Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Home front



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Adjustment to Civilian Life / Adaptación a la Vida Civil

Adolfo Lugo Gaston discusses the difficulty he had adjusting to civilian life upon his return. He explains that seeing friends alive one day and not the next during warfare causes an individual to suffer for the rest of their life. He notes that reentering civilian life was akin to being reborn.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón comenta sobre la dificultad que tuvo para adaptarse a la vida civil cuando regreso. Explica que ver a amigos vivos un día y no al siguiente durante la guerra lo dejo con problemas de los nervios. Él cuenta que volver a entrar en la vida civil fue como volver a nacer.



Ahmet Tan

Humble Beginnings

Ahmet Tan describes how education was not offered in his village and how he was illiterate when he went to Korea. His parents were farmers and illiterate also. When he went to Korea, he was a simple soldier. Ahmet Tan served in the 1st Battalion, 4th Company under Colonel Cemal Madanogln.



Albert (Hank) Daumann

Thoughts on the Korean War and his Veteran Organization

Hank Daumann discusses why he thinks The Korean War is often called "The Forgotten War". He talks about how there weren't any parades for returning veterans. He also talks about the importance and legacy of The Korean War and his organization's involvement in the local Korean community in Houston.



Albert Cooper

One Last Grenade

Albert Cooper talks about defending a radar station that had come under attack. Alone in a fox hole, he intermittently fired his rifle and threw hand grenades to keep the enemy at bay until he had exhausted his ammunition save one last grenade, which he kept and brought home as a memory of the battle.



Albert Frisina

Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Albert Gonzales

Severe Conditions for Korean Soldiers

Albert Gonzales described the poor situation of South Korean soldiers and those that helped the South Korean army. South Korea would draft soldiers by simply pulling men and older boys from off the street. The expectation was all men would be fighting for their country. Also, those that bore the weight of carrying weapons for South Korea did not received special privileges but were often the primary targets by the North Koreans.



Albert Kleine

The Pull to Join the Korean War

Albert Kleine joined the military in May 1950 before the Korean War broke out. He became interested in the Korean War in 1952 when he met a soldier who came home from this war and he had an Indian arrow head. In 1953, he went to Korea with 4 friends.



Albert R. Sayles

Tank Training

Albert Sayles recounts being drafted into the Army and the training he was provided. He shares that after infantry training he chose to proceed with tank training. He recalls spending eight weeks learning all five positions in the M4 Sherman tank and elaborates on the changes made to the weapons on the tank between WW2 and the Korean War.



GI Bill Benefits

Albert Sayles recalls receiving GI Bill benefits of $600 to attend Hagerstown Community College upon his return. He describes working for the post office while also attending accounting courses. He adds his thoughts on how wonderful the GI Bill was at the time and the opportunities it provided.



Impact of Service

Albert Sayles recounts returning home, stepping off the bus, and not a word being said to him regarding his service. He emphasizes that he simply went back to work and shares his thoughts on why the war was not a topic of conversation on the home front. He acknowledges that his service had a positive impact on his life and is glad the Korean people are appreciative of American efforts.



Albino Robert “Al” D’Agostino

1st Orders

Al D'Agostino is describing the way in which men were sent to Fort Hood for basic training when the Korean War started. From either Fort Hood or Fort Dixon they were sent on a plane straight to Japan and then on to Korea. However, his training was a bit different as he was a replacement and had cold weather training instead.



"After the War-Impressions of Korea"

Though he has never been back, Al D'Agostino had business dealings with Korean Airlines out of Los Angeles. He could not believe the level of fluency, sophistication, affluent business behavior, and growth of South Korea.



Alex Saenz

Enlistment and Basic Training

Alex Saenz recalls having graduated from high school and working as a spray painter when the Korean War broke out. He recounts quitting his job and enlisting in the Navy. He describes his basic training in San Diego and shares that it was an experience as he had never been away from home.



Little Danger

Alex Saenz shares his thoughts on serving in Japan rather than in Korea closer to danger. He states that all servicemen were assigned work, and they simply did it. He shares that, in the military, he did the best for his country. He comments on meeting soldiers who had served in Korea and hearing their stories.



Alford Rodriguez Rivera

Letters with Money Sent Home

Alford Rodriguez Rivera explains that he sent letters home to family during the war. He shares that he cannot quite recall the amount of money he made each month, but the figure ranged between $100-$200. He describes sending some of his earnings to his uncle during the war. He confirms having a girlfriend during the war but cannot recollect sending her letters.



Alfred Curtis

Headed to Korea and First Impression

Alfred Curtis describes how he felt when he learned he would be serving in Korea. He shares that hardly anyone knew anything about Korea and that he had honestly never even heard of Korea. He adds that he and other young soldiers thought they would go over and take care of business within a few months and be home. He recalls his journey to Korea, landing in Pusan, and the suffering of the South Korean people.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Congratulatory Message / Mensaje de Felicitación

Alfredo Forero Parra reads the congratulatory note from the commander of the Batallón Colombia to all those that fought in the Battle of Old Baldy. Within this letter, the commander describes Colombian troops not only as martyrs and heroes, but as the quintessential symbol of the virtues of a soldier. This letter captures the soul and valor of those that were lost and those that survived the Battle of Old Baldy.

Alfredo Forero Parra lee la nota de felicitación del comandante del Batallón Colombia a todos los que lucharon en la batalla de Old Baldy. En esta carta, el comandante describe a las tropas colombianas no solo como mártires y héroes, sino como el símbolo por excelencia de las virtudes del soldado. Esta nota fue escrita para que el mundo recuerde el alma y el valor de los que fallecieron y de los que sobrevivieron a la Batalla de Old Baldy.



Alice Allen

Thoughts on the Korean War Legacy Project

Alice Allen understands the importance of the Korean War Legacy Project and its potential impact on future generations. Her husband, Jack Allen, did not really discuss his Korean War experiences before the interview, and now he speaks freely about it. Alice Allen believes
that it is important that younger generation learn about the Korean War and the experiences of the veterans.



College, Letters, and Love

Alice Allen was going to college when her husband, Jack Allen, joined the military in 1948. During his time away, she earned a degree in education, and began teaching which helped pass the time while he was away. On leave in 1950, Alice Allen was married to Jack Allen and the two stayed in contact through letters while he participated in the Korean War from 1950 through 1951.



Injuries During War Never Tarnished Their Love

Alice Allen was on the home front when her husband, Jack Allen, was injured during the Korean War. Thankfully, he was injured on his right arm and not his left because he is left-handed. Even with an arm and leg injury, Alice Allen maintained her love for her Korean War Veteran.



Allen Affolter

Entering the Marine Corps

Allen Affolter describes how he earned enough money to attend college before joining the Marine Corps Reserves in 1947 while earning his degree in Education. He shares that the Marine Corps offered the program as a means of avoiding the draft, and he recounts spending several weeks training during the summer months of 1948 and 1949. He recalls finishing his degree in 1951, eventually entering the Marine Corps, and being sent to Korea towards the end of the war despite being deaf in one ear.



Message to Younger Generations

Allen Affolter offers a message to younger generations. He states that they should appreciate what they have and should take full advantage of the opportunities available to them. He shares that sacrifices must be made in order to obtain something and that they should limit their distractions in order to obtain what they want. He adds that they should practice being respectful of their elders, doing what they are told, and being punctual.



Allen E. Torgerson

Feelings Towards Being Drafted

Allen Torgerson describes his feelings towards being drafted. He shares that he felt he should do his duty and believes that everyone should serve in some form or fashion such as through armed service, community service, and/or programs similar to the Peace Corps. Allen Torgerson adds that while he would prefer not to fight again, he would not trade money for his previous experience. He expresses his thankfulness that he survived.



Alvaro Almazo

Family Fears War

Alvaro Almazo was employed in an industrial job before enlisting in the military. He decided to join the military because he was adventurous. He remarked the military training was very difficult. His family was very scared when they learned he was going to a war zone in Korea. He told them God would provide and had proof of that when he came back.



Alvin Jurrens

Tending the Farm Before the Draft

Alvin Jurrens shares his family life growing up on a farm in Iowa. He explains that his father passed away when he was fourteen, leaving his mother with nine children to raise. He recounts dropping out of school after eighth grade to help tend to the farm. He shares that he did not enlist but was drafted into the Korean War in 1952.



Return to Hardship on the Home Front

Alvin Jurrens describes the ceasefire on July 27th, 1953. He remembers waking up the following morning to, for the first time, a quiet morning. He tears as he shares the hardest part for him upon his return home after the war.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Convalescence in the United States

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts his recovery from his wounds back home in the United States, spending 13 months on bed rest. During this time, he notes he underwent various daily procedures and was moved between multiple hospitals. His journey through the medical system reflects the challenges he faced on his road to recovery.



Why We Fought in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap shares his thoughts on why the United States defended Korea and the legacy of the Korean War. He explains that the United States participated to prevent the spread of Communism across the world. Moreover, he elaborates on how his service contributed to the flourishing of South Korea's government and economy. Through his reflections, he highlights the broader impact of the conflict and the enduring benefits of their efforts.



Andrew Lanza

Police Action or War?

Andrew Lanza engages in a debate about President Truman's characterization of the Korean War as a police action, considering how American foreign policy of containment granted Truman leverage to engage in this conflict. He shares his strong belief that it should be classified as a war. As he was still serving in Korea when the armistice was reached, he recalls having mixed feelings about the event.



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Letters Home

Andrew Lanza recalls writing letters home to his girlfriend, now wife, but notes that he didn't always tell her everything that was going on. He shares a couple of stories that he included in his letters to her.



Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez

Obligatory Service / Servicio Obligatorio

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on the mandatory service of Puerto Ricans. He adds that he was one of four Puerto Ricans assigned to his company and they were soon joined by a demoted sergeant. He explains that this sergeant murdered his wife and committed suicide upon returning to Puerto Rico.

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez comparte sus pensamientos sobre el servicio militar obligatorio de los puertorriqueños. Cuenta que fue uno de los cuatro puertorriqueños asignados a su compañía y pronto se les unió un sargento degradado. Explica que este sargento asesinó a su esposa y se suicidó al regresar a Puerto Rico.



Anthony Vaquero

Joining the Air Force

Tony Vaquero talks about joining the Air Force because he wanted to be a pilot. After being ruled ineligible to fly, he describes being sent for training to be a radio operator at Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi.



We Want to Transfer to the Army

Tony Vaquero tells a story when, while training to be Air Force radio operators, he and two of his classmates visited their First Sergeant and requested being transferred to the Army. He describes the sergeant's reaction and what happened in the aftermath of the request.



Arden Rowley

Homecoming for a Prisoner of War

Arden Rowley remembers the difficulty in signing an armistice. He describes his repatriation and his return to Arizona after being a POW for 33 months in the Korean War. He also shares what it was like to adjust to life back in the United States.



Aristides Simoes

Classroom Understanding of Korea

Aristides Simoes was educated about Korea while in school. He describes that in his middle school civics class, he learned about Korea in relationship to the Joseon Dynasty and Imperial Japan. His teachers were trying to have his class understand the significance of Japan bombing the U.S. at Pearl Harbor after that had happened.



Arland Shelstad

Life Prior to the Korean War for Arland Shelstad

His parents were farmers and he had 9 siblings. Arland Shelstad graduated high school in 1950, the year at the Korean War broke out. He knew about the war and joined the Minnesota National Guard, 47th Division in 1949.



Basic Training and Training other Recruits Across the US

On Dec. 26, 1950, Arland Stelstad was activated and was sent to Fort Rucker, Alabama for basic training in the Army. His training started in summer camp before being sent to Fort Rucker, so when they arrived, they were advanced trained so that they could travel the US to train the new recruits.



Training as a Medic

Arland Shelstad was trained in multiple locations across America in order to prepare as a medic for the US Army. The most common injury that he assisted with was broken fingers and arms. Arland Shelstad even helped doctors during surgeries.



Arthur Hernandez

Introduction to Military Service

Arthur Hernandez reminisces about the day he received the draft letter in 1952, shortly after his marriage. He shares the letter instructed him to report for duty immediately. He remembers boarding a train with troops and heading to Fort Ord, California, for processing after his initial physical examination. He distinctly recollects reaching Fort Ord shortly after midnight and having only three hours of sleep before waking up at three a.m. for breakfast.



Arthur Leroy Brown

Family Hit Hard by the News of Death

Arthur L. Brown's family was hit hard by the news of his death. His mother was pregnant with his first sister, and he excitedly shared the news with his comrades. Prior to his enlistment and ultimate deployment to Korea, Arthur and his father got into a disagreement over Arthur quitting school to join the Army.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

US and Korea Relations Today & The Importance of Military Service

Arthur Sorgatz felt that Koreans appreciate Korean and US soldiers more than citizens of the United States. He felt his time in Korea was a great experience. He wishes the draft was back to require young adults to experience discipline because he feels that it has been lost.



Asefa Mengesha

Communist Ethiopia in 1974

Asefa Mengesha describes how his life changed when communists took over Ethiopia in 1974. He was transferred from the Imperial Guard and eventually imprisoned for a year along with other Korean veterans. He believes the new government was afraid of these veterans.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Korea, like my Baby

Asefa Werku Kassa describes how Korea is like his baby. He sacrificed his blood for the freedom of South Korea. He describes how he would still fight for South Korea. Asefa Werku Kassa wants to revisit to see what his sacrifices look like seventy years later.



