extra food, he gave to the Korean civilians because most were starving. During the war, Reginald Rawls had many interactions with Korean civilians, one man was even his driver.



Rene F. Cardenas

Arriving to Korea and Joining the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon

Rene Cardenas describes his arrival in Korea, and his conversation with an officer, who was looking men to join the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon. He recalls the job description that he was provided and initially was skeptical, because he wanted "more action", but the officer reassured him that he would see plenty with this unit. Upon that assurance, Rene joined the unit.



Rene Rodriguez

Arriving in Korea

Rene Rodriguez recalls arriving in Incheon before being taken by train for more training in Seoul. He remembers Seoul as being very cold as winter had set in. He notes how, upon transfer to the front lines, he was instructed to make a sketch of where he was as no maps were available. He shares what life on the front lines was like.



Rex L. McCall

A Revisit Trip in 2000

Rex McCall shared how he was able to travel back to Korea and was impressed with Seoul and modern-day Korea. He recalled there being a lot of activity, tall buildings, and everyone treated him well. He recounted visiting the invasion tunnels at the DMZ, witnessing a traditional village, and seeing the Korean National Dancers during his revisit trip.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Entering Korea as a Defense Soldier

Ricardo Torres Perez shares he did not want to go to Korea in 1977 since it was so far away. He admits he was nervous about the probability of war rising again. He recalls realizing the possibilities of war were still as high as in 1953 after hearing planes come in and out of Osan Air Force Base where he landed.



Working and Living Conditions in Korea in 1977

Ricardo Torres Perez recalls seeing green land and rice patties from the plane as he was entering Osan. He recounts how he worked with the ROK, the South Korean troops, to protect South Korea during his eighteen-month deployment in Korea.



Richard A. Houser

The Korean War Draft and Basic Training

Richard Houser was working and got married before he was drafted in 1953. He didn't think that he would get drafted and one month after getting the letter, he was sent to boot camp.



Leaving for Korean War in 1953

Richard Houser took a ship and landed in Inchon in April 1953 after a lonely 20 day ship ride to Korea. While traveling to his base in the Chorwon Valley known as the Iron Triangle, Richard Houser was able to see Seoul leveled, small thatched homes, and dirt roads all around him.



Returning to the US After Serving in the US Army

Richard Houser returned to the US in the spring of 1934 and most of the people from his town didn't even know he was gone. Newspapers didn't publicize the Korean War since it was tired from WWII, so most of the veterans did not get a warm welcome home.



Korea Revisit

Richard Houser went back to Korea with his wife a few years before the interview was taped. The bright lights, huge buildings, and prosperity of the Korean people made him proud for fighting to free the Korean civilians.



Richard A. Mende

Impressions of Korea

Richard A. Mende recalls this first impressions upon his arrival in Pusan.



Richard A. Simpson

Civilian's Life

Richard Simpson recalls the despair of the Korean people. He describes an incident of a woman trying to commit suicide by lying on train tracks and describes giving simple necessities such as a shirt to Korean people. He offers an account of troop actions.



War, What Is It Good For?

Richard Simpson describes war through religion. He questions what God thinks of war and ultimately what comes from war. He discusses the impact of the war on his life and how the war helped him enter the priesthood.



Richard Arthur Christopher Hilton

The Futility of Writing Home

Richard Hilton recounts his writing habits to his loved ones at home during the war. He explains that he did not write very much due to the sad state of the world. He goes on to explain that not knowing what life had in store day to day hindered his desire to send letters.



Richard Bartlett

Radio Maintenance Specialty and a Civilian Encounter

Each soldier is trained with a specialty to strengthen the military. Richard Bartlett's duties were to keep the radio equipment working and operational as it was used to guide aircraft along the 38th Parallel. There was a lot of on-the-job-training. While stationed at Osan, Richard Bartlett encountered many civilians off base.



The Air Force's All-Korean Basketball Team Experience

Richard Bartlett played for the All-Korean Basketball Team while in the Air Force and stationed in Korea. He traveled to Seoul and played a variety of Korean teams. These experiences allowed him a chance to get to know some Korean civilians. The Korean teams were comprised of talented basketball players.



Legacy of the Korean Defense Veteran

Richard Bartlett believes that the defense veterans serve and fill the void after the Korean War ended. He feels defense veterans over the years have done a very good job keeping the North and South Koreans separated since the war. He wishes he had personally done more to help the Korean people while there.



Richard Carey – Part 1

Letting Freedom Ring

Richard Carey explains his knowledge of Korea before he went. He explains his reason for fighting in the war. He explains how he wanted to help the allies of South Korea and why.



Richard Davis

First Impressions of Korea

Richard Davis recounts landing in Pusan and offers his first impressions of Korea. He recalls what older gentlemen were wearing and remembers many children asking for food. He states that his impressions of Korea made him appreciate living in the US.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Arriving in Korea

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experience of undergoing an extended leadership training of two months while most of the other trainees were sent ahead to Korea. He vividly recalls the night when he first arrived in Korea via Incheon Harbor where commands were given in low whispers and troops were instructed to load their weapons with live ammo as a precautionary measure. He explains his role and responsibilities as a member of the mortar squad.



Friendly Fire and Casualties

Richard Edward Watchempino recalls his arrival at the front lines at the main line of resistance (MLR) when the forces were preparing for a peace treaty. He explains the context of the situation that led to his injury caused by friendly gunfire. He mentions how his unit had suffered minimal losses, but he lost several friends from basic training who went to Korea two months before he arrived.



Life on the Front Lines

Richard Edward Watchempino reflects on his daily life while serving on the front lines. In his reflection, he shares his thoughts and memories about letter writing to his family members, personal hygiene, and food rations. He recalls reciting traditional native prayers for courage and strength and even speaks a few phrases of the prayers during the interview.



Richard Franklin

Introduction to the War in Korea

Richard Franklin describes the first night after joining his medical unit in Korea. He talks about sleeping between two oil drums and waking up to wounded soldiers.



Inspecting Kitchens on the Front Lines?

Richard Franklin talks about his duties as a mortar, mess, and supply officer during the later stage of his tour. Describing his duties, he recalls inspecting kitchens on the front lines, requesting doughnuts to be made, and traveling the Korean countryside.



Revisiting Korea

Richard Franklin talks about revisiting Korea. He mentions the graciousness of his Korean hosts and the unique opportunity to witness a speech by President Barack Obama.



Richard Friedman

Prejudice Amongst the Ranks

Richard Friedman describes his reaction to prejudice among his company toward South Korean soldiers. He drives home the importance of respect. He shares how he personally treated South Korean soldiers as Sergeant 1st Class and the brotherly relationship he built with one soldier in particular.



The Loss of Friends

Richard Friedman shares that losing friends was the most difficult aspect of service. He mentions losing several friends during his time in Korea. He recounts how associations to one soldier in particular over the years continues to affect his emotions.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Richard Friedman coveys his views on the Korean War Legacy. He shares that no one was there to thank him for his service upon his return home. Richard Friedman states that the Korean War's Legacy needs to be built upon, and he acknowledges that measures are being taken by various individuals and groups to do so. He shares that he respects why he was there, what was achieved, and was proud to have served.



Richard Fuller

Military Service and Forgotten Wars

Richard Fuller explains his views of military service and Korea. He shares that he grew up in military service and feels he learned many lessons along the way. He communicates to younger generations that there is nothing wrong with entering military service if desired. He shares that he is satisfied with what has become of South Korea. He closes with his views on why the Korean War is considered the Forgotten War.



Richard Higa

Astounded by Korean Progress

Richard Higa talks about his amazement at the progress of South Korea from the perspective of his 1970 revisit. He makes remarks about Seoul as well as the South Korean economy.



Richard J. Dominguez

Korea Arrival and Departure

Richard J. Dominguez shares his experience of arriving in Korea during a ceasefire for negotiations among opposing forces. Upon arrival, his unit was sent to replace another division on the front lines. He describes how the previous division had constructed trenches and tents to maximize protection from incoming fire. He recalls his own division losing men on the front lines, including a fellow medic. He reflects on receiving an emergency furlough while in Korea to travel home and visit his ill mother.



Richard K. Satterlee

The assassination of President Park Chung Hee: Unrest in South Korea

Richard K. Satterlee remembers the assassination of the President of South Korea. Park Chung-hee was assassinated by the chief of his intelligence service, Kim Jae-gyu. Referring to Park as a dictator, he describes student riots and the promotion of Korea's export economy.



Working for the Big Guys

Richard K. Satterlee reinlisted with the United States Army, trying to go to Vietnam. Instead, he traveled to Korea. He didn't know much about Korea before his arrival, but he enjoyed the country and the fact that his paycheck stretched pretty far while he was there. Stationed at Camp Red Cloud and Camp Mosier, he reported to high-ranking Korean officers.



Richard Knoebel

First Impressions of Korea

Richard Knoebel describes landing in Pusan near a pier where transports were waiting. He discusses sleeping on the pier that first night and remembers a salvation army was close by. Most of the focus there was on preparing and planning for the move up to Incheon.



Revisiting Korea

Richard Knoebel revisited Korea in 1987 with a Chosen Few group. He particularly remembers the drive from Incheon to Seoul. He mentions trying to go back to Korea the year of the interview but had to decline due to the physical nature.



Richard Miller

Return Trips to Korea After the War

Richard Miller shares he returned many times to Korea on business, including visits to Pusan and Incheon. He speaks of how he worked for a company that did petrochemical refinery work. He recalls how the Korean government mandated half the material had to be from Korea. He adds he received a job offer from Hyundai manufacturing.



Richard P. Holgin

First Impressions of Korea

Richard P. Holgin describes arriving at Incheon at the beginning of the Korean War. He goes into detail about seeing burnt bodies all over and crossing through cities ravaged by the Chinese. Richard P. Holgin's his job responsibilities changed when he shifted from a rifleman to an infantryman.



Persevering through Frostbite

Richard P. Holgin experienced terrible frostbite on his leg. Despite this condition, he continued to serve to the best of his ability, until a superior noticed his injury. Richard P. Holgin was then cared for in Busan and in Japan.



Richard W. Edwards

A Picture Tells a Thousand Words

Richard Edwards describes the condition of Busan during the Korean War. He shows his photographs that illustrate how rural the city was at the time. He explains that the soldiers would use a laundry near their encampment and pay very little money for their services.



You Can Tell They Are Hard Workers

Richard Edwards describes his admiration of the Korean people and their survival during the Korean War. He explains that he grew up during the Great Depression so that he feels a little relation to the plight of the Koreans in such dire circumstances. He describes his legacy as a Korean War veteran being easier for him growing up on a farm so that he further understood what the Korean people had to do to survive.



Robert “B.J.” Boyd Johnson

"Why are we even here?"

Robert Johnson reflects on his first impressions of the Korean War. He talks about his journey to Korea and what he was thinking when he stepped foot on Korean soil for the first time. He remembers his participation in the Battle of Seoul and his reaction to all the destruction.



World War II Leftovers in the Korean War

Robert Johnson talks about eating World War II left-over cans of food during his time in the Korean War. He discussed rations and he described eating WW II leftovers. He remembers how soldiers would use cans as barter for goods and services from Koreans. He also discussed how he would trade a can of food for a haircut or laundry services.



Robert Arend

Return to Korea

Robert Arend returned to Korea in 2010. He was surprised and totally amazed at the progress. He visited the prison, which has been partially restored. He says that although he believes war is senseless, this war gave the South Korean people some hope and allowed them to find the ambition to build up their country.



Robert Boyd Layman

First Impressions of Icheon

Robert Boyd Layman describes his first impressions of landing at Incheon. He explains that he had trouble understanding why Americans would be in Korea to fight. He also describes the immediate reminder that he was in a war zone from the stacked bodies he saw and the wounded being taken to hospitals.



Unprepared for War

Robert Boyd Layman describes arriving in Korea already as a Platoon Sergeant. He explains how he felt unprepared to take command of soldiers who had already seen action. He describes his interaction with a regiment commander at Icheon who asked if he had any experience and upon discovering that he didn't, the commander advised him to "learn fast".



Listening to a Barrage of Artillery Fire

Robert Boyd Layman describes where he was when the Armistice was signed. He explains that there was artillery being fired around the clock on both sides since no one wanted to carry it all back. He describes being incredulous that the war was actually stopping when he was used to hearing gunfire constantly.



Robert C. Jagger

Impressions of Korean People

Robert C Jagger shares his impression of the Korean people he met, both in 1952 and in return visits. He expresses amazement at the progress Koreans have made since the war. He contrasts the poor living conditions during his time in Korea with the Seoul he saw in recent revisits.



Robert D. Davidson

First Impressions of Seoul

Robert Davidson recalls landing in Incheon and his first impressions of Seoul. He describes the devastation and damaged buildings he witnessed. He shares that civilians lacked housing and food and adds that the city of Chuncheon was leveled. He comments on Korea's weather, comparing its similarities to the weather of Wyoming.



Robert D. Edwards

Infantry Training in Korea

Robert D. Edwards recounts how the initial troops deployed in Korea were unprepared and suffered significant casualties. As a result, part of the combat infantry training occurred in Korea. He shares it took some time for the troops to get used to Korea's mountainous terrain and unfamiliar language. He explains that he began his deployment in a Regimental Reserve, then progressed to a Battalion Reserve before being sent into combat.



Living Conditions and Food in Korea

Robert D. Edwards shares his experience of residing in bunkers constructed of logs and filled with dirt during the Korean War. He remembers the rats that came out at night and ran over them. He recalls the limited food options in Korea and how he relied on packaged foods like C or K-rations. Although the food could be warmed up, it was all very similar. He explains the point system, which was used to track a soldier's progress. Each stage contained a certain number of points, and once a soldier accumulated enough points, he could go home.



Learning Korean and Japanese

Robert D. Edwards describes his experience of learning Korean and Japanese while stationed overseas. He remembers how the Korean people spoke much better English than he spoke Korean. He mentions that the Korean people were pleased when he spoke their language. He demonstrates how to say a morning greeting in Korean.



Robert F. Wright

The Wounded Train

Robert Wright recalls the worst part of his experience in Korea as being one of his first moments there. He remembers passing by a train carrying the wounded from the front lines as he was headed in the direction from which they were coming and how uneasy it made him feel. He remembers a seventeen-year-old soldier crying and wanting to go home.



The Success of South Korea

Robert Wright describes how proud he is to see what Korea has become today. He shares they have seemingly taken over their part of the world due to the economic prosperity. He imagines how North Koreans must feel regarding the success of South Korea, considering how their living conditions have remained basically unchanged since the war.



Robert Fickbohm

Return Home

Robert Fickbohm details his return home. He expresses that there was very little attention paid to the veterans returning and that it was rather disappointing. He does mention that it was a better reception than that given to Vietnam veterans.



Robert Fitts

Seasickness En Route to Korea

Robert Fitts details his journey to Korea aboard a ship. He experienced sea sickness and as did other servicemen on board. He recounts his arrival in Japan and narrates his transport from there to Korea and to his post in Korea via train.



Most Difficult Part of Service

Robert Fitts vocalizes his opinion on the most difficult part during service. He expresses that learning to get along with others was difficult due to constant rearrangements of servicemen. He attributes his ability to think on his own to this reality.



Return Home with Veteran Pride

Robert Fitts shares his experience returning home to no reception. He states that no one, including his family members, questioned him about his service. Looking back, he shares he is proud to be a Korean War veteran and is proud of what South Korea has accomplished since the war.



Robert Greitz

Comparison of South Korea and North Korea

Robert Greitz explains how the war was also between the US and China. He also explains the difference between a truce and winning. He discusses the differences between South and North Korea as an example of the benefits of the democratic system.



Reunification of Korea

Robert Greitz explains the role of the US in the reunification of Korea. He shares his thoughts on the possibility of reunification of Korea. He shares how he feels the North Korea people will need to be in charge of their own fate.



Robert H. “Bob” Lewis

First Experiences in Korea

In this clip, Robert Lewis talk about his experiences preparing for and traveling to Korea. He speaks of seasickness as well as his perceptions of what he expected. He believed he would “hear war” when he got off of the boat.



Robert H. Pellou

Walk, Walk, Walk

Robert H. Pellou remembers Korea, in the Incheon area, as a very poor country. He recalls daily life involved lots of walking and that the winters were very cold. He notes his unit's mission was to find North Koreans fleeing the north but that they did not encounter any.



Robert H. Pellow

It Was Colder Than Hell

Robert H. Pellow describes the cold winters of the Korean War. He explains how his feet would freeze despite protection from the cold. He describes that his feet still hurt him to this day from his time in Korea.



You Ate Tootsie Rolls

Robert H. Pellow describes hunger during the Korean War. He describes how food would freeze and that the Marine Corps would survive on shipments of Tootsie Rolls. He explains that the last good meal he had was at Thanksgiving.



I Knew I'd Survive

Robert H. Pellow describes his weapons job during the war and describes loading an ammunition belt into a machine gun. He also describes being hit from three to four thousand yards away by enemy fire. He states that he never doubted he would survive.



Robert I. Winton

Patrolling the Waters Around Korea

Robert Winton describes his jobs as a signalman. He recalls his responsibilities for coding and decoding messages during his service time. He remembers looking for spy ships and coming across a suspected Russian submarine.



My Grandson Loves Korea

Robert Winton reflects on the marvelous recovery Korea has made since the time of war. He shares he discovered much through the eyes of his grandson who journeyed there many years later. He describes the many wonderful foods offered in Korea with a special preference to Kimchi.



Robert J. Auletti

Korean Soldiers Became an Army

Robert Auletti describes his experience in the Battle of White Horse Mountain. He also describes fighting alongside the Republic of Korea soldiers (ROK) and how they were treated poorly by other soldiers. However, he describes that the ROK earned respect by how hard they fought against the Chinese.



It Wasn't In Vain

Robert Auletti describes his revisit to the country of South Korea in 2010. He explains that after seeing the recovery and comeback of South Korea, he feels that his sacrifice wasn't in vain. He describes young Koreans coming up to him to thank him for his service to the country.



Robert J. Rose

Revisiting Korea

Robert Rose recounts his visit to Korea in 2008 as part of the Department of Veterans Affairs tour. His visit included commemorations at many battle sites as well as a trip to the DMZ where he saw the reality of the relationship between North and South Korea. Although he did not personally witness the devastation of cities like Seoul and Busan during the war, he recalls seeing photos and notes his amazement of how far the country had come in its rebuilding efforts.



Robert L. Atkins

An Astounding Change

Robert Atkins has been back to Korea three times since his service. He describes his astonishment about how things had positively changed so quickly. He took his daughter back to Korea and remembers it being an “astounding place” that reflects the people of South Korea.



Robert M. Longden

Miraculous Change

Robert M. Longden arrived in Busan in 1953 to witness terrible poverty. He and his fellow soldiers gave their rations to hungry children. Construction work had already begun in Seoul. When he returned to Korea a few years ago the change was miraculous. Hard work had returned Korea to great prosperity. He is grateful for the hospitality of the Korean people during his visit.



Digging Tunnels North of the 38th Parallel

Robert M. Longden shows photos of his experience in Korea. One photograph features him serving as a wireless operator. Others include images of Hill 355 north of the 38th Parallel. His regiment dug a fifty-meter tunnel to get to the outpost while avoiding exposure to the enemy. He has agreed to scan his photos for young people to view as they study the Korean War.



Robert Mount

North Korean Refugees

On the road to Seoul, Robert Mount describes the devastated landscape and the streams of refugees that he witnessed heading south. He describes how they were carrying as much as they could on their backs, very disheveled and sick-looking. He shows a picture of a refugee in North Korea; he does not remember who took it.



Robert O. Gray

Understanding of Asian People

Robert Gray describes how John Wayne influenced his early opinion of Asian culture. He discusses how his opinions changed once he traveled overseas. He also realized that his stereotypes were wrong.



Robert R. Moreau

Experiences in Korea

Robert R. Moreau provides an account of being presented awards from a visiting general. He notes that there were Turkish troops stationed near them. He speaks about trading supplies with them.



Robert S. Chessum

Forgotten Men of the Unknown War

Robert Chessum described how the Korean War is "forgotten." He explained how there was nothing for the troops when they returned. He also described how changing the perception of the Korean War will be difficult; because teaching about war is unpopular.



Robert Steven Duffy

We Made a Difference

Robert Duffy revisited Korea and was awed by the change. He talks about how the United States' sacrifices in the Korean War made a difference in the Korea of today. He shares that Korea has made such a huge change in such a short period of time.



Robert Tamura

Arriving in and Returning to Korea

Robert Tamura shares he served as part of the Army Security Agency during the Korean War. He recalls how much of his time was spent in Korea at Koje-do Prison Camp and later at Geoje-do POW Camp on Geoje Island. He begins with his recollections of revisiting Korea where he saw firsthand the development of Seoul. He continues to share his memories of basic training and being assigned to assist in escorting prisoners of war as part of the 8th Army's Army Security Agency.



The Future of Korea

Robert Tamura shares his hopes of seeing the official end of the Korean War and the reunification of North and South Korea. He reminisces about life back in the States following his service. He explains he has had the privilege of returning to Korea as part of a revisit program sponsored by the Korean government. He recalls that during his revisit, he visited the DMZ and cemetery. He muses about a friend who took his photo while he served at Koje-do, but the photo was lost so he has no proof of serving there.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

First Impressions

Robert Hammelsmith describes his first impressions of Korea after landing at Busan. He recalls being assigned to the Recon Platoon of the 89th Tank Battalion and being relocated to Masan. He explains that his first duties were performing communications relay on a hill near Masan, Korea.



Robert W. Hill

You Smell An Odor

Robert W. Hill describes arriving in Korea and the smell that greets you in the 1970s. He explains that the landscape and vegetation was barren. He describes going up to the DMZ and how it appeared to him.



Rodney Ramsey

From Rubble to Riches!