Asfaw Desta

Two Different Koreas

Asfaw Desta describes the two different Koreas, war-torn and present. He never thought there would be such a significant change. Korea was so broken during the war. However, hard work by the people was able to transform Korea into what it is today. He compares the change between Ethiopia and Korea over the same time period.



Ayhan Karabulut

Memories and a Message

Ayhan Karabulut describes how he cannot forget the memories of the men he served with who lost their lives. He also describes how he feared the sound of planes overhead after returning home. He did have a special message for the Republic of Korea, "May Allah give them long life."



Barbara A. Bateman

Training for Her Job

Barbara Bateman shares her job training sent her to Illinois where she learned how to rig parachutes. She recounts her experience of "falling" out of the aircraft while practicing with dummies in the airplane and almost being courtmartialed for it. She describes the process of rigging a parachute, and after her six-week job training, she shares she was sent to Waco, Texas.



Types of Parachutes and Working on the Flight Line

Barbara Bateman describes the types of parachutes utilized and how where one was located in the plane determined the type of parachute worn. She explains how when she reported to Waco, all the parachute rigors were civilians, leading to her assignment to the flight line. She explains how this role meant she kept track of records and fitted trainees with equipment before flights. She discusses how she worked with pilots, keeping current with flight hours as well as foreign pilots training in the T-33 fighter jet.



Finding Ways to Fly and Living Conditions

Barbara Bateman discusses her experience of being able to fly in B-25s and B-29s as the pilots logged their flight hours. She shares how much she loved flying and wishes women were allowed to be pilots when she was in the U.S. Air Force. She recalls how there were eight thousand men and one hundred women on base in Waco and shares that men and women had different mess halls, barracks, and even went on different marches.



High Altitude Equipment, Foreign Pilots, and Plane Crashes

Barbara Bateman describes the equipment needed to parachute out of a plane at high altitude due to lack of oxygen. She recalls how she checked that equipment fit properly and that pilots knew how to properly hook up their equipment. She remembers how, even though the pilots spoke English, it was sometimes difficult to communicate. She explains how, occasionally, they would have to go to crash sites and presents a time a pilot was flying upside down. She shares the pilot panicked and attempted to eject while upside down and was killed.



Basilio MaCalino

Joining the Marine Corps

Basilio MaCalino didn't graduate high school and due to his bad choices, he had to join the military.
He enlisted Feb. 12, 1953 for the Marine Corps and was sent to San Diego, CA for his bootcamp training. Right after training, he was sent to Korea. His specialty was a supplier for the military.



Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros

Legacy of the War and Korean Progress

Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros describes the legacy of the Korean War in Ethiopia. The war, comparable to many nations is underrepresented. He attributes this to the greater context of the war on communism. Also, Korea was destroyed for many years following the war and could not raise awareness for the war.



Belay Bekele

Father's Service in Second Italo-Ethiopian War

Belay Bekele describes his life during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. His father served and ultimately perished fighting the Italian war of aggression. Life was interrupted. He describes how the war was everywhere and school was not offered.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Learning Japanese Headed to Korea and the Army Point System

While on the troop ship going over to Korea, the loud speaker system on the ship was only playing conversational language in Japanese, not in Korean. This showed the soldiers that no one had the opportunity to learn Korean before landing in this combat zone. While stationed in a war zone, the Army gave out 4 points for soldiers at the front lines, 3 for troops farther back, 2 for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and 1 point for troops on the home front. Ben Schrader was earning 4 points a month, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



Benigno Ramos Perez

Letter to Future Wife / Carta Para Su Futura Esposa

Benigno Ramos Pérez has his wife read a letter he wrote to her from the front lines. Within the letter, he provides a firsthand account of the dangers he encountered and comments on his inability to sleep. He details how two sergeants were injured during combat and praises American troops. He emphasizes the importance of their love in the letter.

Benigno Ramos Pérez hace leer a su esposa una carta que le escribió cuando él estaba en Corea. Dentro de la carta, provee un relato de los peligros que encontró y comenta como no podía dormir. Detalla cómo dos sargentos resultaron heridos durante el combate y comenta que las tropas estadounidenses eran buenas. Incluye la importancia de su amor en la carta.



An Emotional Letter / Una Carta de Amor

Benigno Ramos Pérez reads a letter he wrote to his girlfriend who became his wife of sixty-one years. He explains the toll the separation had on his psyche and the belief that God would reunite them. His reading brings tears to his wife who accompanies him on this portion of the interview.

Benigno Ramos Pérez lee una carta que le escribió a su novia, quien se convirtió en su esposa de sesenta y un años. Explica lo duro que fue la separación y su creencia de que Dios los reuniría. Su lectura hace llorar a su esposa que lo acompaña en esta parte de la entrevista.



Benjamin Allen

Korea was War, Not a Police Action

Benjamin Allen remembers returning back to the United States and attempting to join a local VFW only to be told the Korean War was a police action, not a war. He shares how this official terminology kept him out of the VFW, but how he quickly became a member of the American Legion. He later speaks of an encounter with a Vietnam Veteran whom he had to educate about the Korean War.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

Classified as a 4A

Benjamin Arriola describes his reasoning for not joining the military. He shares that he was the only survivor in his family helping his mother at the time, and the registrant classified him as a 4A, officially a deferment, because of the lack of men in his family. He added that due to this, he did not have to report unless needed.



Medals after MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes the medals his brother, Fernando Arriola, received after being declared MIA and Presumed Dead in the Korean War. He shares that his brother received the Purple Heart, Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. He displays several certificates sent by officials in South Korea as well.



Dental Records for MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes his brother Fernando Arriola's history as a boxer in the Army. He shares the story of how his brother's tooth was knocked out. He details how the DNA extraction from the tooth is now being used to help identify his brother's remains as an MIA soldier if they should ever appear.



Bernard G. Kenahan

Drafted With No Knowledge of Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan explains his plans to work at a lumber company office upon graduation. He describes how his plans changed in 1952 at the age of 21 when he was drafted into the Army. He remembers having no knowledge of Korea prior to his draft, never imagining he would be sent there.



Route to Korea

Bernard G. Kenahan describes departing for Korea in 1953 via ship. He describes making multiple stops along the way, including stops in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Japan. He recounts the living conditions regarding showering and explains that his duties aboard ship entailed overseeing the sleeping quarters.



Betty Jane Beck

Joining the Navy

Betty Beck explains she wanted a career related to aviation and saw the U.S. Navy’s Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service, or WAVES, as an opportunity to live her dream. She recalls everything happening quickly as she joined the Navy on a Wednesday and was shipped out by that Friday. She speaks about the entrance requirements for women for the WAVES, all of which she found easy. She recalls how the entire process only took a couple of days and how she was assigned to aviation. She remembers how, at that time, women were very limited in the jobs they could do, but the limitations eventually changed.



Aviation Electronics Training

Betty Beck explains how even though she qualified for aviation, her options were limited since she was not allowed to fly. She describes learning basic electronics and how to repair the different types of electronics used in the U.S. Navy. She recalls that during her time, women could still serve in the U.S. Navy if they were married but not after they were pregnant or had children. She remembers all women in aviation were to be sent to Pensacola, Florida, to be evaluated on their abilities related to the jobs currently open to them. She shares did not want to go, and she expands on how lucky she was in being sent to San Diego, California, instead.



Women in the Service

Betty Beck reflects on women in the service and remembers civilians did not understand the role women played. She explains that her family was supportive of her service, including a brother-in-law in the U.S. Navy and another in the Maritime service. She shares her father had to sign for her to join the U.S. Navy as she was not yet twenty years old. She admits that her brother-in-laws talked him into signing the form. She explains how he father wanted her to remain in the military when she decided to leave because he felt she was living a good life.



Beverly Lawrence Dunjill

Training at Tuskegee

Beverly Lawrence Dunjil discusses the advanced aviation training he received at Tuskegee. He fondly remembers his training and the excitement of flying a more powerful aircraft than he had previously experienced. He recollects how, as the training progressed, pilots were given the opportunity to fly combat planes such as the P-40 and the B-25.



Reenlistment and Training

Beverly Lawrence Dunjil discusses his experience rejoining the military after integration in 1949. He explains the details of his advanced flight training at Williams Air Force Base in Arizona. He describes how he received training in T-33 jets before moving on to flying solo in the F-80.



Bob Couch

Recollections of Korea and the War's Legacy

Bob Couch mentions his wound again and shares he was sent back to the States due to it not healing properly. He recalls arriving home on a Friday and returning to work on Monday. He offers his account of the war's legacy and states that he views all Korean veterans as heroes. He explains that he was fortunate compared to other Korean War soldiers and admits that he still has a hard time believing all he and others went through during the war.



Bob Courtmache

Russian Submarine Off the Coast of Maine

Bob Courtmache reflects on his time at the ​​Cartwright Long Range Radar Site. While stationed in Canada, he notes the work at Cartwright was important for protecting our country. He recalls the radar station spotted a Russian submarine off the coast of Maine in 1957. He shares how the Russian submarine left the region without any incident and that they closely monitored the movement of the submarine.



Bob Near

Knowledge of the Korean War and Canadian Response

Bob Near shares that his knowledge of the Korean War stems from an interest in history and interactions with veterans his father worked with while growing up. He explains that the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War in Canada as it is overshadowed by World War II and the Cold War that followed. He adds that the relatively low number of Canadians who served in the war compared to the number who served in World War II has played a role regarding less publicity.



Bob Wickman

Wanted a Choice

Bob Wickman shares that as the possibility of being drafted neared, he wanted the opportunity to choose which branch of the service he would serve in, so on September 28, 1950, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy for four years. He recalls how after basic training he was interviewed to determine what might be the best fit for him. He desperately wanted to be in aviation, but his poor vision prevented that. He reminisces about how he managed to fool the vision screening. He recounts how he ultimately ended training as part of a naval hospital unit.



You Do Things for Other People

Bob Wichman offers his own advice to the young people of today. He believes that one needs to do things for others. He reflects on how after the Korean War and at the start of the Vietnam War the world experienced a generation of takers. He expresses hope that the new generations have become givers again.



Bradley J. Strait

Reasons for Enlisting

Bradley Strait discusses reasons why he enlisted. He explains he was a young boy when the attack on Pearl Harbor took place and that he was very impressionable at the time. He shares he was too young to participate in the war, but he was not too young to be impressed by it and would later enlist to serve during the Korean War. He recounts everyone contributing to the war effort during WWII but shares that there was a different mindset during the Korean War on the home front.



Bruce Ackerman

The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



Bryan J. Johnson

A Teacher-Veteran, not Teaching About the War He Fought In

Bryan Johnson describes the legacy of the Korean War and how the United Nations rightly aided South Korea. He also describes how upon returning home to New Zealand he became a teacher and did not teach about the Korean War. Bryan Johnson explains that the Korean War was relatively brief in comparison to the First and Second World War as the main issue with the war, when designing a curriculum.



Burt Cazden

G.I. Bill

Burt Cazden describes using the G.I. Bill to continue his education at the University of California. He provides a detailed breakdown of expenses during that time frame and comments on his path to becoming an optometrist. He shares that he was given the G.I. Bill for four years on the condition that he maintain a certain number of course units.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Enlistment and Basic Training

Carl Jacobsen describes his path into service. He shares how he felt the need to do something constructive and decided to enlist in the U.S. Army. He details his basic training and recounts volunteering to represent his regiment as a mile runner, winning many of his meets. He recounts his decision to go airborne and attend jump school following basic.



Legacy of the Korean War

Carl Jacobsen shares his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War. He elaborates on his fascination of the progress South Korea has made since the war. He comments on the appreciation Koreans have towards the United States and other countries which provided aid.



Carl W. House

Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

Signing of the Armistice / Firma del Armisticio

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco provides an account of the jubilation felt by allied and enemy troops on the day the Armistice was signed. He describes the way in which they cheered and held their helmets high on one hill and could see enemy troops do the same on the other side. He explains that they were elated at the the news of the prisoner of war exchange as there were over twenty Colombians that were being held captive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco da cuenta de la alegría que sintieron las tropas aliadas y enemigas el día de la firma del Armisticio. Describe la forma en que botaban los cascos tanto ellos como las tropas enemigas. Recuerda que lo más eufórico fue la noticia del intercambio de prisioneros de guerra que se produciría porque habían más de veinte colombianos cautivos.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Why Korea Transformed / Las Razones del Desarrollo de Corea

Carlos Julio Mora Zea offers his opinions on South Korea’s transformation. He surmises that the reason South Korea became an economic powerhouse can be attributed to the intelligence of the Korean government. He laments that the Colombian government does not seem to take care of the people in the same manner Korea has.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea ofrece sus opiniones sobre la transformación de Corea del Sur. Supone que la razón por la que Corea del Sur se convirtió en una potencia económica puede atribuirse a la inteligencia del gobierno coreano. Lamenta que el gobierno colombiano no aparenta cuidar a la gente de la misma manera que Corea.



Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Mora Zea shares his views on the legacy of the Korean War. He believes that all troops in the allied forces conserved liberty and demonstrated the ideals for all nations. He explains that while wars have negative consequences, Korea would not have the economy, peace, and stability it enjoys without the efforts of all that fought.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea comparte sus opiniones sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Él cree que todas las tropas de las fuerzas aliadas conservaron la libertad y demostraron los ideales para todas las naciones. Explica que, si bien las guerras tienen consecuencias negativas, Corea no tendría la economía, la paz y la estabilidad que disfruta sin los esfuerzos de todos los que lucharon.