Rodney Ramsey is the president of his Korean War regiment's organization and ever since 1989, they meet for a yearly reunion. The year of the interview was the 27th reunion and about 50 members attend. During his Korea revisit in 1991, Rodney Ramsey was shocked to see the improvement in living conditions. He took a picture when he was in Seoul, South Korea in 1952 and it only had an ox cart and a military jeep, but in 1991 during his revisit, it was filled with cars.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Rodney Stock

Too Many Cooks

Rodney F. Stock explains he arrived in Korean in January of 1952. Assigned as a cook, he shares he disliked his position and convinced his superiors that he could work switchboards, repair phone lines, and act as courier to outposts. He notes that besides maintenance and communications, his army unit protected the soldiers of the 5th U.S. Air Force. He recalls he was particularly impressed by the lovely old farmhouses as he traversed the countryside around Yeongdeungpo.



War Wounds and Train Attacks

Rodney F. Stock explains that North Koreans left farms in Yeongdeungpo unmolested since North Korea relied heavily on rice harvests. He notes that the U.S. soldiers were not so fortunate. He remembers a sniper shoting at him while he repaired a wire up a telephone pole. He recounts how the bullet missed him, but wood splinters embedded in his leg. He resents not being listed as wounded in combat since he was not hit by the actual bullet. He recalls other dangerous experiences which included the armored train ride from Yeongdeungpo to Pusan (Busan), with enemy attacks on the train each time they passed through Tegu (Daegu).



Roger S. Stringham

Introduction to Korea

Roger Stringham comments on his knowledge of Korea prior to the war and draws attention to the fact that Korea had been awarded to Japan following the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. He shares how he held a great deal of respect for the Korean people, acknowledging they had endured a difficult life under Japanese rule. He describes landing at Incheon and his first impressions of Korea.



Unique Letters Home

Roger Stringham recounts his parents' reaction when he was drafted into the war. He shares that it was very difficult for them, but to him, it was an adventure. He recalls writing letters home and details how he would include a sketch as a means of telling the story of his experience.



Out on Patrol

Roger Stringham explains that he spent his first six months in Korea serving in Item Company of the 21st Infantry Regiment and the last six months in Headquaters Company. He recounts his duties in Headquarters Company which entailed night patrols through the hills in temperatures that reached fifty degrees below zero at times. He shares he did not regret the experience but adds that he thought often of his friends while there and has since experienced PTSD.



Post War: Career and Korea's Transformation

Roger Stringham offers an overview of his life post war. He recalls returning to school where he earned a degree in physical chemistry from UC Berkley, traveling the world and painting along the way for two years, and returning to Korea on multiple occasions to deliver lectures in academic arenas. He elaborates on Korea's transformation, describing it as unbelievable, and emphasizes how it shows what people have inside of them is magic.



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



Food Scarcity and Living Conditions

Roland Brown recounts the food scarcity he and fellow soldiers experienced on the front lines. He recalls being surrounded by the Chinese and North Koreans, a situation that required an airdrop of provisions. He shares that he and fellow soldiers had to fight the enemy for the goods dropped, which included food and ammunition, as the Chinese and North Koreans had acquired U.S. weapons from American soldiers they had overrun and needed ammunition. He additionally comments on the living conditions, stating that they often slept on the ground and sometimes in foxholes or old bunkers.



Reflections on Korea

Roland Brown expresses that he wanted to be in Korea as it was his goal to fight for his country. He recalls his first vision of Pusan and compares it to modern Korea. He reflects upon how poor the Korean people were during the war and comments on the thriving conditions in Korea today.



Roland Fredh

Korean Soccer Club

Roland Fredh describes his leisure time in Korea. He played soccer with fellow Swedish members. The team traveled, located in Busan, traveled to Seoul and Daegu to play various teams. They beat an English team. But, they lost to a Korean team.



Roland Kleinschmidt

Arriving in Korea

Roland Kleinschmidt describes what it was like when he first arrived in Incheon. He mentions see the Koreans use human waste on the rice paddies, something that was very interesting to him. He explains that he was not in Incheon for long before being placed on trucks that shipped them to the front lines.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Ronald A. Cole

Remembering Post-War Korea

Ronald Cole served in the U.S. Army following the cease-fire in Korea. He offers details on what he remembers about the people and cities in South Korea while he was there. He talks about people being in poor shape and diseases being widespread. He notes that Seoul was still heavily damaged, but was making progress in rebuilding.



North Korea and South Korea Must Decide Their Own Destiny

Ronald Cole offers his thoughts on the state of Korea and its people since he left the country. He theorizes why the war occurred and the impact the Chinese had in its escalation. He shares what he believes needs to be done to reunify the two Koreas.



Ronald Bourgon

Modern Korea

Ronald Bourgon comments on the changes South Korea has made since the Korean War. He recalls scenes from his revisit experience and compares them to years past. He expands upon how genuinely nice the people are and expresses his gratitude for having played a small role in helping South Korea become what it is today.



Ronald Rosser

No Longer an Enemy

When he was asked if he would shake hands with Chinese soldiers today, Ronald Rosser explains how he already has. He states that as a teacher, he taught about East Asian history and then went to visit Beijing. He explains how well he was treated by the Chinese and how he does not believe the hate should continue.



Modern Korea

Ronald Rosser describes how South Korea has changed since his time there during the war. He explains that the roads, high rises, and many other aspects of the country have changed. He shares about his affection for the Korean people, including donating money to start an orphanage.



The Forgotten War

Ronald Rosser explains why he believes the Korean War is called the “Forgotten War”. He shares that Korea’s place between World War II and Vietnam contributes to it not being as recognized. He recalls how the soldiers came home after fighting and went right back to work.



Ronald Shaw

Impressions of Korea

Ronald Shaw gives some of his first impressions of Korea. He remembers that there were no trees though there were bushes. He distinctly remembers seeing a lot of cats. Additionally, the only people he remembers seeing were the Koreans who helped them carry the ammunition up the line.



Ronald Yardley

The Whole Picture Changed Dramatically

Ronald Yardley describes the intense cold upon arriving in North Korea. He explains that temperatures went thirty degrees below zero. He describes that no one could touch the upper parts of the ship for fear of losing that hand from freezing to the metal.



Rondo T. Farrer

Knowledge of Korea

Rondo T. Farrer explains how he had to find a map to find out where Korea was. He recalls asking his sister about Korea upon hearing about the war. He describes the "culture shock" he experienced when he first arrived in Korea.



Ross Pittman

Visuals aboard Ship

Ross Pittman expresses that their main mission aboard ship was to help ground forces and to destroy enemy supply lines, warehouses, and the like. He explains that they traveled the coast to hit targets. He remembers the terrain as hilly and explains that the weapons on board were capable of hitting targets 20 to 25 miles inland. He recalls watching a crane topple after a location was fired upon and recounts other visuals of destruction.



Revisiting Korea and Reflections

Ross Pittman shares his thoughts on Korea after his post-war visit. He acknowledges that the developments made in South Korea since the war are incredible. He expresses his pride and good feelings for having contributed to the South Korean growth. He shares his thoughts on the scenery's beauty and explains that he did not realize the terrain was so mountainous. He reflects on the importance of everyone's job during the war, by land and by sea.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Maintaining Field Communications in Korea

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares how, after being discharged from the US Marine Corps in 1946, he re-enlisted in the United States Army two years later. He explains how during the Korean War, he served in the infantry and specialized in communications. Despite the sporadic nature of the fighting, he remembers being able to see the enemy on nearby hillsides. His recalls his primary responsibility was maintaining field communications as the enemy aimed to disrupt lines of communication.



Encountering the Enemy

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he has vivid memories of working tirelessly for almost twenty-four hours straight during the Chinese Spring Offensive. He mentions the significant loss of life during this period and the urgent requirement for more soldiers on the front lines. He remembers how on one morning, while passing by a nearby ditch, he came across enemy troops. He shares that he later observed a sudden flash of light which turned out to be caused by enemy mortar fire. He explains he was seriously injured in the attack.



The Road to Recovery

Roy Orville Hawthorne describes the extent of his injuries from enemy fire. He remembers the lieutenant crying as he offered encouragement at the sight of his wounds. While at the MASH hospital, he recalls a nurse taking his hand and saying, “Chief, you’re going to make it.” He describes traveling by bus to a regular hospital in Korea where he underwent surgery. He remembers spending a year at the Walter Reed hospital in Washington, D.C., for treatment and therapy for his wounds, including the amputation of his right leg.



Roy Painter

If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked A Cake

Roy Painter describes arriving in Korea to the American military band playing "If We Knew You Were Coming We'd Have Baked a Cake". He explains that due to his small stature, the British and Korean women joked with him. The Korean women in particular called him Baby-san.



Bloody Millions of Them

Roy Painter describes his career as a radio operator in the Korean War. He explains that of his earliest messages as an operator concerned the wounding of a soldier he had sat next to in school. He also explains how he found himself in the 1st Australian Regiment after their radio operator was removed for coarse language.



Food Could Have Been Better

Roy Painter describes his living conditions in Korea during the war. He explains that the food was frozen solid just from walking away from where it was cooked. He also explains how the location was full of rats, so he used his mosquito nets to keep them out of his bed.



Royal Vida

Most of the Time They were Running

Royal Vida describes the situation in Taejon after the capture of General Dean. He makes note about his assignment to an all black regiment and the drastic shift from being stationed in Japan to their assignment in Korea. During the withdrawal, he discusses one time when the Integrated 159th Field artillery was the only regiment able to hold the position. He briefly reflects on the experience of being assigned to an integrated unit. He recounts the confusion and experience of constantly moving and the sadness he felt while watching the Korean people fleeing from the battle.



No One Knew What Was Happening

Royal Vida provides details about entering a deserted Pyungyang and his perceptions of North Korea. From Pyungyang, he states his unit moved up to the Yalu River and here they met an intense Chinese intervention. As they were retreating, he describes the loss of life he encountered and that no one can prepare for what you will encounter during a battle. Additionally, he shares his diagnosis of PTSD.



Does Not Know Why So Many Had to Suffer (Graphic)

Royal Vida expresses his sorrow for the loss and suffering the Korean people endured during the war. He shares memories of seeing the remains of hundreds of slaughtered Koreans and does not know why innocent people suffer. After sharing details about the resilience of the Korean people, he reminisces about the local food soldiers acquired and recalls an unpleasant experience with hot chocolate.



Royce Ebesu

Life in Korea Then and Now

Royce Ebesu, advancing to the rank of Supply Sergeant, recounts being lucky to be in a safe position. He describes the living conditions while he served in Korea. He shares his experience of returning as part of a revisit program sponsored by the Korean government. He recounts how amazed he was by the progress which was made in the time since he had been gone.



This is the Hard Part

Royce Ebesu reflects on the present and future of Korea. He expresses he would like to see negotiations to reunite the peninsula so that families can be reunited. He concludes by noting that there was not much pleasant to remember about his experience.



Rudolph “Rudy” J. Green

South Korea Then and Now

Rudy Green describes the images that he saw as he was leaving South Korea. He explains the vast poverty and devastation he saw. He compares it to what he knows of South Korea today.



Russell King

ROK Solders on the Ship

Russell A. King remembers a time when he and the men had to transport ROK officers. He recalls that they took all of the food with them, this included live animals. He describes how the ROK officers were amazed by forks, the water cooler, and other differences on the ship.