Cecil Phipps

First Days of Freedom

Cecil Phipps talks about his first hours and days after his release as a POW. He describes being deloused, talking to military intelligence and reporters, and eating his first meal. He shares memories about his journey back to the United States by ship.



Charles Blum

Kinda Disappointed with My Own People

Charles Blum explains what the Korean War meant to him. He describes the pain from his wounds with every step he takes. He also elaborates on his thoughts towards South Korea appreciating their freedom while he feels that America may take it for granted.



Charles Crow Flies High

13 Bravo

Charles Crow Flies High was section chief on a cannon crew. There were ten crew members in each crew, and they included a driver, chief, section chief, gunner, assistant gunner, loader, ammo track crew, and ammo team chief. He recalls one of the cannons having the ability to reach up to thirty miles away.



Knowledge of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High did not know much about Korea before his deployment, except for the details about the Korean War. Since many of his relatives were in the military, he knew about the Korean War, and it made him really proud to protect the peninsula just like they did. For both deployments, Charles Crow Flies High stayed for fifteen months protecting a variety of areas along the DMZ.



United States and Republic of Korea

Charles Crow Flies High talks about why the relationship between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a good thing for both countries. He believes that Kim Jung Un is influenced by his father, but there is a lot of camaraderie between US troops and Korean civilians. The Korean culture has spread around the United States, and he feels that this is a very positive interaction.



Charles Earnest Berry

Integration in the US Army

Charles Earnest Berry discusses his first experience with integration. He recalls the Sergeant instructing the men in his unit to pick their bunks in an integrated fashion. He noticed that Black soldiers selected bunks on one side of the room, while the White soldiers chose bunks on the opposite side. He remembers the Sergeant then forcing the unit to integrate by instructing Black and White soldiers to certain bunks near each other.



Arrested in Greenville, South Carolina

Charles Earnest Berry discusses an incident where he and other Black troops were arrested in Greenville, South Carolina. He recalls the treatment they experienced from local police officers and a Military Policeman (MP). He provides details about the charges that were brought against the MP for his treatment of the soldiers.



Lessons Learned from the Korean War

Charles Earnest Berry offers an overview of how the Korean war affected his beliefs on mortality, on people, and on coming back to the United States. He recalls the challenges he faced upon returning home, despite having fought for his country. He shares how being denied the ability to sit where he wanted back home made him question the purpose of his service.



Charles Falugo, Jr.

Communicating During and After the War

Charles Falugo does not recall what he was paid, but he does remember sending his paychecks home to his wife, Rosemary. He recalls writing and receiving many letters back and forth with her during his time in the Korean War. He also talks about a Korean man that he befriended and somewhat adopted. He seeks to reconnect with him.



Charles Fowler

Orders to Korea

Charles Fowler describes returning home on a 30 day leave after being in service a year only to find that he had received orders to serve in Korea as the war had broken out. He recounts arriving in Korea and his unit receiving orders to fight its way to Yeongdeungpo to meet the Marines coming from Incheon. He admits that he his knowledge of Korea prior to being sent was limited.



Life After Korea

Charles Fowler reflects on life after Korea, his time in the war, and the change it brought to his way of thinking. He shares he is more appreciative of life and is thankful to be an American. He states that history has proven democracy works and points to South Korea today as a perfect example, sharing that its success would have never happened under a communist type of government.



Charles Francis Jacks

Ready for More

Charles Jacks describes his enlistment in the United States Navy and basic training location. He shares that he was trained as a Hospital Corpsman and was assigned to St. Albans Veterans Hospital in Long Island, New York. He recalls growing tired of his duties there and explains that he asked to serve elsewhere. He remembers being told there were no ships open for a Corpsmen, but, alternatively, he was offered a position with the Fleet Marines. He accepted the offer, was sent to Camp Pendleton, and was later shipped to Korea aboard the USS Serpent.



Returning Home with POWs

Charles Jacks recalls his return home on the USS General Walker with the first group of released POWs. He shares how after the Armistice was signed in 1953 both sides exchanged Prisoners of War (POWs). He details the voyage back to the United States and arriving in California to fanfare and TV cameras ready to greet and capture footage of the POWs returning.



Charles Hoak

Life after the War

Charles Hoak discusses his wages for service as well as his early life after his service. He recalls saving two thousand dollars and purchasing a car when he arrived home. He speaks of the benefit he received from the G. I. Bill.



Just Trying to Forget It

Charles Hoak describes his thoughts on the legacy of the Korean War and the hope of North and South Korea reunification. He notes the significance of the Korean War as the United Nations stopped the advance of Communism on the Korean Peninsula. He discusses how some servicemen are hesitant to talk about their experiences because they just want to move on with life.



Charles Rangel

Korean Resilience

Charles Rangel identified the determination of the Korean people in the aftermath of the Korean war. The resilience and kindness of the Korean people is something that he will never forget. He even has pictures of his time in Korea inside of his office as a United States Representative.



Segregation in the Armed Forces

Although the military was desegregated in 1948, Charles Rangel still experienced segregation during his military career. The only thing that was integrated, were two units. Even when he returned to the United States after the war, Charles Rangel had segregated barracks back on the military base.



Charles Stern

The Memories Started to Come Back

Charles Stern reveals how he did not speak about his experience in Korea until later in life. Yet, he does remember one exception during his honeymoon when he woke up screaming in the middle of the night to take cover. He shares how reading about the war and visiting an old Lieutenant started to bring back his memories. He admits feeling as if he should know more names of the soldiers who fought at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir, but they often were not around long enough for him to learn their names.



Chuck Lusardi

Learning of the Korean War Outbreak

Chuck Lusardi, on his way to basic training in Ft. Knox, KY, recalls reading the headlines in a newspaper stating the Korean War had started. He notes that at that point people did not really have a sense of the war just yet, but he could see the concern on his mother's face. He shares his time scheduled for twelve weeks at Ft. Knox was ultimately cut to eight weeks upon his arrival.



Clarence G. Atzenhoffer, Jr.

War Ready at Home

Clarence Atzenhoffer describes being trained and running drills for a homeland invasion in America during the Korean War. He recounts red alerts and being given guns with no bullets for practice purposes. He adds that while they knew the North Koreans did not have long range airplanes, the Russians were also a factor they had to worry about.



Freezing on the Airstrip

Clarence Atzenhoffer describes the weather in Spokane, Washington, and dealing with the harsh conditions during his duties. He shares his experience guarding jet squadrons during blizzards as part of the special service. He details the scant clothing they were given to carry out their duties and the lack of warmth they gave.



Poorly Prepared for War

Clarence Atzenhoffer describes his opinion on the Korean War and how unprepared he felt the United States was for the conflict. He expresses that American soldiers lacked training and were under-equipped. He describes flying to differing arsenals across the United States gathering weapons to send over to Korea.



The Forgotten War

Clarence Atzenhoffer shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is seen as the Forgotten War. He explains that many young people do not know about the war and many of the Korean War veterans are no longer alive now to tell their story. He describes the South Korean government's efforts to help spread awareness regarding the war.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



You Dream Just Before You Die

Clarence Sperbeck tells the story of another camp that lost over 1600 men in a period of 2 weeks, and the Chinese brought the survivors of that "massacre" to Camp 1 to merge those survivors with his prison camp. Clarence Sperbeck was already suffering with amoebic dysentery at that time, so when he came upon his old squad leader who had survived the "massacre" (death from other camp), the squad leader demanded the Chinese to provide medical care for Clarence Sperbeck. He said he would have dreams of cooking a full meal, then going back to cook some more. Many men declared that these were the symptoms dying men.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Claude Charland

Letters from Home

Claude Charland details the different people with whom he would correspond during his time in Korea. He describes how there were certain things that he could only write about with certain companions. He explains how with one penpal he could discuss the war, but would not do that with his letters to his mom or girlfriend back home.



Clayborne Lyles

Jubiliation at Sea

Clayborne Lyles participated in the Navy's ocean search and rescue efforts when there were US pilots that were shot down over the Pacific Ocean. He felt jubilation to be part of 22 pilot rescue missions, but he was sad when none of these missions were discussed in the newspapers. One mission that made him laugh, but it was still serious event was when a pilot was shot down and he was shot in the butt. Clayborne Lyles remembered how the sailors would give each other grief to lighten the mood of war.



Clayton Burkholder

Knowledge of Korea

Clayton Burkholder was going to junior college and worked at a grocery store in 1951 when the Korean War stared. He read about the war in newspapers and heard it on the television. After volunteering, he didn't know anything about Korea, but he did know about Japan. He knew that there was a conflict that needed to be taken care of in Asia, but that was it.



Letter Writing to Family and Fighting Men of Michigan

Clayton Burkholder wrote letters home to his wife twice a week. In the letters, he wrote about the different propaganda posters that he made. He also made releases for US newspapers using sketches of pilots that he drew. These releases were used to publicize the war in the pilots' hometown.



Volunteer Before You Get Drafted!

Clayton Burkholder enlisted in the military because he was about to be drafted. The boss of a grocery store was also on the draft board and luckily Clayton Burkholder worked for him. HIs boss gave him a warning that he would be drafted Monday morning, so Clayton Burkholder volunteered on Friday afternoon before he was drafted.



Cletus S. Pollak

Filling in after the War

Cletus S. Pollak describes the function of his battalion at the end of the Korean War. He explains Eisenhower becoming president and his desire to end the Korean War. He also describes how members of his battalion stateside would be selected to fill in missing members of units overseas in Germany and Korea.



Were you gone?

Cletus S. Pollak shares that the Korean War was not the topic of conversation and describes coming home after the war and the reaction from most people being one of ignorance. He explains that the American populace was tired of war after World War II. He describes how the nation was tired of rationing and this contributed to the Korean War becoming known as the forgotten war.



Camaraderie through the Years

Cletus S. Pollak shares that he formed friendships during his service from all over the country. He recounts keeping in touch with a friend through Christmas cards and attending the funeral of another after his passing. He adds that he has developed a close camaraderie with other Korean War veterans as of late.



Clifford Bradley Dawson

Basic Training and Integration of the Military

Clifford Bradley Dawson shares his experience of being drafted into the United States Army right after completing high school. He recalls attending basic training at Ft. Riley, where the 10th Infantry Division comprised three regiments: one all-Black, one all-White, and one integrated. He served in the integrated unit and remembers working alongside fellow soldiers from different parts of the United States.



Clifford L. Wilcox

The Worst Day of My Life

Clifford Wilcox describes the day he left home for Korea as being the worst day of his life. He had to leave behind his wife and a newborn baby boy. He also just had a new house, car, and job. He describes his wife's experience waiting by the window for him, yearning for her husband to return home.



Why Do Veterans Not Talk About Their Experiences?

Clifford Wilcox discusses the reasons he think veterans do not talk about their experiences in war. He mentions the killings, prisoner of war experiences, as well as wounds inflicted. Although he understands this, he feels differently wanting to share his experiences in the Korean War.



Clifford Petrey

Letters to and from Home

Clifford Petrey recalls being allowed to write letters home occasionally. He recounts his mother keeping three or four of his letters through the years as a means of assurance that he was alive after having previously been listed as Missing in Action. He shares that he received a few letters from his family during his time as a POW as well.



Clifford Townsend

Return Home and Forgotten War

Clifford Townsend recounts his return home following his service in the Korean War. He shares that soldiers were not warmly welcomed back. He vocalizes his opinion on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Colin J. Hallett

Engaged During the War

Colin Hallett describes his engaged to Ina Everitt. Both Collin Hallett and Ina Everitt sent letters to stay in contact. Colin Hallett sent letters that spoke of daily and weekly events. Ina Everitt had a busy life at home that kept her busy and not just thinking of her fiancé.



Curtis Lewis

African Americans in the Korean War

African Americans that were in the military during the 1950s faced discrimination. Curtis Lewis noticed that African Americans were relegated to jobs such as navy motor pool, food service, supply, and general trade jobs. Unfortunately, African Americans were still subjected to institutionalized racism in America.



Basic Training and MOS Training in California

Curtis Lewis graduated high school in 1952 and jointed the Air Force right away. He attended basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. After earning high scores in the technology industry, he was sent to California to learn his military operational specialty. While in California, he was able to see many of his Army friends leave for Korea, but not all returned.



Travis Air Force Base During the Korean War

Curtis Lewis was not sent to the Korean War during his time in the military. He heard that the US Army didn't have enough guns and ammunition while fighting against the North Koreans. Many of the US regiments were run over by the North Koreans due to lack of weapons. He was stationed at Travis Air Force Base in California to perform maintenance and was paid 200 dollars a month and he earned his way up to Staff Sergeant.



Curtis Pilgrim

Teach Korea

Curtis Pilgrim makes his point as to why teaching the Korean War is so valuable to the next generation and that somehow it had been lost between the Second World War and Vietnam. He recalls coming home in uniform and the cab driver being unaware of the Korean War, though his fellow Americans were living and dying there. He stresses the fact that it was so much more than a police action and that it should never be forgotten.



Cyril Kubista

The Influence of Korea

Cyril Kubista was impressed with the Korean community and the impact it made on his life. He never imagined it would give him the experiences and expertise necessary to become a twenty-seven year veteran teacher of small engine repair in a correctional facility. Furthermore, he believes the Korean work ethic and culture is fabulous because of the gratitude for those that helped during the war. He believes every man should be required to serve in the military to help them grow up.