The Chinese Military Was Impressive

Russell A. King was impressed the most by the civilian population. He was also amazed by the discipline and the organization of the Chinese military. He remembers taking Chinese prisoners from one prison camp to the other. With ingenuity, and they made their own communist style uniforms out of the clothes they were given.



Sahlemariam Wmichaea

First Feelings

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes his feelings about going to war and what he though when first seeing Korea. He was not afraid ro fight and was instead eager to help due to the destruction and poverty he witnessed.



Korea in 2005

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes returning to Korea in 2005. He never dreamed that the changes he saw were possible. He recalls going from sleeping on the floor in 1952 to staying in skyscrapers in 2005.



Saiyud Kerdphol

Pity of Korea Turns to Great Respect

When Saiyud Kerdphol first went to Korea, he pitied the people. He was astounded by the condition of the civilians. He would take American surpluses and give food to Korean children. Acknowledging Korean dislike of Japan, he believed Japan was the motivating factor for South Korean growth. He said the competition between the countries enabled South Korea to overcome it's wartime losses within twenty years.



Sakariya Reslee

When Empathy Becomes Compassion

Sakariya Reslee remembers his first impression of Korea as one of sorrow. He describes how sorry he felt for the people because they were so hungry and how he would give them food as he could. He reflects on the principles of his Muslim faith that he should give to others when they are in need.



Defending an Unknown Nation

Sakariya Reslee describes what it was like to go and defend a nation that he knew nothing about. He recalls wanting to gain experience, so he volunteered to go to Korea. He explains how he went on the last rotation and was happy to do his part to help Korea.



Salvatore Scarlato

"Joining Hands"

Salvatore Scarlato describes the story behind a drawing he was given. He shares that during a revisit to South Korea in 1999, a high school student promised him she would create a drawing depicting the relationship of the United States and South Korea. He recalls the drawing arriving in the mail several months later and states that her drawing shows how, after sixty years, the United States and South Korea are still united.



Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr.

Decision to Join the Marine Corps

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., shares how his brother's war stories inspired him. He recalls a conversation with his father about joining the Marine Corps and how his dad almost fell off of his chair when he asked if he could join. He explains how he expressed his desire to go to Korea and felt he would end up safe.



Samuel Nickens

His Service was Educational

Samuel Nickens says his service was very educational as he was able to experience other cultures first-hand. He shares he had no negative experiences. He appreciates the society that has developed in South Korea and believes that the alliance between the U.S. and South Korea is mutually beneficial.



Sanford Epstein

Heartbreak Ridge Memories

Sanford Epstein describes the living conditions he experienced during his first winter in Korea. He recounts how cold it was and comments on the food available. He recalls a fellow soldier's death during the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Korean Orphans

Sanford Epstein recalls sending half of his monthly wages home to his family and shares that he gave quite a bit of his money away as there were many orphans. He shares how orphaned children would follow them around and offer to do odd jobs. He recounts fellow soldiers adopting Korean orphans and elaborates on how one of the orphans, with monthly support from the men in his unit, graduated from college in Buffalo, New York, and became a CPA.



"Captain" Sanford Epstein

Sanford Epstein, an Army Staff Sergeant during his time in Korea, shares a story of when he took advantage of a trip to Seoul. He recounts being the only soldier from his outfit who wanted to participate in the Passover service held in Seoul and remembers traveling alone in a jeep with a driver which is generally only reserved for officers. He recalls being saluted along the route as soldiers thought he was an officer.



Sangmoon Olsson

Revisiting Korea and Socialism

Sangmoon Olsson describes her experience when re-visiting Korea after many years. She did not want to put out her family and make them come to her. She remembered the roads of "old Korea." However, the family met her and reminded her the country had changed and was not the "old country." She was filled with pride and amazed at the rebuilding of South Korea. Sangmoon Olsson also describes that Sweden, being more left on the political spectrum. Being left probably impacted Sweden's positive relations with North Korea.



Seifu Tessema

A Dark Korea

Seifu Tessema describes the darkness that fell over Korea during the war. He recalls the plight of the Korean people and how they were struggling to simply survive. He remembers his unit's motto of kill or be killed and never be taken as a prisoner of war.



Sick at Sea

Seifu Tessema describes how uncomfortable the voyage to Korea by ship was and how many suffered from motion sickness. He remembers how difficult it was to exercise due to the confinement and having to be creative to move about. He recalls it voyage taking many days.



Seymour Bernstein

Playing During the Revolution

Seymour Bernstein explains how he went back to Korea 1960 with the State Department to play the piano. He explains that there was a revolution during that time. He witnessed a mass protest against the first president of South Korea, Syngman Rhee. After several students were killed, Seymour Bernstein asked to have his piano to be moved to the hospital to play for them.



Impressions of Korea

Seymour Bernstein describes what it was like to live in Korea during the war. He then explains how Korea became more modern on each subsequent trip he took back to the country after his initial encounter. However, even though it was more modern there were certain precautions that he had to take.



Sheridan O’Brien

We Have Never Been Forgotten

Sheridan O'Brien expresses his satisfaction with his contribution during his brief time in Korea. He believes that he and other Korean War veterans have genuinely become part of the Korean family and will, consequently, always hold a place in the hearts of the Korean people.



Shirley F. Gates McBride

We Saw A Lot

Shirley F. Gates McBride discusses different types of injuries she treated while serving at Valley Forge. She describes doctors trying to restore circulation for soldiers suffering from frostbite would open the soldiers' abdomen and place their frostbitten hands inside. She remembers one particular patient, who was a pianist, suffering from frostbite and how they tried to save his fingers. While working with some soldiers, she recalls they were struggling mentally and had to be in a special unit. She highlights that their youth made some of them unprepared to deal with some of the experiences. Not only did she work with soldiers coming home from Korea, but she shares some of her experiences dealing with Korean women in the maternity ward.



I Was So Young, I Did Not Understand

Shirley Gates-McBride reflects on her experience as a nurse during the Korean War and connecting to other veterans. She admits, as a young nurse during the war, she did not really understand what the men in Korea were going through. After listening to veterans open up to each other, she shares now has a better understanding of what the men she treated experienced and why certain procedures had to be performed.



We Were All Just Kids

Shirley Gates-McBride comments on the fact that all of the Korean War soldiers were kids during the war. She remembers tales from the soldiers about children following them around for treats. After traveling to Korea herself, she emphasizes that she finally understood the tales.



Somdee Musikawan

Arrival in Busan

Somdee Musikawan arrived in Korea as part of the second rotation in 1951. He shares his fear at the time of not knowing when he would die. He notes the special connection between the Korean people and the Thai soldiers. He offers details of the living conditions in Busan when he arrived.

English translations occur at 3:51, 8:00, and 11:45



Relations Between the Korean People and Thai Soldiers

Somdee Musikawan describes the war as very severe. He ponders on how people who are like family could go to war with each other. In sharing his battle experiences, he explains the close relationship the Korean people had with Thai soldiers who they viewed as the "same" as them.

English translations begin at 18:38 and 21:14



Suffering in Korea

Somdee Musikawan shares examples of the strong connections between the Korean people and the Thai soldiers. He recalls the living conditions and suffering that went on across the country as the war dragged on. He recounts sharing his own food with the children who came to him crying because they were hungry. He concludes by sharing his recollections of witnessing deaths among the Korean population.

English translations begin at 23:18 and 24:58



Soonae Enberg

When the War Broke Out

Soonae Enberg was a college student at Seoul National Medical School when the war broke out. She shares what she saw as she found out about the war, including tanks coming very close to her. Not knowing what to do, she started to run towards home.



Soonok Chun

The Strong Points of Korea and Sweden

Soonuk Chun compares and contrasts the strong points of Korea and Sweden. She explains how both nations excelled at showing mercy and kindness during a time of war. She describes how the Swedish were selfless and showed compassion for everyone. She acknowledges the noble efforts of the Koreans, yet points out the social class system prevented equity for all.



The Miracle of Korea

Soonuk Chun describes the sense of pride she felt when revisiting Korea later in life and seeing the remarkable recovery. She explains the importance of younger generations needing to learn how their parents lived during the war and how poor they were in order to appreciate what they have today. She calls today's Korea a miracle.



Sotirios Patrakis

Korean War Veterans Involvement

Sotirios Patrakis details his pathway to involvement with Korean War Veterans. He shares that as a member of the Army reserve officers, he took part in a convention in Korea commemorating the start of the Korean War. He recalls how kind the Korean people were and felt it a pity that there was no opportunity for veterans from Greece to gather together and relive that period of their lives. He comments on Korea's progress since the war and is proud of its economic efforts.



Preservation and Educating Youth

Sotirios Patrakis shares his thoughts on preserving the memory of Korean War veterans' service and on educating youth about the Korean War. He expresses that this endeavor began rather late as many veterans have since passed or mix their facts due to age. He adds that it is good to do it even now though so that everyone knows and remembers this history.



Message to Veterans and South Koreans

Sotirios Patrakis offers a congratulatory message to Korean War veterans from Greece as well as to the South Korean people. He shares that the veterans went on their own accord as the people of Greece believe in democracy and freedom. He commends South Korea's economic strength developed through the years since the war and adds that it is a very good example for many countries like his own.



Spyridon Vaios

I Can Never Forget What I Saw

Spyridon Vaios describes the devastation and destruction that he saw and shares how it is imprinted in his memory. He recalls scenes of suffering and misery among the Korean people, as well as the sadness he felt when leaving behind his comrades that had died in battle.



Stanley Fujii

Fight the Aggressors!

Stanley Fujii describes the big picture of why he was deployed to fight in the Korean War. He knew he was there to fight against communist aggressors to free Korea. His testimony includes his discussion on why he was thankful to have a role in helping Korea to be free. His description includes reflections on two Korea's, one he saw from the frontlines, and modern Korea he was able to return to see in 2010.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Moving from Place to Place

Stanley I. Hashiro moved around a lot with his unit in Korea. He had to live in desolate conditions, taking baths in the river, and living in bombed out concrete buildings. Within the desolate mountain valleys was another location that Stanley I. Hashiro had to stay in the extreme weather conditions.



Stanley Jones

2004 Revisit

Stanley Jones describes the transformation of Korea that he witnessed on his revisit in 2004. He shares the sights he saw. He offers a story about taking a subway and being overwhelmed at the sight of skyscrapers where once stood only rubble. He notes that where there had once been extreme poverty, he then saw incredible economic recovery.



Stelios Stroubakis

School Construction Assistance

Stelios Stroubakis shares his experience assisting with the construction of a school large enough to serve 200 students when complete. He recalls that the school was located next to a Greek Orthodox church. He recounts putting tiles on the roof and adds that the school was still under construction when he left.



Revisiting Korea

Stelios Stroubakis describes his revisit to Korea in 2016. He expresses that he could not believe his eyes regarding the process Korea had made since the war, adding that it was a miracle. He wishes Korea well and shares his hope of Korea never facing war in the future.



Photos from the Past

Stelios Stroubakis provides a glimpse of the past through several personal photos. He offers a picture viewing of his unit's Korean translator as well as photos related to a baptism which took place near the school he helped construct. He additionally provides a photo of the soldiers and staff who aided in the construction of the school.



Stephen Frangos

What Did You Do While Not Working with Radios?