Active in Local Veteran Chapter

Cyril Kubista explains how Korean War veterans often felt when returning home from service. He describes being expected to "go home, shut up, and go to work" and they were not welcomed by World War II veterans. Because of these experiences, he discusses how some veterans formed their own local chapter so they could talk about the past and have a good time.



Dale Koestler

Learning About Korea In School

Dale Koestler recalls having an appetite for learning history and geography as a child. He remembers taking it upon himself to locate Pearl Harbor on a map in his fourth grade textbook when it was attacked out of sheer curiosity, leading to his discovery of many countries, including Korea. He credits his teacher in the one-room schoolhouse he attended with fostering a love for learning.



Uneventful Most Days

Dale Koestler describes his days in the Navy as mostly uneventful, having remained stateside throughout the Korean War. He recalls one search and rescue in particular in which he participated where a crew was lost in a training accident. He reflects that he would have served his country wherever and in whatever capacity he was needed.



Dale Schlichting

Enlisting as a 17 Year Old

Dale Schlichting chose to join the Navy the day after he turned 17 years old. He prepared and studied for the Eddie Test for electronics with help from his favorite high school teacher. Dlae Schlichting chose the Navy since everyone in his neighborhood was active in this branch and he also wanted to follow after his relatives in the Navy.



Training, Training, and More Training!

Dale Schlichting didn't know that he could get a guarantee to go to ET (Electrical Training) School so that he could get into aviation by spending 8 weeks there. Then he went to mess cooking for 5 school. After that, he went 29 weeks Aviation Electrician Technician School and he wanted to be a tailgunner, but that job was closed.



Squadron 35

After 16 months of training, Dale Schlichting was sent to Florida to join Attack Squadron 35. The only propeller aircraft that was still being used in the Korean and Vietnam War was worked on by Dale and this made his so proud. He was supposed to be dismissed from the military two months early, but he wanted to stay with his squadron to travel the world. If was left behind with 13 of this squad mates because Squadron 35 wouldn't be back to their base by the time Dale Schlichting would have to leave.



Role of an Electronics Technician During Korean War

Dale Schlichting was an electronics technician during the Korean War with Attack Squadron 35. The AD (carried 22,000 pounds of supplies), Corsair, and P52 Army aircraft were his favorite planes to work on for the Army and Air Force. He had to crawl under the planes to work on and inside, and he loved it since it was very hot in the Florida heat on the tarmac.



David H. Epstein

Meeting a Friend from Home

David H. Epstein shares an endearing story about being reconnected with a childhood friend who was his military superior. He recalls that both of their mothers arranged the meeting between he and the other soldier prior to both of them being shipped overseas to Korea. He explains that after the Korean War was over, they both continued to reconnect as friends while they were both still serving in South Korea.



Drafted, Training, and Starting a Family

David H. Epstein recalls being drafted, going through basic training, and starting a family around the same time. He explains how he came to be in the United States Marine Corps, rather than the United States Army, although he was drafted. He describes his arrival in Korea, and the duties involved in being assigned to Command Post Security for Headquarters Company of the 1st Marine Division.



David Lopez

Peace and Trust Among Former Enemies

David Lopez shares his mixed feelings about the possibility of meeting up with the North Koreans that he fought against during the Korean War. Soldiers on both sides were just doing their jobs and following through on orders, so he would meet with his former enemy. He remembers taking prisoners during the war and one of them being rather tall. He believes the prisoner was a Chinese soldier, not a North Korean.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



David White

Wounded in Battle, Recovery, and Returning Home

David White describes how he was recovered from the battlefield after being wounded by an enemy mortar. He talks about his month-long recovery. He also discusses returning to service before going home.



Delbert Tallman

Letters Home and Christmas in Korea

Delbert Tallman describes staying in contact with home, leaving around the age of 20. He talks about being in Korea for Christmas away from his family. He shared that it was very hard being separated.



Dennis Grogan

Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Dispatch Rider

Desmond Vinten initially lied on military documents to enlist in the military at nineteen. He arrived at Busan in June of 1951 and remained until the Armistice. He served as a dispatch rider based in the headquarters of the Forward Maintenance Area. He left July 27, 1953, as the cease fire came into effect. He has returned to Korea four times since his service.



Diana Kathleen Cattani

Experience in Basic Training

Diana Cattani reflects on her experience in basic training in the United States Air Force. She recalls the training included math and language skills as well as learning how to follow rules without question. She explains this included clothing being ironed and starched as well as strict rules around how much clothing could be in their laundry bag. She describes marching from one end to another on base and swears they marched nine hours a day. She shares she never learned how to use a gun however, because leadership knew she would not be fighting. She reflects on her time at basic training, sharing the experience made her stronger physically and mentally.



Job Description and Living Conditions

Diana Cattani describes undergoing placement training while in the U.S. Air Force which included a rating in seven categories. She admits she struggled with the mechanical tasks but excelled in administration and office procedures. She shares she also attended a radio operations course held with male soldiers where she learned how to use a radio and morse code. She recalls being told she had a perfect voice for radio since it was loud and clear. She remembers how, despite graduating at the top of her class, her assignment was as a typist, a position she was unhappy about. She details her living conditions on her first assignment, expanding on the fact there were no dryers on base and how the base commander's wife would not allow laundry to be hung outside on Sundays.



Working as a Civilian for the Department of Defense

Diana Cattani reflects on her time working as a civilian for the Department of Defense after her discharge from the U.S. Air Force due to her pregnancy. She shares there was no way to fight the discharge at the time. She states things are much better for women today who get pregnant while serving in the military. She recalls feeling her skills were underused and feels women were treated unfairly. She remains very disappointed she was forced to leave the Air Force upon her pregnancy which was the norm of that time.



Dick Lien

Forgotten upon Arrival Home

Dick Lien describes what it was like to come home from war. He explains that it was perceived just like coming home from college. He says that the only people who can understand what war is like are the people serving overseas with you.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

Homecoming of Heroes

Dimitrios Matsoukas shares a newspaper article that shows his father and eldest sister standing over the repatriated coffin of their brother, George Matsoukas. On March 5, 1955, the coffins of 186 Greek heroes who fell in the Korean War were returned to Greece.



Dirk J. Louw

If You Can't Look Out For Yourself...

Dirk J. Louw shows a picture of his father, Johannes J. E. Louw who was born November 6, 1926. The youngest of 7 children Johannes J. E. Louw grew up on a farm and in 1942 enrolled in the South African Air Force. He served as a logician and was responsible for the welfare of other soldiers.



South African Servicemen

Dirk J. Louw describes how the South African government sent a squadron to Korea based on a deal with the Americans where the United States equipment was used against payment to the South African government. 826 South African volunteers served in Korea during the war.



Don McCarty

Go to Jail or Go to the Marines

Don McCarty joined the US Marine Corps when he was 17 years old because if he didn't, he would have ended up in jail. With is mom's permission, he was sent away to Parris Island, SC for boot camp. After growing up in Chicago, Illinois and Kentucky, he said that he received the positive push in life that he needed once entering boot camp.



Don R. Childers

Going From the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves to Active Duty

Don R. Childers enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserves in Oklahoma City when he was eighteen years old. He recalls the policy of President Harry S. Truman's administration, in 1948, that anyone who enlisted in the U.S. Reserves would not be drafted. During his time in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves, he trained periodically at Camp Pendleton. After spending two years in the Reserves, he received advanced combat training when the Korean War started in 1950 and reported for active duty.



Honor Flight

Don R. Childers explains how he was selected for an Honor Flight to Washington D.C. He becomes emotional while describing the standing applause he and the other Honor Flight veterans received as they walked through the airport in Washington D.C. He shares how serving in the United States Marine Corps taught him the importance of being dependable.



Donald Arthur Summers

Hunger

Donald Arthur Summers remembers a time when he had to use the last of his money to buy a bus fare to return home to Oklahoma after finishing his basic training. He shares how he could not afford food at one of the bus stops and how the bus driver offered him a meal at the diner. He recalls how, while he was stationed in Japan, he witnessed hunger and poverty which left a deep impression on him.



Desire to Learn

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his desire to pursue further education while serving in the United States Navy. He recalls an instance where an instructor at a training school in Norman, Oklahoma, gave him a second chance to study and pass the qualifying examination which he eventually did. He shares that, as a result of his hard work, he was able to attend an aviation structure and hydraulic school in Millington, Tennessee. He notes how after completing his enlistment, he was forced to spend some time in the hospital due to radiation exposure from Operation Castle.



Pride in Serving

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his gratitude for having served in the United States Armed Forces. He encourages young people to consider enlisting as he believes it can lead to a fulfilling career and personal growth. He explains how, during his time in the U.S. Navy, he completed aviation structure and hydraulic school which gave him the skills to have a successful career with American Airlines. He shares how being a veteran improved his self-esteem, furthered his education, and fulfilled his patriotic duty.



Donald Campbell

"Go Home and Shut Up."

Donald Campbell shares why he believes the Korean War was forgotten. He shares how he was told by his superiors to not talk about the war. He explains how they didn't get many benefits after the war. He explains how that all changed when the Vietnam War veterans returned. He shares that their push for recognition and benefits helped Korean War veterans.



Donald D. Johnson

Leaving Your Wife Behind

Donald D. Johnson describes being called back in September 1950 to serve in the Korean War. He mentions the battles in which he fought and his reasons for joining the Inactive Reserves. He elaborates on the emotional toll of leaving his wife behind.



Donald Dempster

Legacies of Korean War

Donald Dempster feels that it is important to remember the accomplishments of the Korean War. He assisted in keeping democracy in South Korea instead of communism. He is very proud that South Korea has succeeded from emulating the government of the United States.



Why the Forgotten War?

Donald Dempster believes that since the Korean War was after WWII, the American public had enough of war. He further feels that the Korean War has been forgotten by the public because it was not reported by US media as much as other wars. He acknowledges that recruitment was not as large during the Korean War as it was during WWII.



Special Job

Donald Dempster shares how he was promoted to work for the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) in Washington D.C. He was part of a team that researched any inappropriate activities in the Air Force. He had extra training to receive this special position.



Donald Dufault

Disappointment Coming Home

Donald Dufault discusses reasons that he felt disappointed upon coming home after the Korean War. He explains that even even going to veterans organizations was disappointing, so he did not keep up membership. He eventually rejoined years later.



Donald Duquette

A Famous Photograph

Donald Duquette discusses taking a photograph of John Allen (35th Infantry Division) going up a hill. This photograph, Donald Duquette's most famous, was published nationwide back in the United States. He shares the photo with the interviewer.



Donald Haller

Prior Knowledge of Korea

Donald Haller recalls not learning much about Korea in high school. He does remember that an older brother of his friend was stationed in Korea after World War II and shares how he learned a little bit about Korea from him. He comments on his uncertainty about where Korea was on a map but notes how confident he was that the war would be over in just a few months. He realizes just how wrong he was. He mentions how much he enjoyed the service as he had not traveled outside of Michigan before the war. He shares how he joined the Navy Reserves so he could finish college but ended up being called to Korea in 1950.



Donald Loudner

American Indian Tradition

Donald Loudner talks about what he calls an "American Indian tradition" to serve in times of need. He describes how many of his cousins and other members of the Hunkpati Sioux tribe served in the Korean War.



"Tomahawk"

Donald Loudner talks about basic training Fort Carson, Colorado. He tells a story about earning the nickname "Tomahawk" because he could throw a grenade with such accuracy.



Discrimination

Donald Loudner, of the Hunkpati Sioux Tribe, talks about discrimination that he faced as a native American in the US Army. He remembers an episode when he was asked to leave a cafe and how his commander responded.



A Top Secret Job

Donald Loudner talks about what he did in the US Army. Not allowed to serve in Korea, he describes working in a top secret communications section where he was a code encryption instructor.



Donald R. Bennett

Enlisted at Fifteen, Sergeant before High School Graduation

Donald R. Bennett, who was part of the US Marine Reserve Regiment in San Diego during the majority of his high school years, recalls the early days of his service from receiving his tank in San Diego to seeing the tank loaded for transport to Japan. He notes that the tank he received was like nothing they had ever trained on. He shares that as a young eighteen-year-old high school graduate, he was put in charge of four other men, most older than he was, who had little to no training in operating tanks. He continues sharing the process of preparing his tank once they arrived in Kobe, Japan.



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Transitioning Back to Civilian Life

Donald Schneider's challenges in the early 1950s didn't end when he returned to Wisconsin. In this clip, he describes his personal struggles returning to life as a civilian and to the workforce after having been gone for two years. He had been guaranteed his job when he returned, but this caused a woman to become resentful towards him. After a while, he said that he just learned to not talk about it and “clammed up”



Combat Nightmares

Donald Schneider shares his experiences of what combat soldiers often deal with when trying to transition back to life as a civilian. He describes vivid nightmares which often made him not want to go to sleep. He explains how he worked a lot to avoid having to sleep and experience those vivid nightmares, and how he has made other adjustments to avoid potentials triggers.



Donald Stemper

FBI Scoured His Home Town Asking Questions

Since Don Stemper and his family had printing skills, he had a huge interest in infrared, aerial, or map-making photography. While at Lackland Air Force Base, they put him into a Casual Squadron which is where the armed forces put you when they don't know what to do with you. He heard from family members that the FBI had scoured the town of Mankato, Minnesota asking questions about Don Stemper in order to receive clearance to do undercover work for the Armed Forces. He learned later that these strategies was standard protocol before giving someone who was working with classified material and map-making technology. While he was in this holding pattern, he pulled duty over trash cans.