Stephen Frangos recalls spending a great deal of time in the fields. He mentions the poverty that was still common. He shares that he befriended a group of Irish priests, and together, they helped build orphanages. He recalls how the orphans would often go to the Army camp to have meals. He adds that many Americans also sent food and clothing over to help the orphanages.



Impressions of Korea and of Koreans

Stephen Frangos reflects on his impressions of Korea and of Koreans. He describes a Seoul that was devastated but adds he did see signs of revival. He remembers having tremendous optimism for Korea because of the hard working and industrious people. He comments that he knew they would be successful but states he did not realize just how successful they would turn out to be.



Steven G. Olmstead

The Legacy of the Korean War

Steven Olmstead describes why he thinks the Korean War was important and its legacy. He compares his opinion if he were to have been asked in 1950, his first time there, versus his opinion about its importance in 1965 when he returned. He comments on the remarkable progress Korea had made in such a short time and how seeing it firsthand made him feel.



Steven Hawes

The Sites and Smells of Pusan

Steven Hawes remembers the devastation he saw in Pusan after the war. He describes the smell of a city full of rubble, hungry children, and lots of refugees. However, he also able to recall how helping the people there is a sense of pride as they were able to help not only the people there, but contributed to the potential progress of a fledgling nation.



Stuart Gunn

Korea Then and Now

Stuart Gunn revisited South Korea in 1995. He noticed all of the changes to the land and advancements in technology during his revisit. A strong work ethic was needed by the Korean people to be able to reap such benefits and success in Korea today.



Stuart William Holmes

No One Would Dare Attack the Great British Empire

Stuart Holmes describes flying at night over the coasts of Korea, Japan, and China. He explains that he rarely felt scared, which he attributes to the hubris of youth. He elaborates that occasionally it would be reported that someone was following them which gave him a 'twitch' but, otherwise, he felt no fear.



Suwan Chinda

No More Fighting

Suwan Chinda shares his thoughts on war. He speaks of war negatively and adds that he does not want to see people fighting. He comments on Vietnam being one country and states that he would like to see Korea as one country as well.



Return to Korea

Suwan Chinda recalls his return visit to Korea. He describes his experience and the changes he witnessed, stating that the transformation was unbelievable compared to Thailand which is still a developing country. He shares that he never dreamed Korea would be what it has become and adds that he felt welcomed there.



Message to Koreans

Suwan Chinda describes the people of South Korea as hardworking and attributes the country's development to the work ethic of the people. He expresses that South Korea is a model country. He shares that he is happy for the Korean people and feels appreciated for his service.



Svend Jagd

Seoul Liberation Parade

Svend Jagd reflected on participating in a Seoul Liberation Memorial Parade. He remembered seeing women lift their children so they could touch the veterans. During the parade he recalled being embraced by an old Korean man who was crying. He reflected on returning to Korea several times and always being moved by his feelings.



T.J. Martin

Korean War Experience Impact

T.J. Martin reflects on what Korea means to him. He speaks of his experience with pride and appreciation. He shares that he developed a deeper and stronger urge to defend freedom following his service than he possessed before the war.



Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya

Bazooka and Never Leave a Man Behind

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes his experience in Korea. He was a bazooka shooter. For example, one occurrence almost left him dead when a shell did not fire. Importantly, he describes never leaving a lost soldier behind. The Ethiopians never lost a soldier to Prisoner of War.



Transformation of Korea

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes the transformation of Korea. He describes the war-torn Korea. Buildings were destroyed by the enemy. Even the water was contaminated. However, now Korea has become green and everything is clean. This is a major difference from his war-torn experience. He is happy that Korea has undergone this transformation. He is not asking for compliments.



Tawil Boonyawiwat

Global Implications of War

Tawil Boonyawiwat discusses the global implications of war. He explains how powerful nations, such as America and Russia, often pull brothers and sisters into war where they must fight each other. He conveys the sorrow he feels for the Korean people for what they suffered during the Korean War.



Ted Bacha

Return to Korea

Ted Bacha returned to Korea in 2010. He comments that he didn't see any rice paddies like he had seen in the war. He was extremely impressed by the buildings, especially his hotel. Ted Bacha is very proud of his service and the Korea people for what they accomplished.



Telila Deresa

Heaven to Hell

Telila Deresa describes living conditions during the war. Soldiers would battle for three months and rest for one month. During one rest, he was able to go to Japan. In Japan, men could go to nightclubs. Comparing nightclubs in Japan and going to the front is like heaven and hell.



Still Hatred

Telila Deresa describes how he still has a hatred for Chinese. China has built many things in Ethiopia like trains, bridges and roadways. However, he still loves Korea. Korea is like a mother and provides for the veterans.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Arriving in Korea

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes his voyage to Korea. Men aboard the ship were mixed between Ethiopians and Greeks. At first, both countries were friendly but soon erupted into constant fighting. Upon arriving in Korea, Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen did not see anything memorable. He describes one farmer having an ox, but that was it.



Tex Malcolm

Arriving at Masan

Tex Malcolm arrived at Masan by train and he assisted other Marine Reserves out of their LST, but they looked terrible. In the city, he only saw fox holes and no buildings. After being assigned to Baker Company, 7th Marines, Tex Malcolm volunteered to shoot the 3.5 guns to protect the command staff.



Theodore Paul

Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas B. Smith

Transfer to Safety in the Back

Thomas B. Smith describes his transfer off the front lines to a safer location in the back. He shares that his section leader who had become his friend helped him secure a typing job. He explains that he merely typed a sheet of paper and was offered the position.



Thomas Carneal

Don't be a Grunt

Thomas Carneal feared being a grunt in the Korean War. Everything he heard about being in Korea led him to believe that life as a grunt on the front line was the worst case scenario. Even though he was not taught about Korea in school, Thomas Carneal learned military horror stories from his barber.



South Korea Has Grown Differently than the Rest of Asia

Thomas Carneal notes how different South Korea is now. He was impressed with the number of church steeples and the friendliness of the people.



Thomas DiGiovanna

Why Study Korea?

Thomas' wife, Andrea DiGiovanna, shared the stories he told her over the years. The two were married on October 10, 1993, and she recalls the stories he told her about the sea sickness he experienced on his way over to Korea. She also recalls stories about his father passing, as well as him finally returning from war and taking his first wife on their belated honeymoon. She also explains why it is so important to learn about Korea.



My First Time Learning about Korea was in Korea

Thomas DiGiovanna attended Samuel J Tilden High School and recalls never learning about Korea prior to landing in Pusan, South Korea, in 1952. Immediately after landing, he remembers a really horrible smell and trying to hold his breath as he was exiting the ship. He learned soon after that, at the time, South Koreans used human waste for fertilizer.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Fighting at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir and Frostbite

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. recalls fighting at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir during the Korean War. He recalls how his unit discovered Chinese soldiers behind their front line and how they fought both from the front and behind as they moved south to meet United Nations soldiers coming from the North. He describes the cold and cutting the ground with his knife to dig foxholes. He shares that he suffered frostbite so severe that he lost some of his toes.



Thomas F. Miller

Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Miller was not taught anything about Korea during high school since the teachers never made it to that section of the textbook. Later in life, he knew more about the Korean War because he was interested in history.



Basic Training and Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller went to basic training in Georgia and then he was shipped to Inchon Harbor to start his tour of duty. After landing, he noticed poor living conditions of the civilians which looked like America in the early 1800s.



Living and Working Conditions in Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller was a supply specialist who helped provide clothes, oil, and food rations to the troops. He stayed in quonset huts, had cold showers, and ate a hot meal most of his time in Korea.



Thomas J Dailey

Modern Korea

Thomas Dailey comments on Korea's progress since the war. He shares his pride for having served there but conveys that he still has many dark memories from that time. He elaborates on the kindness Koreans have shown him over the years.



Thomas M. McHugh

What is a Korean War Veteran?

Thomas M. McHugh describes his size as particularly smaller than the other soldiers because of his young age, a reason he thinks he was not sent to serve in Korea during the war. He discusses his life after the Korean War, and having difficulty finding a job in his field of expertise. He explains what a veteran of the Korean War is, and that although he served without seeing combat, he considered the combat soldiers his as his peers.



A Unique Respect for Veterans

Thomas M. McHugh describes the Korean people as the most thankful in the world to American veterans. He tells of his amazement at the efforts the people went to in making sure his needs were met during his visit to Korea. He explains that seeing citizens on the sidewalk respect him for his service was shocking, compared to how the rest of the world reacts to American veterans.



Thomas Norman Thompson

The Forgotten War

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls seeing small children who were bare feet in the snow as he describes devastation in Korea during the war. He says it seemed that civilians only had the choice of going to the rice paddies or mountains to get away from combat areas. He tells that although a cease-fire was ordered, some people did not realize it, causing him to be ambushed a few times as he attempted to make his deliveries. He tells why the Korean War is the forgotten war.



Laundry on the War Front

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls the winter conditions faced by men on the Korean war front. He tells that after he washed his socks in the cold river, he had to put them in his underarms, using his body heat to dry the socks. He remembers that Korean women would do laundry for the entire company he was in. Additionally, he would pay $1.00 for the women to clean and press his uniform. He tells of how much gratitude the Korean people continue to show American veterans.



Thomas Nuzzo

The Forgotten War

Thomas Nuzzo felt that the Korean War was the forgotten war. Since it was so close to the end of WWII, the civilians in the United States didn't want to fight. Soldiers didn't even have supplies that they needed, so this hurt the moral.



Thomas O’Dell

Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



Thomas Parkinson

Korea: Unbelievable Differences Between 1952 to 2000

Thomas Parkinson shares how he saw unbelievable differences between the time he was stationed in Korea in 1952 to 2000 during his first revisit. He describes going back four times since 2000 and recalls how the advancements in buildings, technology, and bridges was astounding. He shares how the changes from the Korean cardboard houses to the multi-stored houses was a visible difference.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Thomas Tsuda

Journey to Korea

Thomas Tsuda recalls his journey to Korea and landing in Incheon in September of 1952. He speaks of the destruction he witnessed and shares that he felt sorry for the Korean people. He adds that he soon found himself on the front lines fighting the Chinese.



Revisiting Korea

Thomas Tsuda reflects upon his revisit to Korea. He compares modern Korea with the Korea he saw in 1953, commenting on its buildings and prosperous economy. He describes the Korean people as friendly and kind.



Tine Martin

Living Conditions in Korea

Tine Martin shares his memories of the living conditions he experienced while serving in Korea. He recalls living in 12-man tents and the cold temperatures. He comments on the food offered at Kimpo Air Force Base which included only one hot meal a day and the others consisting only of C-rations. He mentions trading items from his rations he was not fond of for Coca-Cola.



Tirso Sierra Pinilla

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Tirso Sierra Pinilla describes his first impressions of Korea. He explains how he and other Colombian soldiers were added to American troops. Furthermore, he remembers the sadness and demoralization of the civilians he encountered.

Tirso Sierra Pinilla describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica cómo él y otros soldados colombianos se sumaron a las tropas estadounidenses. Además, recuerda la tristeza y la desmoralización de los civiles en el país.