Doris B. Porpiglia

Letters to Where?

No soldier could have imagined that their letters would be analyzed to determine their IQ. Doris Porpiglia was called aside while at Camp Cook and she was told to go through stacks of mail to determine which G.I.s had high IQs. If they had high IQs, they would be assigned certain jobs, but she didn't know what they were being assigned to.



Ladies Don't Do Such A Thing

Doris Porpiglia was asked how her family felt about her being in the military. Although her parents and immediate family were proud of her, her rich aunt told her that "Ladies don't do such a thing." Doris Porpiglia replied, "I am more of a lady than you'll ever be, and what I wear isn't going to determine the person I am going to be."



Women's Wartime Jobs

During the Korean War, women worked as switchboard operators and they drove jeeps for officers. Doris Porgiglia was given an aptitude test and she was qualified for over 150 types of jobs. She decided to go to Indianapolis to obtain the training for the Post Office.



Training For The Future

Doris Porpiglia explained that many women had standard jobs that most women had during that time period. This included telephone operator and secretary. She said the main thing women wanted from their experiences during the war, was skills they needed that they could use when the war ended.



Big Surprise

Doris Porpiglia tells a story that the most surprising thing about her job was some of the men that didn't know how to read or write, so they would quietly ask her to read the letters they received. The male GIs since didn't want others to know that they were uneducated. Doris Porpiglia felt sorry for them and she said that most of the men who had difficulty reading were from the south, but race didn't matter. She believes that it inspired her to become a teaching assistant when the war was over.



Dottie Harris

Sexism and Racism in the Air Force

Dottie Harris recalls the first time she ate at the mess hall at Connally AFB. She explains that she was the only WAF stationed at Connally at that time and was reluctant to go to the mess hall by herself. She describes walking in and, with all eyes on her and the room silent, she sat at nearest table and hurriedly ate her meal. She explains how she had inadvertently sat at a table where African American Airmen were also seated and was harassed not only for being a female officer, but for sitting with African Americans.



WAF Living Conditions on Base

Dottie Harris describes her living conditions while living in the barracks with other women. She explains that the barracks she shared with three other women at Connally AFB was entirely too small and only allowed for twenty-eight inches of open space between the bunk beds. She describes the open bay area of uncomfortable cots at Lowry AFB.



From Khaki to Air Force Blue

Dottie Harris explains that the book she is currently (at the time of the interview) writing entitled 1951 From Khaki to Air Force Blue is fictional but contains some factual events that she experienced. She shares photos from her time at Connally AFB. She recalls an incident involving the men on base playing a prank on her.



Douglas Koch

US Marine Life Before the War

Douglas Koch describes his duties aboard the USS Saint Paul prior to the war. He recalls traveling to many ports in the Pacific before returning to Camp Pendleton while "The Sands of Iwo Jima" was being filmed. He explains that he and other US Marines were used as extras in the background during filming and were able to meet John Wayne, who was very kind.



Doyle W. Dykes

Life Back at Home

Doyle W. Dykes remembers what it was like to arrive back home from Korea. There was disconnect from civilian to military life. Community members wanted him to speak, but he wanted to simply move on with his regular life.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Knowledge of Korea and Arriving in Korea

Earl House shares he knew little about Korea prior to arriving as a soldier. He recalls the first time learning anything about Korea was in the Naval Reserves. He mentions he was excited to travel to Korea and fight in the war as he had never traveled outside the U.S. except for visiting Canada.



Earl Coplan

Living Conditions

Earl Coplan details the living conditions while he served in Korea in the 1970s. He explains having to adapt from American food to Korean food, such as Kimchi. He recalls receiving a monthly pay of $120 a month before taxes.



Ed M. Dozier

Struggles but No Regrets

Ed M. Dozier candidly shares the struggles that he and many Korean War Veterans faced following their service. He speaks about his struggles with PTSD after the war and discusses his thoughts about today's soldiers. Despite the challenges since returning home, he claims he has no regrets.



Eddie Reyes Piña

Many Felt We Had No Business Over There

Eddie Reyes Piña recounts how he volunteered for the draft before he was eligible. He recalls entering the service on August 20, 1952. He shares what those around him were saying about U.S. involvement in the Korean War and the subsequent treatment of Korean War veterans when they returned.



"If You Do Not Know the Unknown Then You Are Going to Be Fearful"

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls how he returned from Korea while still a teenager. He reflects on the importance of learning about the Korean War and the country itself. He believes that by learning about the unknown we can eliminate much of the fear in the world.



Edmund Ruos

Reason for Joining the Air Force

Edmund Ruos shares that he learned more about Korea after joining the Air Force in 1951. He explains that he joined after his older brother urged him to so he could select which branch he wanted to serve in rather than the branch being chosen through the draft. He recounts that he wanted to serve as a bombardier and jokingly admits that he cheated on his eye exam in hopes of making the training but was later caught on the second exam. He explains that after basic training, he was assigned to communications school and then shipped to Alaska to assist with electronic repairs.



Service Duties

Edmund Ruos describes his experience and his duties as part of the communications crew during his time in the Air Force. He explains that the U.S. had radar sites along the West Coast during the war and that he was sent to Alaska to assist with the changing and cleanup of a new site. He shares that he asked to become part of the permanent party there, finishing out his service. He adds that his parents did not know where he was and had to contact Washington D.C. to find out.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

Volunteering for Korea / Ofrecerse Para Pelear en Corea

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro knew about the war in Korea because of his military training, but he was unaware of where the country was located. The sentiment in Colombia was that the conflict was foreign and had nothing to do with Colombians. However, this changed when the United Nations, as the defenders of peace around the world, asked Colombia for a battalion. He understood the importance of combating communism and proudly volunteered to fight in Korea when asked. He describes the moment in which more than ninety nine point nine percent of those asked volunteered to fight.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro sabía lo que estaba pasando en la guerra de Corea por su entrenamiento militar, pero no sabía ni dónde estaba ubicado el país. El sentimiento en Colombia sobre la guerra era que el conflicto era extranjero y no tenía nada que ver con los colombianos. Sin embargo, esto cambió cuando Las Naciones Unidas, como defensores de la paz en el mundo, le pidió a Colombia un batallón. El entendió la importancia de combatir el comunismo y orgullosamente se ofreció como voluntario para luchar en Corea cuando el comandante pregunto quien lo acompañaría a Corea. Describe el momento en el que más del noventa y nueve punto nueve por ciento del batallón se ofrecieron como voluntarios para luchar.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

My Happiest Moments

Eduardo Sanchez remembers his happiest moments in the war came from meeting the other men who were from his home town. They called their little reunion the Mexican Village. However, it was a sad moment when they realized who would no longer be returning to the village due to the war ending. Veterans returning home found it hard to find occupations.



Edward A. Walker

Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Edward F. Foley, Sr.

War Reflections and Impressions of Modern Korea

Edward Foley shares that he does not have bad dreams or resentment towards the war or even the North Koreans, stating that they were only doing what they were told to do. He comments on his revisit to Korea and the improvements made since he was there during the war. He describes Seoul as a Westernized city and compares it to New York City.



Korean War Legacy

Edward Foley comments on the grateful attitudes South Koreans have towards the U.S. He shares that the legacy of the Korean War, despite it being called a police action and the Forgotten War, is being kept alive by the veterans associations and the Korean people themselves. He adds his thoughts on how young people should serve their country in some form or fashion for a few years.



Edward Greer

Moving Ranks and Combat in Korea

Edward shares the trajectory of his military service by describing moving up in rank and describes some of the officer training he received. After finishing a basic course, in January of 1950, he was sent to Japan with a field artillery unit and was there when the war in Korea began in June of 1950. In December of 1950, he was promoted to an officer position, and he wrapped up that portion of his tour in December of 1951. Edward also describes the supply system during the Korean War and compares it to that of World War II.



Becoming a Major General

Edward Greer describes the aftermath of taking an advanced course, which upon completion, he and was sent to Washington, DC, where he spent three years working in the Department of Personnel. He describes where he served at his different ranks, one of which includes Vietnam as a Lieutenant Colonel in 1970. He returned stateside, and eventually reached the rank of Major General. Edward retired at that rank in December of 1976.



Edward John Jankowski

Rededication of the Bridge

Noreen Jankowski recounts how her husband, Edward, would write her letters every day, and she would receive them in bulk. Along with these letters, she reviews some of the husband's photographs of construction projects. Among these photographs, she shares images of the reconstruction and rededication of the bridge over the Han River. In a few of the photographs, she identifies General Taylor and the President of the Korean National Assembly.



Reminders from M.A.S.H

Noreen Jankowski recalls her husband, Edward Jankowski, was not the type of veteran who would complain about his military service. According to his wife, the sitcom MASH reminded him of his outfit. Noreen shares one story from Edward involving the commander encouraging the soldiers to improve their attire and they did not have the resources to dress up.



Edward Parmenter

A Response to Perceived Fiction

Edmond Parmenter explains that the publication of David Halberstam's book, The Coldest Winter, prompted him to write his own book about the Korean War, The Korean War: Fiction vs. Fact. He provides examples of what he feels is fictitious content in Halberstam's book and offers countering information based on his own experience. He further supports his claims by stating that he referenced Korean War archives.



Edward R. Valle

Finding Camaraderie

Edward Valle describes the genesis of the Minnesota Korean War Veterans Association. He shares the meetings evolved from a few veterans getting together to tell war stories to a well-organized association. He adds that the Association takes part in community activities and provides an honor guard for Korean War Veteran funerals.



"This is the Best Thing Jim Ever Did"

Edward Valle explains how the Minnesota Korean War Veterans Association has expanded its mission to include a social arm of the organization that now includes the wives. He recalls a story when a wife of a disabled Korean War veteran related to him that joining and participating in the Minnesota Korean War Veterans Association provided closure and healing for her husband who had been bitter about the war.



Experiencing Segregation

Edward Valle explains he enlisted in the United States Air Force in December 1951 and underwent basic training in San Antonio. He shares that, although he had grown up in the very diverse city of Chicago, it was in San Antonio where he first experienced segregation laws at local theaters. He concludes by focusing on the importance of President Truman desegregating the military.



Edwin Maunakea, Jr.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Edwin Maunakea Jr. remembers what he was doing at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. He tells the story about fishing as Japanese planes descended on the Harbor and waved at him. He describes what happened after the attack began.



Edwin R. Hanson

I Jumped In Front of a Torpedo Bomber to Mail My Postcard

Edwin Hanson reminisces about one occasion at Kor-'o-ri when a torpedo bomber (plane) came through to pick up wounded soldiers. He had a postcard that he wanted to deliver to his mother. He remembers the bomber sitting at the end of the runway, preparing to take off, and running down the middle of the runway blocking his takeoff and waving his letter. This postcard was among the many sent home to his mother, but he notes that most dealt almost exclusively with the weather.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

Legacy of the Korean War

Eilif Jorgen Ness believed that the Korean War was not a forgotten war and was instead the last war that returning men were seen as heroes. The war stopped communism. It was the first time the West put their foot down hard!



Eleanor Newton

Duties of an Air Force Flight Nurse

Eleanor Newton describes her role as an Air Force Flight Nurse. Eleanor received many Korean War soldiers under her care while stationed in Berkeley, California. Soldiers were sent to her for treatment and evaluation before moving on to other locations stateside.



Earthquakes and PTSD

Eleanor Newton describes the responsibilities of responding to civilian accidents while on base at Edwards Air Force Base. This included responding to help after an earthquake in Tehachapi, California. She also explains the importance of treating patients with PTSD and assuring them they were safe.



Decision to Override a Doctor

Eleanor Newton shares memories of an encounter with a doctor. She recounts a situation where a doctor insisted that she accept a patient on her aircraft. Despite orders, she refused to do so due to the patient's health status and was able to override the doctor.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Preparation for Joining the Greek Army

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis states he knew nothing about the Korean War when it began. At the time, he was a civil servant responsible for caring for military horses. He explains his role during the Korean War involved transporting food and ammunition on mules.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Lessons from War

Ellis Ezra Allen shares what he learned from the war. He dismisses PTSD, saying that a man is a man and is supposed to stand up in whatever he gets into. He adds that he acquired good decision making skills and demanded respect from others around him.



Ernest J. Berry

"I Wanted to Make a Difference."

Ernest J. Berry was deeply moved by his aunt's medical care before she died. He chose nursing to make a difference in people's lives. When the Korean War broke out, though afraid, he enlisted in the army and sailed for Korea.



Ernesto Sanchez

Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

Volunteering for War

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recounts his motivations for volunteering to fight in Korea with the Batallón Colombia. He explains that he joined the armed forces and was in the reserves which was called into action three times in his nation before heading to Korea. His remembers that his main motivations were a sense of adventure, and his hope that he would be able to live in Hawaii or the United States after he served in the war.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez relata sus motivos para ofrecerse como voluntario para luchar en Corea con el Batallón Colombia. Explica que se unió a las fuerzas armadas y estuvo en las reservas y fue llamado tres veces luchando en su nación antes de irse a Corea. Sus principales motivaciones eran el sentido de la aventura y su esperanza en poder vivir en Hawái o en los Estados Unidos después de la guerra.



Ethel Julia Archibald

Joining the Women's Auxiliary Army Corp

Ethel Archibald describes joining the Women's Auxiliary Army Corp during World War II as well as where she served during World War II and the Korean War. She explains her desire to serve just like two of her brothers who had volunteered for service. She recalls how her first days of service made her feel like she was doing something worthwhile.