Titus Santelli

Air Force Selection and Knowledge of Korea

Titus Santelli explains his reasoning for joining the Air Force in 1950. He details his experience in basic training and shares his view of the war. He admits he could not figure out why the U.S., at that time, felt required to protect Korea, but he offers his opinion.



Arrival and Duties in Korea

Titus Santelli recounts his arrival in Korea. He explains that he was the only one in the area that knew about radar. This would later qualify him for running a radar gun bombsight shop on base. He describes having to help put fuses on bombs and load them onto planes.



Bed Check Charlie

Titus Santelli describes the bombings, known as Bed Check Charlie, that took place many nights while he was on base. He explains that the bombings were meant to tire them by keeping them up at night and to damage the runway. He shares that this was the most life threatening experience he encountered during the war.

*Note: This segment contains explicit language.



Reflections on Service

Titus Santelli reflects on South Korea's progress since the war. He shares that he is proud of his service not because of heroics but because he feels it made him a grown and responsible person. He explains that his service allowed him to attend school upon his return.



Tom A. Bezouska

Returning Home

Tom Bazouska recalls the strange experience he shared with his brother when returning home. After their father picked them up from the airport, he remembers stopping at the hangout where they often meet their buddies. He recalls walking in with his brother and many of their buddies simply asking where they had been. He shares how few people knew about the war. The brothers admit that their friends treated them differently and nothing felt the same. They explain the impressive show of gratitude they experience when interacting with the Korean people.



Tom Collier

Pusan and Seoul Living Conditions

Tom Collier describes a rough trip to Pusan by ship and overall conditions of the people. People would make houses of anything they could, mostly tin and cardboard. The people did not know English and lived in poverty. Tom Collier then transferred to Seoul and describes the conditions of the people as similar to Pusan.



Contemporary Seoul

Tom Collier returned to South Korea in 2004 and was amazed at the different place Seoul had become. He tried to locate landmarks from his days fighting in Korea and could find nothing that was similar because of the transformation. Tom Collier is also proud of his service and how South Korea has turned out.



Tom Muller

Not M*A*S*H

Tom Muller describes life on the front lines and compares this to the TV show M*A*S*H*. He likes the show, but disagrees with the drama and the antics of the show. He describes having a potbelly stove that was adequate up to 10 feet away. He goes further and describes the South Korean people, scrawny and begging for food near Busan.



Tommy Clough

Landing at Busan

Tommy Clough recounts how he knew little about Korea prior to shipping out on a five and a half week voyage to Korea. He recollects his first impressions of Korea, sharing that there was a stench in the air as they neared the shoreline. He remembers a United States African American band playing as they disembarked the ship and recalls South Korean women dressed traditionally and handing out apples.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



War Comparison

Tony Espino comments on the Korean War being forgotten despite its successful outcome. He feels that no other war post World War II has rendered the level of prosperity as seen in South Korea over the years. He laments that textbooks in the United States cover little of the war and its outcome.



Troy Howard

Korea? Never Knew of it!

Troy Howard knew nothing about Korea prior to the Korean War. After the war, ended he visited the local library to explore more about the country and was shocked by the lack of information about Korea and the Korean War. It wasn't to after he joined the Korean War Veterans Association that he began to find out.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

Impressions of Korea on Arrival

Tsege Cherenet Degn arrived in Korea in September of 1954. He comments on how empty and devoid of plants and green his post was near the DMZ. Even though the war was over, he was not sure peace would continue and was on constant alert.



Korea - Then and Now

Tsege Cherenet Degn describes the conditions in Korea in 1954. He stayed in a destroyed home with no roof and used to watch movies on a destroyed wall. He returned to South Korea in 2013 and shares his thoughts and admiration for the vast improvements.



Tsolakis Akrivos

Protecting Values of Civilization

Tsolakis Akrivos reflects on why he volunteered to serve in the Korean War. He connects learning about the history of Greece to his decision. Given his life experience, he emphasizes why he and his fellow Greeks chose to protect the values of freedom and democracy in Korea.



Ulises Barreto González

Legacy of the War/ Legado de la Guerra

Ulises Barreto González shares some of his memories of the Korean countryside. He also explains what he believes is the legacy of the war and why the Korean War was a just one.

Ulises Barreto González comparte algunos de sus recuerdos del paisaje coreano. También explica cuál cree que es el legado de la guerra y explica por qué la Guerra de Corea fue una guerra justa.



Vartkess Tarbassian

First Impressions of Korea near Busan (Pusan Perimeter)

Vartkess Tarbassian was surprised when he saw the devastation in the Pusan Perimeter (Busan). There were shell holes from the mortars all across the land. Korean civilians were staving and missing shelter.



Vern P. Lanie

My Job as Company Clerk

Vern P. Lanie describes his job of company clerk and the orders that he wrote and typed for the officers serving in the war. He is very surprised when Dr. Han tells him that today Korea has the 11th largest economy in the world and has a strong democracy, although it was completely devastated 65 years ago.



Vern Rubey

Supporting Infantry behind the Front Lines

Vern Rubey comments on his branch change from infantry to artillery which he was pleased with and recalls landing at Incheon. He describes the role of the service battery that he was assigned to as a First Sergeant in the Army. He shares memories of the scenery he saw while traveling throughout Korea supporting differing artillery units.



Revisiting Korea

Vern Rubey comments on his return to Korea and speaks highly of the Korean people, praising their friendliness and support. He details his trip in particular and recalls the progress Korea had made since his departure back in the 1950's. He offers his opinion on Korean-US relations.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Images of South Korea and Working with UN Soldiers

Victor Spaulding describes the Korea he saw in 1953, commenting on the state of the buildings and peasant life. He explains it was not the images of South Korea seen today and likens the images to going back in time two hundred years. He details fighting with other United Nations troops. He elaborates mostly on the courage of the Korean soldiers (KATUSAS) and says most historical accounts depict them inaccurately. He comments on serving with other countries' troops as well.



Victor D. Freudenberger

Witnessing Resiliency

Victor Freudenberger talks about his impressions of the Korean people while he was stationed at Chosin Reservoir. He recalls the suffering of civilians and families being displaced. He describes observing a Korean woman washing clothes in sub-zero temperature at six in the morning and marvels at the resilience and commitment of the Korean people. He comments on the war atrocities committed by the Chinese against civilians he saw along the way.



Víctor Luis Torres García

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Víctor Luis Torres García shares his memories of the first days in Korea. He recalls being shocked at the destruction and poverty in the country. He speaks about his first mission to search and destroy in Munsan and shutters as he remembers how his friend was killed in the Chorwon Valley.

Víctor Luis Torres García comparte sus recuerdos de los primeros días en Corea. Recuerda que quedo impresionado por la destrucción y la pobreza que encontró en el país. Habla de su primera misión de buscar y destruir en Munsan y con lastima recuerda cómo mataron a su amigo en el valle de Chorwon.



Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a Las Generaciones del Futuro

Víctor Luis Torres García reflects on the legacy of the war and what he wishes future generations will learn from it. He explains that while he would like to see a reunified Korea in his lifetime, he doubts it will happen. He hopes people remember the sacrifices made by so many to protect democracy against communism.

Víctor Luis Torres García reflexiona sobre el legado de la guerra y lo que desea que las generaciones futuras aprendan de ella. Explica que, si bien le gustaría ver una Corea reunificada durante su vida, duda que eso suceda. Él espera que la gente recuerde los sacrificios hechos por tantas personas para proteger la democracia contra el comunismo.



Vikram Tuli

The Experience of India's Custodian Forces

Lieutenant General Mohan Lal Tuli took many photographs. He witnessed a desolate Korea. He recounts that both the north and the south saw the Indians as partial, which was proof that they were not. Many of the troops whom he served with were experienced fighters who fought with the British Army in World War Two. He also recalled the incredible strength of the Korean people.



Opportunities To Visit South Korea

Vikram Tuli discusses the benefits of college students attending the peace camp funded by the Korean Ministry of Patriots and Veteran Affairs. His children have attended those camps, as well as many other Indian students. The peace camp is one of two programs run by the Ministry, the other being the Revisit Korea program for its war veterans. It is important to pass on the legacy of the Korean War Veterans in that way so that they can become future change makers. He also discusses his visit to Seoul seven years prior, remembering the war memorial and the solemn ceremony he attended. He remains impressed by the progress Korea has made.



Vincent Ariola

The Tank on the Front-lines

Vincent Ariola remembers that South Korean soldiers were present in camps with American soldiers, but not brought north with tanks to prevent them from getting killed by American soldiers who could confuse them with the enemy. He describes fighting against forces atop Hill 266, at the Battle of Old Baldy. He remembers seeing a young American soldier in a foxhole before closing the tank hatch when firing broke out, and then seeing the same soldier dead after the firing stopped. His recollection includes his description of the hot atmosphere inside the tank.



Revisiting Life in a Tank

Vincent Ariola describes his reasons for not wanting to go back to visit South Korea. He explains that although he spent many hours in his tank, he did not sleep in it, but tanker operators slept in tents. He describes his experiences with having guard duty very often and being very tired from not being relieved. He further explains that artillery came very close to his tank and to his astonishment, he was never hit.



The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



A New Beginning

Vincent Ariola reflects on his difficulty forgetting things he encountered during his time serving in the Korean War. He calls the experience of being drafted a new beginning and describes why he believes it is. He description paints a picture of what life is like for a young man who is drafted and has never been away from home.



Vincent Segarra

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Vicente Segarra shares his first impressions of Korea and its people. He recalls the poverty and cold he witnessed while there. Moreover, he remembers the joy he felt when he found a friend from his town who helped him by giving him a sleeping bag.

Vicente Segarra comparte sus primeras impresiones sobre Corea y su gente. Recuerda la pobreza y el frío que presenció mientras estuvo allí. Además, recuerda la alegría que sintió cuando encontró a un amigo de su pueblo que lo ayudó el primer día y le dio una bolsa de dormir.



Memorable Experience / Experiencia memorable

Vicente Segarra recalls the most impactful moments of the war. He explains that the most vivid memory he has is of the day he arrived in Korea and crossed a field while the enemy fired at them. He details the sounds of the bullets whistling by them and how they were able to escape without any injuries.

Vicente Segarra recuerda los momentos más impactantes de la guerra. Explica que el recuerdo más vívido que tiene es el día que llegó a Corea y cruzó un campo mientras el enemigo les disparaba. Detalla los sonidos de las balas silbando a su lado y cómo pudieron escapar sin heridos.



Virbel Trotter

Fear of the Frontline

Virbel Trotter responses to a question about whether or not he was nervous heading to Korea. He explains that it was an unknown to him. The people who trained him at served in Korea at the early part of the war and shared stories about how rough it was.



Job During the War

Virbel Trotter explains what his job was during the war. He explains that they were a support group that had to ensure the front lines had the supplies that they needed. He remembers it being somewhat dangerous because of mortar fire.



Virgil Julius Caldwell

Reflections on Combat

Virgil Julius Caldwell describes the terrain of Korea and his job firing on locations identified by a forward observer. He comments on the fear caused by the whistling sound of mortar shells. He details the feeling of being out in the open during an attack, lying on the ground, and hoping to not get hit.



Food and the Front Lines

Virgil Julius Caldwell discusses hot meals and how the food served by the United States Army in Korea made him feel at home amidst the difficult conditions on the front lines. He describes the conditions on the front lines and becoming accustomed to the stress of serving in a war zone. He recounts life when pulled off the line, which included being shelled by the enemy and how soldiers used their helmets to bathe.



Stove Explosion Incident

Virgil Julius Caldwell recounts his experience during the winter of 1952, describing how his squad had to use gasoline as it was too cold for diesel to run the heater. He shares how his squad was unlucky, and the stove blew up, causing the enemy to shell their location. He explains how the explosion caused the enemy to shell their location, how he was court-martialed, and how he was forced to pay for all damages caused by the explosion. He notes that even though he was court-martialed, he still received an honorable discharge when he left Korea.



Virgil Malone

Life in Daegu During the Korean War

Virgil Malone shares photos he took while stationed in Daegu, South Korea. These photos illustrate the living and working conditions of the South Koreans in Daegu area. They touch upon the economic disparity among South Koreans during the war; some lived in farmhouses, while others lived in huts.



Virgil W. Mikkelsen

Arriving Late to the Party

Virgil Mikkelsen describes his first day in Korea. He talks about how he and the men he was with thought they were arriving to be sent to the frontlines. Virgil Mikkelsen recalls learning from the radio that an Armistice had been signed that day ending the conflict.



A Island for a Prison

Virgil Mikkelsen recalls his time on a POW Island after the Armistice. He describes the island as desolate and made only of sand only to find out that the island is a top tourist destination today in Korea. He remembered a fence for prisoner camp.



Wallace Stewart

"I Thought We Had Landed in the Wrong Place."

Wallace Stewart returned to Incheon in 2010 and could not believe the phenomenal growth that had occurred since 1950. Korea had been an agrarian economy, with farmers plowing fields with mules and fertilizing with night soil. No paved roads left Seoul, and only one bridge crossed the Han River. The infrastructure and tall buildings of 2010 demonstrated phenomenal growth.



Walter Bradford Chase, Jr.

I Fell in Love with the Korean People

Walter Bradford Chase, Jr., shares how he fell in love with the Korean people during his time in the country. He recalls being in a position where he had daily contact with the Korean people which he notes the average soldier did not experience. He offers details on the living conditions of the Korean people when he was stationed there after the cease-fire.



Walter Dowdy, Jr.

First Experiences in Combat

Water Dowdy, Jr., recounts how his White officers were replaced with Black officers while preparing for shipment to Korea. He remembers being hopeful that President Truman had integrated the military. He describes the tense moment of waiting to be loaded for combat with ammunition and his radio and the fear of anticipating the combat that awaited him.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Contrasting Korea: 1950s vs 1980s

Walter Kreider, Jr., contrasts the Korea he saw in the the 1950s to the Korea he revisited in the 1980s. He shares his recollections of Seoul and the destruction he saw while serving. He comments on how the war left many children orphaned. He shares that the Korea he saw on his return visit starkly contrasted his memories as there were many cars and buildings, and he comments on its beauty. He attributes the transformation to Korea's quest for education.



Landing in Korea and Military Entry

Walter Kreider, Jr., recounts landing in Korea. He shares that he was greeted by soldiers waiting to return home and recalls how they shouted words in an effort to frighten the arriving soldiers. He details riding a train up to the front lines near Panmunjeom. He backtracks and describes how he was drafted and his placement in artillery.



The Korean People

Walter Kreider, Jr., with no prior knowledge of Korea before serving, shares what Korea is to him now. He comments on the Korean people specifically, describing them as hardworking, creative, and caring. He adds that they are a good ally and represent freedom and liberty. He comments on similarities between Korean and Amish farmers.



Warren Housten Thomas

Revisiting Korea

Warren Housten Thomas recalls the time he revisited Korea and how appreciated he felt. He describes how well the Korean civilians and the Republic of Korea government treated him and the other veterans. He remembers the streets being filled with civilians and how excited he was to see the population surviving so well.



Warren Nishida

First Impressions of Korea

Warren Nishida describes seeing Korea for the first time in 1951. He provides a description of his trip through the countryside from Busan to the Kumhwa Valley. While traveling by train, he remembers the primitive housing and the surprise of finding out what farmers in Korea used as fertilize for their crops.



Fearlessness of Youth

Warren Nishida elaborates on life as a soldier during reconnaissance and ambush control missions. During this discussion, he shares details about one dangerous encounter when he and his comrades capture two Chinese soldiers. When asked if he was afraid during these experiences, he reflects on the innocence and fearlessness you have during your youth. He expands on this reflection with details about the time he unintentionally became a target of the enemy.



Warren Ramsey

A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Wayne Dierlam

Reflection of Service

Wayne Dierlam reflects upon his service while in Korea. He remembers the mountains and valleys and gives his thoughts on a unified Korea. He shares the importance of training.



Wayne Mitchell

War-torn Seoul versus a Prospering Seoul

Wayne Mitchell compares his experiences during the war with the experiences he had upon revisiting Korea over sixty five years later. He recalls the biggest change to him was the agricultural boom that now covers much of the South Korean countryside. He also remembers his recent experiences in Seoul as being filled with modern museums, skyscrapers, and freeways - A big change from the war-torn Seoul he arrived in during the war.



Wayne Pelkey

Wayne Pelkey Helped Korean Children

Wayne Pelkey was amazed at the growth of the Korean economy. He only had bitter memories, especially how children were treated, until he returned to South Korea in 2000. While in Korea he would throw food to children even though he was ordered not to. On one occasion, an American soldier hit a Korean child and he threatened the soldier he would shoot him if he did not stop. Later, he helped start an orphanage and his sister adopted three Korean children.



Wilbur Barnes

Serving in Korea

Wilbur Barnes discusses his experience on a 105mm Howitzer crew. He remembers losing his hearing during his service in the artillery, which led to him being transferred to a forward observer position because of his hearing loss. He notes that in such situations, every place is the front.



Cold Living Conditions

Wilbur Barnes recalls that during his time on the front line, they had to eat cold food since they were not allowed to light fires. He remembers being on duty for long hours, ranging from thirty-six to forty-eight hours at a time. He mentions that the quality of canned food available today is better than he experienced in Korea.



Receiving Mail and Supplies

Wilbur Barnes remembers how he used to communicate with his family through letters while serving in Korea. He recollects how he and the other soldiers could receive packages from their loved ones and how he did not receive many of them due to their high cost. He shares how purchasing items in Korea was limited and challenging.



Wilfred Lack

Prisioner Exchange Mode

Wilfred Lack describes his role during the cease-fire. Working with other soldiers, he rode in helicopters to exchange many Korean prisoners for American prisoners. During this time, he was able to see the true beauty of Korea and was fascinated by the land and tides of the sea.



POWs Cross the Bridge of No Return

Wilfred Lack recalls American POWs crossing the Bridge of No Return and his initial interactions with the shocked soldiers. He remembers the expressions on the soldiers faces as they were released. During the prisoner exchanges, Wilfred Lack was there to tell the soldiers that they were home and safe, which he regards as a rewarding experience.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Did Taking My Shoes Off Stop the Pain? Frostbite.

William "Bill" Beasley describes the suffering and cold at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes that it was so cold that if he stopped crystals would form on his feet. He recalls being told since he couldn't feel his feet to remove his boots and socks while on a listing post, which resulted in him getting severe frostbite.



Not Forgotten War But Ignored

William explains how he detested for years that the war was not forgotten, but ignored. He explains how he felt that the American public didn't want to go back to war after WWII so soon. He describes returning from Korea on leave, but no one cared.



William “Bill” Hoyle

Don't Talk About the War

William Hoyle explains why he doesn't want to go back to Korea. He explains that being above the 38th parallel, he wouldn't be able to revisit the Korea he knew, regardless. He goes on to explain that his experiences, including "Bouncing Betties" that blew people's legs off and seeing other horrible things, has impacted his desire to discuss it. He recalls arriving in San Diego and given a notice/letter not to talk to anyone about what they did or saw during the war. He explains that his experiences stayed locked up for over 30 years in a drawer before he was able to talk about it.



Speak Japanese

William Hoyle explains when American soldiers arrived in Korea, they were given instructions and education on speaking Japanese to the Korean civilians, soldiers, etc. He didn't realize that he was insulting them by speaking Japanese and never knew they even had another language other than Japanese. He also heard that the people in Korea were not allowed to speak the Korean language in public, but only in private or with their own families.



William Alli

Land of the Morning Calm

William Alli describes his arrival to Korea at Busan. As he was leaving the ship, there was a morning calm that quickly disappeared with a horrible stench, people in rags, and the anxiety of not knowing what comes next. He describes travelling deeper into Korea by trains and trucks, and his realization of his being a part of the sixth replacement draft. He describes his experience with being a machine gun ammo carrier and his first encounters with tracers and sniper fire from the surrounding hills.



William Beals

Thankful for Thankfulness

William Beals discusses how much it meant to him to receive a letter from the President of Korea thanking him for his service in the war. He truly was honored by this gesture and even hoped that his granddaughter, who is currently in the service, would be able to thank the president for this. He explains how much gratitude he has seen from Koreans for his service.



Stuck in the Mud

William Beals explains what happened when they landed in Incheon. The first thing that he noticed was the Union Pacific switch train and then a house that had been destroyed. He explains how they then moved to a hospital tent in a muddy, freezing area.



William Burns

Hey Bill Where Have You Been?

William Burns was very excited to come home after his time in the war because he missed his mother's favorite chicken dish. After meeting up with a friend back on the home front, he did not remember that William Burns went away to war due to the lack of media coverage. The Forgotten War was definitely evident in his hometown of Auburn, NY because WWII was so publicized and there were not a lot of information coming to the US about the Korean War.



Conditions in the Korean War

It was trench warfare in 1952 and it was hit or miss fighting because the Chinese were very savage. The United States fire power is what saved William Burns' troops. The soldiers slept in the ground during the winter and it was just as cold as New York because it was not as bad as the winters of 1950-1951. Hill 1062 was a huge hill that was located near William Burns' trench and the Chinese had hospitals built into the hill along with military weapons.



US Soldiers Fighting Along Side KATUSA

William Burns worked with many KATUSA and Korean civilians during his 11 months in Korea during the war. The Koreans who worked with the US troops worked hard, but had a difficulty with communication. William Burns showed personal pictures of two KATUSA that he worked closely with during the war, but he remembers about 10-15 were stationed with this regiment.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Landing in Pusan

William Coe explains that he left for Korea from Japan on the July 1, 1950. He shares that they took a C-54 with Company B. He was remembers that they got right on a train and that they were ready to “fight” and tried not to be afraid. not to be afraid.



William C. Hoehn

Quite an Arrival to Korea

William C. Hoehn describes arriving in Korea by first taking a slow boat from San Francisco to Japan. They then transferred by plane with standing room only passengers. He explains that when they came onshore, they came across a train wreck of Korean civilians.



Pot Bellied Stoves Running on Gas

William C. Hoehn describes the cold winters of Korea. He explains that all the Army tents were equipped with pot bellied stoves to keep men warm. Most stoves were fueled with oil, but William C. Hoehn describes taking gas from the garage where he worked to fuel their stoves better.