Eugene Dixon

Home, Food, and Weather

Eugene Dixon describes how he communicated with his family through letter writing during the Korean War. He details experiences in eating combat rations, and recalls the difficulty in accessing food in extreme cold weather conditions. He recounts the impact of low temperatures on the functioning of weapons and communications devices. He describes the precautions he took to prevent having frost-bite during the war.



Eugene Johnson

The Only Way Out

In this clip Eugene Johnson tells the story of how he changed his birth certificate to make himself two year older so that he could enlist. He enlisted to get away from a tough homelife.



Eusebio Santiago

Chosen as Replacements

Eusebio Santiago provides his account of being chosen as part of the replacement units for the United States Army 65th Infantry Regiment. He clarifies how he was originally chosen by his company commander to be part of the second deployment of reinforcements. Yet, because one of the soldiers chosen to mobilize first became ill, he describes returning from a short trip home and his commander shifting him to the first deployment.



Ezra Franklin Williams

"The Older I Get, The Prouder I Am"

Ezra Frank Williams is very proud of his contribution during the Korean War to fight off the North Koreans and Chinese. He has admiration for Korean immigrants that came to the United States after the war. South Koreans really show that they appreciate everything the UN did to protect their country.



All Marines Were Headed to Korea

Ezra Frank Williams stated that he should have put his duty station as Korea because that's where the US military was sending all their Marines. Everyone laughed at him when he asked where the enemy was while in basic training in 1951. They told him that he'll really get a good look at them while he's in Korea.



Fekede Belachew

Medley of Korean War Topics

Fekede Belachew describes various topics about his Korean War experience. He discusses talking to wounded returning soldiers about their experience. He describes Korean people in sad shape. He also describes that the Americans supplied United Nations troops with food and clothing.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Combat Pay / Pago de Combate

Felipe Aponte-Colon discusses that while he was not paid much for his service, it was very difficult to get his paycheck to his family. He recounts talking with his father on how to best use the money he sent them.

Felipe Aponte-Colon cuenta que Aunque no le pagaron mucho por su servicio en el ejercito, era muy difícil mandarle su dinero a la familia. Él cuenta la historia que tuvo que hablar con su padre sobre mejor cómo usar el dinero que les envió.



Felipe Cruz

Training and Operating Heavy Equipment

Felipe Cruz shares his experience of basic training in the United States Marine Corps. He comments on his training in rifle qualification, infantry, and amphibian tractor school. He recounts how he spent six months as a crewman on amphibian tractors in Busan, Korea, before being deployed to the infantry on the Imjin River. He notes that due to his prior experience in driving trucks, he was reassigned to the Headquarters and Service Company as a heavy equipment truck driver.



Induction into the U.S. Marine Corps

Felipe Cruz reminisces about his enlistment into the United States military in 1951. He recalls a sergeant from the United States Marine Corps advising him to relax and enjoy some coffee and cookies as he waited for his induction into the U.S. Naval Service which he initially believed meant joining the U.S. Navy. He recounts how, later, when he returned to the waiting area and helped himself to more cookies, he was reprimanded by the same Marine Corps sergeant who exclaimed, "From now on you don't move unless you're told." He highlights the strong bond among U.S. Marines and how he attends reunions for the amphibian tractor battalion he served in.



Concluding Service Stateside

Felipe Cruz describes his experience of returning to the United States after the armistice agreement in Korea. He shares that during that time, he was suffering from an ulcer, which he was treated for at a naval hospital in Oakland, California. He notes that following a three-month stay at the hospital, he was to report to Del Mar near Camp Pendleton. He recalls how an officer gave him the option of reporting to Del Mar or working as a truck driver for the Department of the Pacific in San Francisco. He expresses his gratitude for getting the opportunity to conclude his service by driving trucks near his childhood home.



Fermín Miranda Valle

Falsifying Papers / Falsificación de Papeles

Fermín Miranda Valle recounts the story of how he lied to enter the Army. His friends were discussing the war and they decided to enlist; however, he was only seventeen. He was able to sign up for the army without his birth certificate after lying to the secretary in the office.

Fermín Miranda Valle cuenta la historia de cómo mintió para entrar al ejército. Sus amigos estaban discutiendo la guerra y decidieron alistarse; sin embargo, el solo tenía diecisiete años. Pudo alistarse en el ejército sin su certificado de nacimiento después de mentirle a la secretaria en la oficina.



Finn Arne Bakke

Service in NORMASH

Finn Bakke credited his experience in Korea to the first secretary-general of the United Nations, Norwegian Trygve Lie. Trygve Lie brought the plight of the Koreans to the Norwegian people, and Norway sent soldiers, doctors, and nurses to a field hospital to Korea. He explained there were three reasons he volunteered to go to Korea to work in a NORMASH hospital: he wanted to help, he craved the excitement of traveling to the other side of the world, and he needed money to begin his university studies. Although he was not trained as a nurse, he worked in a laboratory and was trained in basic first aid care at the field hospital.



Floyd Hanamann

They Called It C-17

Floyd Hanamann describes his experience working with psychiatric patients in the military hospital. He explains the symptoms he would see when soldiers would come back from the Korean War. In addition, he explains that there would be some soldiers who could only be furnished with a mattress as they would destroy the furniture if provided.



Electroshock and Aversion Therapy

Floyd Hanamann describes the treatments Korean War veterans would receive for their mental health issues at Fitzsimmons Army Hospital. He explains watching soldiers undergoing ECT treatments and how high they would rise from the table when shocked. He also describes the therapy for alcoholics who were poisoned to vomit and expel liquids to encourage aversion to the substance.



Searching Pockets for Knives and Forks

Floyd Hanamann describes mealtime in the military mental hospital. He explains searching through pockets of soldiers who thought they could use utensils as weapons against enemies. He also describes the fights that would break out between soldiers during meals. He recalls the granting of discharge for some soldiers based on improvement.



Frances Louise Donovan

Experience at Basic Training

Frances Donovan describes her basic training in San Antonio,Texas. She admits she had never traveled outside of the area she grew up and basic training was a big change of pace. She shares how she learned how to do things in the U.S. Army way as well as how to accept everything and everyone. She remembers, with pride, how she left basic training with a commission as second lieutenant.



Working in a Stateside Tuberculosis Hospital

Frances Donovan recalls her first assignment at a Stateside tuberculosis hospital. She remembers all of her patients were soldiers returning from Korea with tuberculosis or other respiratory issues. She explains how the treatment for tuberculosis was to collapse the lung and then bed rest until the lungs healed. She recounts one difficulty centered on soldiers not following these orders which delayed their recovery as well as made her job more difficult.



Treating Patients

Frances Donovan describes the wards of the hospital and how many patients would be there at a time. She recalls her patients and the difficulty she had getting some of them to stay in bed and rest. She shares how she had to find the right button to push with the soldiers for them to follow orders. She remembers working on the prison ward at times and being harassed by some of the men.



Francis Beidle

Discrimination Against Veterans at Home

Francis Beidle discusses the difficult time he had finding work after he returned from the war. He recalls experiencing a lot of negative attitudes about Korean War Veterans which included some potential employers throwing him out when they learned he was a Korean War Veteran. He attributed the negative feelings towards veterans to the unpopular news stories circulating about soldiers raping women.



Legacy of the Korean War

Francis Beidle explains he believes the Korean War was a mistake. He shares he tries to forget about his time in the Korean War. He believes North Korea might try to start another war and that the US should be on alert.



Francis Bidle

Drafted and Shipped Out

Francis Bidle recalls receiving his draft notice in the mail in the summer of 1951. He shares that he knew the Korean War had already broken out as he followed the news. He recounts his US Army basic training in Missouri and shares that he was eventually shipped to Japan where he received track vehicle machinery training.



Home Front Hardship

Francis Bidle recounts the hardship he experienced upon his return home. He shares that he was turned away from several job opportunities simply because he was a Korean War veteran. He recalls claims of US soldiers at the time treating the women in Korea poorly and shares that many business owners on the home front where he returned associated all Korean War veterans with the claims. He shares that he eventually passed over the fact that he had served in his succeeding job interviews.



Frank E. Butler

Joining the RSA

Frank E. Butler shares that upon his return to Palmerston North, he tried to join the Returned Services Association at the suggestion of relatives. He recalls the man at the RSA offices tried to kick him out because he was just a kid. He shares that he persevered with the help of two brothers-in-law, and adds that at sixteen years of age, he was not allowed to drink alcohol at the club.



Frank Seaman

Korean War: Forgotten and Its Importance

Frank Seaman shares his view on why the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War. He shares that when he came home, no one knew where he had been and that the war was not even talked about; life just went on. He also describes why he feels the Korean War was important and how the war changed South Korea.



Frank Zielinski

Fond Memories and Lessons Learned

Frank Zielinski describes the use of Korean "house boys" by various officers, though he himself did not take on a house boy. KATUSAS brought food up the paths to the front lines to feed soldiers. At Thanksgiving, the KSCs delivered much-appreciated turkey. Korea taught Frank Zielinski to respect and protect others.



Franklin Searfoss

Interest in Global Affairs

Franklin Searfoss remembers newsreels about the Korean War in the theaters and citizens in support of the war. He describes how having WWII veterans as his high school teachers helped develop his interest in global affairs. Nevertheless, like many soldiers knowing nothing about Korea before going to fight in the Korean War, he acknowledges not learning about Korea in his high school classes.



Fred Liddell

POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Fred Ragusa

Training to Become an Artillery Officer

Fred Ragusa describes his training in Army ROTC to become an Army artillery officer. He explains that the training focused on the structure of artillery at the battalion level. He remembers that there were not only other men from various campuses.



Artillery Training Alongside Koreans at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

Fred Ragusa talks about artillery training at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and a fellow class of Korean soldiers who were also training there at the time. He said that the Captain that taught him also taught a class of Koreans. He heard that there was an emphasis of extreme discipline in the Korean classes, but that this Captain was able to bring his class to the top.



Frederick Marso

An Education in Warfare

Frederick Marso describes learning about Korea from a high school teacher. His teacher was a WWII veteran and educated his classes about the conflict occurring between North and South Korea. He expands that this contributed to him wanting to enlist in the United States Navy.



Fredrick Still

"There Was No Fanfare"

Fredrick Still states that there wasn’t any real fanfare upon his return to the United States. The only fanfare was near the Golden Gate Bridge because he was on the first shipload back. He remembers that they did get a really good meal, including steak, when they arrived home.



Lifelong Friendships

When Fredrick Still was first drafted, he met four men and they bonded quickly. He explains how they went through training together. While the group went their separate ways, they got back together after the war and made a tradition of meeting up. Fredrick Stlil is proud that they have remained friends for all of these years.



Letters Home

Fredrick Still remembers writing to his friends, family, and future wife regularly. His wife has kept many of the letter that he wrote. He recalls getting a lot of mail while he was over in Korea.



Galip Fethi Okay

Acting and Pictures of the Past

Galip Fethi Okay describes his life after the Korean War. He became an irrigation digger. However, at one point he auditioned for a Turkish film and was hired. He was in a Turkish movie about the Korean War. He also provides pictures from the Korean War. One shows him at the Sand Bag Castle.



Gary Routh

American G.I.s and the KATUSA

Gary Routh describes his interaction with the KATUSA stationed with the American G.I.s. He describes how the American forces would view Korean culture as strange, such as bathing each other or eating ramen while seated on the floor. He then describes how Koreans would view the Americans as strange, including the harsh language and loud nature of the U.S. soldiers.



Gene Bill Davidson

Lessons of Faith

Gene Bill Davidson reflects on his experiences after his service. He shares how the war taught him the importance of getting the job done right. Yet once he returned home, he recalls feeling lost. He reveals he eventually realized he needed to recommit his life to his bible study. He shares he focused on finding and making a place for himself in this world.



Gene Spicer

Young and Dumb

Gene Spicer explains why he wanted to join the military. Not thinking about the dangers, Gene looked forward to seeing things outside of Indiana.



Gene Stone

It was My Obligation

Gene Stone shares his early experiences in the military following his graduation from Tennessee Tech as part of the ROTC program. He recalls his mother suggesting he continue his schooling to avoid serving in Korea, but he felt it was his obligation as an American to serve wherever he was sent. He explains the requirements of those who sought to become part of the Counterintelligence Corps.



Learning Counterintelligence

Gene Stone served as part of the 181st Counterintelligence Detachment during and after the Korean War. He shares what the training he received at Ft. Holabird was like. He notes the importance of observation and description in his training. He details one learning experience early in his training that in the end helped develop his skills in counterintelligence.



George Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Son's Death

George Brown recounts learning of his brother Arthur L. Brown initially being classified as Missing in Action on July 7, 1950. He shares that Arthur was serving in Korea as part of the 21st Regiment, 24th Division, Company K where when he was not actively carrying out his duty as an infantryman. He recalls how the family later learned he was being held as a Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. He recounts learning how Arthur died on his twenty-first birthday in January 1951 and that some of the returning soldiers told his family Arthur had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



Regrets of Hearing About Their Son's Death

George Brown recalls his parents were hit very hard by the news of their son Arthur Leroy Brown's death. He recalls his mom was pregnant with their first daughter and all were excited with the news. He remembers how Arthur eagerly shared the news with his fellow soldiers. He recounts how before Arthur left for boot camp, he and his father got into a scuffle because his father did not want him to quit school to join the Army.