Pants on Fire

William C. Hoehn describes the furnace that was used to keep the garage where he worked in Korea warm. He explains that a young Korean boy was standing in front of the furnace to get warm himself and caught on fire. He explains that the boy ran down the road on fire and that he had to chase him to put the fire out.



William D. Freeman

Gone for Good

William Freeman elaborates on how he has no interest in returning to the Korean Peninsula. He communicates his knowledge of South Korea's successes today and adds he has a great rapport with the South Koreans in his community. He shares his pride for his war efforts but continues by stating that he had enough experience in Korea for a lifetime.



William Duffy

Serving in Korea

William Duffy shares what it was like in Korea. He recalls it being freezing cold, calling it "the coldest place on Earth." He talks about his day-to-day duties and cites water being very difficult to find. He also recalls filling sand bags at his bunker with snow. Once the weather warmed, he recounts losing all protection in his bunker.



Comparing Korea, Then and Now

William Duffy recalls Seoul being in rubble. He remembers Korea being totally destroyed and adds that he could touch the top of any building that was still standing. He remembers going back to Korea years later and seeing a beautiful and impressive Seoul; the skyscrapers were numerous, and the traffic around the city was heavy. He shares that the Korea today is not the Korea he left in 1952 and adds he never would have imagined Korea would look like it does today. He recalls the South Korean people being exceptionally nice.



William Edwards

Base Life in Korea

William Edwards describes daily life at the 607th Aircraft Warning Squadron.



Progress in Korea, 1953-1960

William Edwards describes the progress in Korea from the his time there during the Korean War and his return in 1960.



William Eugene Woodward

Importance of the U.S. Air Force

William Eugene Woodward discusses the significant impact the United States Air Force had during the wars of the twentieth century. He recalls a personal experience where he had a near miss with a U.S. fighter plane in Korea. He expresses his patriotism and pride in serving his country during the Korean War.



William F. Borer

The Korean People Had Nothing

William Borer describes his shock at the terrible sight of the Korean people and how desperate they were. He explains that the starving civilians stole and begged for food and dug through the trash looking for scraps the soldiers had thrown away. He explains that being a child from the Great Depression, he knew what being hungry was like but the Korean civilians literally had nothing. He recalls feeling disdain for President Truman for not helping the Korean people.



William F. Honaman

The Real Reason We Were There

William Honaman notes the official reason for fighting the Korean War was stopping the advancement of Communism. He elaborates, however, that as he grew older and learned more, he began to understand the conflict between Korea and Japan that influenced Korea's need for freedom. He states that many people do not fully understand the segregation that Korea experienced because they have not lived under similar circumstances.



Arriving in Korea

William Honaman describes his long route to Busan, Korea, from the United States. He remembers arriving in Busan and it being full of military personnel. He describes being herded to the trains and not remembering much of Busan. He recalls eventually arriving at the front line across from the Freedom Bridge. He notes his first impression of Korea in 1953 was of war and lots of devastation.



William Hall

Dangerous Situations in Korea

William Hall recalls his experience as one of the first troops to land in Korea in 1950. He shares he lost a close friend in an ambush during the early days of their arrival. He discusses his role in the mortar company when his unit took over from other soldiers at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes the dangerous situation they faced and how he felt his survival was uncertain.



Wounded but Alive

William Hall recognizes how lucky he was to have survived the Korean War without being captured or killed. He vividly remembers the harsh conditions of the Korean landscape and the poverty-stricken state of the local population. He shares how, after being wounded in Korea, he was sent to a hospital in California where he received medical attention.



Wounded

William Hall recalls the moment on the front lines when his legs were severely injured. He remembers retaliating by throwing grenades into an enemy bunker. A short time later, he was ejected from a helicopter by enemy fire. He recounts having to spend twenty-seven months in the hospital as a result of his battle wounds.



William Herold

Inchon Landing & Seoul Recapture

William Herold describes landing in Inchon around amid Korea's heavy rain. He recounts having to wait the night out by himself until daylight when his company could regroup. He adds that there was little resistance other than sniper fire. He explains that he did not have a chance to really look around Inchon as he and his platoon members had no opportunity to get out. William Herold describes the march to Seoul following the Inchon Landing, adding that there was resistance.



William Jacque

Rather Fight Communism There Than Here

William Jacque shares the reasoning for his willingness to serve in Korea. He explains that he wanted to fight for the Korean people as he was familiar with Communism and it's movement into Korea. He shares that he would rather fight Communism somewhere else than in his own country.



William Kurth

The "Modern" Port of Busan

William Kurth offers a description of his experience in the port of Busan. He describes the modernization of the harbor by the Japanese and details the differing outlets available. He recounts a Japanese built railroad yard, describing some of the everyday operations taking place during the war.



Thievery in Wartime

William Kurth describes stealing as one of the biggest challenges he faced while serving. He recounts both American soldiers and Korean civilians stealing supplies to either eat or sell for a profit. He recounts building relationships with several Koreans throughout his service.



The Songs and Culture of Korea

William Kurth offers his experiences with the deeply saturated Korean culture. He describes physical appearances of the Korean people, the Korean alphabet, and a folk song. He performs his own rendition and shortened version of the Korean folk song, "Arirang."



William MacSwain

Training for War in Japan

In May 1951, William MacSwain was sent to Japan to train with his platoon on terrain that was similar to Korea. General Ridgway said that the US National Guard should not be sent to Korea because they were not trained well enough. After watching William MacSwain's platoon in Japan practicing a maneuver, he was impressed with what he saw, so the National Guard was free to fight in the Korean War.



William McLaughlin

What is the Legacy of the Korean War?

William McLaughlin discusses the legacy of the Korean War. He believes the legacy is a democratic and thriving South Korea. He was not sure if that would have happened if the Americans had not fought alongside the South Koreans and then stayed there throughout the subsequent decades to help with defense.



Did you know anything about Korea?

William McLaughlin speaks about his high school experiences and recalls not being taught anything about Korea. He had relatives who were Korean War Veterans, and his father would talk to him about the war. There were some cultural references to the Korean War in the media but not like what was available on World War II. He does recall hearing that Korea was an undeveloped and poor country at the time. He remembers the possibility of being drafted to Korea and the subsequent consequences.



William O’Kane

Arrival in Korea in 1952

William O'Kane arrived in Korean in 1952 at Sokcho-Ri. He was assigned his job as a wireman with Head Quarters Company 2nd Battalion 11th Marines. He remembers a lot about the conditions in Korea when he arrived and the conditions of the villages.



"The Forgotten War"

William O'Kane felt that the Korean War should not have been called "The Forgotten War." He really became upset when the war that he fought in was called a Korean police action or the Korean Conflict. Soldiers from around the world fought and died during the Korean War, so William O'Kane wished that more people remembered the war.



Volunteering After WWII

William O'Kane volunteered for the Marine Corps because his brother was in the military along with many of his friends. While in bootcamp at Camp Pendleton, SC, he read about the war and followed it because many people he knew were involved in the war. He said that since he was so young when he enlisted, he felt that he was invincible.



William Puls

The Impact of the Forgotten War

William Puls describes his revisits to South Korea in 2000 and 2010. He explains his amazement at the cleanliness and modernization of the cities in South Korea. He praises the South Koreans for their admiration and respect toward Korean War veterans. He shares his opinion on what can be done to resolve the continued division between the countries of North Korea and South Korea.



William T. Fox

Understanding Korea

William T. Fox describes his location while he was in Korea. He explains some of the geographical aspects of the Chowan Valley and the 38th Parallel. He also explains why he calls Korea a “two-part war” and the goals of his regiment. He further discusses Pork Chop Hill and a friend who received a Medal of Honor.



Making Friends in the Field

William T. Fox describes what it was like building friendships with others. While he developed relationships individually, he explains that there was not a lot of team-building because of the rotations that were established. He states that he still keeps in contact with men he met during the war and that some regiments have a long-standing history of reunions.



William Weber

Through the Cracks

William Weber expresses his frustration of the placement of the Korean War in American history despite the honorable conduct by the United States. He shares how he feels it even exceeded the United States' conduct in WWII. He comments on how the Korean War has fallen through the cracks and is only given a few paragraphs in textbooks.



The Portrayal of the Korean War

William Weber discusses how the generation of Korean War veterans is not portrayed as a generation of heroes in American media. He comments on the lack of Korean War focus in education and shares how students will never be able to appreciate what it meant and demonstrated due to this reality. He adds that Korean War veterans are merely guest lecturers rather than seen as significant additions to the curriculum as students are not required to learn about the war.



William Whitley

Desolation: No Houses, No Building, No Nothing of Any Kind

William Whitley shares he spent much of his time in Korea as an ammunition truck operator. He recalls how when he first arrived in Korea, the country was dominated by forests, but these forests were soon destroyed by napalm bombers to prevent the North Koreans and Chinese from using them as cover. He recalls the desolation of the area at the time. He notes that he does not remember ever being in a building while in Korea.



Willie Bacon, Sr.

Moving Water Purification with the Troops

Willie Bacon, Sr., describes how his unit would move with the troops. He explains they made a deliberate effort to remain close to rivers and dams to have access to clean water. He recounts the tragic loss of a friend in Korea who was shipped there two months before him and was killed on an artillery firing line. He mentions another friend who survived the same attack because he was on the other side of the firing line.



Willie Frazier

Serving in Korea

Willie Frazier remembers arriving in Korea at Incheon, where he noticed General McArthur was stationed. Later, he relocated to Seoul and Wonsan. He speaks about his friends who served in "Graves Restoration," which involved retrieving fallen soldiers. He discusses his thoughts on serving in the laundry unit instead of being on the front lines.



Wistremundo Dones

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Wistremundo Dones relays his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he did not understand how a civilian population which was so impoverished was able to withstand the cold winters. He provides details of the guerrilla attacks from North Korean which ensued early in the war.

Wistremundo Dones cuenta de sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no entendía cómo una población que estaba tan empobrecida podía soportar los inviernos tan fríos. Proporciona detalles sobre los ataques de la guerrilla norcoreana que se produjeron a principios de la guerra.



Yilma Belachew

Another Life

Yilma Belachew describes the condition of Korea upon arrival at Busan. He describes the destruction he observed. For example, there were deceased people lying in fields and destroyed buildings. However, the people of Korea were still working in the fields during the Civil War. Yilma Belachew also describes having to retrain on newer American weapons in Korea.



Zacarias Abregano

We Tried to Help

Zacarias Abregano describes the interactions he had with the Korean people and the lack of resources for the people. While on reserve, he recalls having a Korean bus boy wash their clothes. Around Christmas time, he remembers seeing a little girl in a village that kept looking at them. Because of this, he ended up giving her some of his C-rations. He explains that the Koreans were very poor and the soldiers tried to help the people.



Fighting the Cold

Zacarias Abregano provides a few details about the living conditions on the front line. Because of how cold it would be, he shares that he might only shower once a month during the winter. He recalls adding pills to the river water to make it safe to drink.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.



Sacrifices for Good

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes revisiting Korea. He is amazed at the transformation Korea has undergone. His sacrifices were not wasted. Korea also has given back to the Ethiopian soldiers. The Ethiopian government has given the veterans nothing.