The Burial of a POW

George Brown shares he was only six years old at the time his family was notified of his brother Arthur's death in POW Camp 5 in North Korea. He states that Arthur was temporarily buried in North Korea in a shallow grave due to the ground being frozen solid. He explains that the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency lists Arthur as unaccounted for and shares that Arthur is memorialized on the Courts of the Missing at the National Cemetery of the Pacific.



George Covel

Enlistment and Leaving Loved Ones Behind

George Covel describes his enlistment and leaving behind his wife who was 6 months pregnant at the time. He details his role as a bandsman and placement in the Honor Guard and recounts serving as a ceremonial bandsman during the war, about 11 miles away from the front lines. He expresses that he was fortunate enough to avoid firing weapons on most occasions.



A Rewarding Life, Legacy, and Message

George Covel discusses some of the challenges he faced regarding the GI Bill and choosing a differing career pathway when he returned to the States following the war. He emphasizes that the Army and his service made him a better man, and he offers his thoughts on the importance of the Korean War and the legacy of Korean War veterans. He stresses the importance of not forgetting history and encourages future generations to listen and learn from veterans so that they avoid the mistakes made in the past.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



George Geno

Working Hard to Stay Afloat During the Great Depression

It would be unfathomable for student in high school today to know how hard kids during the Depression had to work to earn money. George Geno said that most farmers couldn't pay you, but they wanted to give you food. He helped farmers, trapped musk rats, and raised calves. In 8-10 months, he sold the bull and that's the money he lived on and saved to buy his first car. George Geno was also given a nanny goat and a kid which he used to start his own goat farm while attending high school.



Stringing Popcorn on Christmas During the Depression

Because George Geno lived in the country, he avoided seeing a lot of the soup lines and problems in the cities, but the farms had a share of their own poverty. People would work in the field or paint your barn just to get food. They didn't have anything, but they didn't know any better. They would string popcorn to decorate the Christmas tree. To keep watermelon and their soda pop cool, families would put them in the draining ditch to act as a refrigerator. You couldn't buy tire outright, but you could buy the boots to use inside the tire. Toys weren't available, so they handmade everything including their bow and arrows for hunting pheasants, squirrel, and duck.



We Fished In the Basement Of Our House During the Depression

The house George Geno had growing up had a dirt basement and it would fill with water in the spring. His dad would take them to Reese's to buy nets and they would catch fish. Not many people can say that they went fishing in their own basement during the Great Depression!



The Korean War Draft

George Geno received his draft card in November of 1950 during some cold weather, so he worked hard to get the car running for his family before he left. He first took a train to Fort Wayne, Detroit for basic training and then he found out that his hometown dentist had been drafted too as he went in for his military checkup. After basic training, he was trained as a combat construction engineer specialist. He was also chosen for Officer Candidate Training School even though he didn't really want to go.



George Geno: One Happy and Safe Soldier!

George Geno was chosen for Officer CandidateTraining School and he had a Lieutenant that wanted to be well-known, so he really worked his men. George Geno was called heavy, so he had to run 2 miles extra every night and when he was discharged July 2, 1952, he was asked to re-enlist. He decided to re-enlist the next day and they were all given their next assignments; to George Geno's surprise, he was assigned to stay at Fort Bliss in the US. He cried with excitement and eventually became the Lieutenant in charge of training the US soldiers how to shoot accurately from the trenches.



George Parsons

Returning Veterans

George Parsons shares that the Korean War is hard to describe as it was a war we could have won but simply did not finish the job. He describes how it felt to come back from Korea and not be given the same recognition that he had witnessed being given to returning WWII veterans and discusses why he feels the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War. He elaborates on how proud he is that the DMZ is still a boundary between North and South Korea at the 38th Parallel, protecting the people he fought for during the war.



Enduring Fondness for Korea and Koreans

George Parsons explains that the Korean War and veterans of the Korean War should be remembered as honorable and should be valued for helping render a free country. He comments on the enduring fondness he feels for the people and government of Korea due to their appreciation for the Korean War veterans and their efforts. He offers an example of the gratitude he was shown while in line at a donut shop.



Legacy of the Korean War and Korean War Veteran

George Parsons speaks on the legacy of the Korean War and Korean War veteran. He feels that veterans saved a country and a people worth saving willingly. He believes the United States did the right thing by fighting, saving, and then handing the country of South Korea back into the hands of its citizens. He feels strongly about the reunification fo the Korean Peninsula and offers supporting reasons.



George Tzouvalas

Troubled Countries

George Tzouvalas compares the country of Korea to his home country of Greece. He describes them both as troubled with many disasters brought on by wars. He recalls how he especially admired Korean teachers conducting class under the shade of the trees.



George W. Liebenstein

Thought I Would Be Drafted

George "Bill" Liebenstein served as part of the 1st Field Artillery Observation Battalion of the 8th Army Division in Korea from April 1953 through July 1954. He recounts the fear of being drafted in part because he was not ready to leave home. He was drafted into the U.S. Army and offers an accounting of the days leading up to his deployment to Korea. He notes that upon arrival in Korea he "pulled" guard duty the very first evening. He recalls the fear of being in a strange country where he did not really know what was going on.



The Most Difficult Part

George "Bill" Liebenstein recollects the most difficult parts of his time in Korea. At the top of his list was being away from his wife and his business. He shares that he wrote her about every two days but was not always able to share what he was experiencing. He still possesses many of the letters he wrote her but, sadly, does not know what happened to those she wrote. He remarked that he also missed good home-cooking, playing ball with friends, and simply being free to do what he wanted.



Gerald Land

Homesick Soldiers

Gerald Land described how he felt in December 1952 on Heartbreak Ridge in the middle of the winter. An Army loudspeakers would play Christmas carols and a woman would be telling stories back home of your girlfriend cheating on you with your best friend. He also recalled a time shortly after New Years when one of the guys started firing his weapon by making a series of shots that sounded funny and the Patton tank at the base of that mountain fired a round which it lifted their spirits. He said he felt very homesick.
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Forgotten War

Gerald Land was disgraced by the term police action instead of calling the Korean War, a war. He was also upset that people, particularly educators, didn't know anything about the war when he came home. With so many people who risked their lives for the people of South Korea and to label it the way people have, is just awful.



Don't Take Life For Granted

Gerald Land left the interview with advice for the listeners. Don't take life for granted, buckle down, get out to get a job, and earn what you get. Don't expect handouts and work your way to the top. He also said the technology that kids have today isn't completely necessary to live a good life. Working hard is the way to go!



Gerald Spandorf

Patriotism, A Better Life, and Water Brought Me to the Navy

Gerald Spandorf volunteered for the Navy because he loved to swim and to be in the water. He also wanted to serve his country. For basic training, he went to Bay Bridge, Maryland and then he was assigned a his ship in Road Island.



Concerns About North Korea Today

Gerald Spandorf felt mad at North Korea because they are test bombing different areas around Korea. He's afraid that their bombing will start another war and he doesn't want anything bad to happen to the Korean people. Since he's been out of the Navy, Gerald Spandorf has been learning more about the Korean people and they have all been so sweet to him.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

PTSD’s Impact on Family / El Impacto del Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático

Anita Ortiz Arbona, Gilberto Rodríguez Orama’s wife, discloses the extent to which he suffered from PTSD. She discusses the way in which his violent nightmares have affected her. As a loving wife, she explains that she can now predict when he will have an episode and is able to wake him before his suffering continues.

Anita Ortiz Arbona, la esposa de Gilberto Rodríguez Orama, revela hasta qué punto el padecía trastorno de estrés postraumático. Ella cuenta de la forma en que las pesadillas violentas de su marido la afectaron. Ella explica que ahora puede predecir cuándo su esposo tendrá un episodio y entonces lo despierta antes de que continúe su sufrimiento.



A Daughter’s Perspective

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama’s daughter, Gisella, shares what she has learned about the Korean War from her father. She adds that he only started speaking about what happened during the war in the last three years, and she wishes that he would have been treated for his PTSD earlier in life. She argues that the Korean War’s impact on world history should be taught in schools more deeply, as it was a significant event for Puerto Rico and the world.

La hija de Gilberto Rodríguez Orama, Gisella, comparte lo que aprendió de su padre sobre la Guerra de Corea. Agrega que él recién comenzó a hablar sobre lo que sucedió durante la guerra en los últimos tres años, y ella desearía que hubiera recibido tratamiento por su trastorno de estrés postraumático cuando era joven. Sostiene que el impacto de la Guerra de Corea en la historia mundial debería enseñarse más profundamente en las escuelas, ya que fue un evento muy importante para Puerto Rico y el mundo.



Message to Viewers / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama reflects on a time when community and family values were more important. His message to viewers is that core moral values should be followed as opposed to solely pursuing material wealth. He worries that greedy leaders from around the world who wish to hoard the riches of their nations, will cause more disastrous wars. He emphasizes the importance of community cooperation, respect, and having the will to progress.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama refleja sobre una época en la cual los valores de la comunidad y la familia eran lo más importante. Su mensaje a los espectadores es que se deben seguir los valores del trabajo y el progreso de la comunidad en vez de perseguir únicamente riquezas. Le preocupa que hay líderes ambiciosos en el mundo que desean acaparar las riquezas de sus naciones y sus acciones van a provocar más guerras desastrosas. El recalca la importancia de la cooperación comunitaria, el respeto y la voluntad de progresar.



Giuseppe Ercoletti

Leave a Legacy

Giuseppe Ercoletti discusses his father’s decision to volunteer with the Italian Red Cross to service in Korea. He describes his father’s strong connection to his family and particularly his attachment to his wife. As a young boy, he remembers his father’s passion for adventure and his desire to leave a legacy.



Letters to His Wife

Giuseppe Ercoletti discusses his parents’ letter writing during the war. While his father was away, he notes his parents would write to each other daily. He remembers his father’s letters were mainly focused on easing his mother’s fears. Even after death, he shares how his mother was connected to the letters from his father because she requested to be buried with them.



Glenn Paige

If It Hadn't Been for the War

Glenn Paige speaks about his life after the war. He shares how his experience was linked to his academic work. He even had the opportunity to interview President Truman.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Korean War in Context of War

Gordon McIntyre laments the political blunder of United States President Harry Truman in calling a cease fire rather than fighting to the end of the war. He acknowledges the Korean War as being a "forgotten" war, but he is proud of the the New Zealand effort, comparing it to ANZAC efforts during WWII. He has spoken about the Korean conflict at ANZAC parades and feels it should be taught in greater depth in New Zealand schools.



Grace Ackerman

Speaking About War: A Healing Process

Grace Ackerman feels that the Korean War Legacy Foundation is important because it allows the veterans to speak about their experiences during the Korean War. Students and future generations will also be able to gain knowledge from the interviews. Experiences such as the cold weather, being away from family, and personal experiences endured during the Korean War.



PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Graham L. Hughes

The HMNZS Pukaki During the Korean War

Graham Hughes experienced an intensive nine-month basic training as a radio operator. The training included typing and touch typing. The HMNZS Pukaki, his ship, was armed with a variety of weapons to aid in the Korean War.



Guidberto Barona Silva

Impact of Experience / Impacto de la Experiencia

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva discusses the importance of the experience for the Colombian Marine Forces. He provides an account on the tensest moments of the war. He concludes that what they learned in Japan and through the war helped him professionally and allowed the marine forces to evolve. The war changed the Colombian Marines as they were able to grow and understand the logistics of warfare.

El Almirante Guidberto Barona Silva habla sobre la importancia de la experiencia para los marinos de Colombia. Discutió los momentos más tensos de la guerra. Concluye que lo que aprendieron en Japón y durante la guerra lo ayudó profesionalmente y permitió que las fuerzas marinas se desarrollaron. La experiencia cambió a los infantes de marina, porque pudieron entender la logística de la guerra.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Feelings About the Draft / Sentimientos Sobre el Servicio Obligatorio

Guillermo Frau Rullan shares his pride in being an American soldier and his beliefs about mandatory military service. He notes that he was an idealist when he was young and truly believed in the United Nations and its stance that an attack on one was an attack on all. In addition, he admits that he would have felt weak if he had failed the physical exam.

Guillermo Frau Rullán comparte su orgullo por ser un soldado estadounidense y sus creencias sobre el servicio militar obligatorio. Él indica que era un idealista cuando era joven y verdaderamente creía en las Naciones Unidas y su postura de que un ataque contra uno era un ataque contra todos. Además, admite que se habría sentido débil si no hubiera aprobado el examen físico.



Gynn Raymond Harris

Mr. Harris's Wartime Assignment

Gynn Harris describes his schooling. He explains his various duties at Camp Stoneman as a Communications Supply Technician. He shares his pay and what he did with his money.



H. Douglas Barclay

Talking about the War in the Curriculum

H. Douglas Barclay talks about the importance of education regarding the important effects of military operations. He discusses his belief that information about the war in Korea and subsequent US conflicts should be in the school curriculum. He argues that the Korean War is just as significant as other wars that have been fought.



Hank Daumann

Stateside Service During the War

Mr. Daumann describes his role and duties during the Korean War. He explains that since he intended to enlist with the Navy eventually, he decided that he would enlist directly after high school graduation in 1951. He asked to be involved with aviation and thus was given the rating of Aviation Metalsmith and his rank was Combat Air crewman, a gunner. He explains that he attended boot camp at Bainbridge, Maryland and was transferred to Quonset Point, Rhode Island.



The Forgotten War?

Mr. Daumann explains why he believes the Korean War is referred to as the forgotten war. He explains that the veterans who returned after the Korean War were not greeted with grand receptions or parades. They were treated as one would be treated upon returning home from school. He goes on to explain the importance of younger people knowing about the Korean War and the work his Chapter does with the Veterans and school education programs.



Impacts of the War

Hank Daumann explains that though he did not directly participate in the war, his experiences with other Veterans left their mark on him. He explains that his was a training squadron and they flew targets for ships and planes to practice shooting. He later joined a patrol squadron where he became a gunner.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Volunteering for the Greek Army and Bravery in his Heart

Haralambos Theodorakis entered the military in 1948 as an infantry soldier after 23 months of training. He found out about the breakout of the Korean War through the Army and he wanted to go there to fight without any fear. Even knowing that he could die didn't stop Haralambos Theodorakis from wanting to go over to Korea.



Harlan Nielsen

End of the War and Its Effects

Harlan Nielsen offers an account of his duties while in Korea following the signing of the armistice and his return home. His wife chimes in and explains his reaction of dropping to the floor anytime there was a loud noise after his return. She describes a story in which she hid and jumped out to scare him. He dropped to the floor and told her afterwards never to do it again.



Harold A. Hoelzer

All Hands on Deck!

Harold Hoelzer recalls arriving in Korea and being offered the opportunity to take his first shower since leaving the US. He recounts how his ordinary shower experience took an unexpected and hectic turn when an air-raid siren sent soldiers scrambling from the shower depot. He merrily recalls the mass of laughter that ensued after the shower had been evacuated and the half-naked troops looked up to see a single, dinky surveillance airplane putter past.



Harold Don

The U.S. Marine Corps Reserves

Harold Don, during WWII, joined the United States Marine Corps Reserves while still in high school. He explains that students living in poor situations wanted to join the Reserves because of the small monthly pay and issued uniforms. He shares how he, initially, aspired to be an aviator, but his small stature and vision impairment prevented him from becoming a pilot. He recalls being called to service in June of 1950 and sent to basic training at Camp Pendleton when the conflict in Korea broke out.



Harold Huff

From Draft to Deployment

Harold Huff recalls being drafted, discusses his training in Georgia, and comments on his deployment and duties in the war. He shares how tough it was to leave his new bride and child behind. He remembers being pulled off of the ship and stationed in Japan where he repaired airplane radios coming back from Korea.



Harold Simler

John Wayne

Harold Simler described why he wanted to be in combat. As an 18 year old, he had visions of John Wayne movies encouraging action. He shared his disappointment when we learned that he was not needed in Korea.



Korean Vet Joins His Unit

Harold Simler recounted a Korean War veteran joining his unit at Fort Bragg. This vet helped him learn his job but also helped him get into trouble. He joined the veteran for a night out that resulted in him losing his position as Chief of Section.



Harry Hawksworth

British Troopship to the Korean War

Harry Hawksworth recalls being summonsed to serve in Korean War. He recounts enduring a six to seven-week training program where he practiced trench warfare prior to departing for Korea on a troopship. He remembers the ship stopping at many locations on the seven-week journey to gather additional supplies.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth recalls knowing that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. He shares how this helped him fatten up after being held captive since May 1951 and weighing only ninety-five pounds. He explains that once the Armistice was signed in July 1953, he and other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. He recalls that it was there where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Heath

Thoughts on PTSD

Harry Heath talks openly about the effects of PTSD that he and many other survivors of the Chosin Reservoir experienced. He shares how he didn't discuss the war for many years not even with his family or wife. He shares how he joined military organizations and began to find healing through communication about his time in Korea.



Henry Winter

Training for Korea

Henry Winter talks about being recalled into the Army after years in the National Guard. He was trained in heavy weapons in Georgia and later trained other recruits in this specialty in California. Henry Winter shipped out for Korea in early 1952.



Herbert Schreiner

Loss of a Brother in Korea

Herbert Schreiner details his brother's death while serving in the infantry in Korea. He recounts that his brother was killed by a landmine and recalls his body being delivered back to America in a bag. He shares that the news of his brother's fate was hard to deal with at the time and that it still weighs on him to this day as he and his brother were very close.



Reflection on Korean War Experience

Herbert Schreiner describes his role with Tell America and states that the number one question he receives from students centers on whether or not he was afraid while serving in Korea. He shares that he was and that fear was present amid the troops in combat areas. He also reflects on his experience and his gratefulness for the opportunity to serve in Korea as he feels it made him a better person.



Message to Younger Generations

Herbert Schreiner offers a message to younger generations in both the United States and Korea. He admits there is a great deal of sacrifice involved when it comes to war but asks younger generations to reflect on what would have happened throughout history to the countries involved had those wars not been fought. He further explains how the service can be of value to anyone's life and emphasizes the importance of honoring our servicemen.



Herbert Taylor

Thoughts on "The Forgotten War"

Herbert Taylor describes why he believes that Americans tried to suppress the importance and consequences of our involvement in Korea. He contrasts the focus on World War II with Korea, which followed soon afterward. He shares how he feels that there was little known for Korea and World War II had personal effects on everyone due to the war effort.



Homer Garrett

Earnings for his Service

Homer Garrett briefly described, what few kids understand, which is how little soldiers were paid for their service. When he first entered as a Private First Class soldier, he started making $43.00 per month even while having a wife and two children back at home. When Homer Garrett came home, his highest earning was $130.00 per month which was much better than when he first entered the service in 1965.



Homer W. Mundy

Returning Home

Homer Mundy talks about returning home and being tasked by the Army to train new recruits who were being sent to Korea. He also talks about his rapid advancement in rank due to his combat experience. Lastly, he recounts an episode at a VFW with WWII veterans upon discharge.



Howard A. Gooden

Armor Training

Howard A. Gooden reminisces about his armor training during basic training. He recounts how he was taught to load and fire the M24 light tank. He explains how the crew compartment was so cramped one had to be cautious when firing as the gun could potentially sever an arm. He marvels at how the .50 caliber machine gun can cut down a tree. He confesses that driving the tank was his favorite part, and he shares he felt better prepared than the soldiers who grew up in the city since he had prior experience driving tractors on the farm.



Testing Classified Weapons and Vehicles

Howard A. Gooden discusses being assigned to a testing unit after basic training where he tested new weapons and vehicles before sending them out to the troops. He recalls testing trucks and jeeps but admits that he enjoyed operating tanks the best. He explains that security was extremely tight due to the classified nature of the equipment being tested. He recalls being housed in a large barracks with the Military Police stationed between his unit and the Women's Army Corp on the opposite side.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Training ROK Officers and Korean Culture in the Late 1940s

Howard Ballard recalls training officers for the Republic of Korea (ROK) before the start of the Korean War. He remembers how the ROK hated the Japanese because they had taken everything of value back to Japan during the Japanese occupation of Korea. He recalls training the South Koreans to become officers, shoot Howitzers, and become leaders before the Korean War began (1948). He describes aspects of Korean culture, noting the attention to respect and the practice of purchasing wives through the use of pigs.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Lee

Message to Younger Generations

Howard Lee offers a message to younger generations. He expands upon the importance of supporting one's government and remaining loyal to one's country. He adds that one must work to make changes in government if one is unhappy rather than becoming disloyal. He states that together we stand, but divided, we fall.



Howard Street

Prior Knowledge of Korea and Basic Training

Howard Street expresses that he knew nothing about Korea at the time of his enlistment other than there was a war going on there. He recounts his basic training and shares that he specialized in amphibious tanks. He adds that he arrived in Pusan, Korea, right after the ceasefire.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Writing Home

Howard Bradshaw wrote to his wife every day. In the letters, he described the impact he'd made on the Korean people through his faith. Howard Bradshaw felt that these letters saved his life by giving him comfort and joy.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

Letters from the Home Front / Cartas de la Familia

Hugo Monroy Moscoso shares the story of a mass card which was given to him by his mother. After more than sixty years, the writing is faded, but he shares that it said, “May God protect you and bring you back.” He explains that it was that card and his faith which allowed him to survive the war.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso comparte la historia de una imagen de Cristo que le mando su madre. Después de más de sesenta años, lo que estaba escrito se borró, pero el recuerda que decía “Que Dios lo proteja y te traiga.” Explica que da las gracias a esa carta y su fe en Dios que sobrevivió a la guerra.



Hussen Mohammed Omar

Atonement for Father's Killing

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes why he joined the military. Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians during the 1930's. His father imprisoned and later killed for causing problems. He wanted to help protect other families from his experience.



Relations Between Korea and Veterans

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes how the relationship between the Korean government and the veterans is strong. The Korean government pays soldiers a salary. They also help build schools in Ethiopia and provide a scholarship.



Ian J. Nathan

From Teacher Training to K Force

Ian Nathan entered teacher training college as a twenty-three-year-old, but he left to join K Force. He trained at Burnham Military Camp, and then he transferred to Darwin. In Darwin, he joined the rescued soldiers from the ship Wahine that had run aground on a reef outside Darwin. They flew to Japan and then to Pusan.



Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Irene Casper

Life Changed Little on the Home Front

Irene Casper was a high school student during the Korean War. She recalls there being little changes to her life during the war as she was just focused on graduating and finding a job. She notes that she did have cousins and a brother who joined the service, but personally the war had little effect on her day-to-day life.



Everyone Serves in Some Capacity

Irene Casper, wife of Korean War Era Veteran Joe Casper, reflects on the idea of the "Forgotten War". She believes things have begun to change. She shares her thoughts on the Korean War Memorial in Auburn, NY, and the men and women who went to war to serve their country.



Jack Allen

Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Keep

Returning Home from the Korean War

Jack Keep described how the Korean War was "forgotten." He remembers the Korean War was in the headlines in 1950, the beginning of the war, but quickly was shifted to the back of the newspapers. Jack Keep recalls how when Korean War veterans returned home, civilians were not interested in their war stories or had failed to realize that they had even gone away.



Jack Pettipas

We Really Did Not Understand the Repercussions

Jack Pettipas recalls learning very little while in high school about Korea or the Korean War. He notes that he did know there was a draft. He remarks that, in terms of the youth in both the United States and Korea, this really was a matter of "you didn't know us and we didn't know you." He shares that most of the young soldiers knew the effects of World War II but had little idea of the repercussions of the experiences in Korea that lay ahead of them.



Making Sure Korean War Veterans are Never Forgotten

Jack Pettipas believes the four years he spent in the U.S. Air Force were the most important of his life. He recalls the experience offering him a foundation which helped him find his direction. He shares how, since returning from Korea, he has worked very hard to make sure Korean War Veterans are not forgotten through the raising funds for memorials and working with the government of Massachusetts to have a portion of Route 6 on Cape Cod named in their honor.



Jack Sherts

Engagement and Letters Home

Jack Sherts became engaged to his wife, Jane, just before he left for Korea. However, they kept it secret until after her birthday while he was in Korea. He would write letters to her about once a week and send her pictures that he had drawn. He also would send her money he earned. He is proud of his service and what South Korea has become after his tour was over. After he returned home, Jack and Jane got married and raised three children.



Jack Spahr

Honoring the Soldiers Who Served

Jack Spahr expresses his interest in returning to South Korea to see the changes since the Korean War. He shares that Korean people were very thankful that U.S. soldiers were there to aid. He adds that South Koreans are dedicated to honoring the U.S. soldiers who fought for them.



Jack Whelan

Write About the People

Jack Whelan notes the first day of advanced training was an exercise of being terrified and luckily he was asked during this training to be a correspondent. He explains how the American government wanted family members to feel connected and know what was going on in Korea. Because of this, he recounts how his focus was on the people and not the ugly parts of war. He elaborates on the inspiring stories he wrote about Father Waldie.



To Protect the United States

Jack Whelan states he was well aware of the principle of containment and why the United States became involved in Korea. He discusses how the United States placed itself around the world to protect the U.S. He explains that an American fighting in Korea was fighting as much for Korea as he was for his own country. Because of the connections he made with the Korean people, he shares that the people became more of the focus.



Jack Wolverton

Communication with Home

Jack Wolverton remembers writing letters home. He was not married and recalls relationships were tough to keep going while he was at war. He would correspond via letters with his mother, updating her on his day-to-day activities. She would return letters with stories from home. He recalls asking his mother, at times, to send back some of the money he forwarded home.



The Forgotten War

Jack Wolverton reacts to the Korean War being known as the "Forgotten War." He shares It upsets him that so many people know it as such. He says he never personally forgot about the war. He recalls telling his two brothers about some of the incidents that happened during the war but could not bare telling his wife and son.



James A. Newman

New Zealand to Texas Connection

James Newman speaks to fellow veteran Larry Kinard. They talk about their efforts with veteran organizations and share some laughs. He never expected the phone call to take place!



James Bradshaw

Rough Times during the Great Depression

James Bradshaw recalled that it was rough times during the Great Depression. He explained how his family raised their own produce and how they got meat through raising livestock and hunting. He said it was better than living in town because at least they could provide their own food on the farm.



James Butcher

Joining the Army During the Korean War

James Butcher joined the Army as a 17 year-old after he tried to join at the age of 16, but he was too young because he felt that it was his duty to help the US after the Korean War began. This took place in 1951 and he went to basic training in Pennsylvania in order to train on their hills to prepare for the hills of Korea. After that, he went to jump school since he joined the Army Airborne. James Butcher could have stayed in the US training paratroopers, but he wanted to go to Korea so bad that he contacted his senator to help get into Korea.



James E. Carter, Sr.

Thoughts of Home

James Carter discusses how he would go to the ship deck and think about his family. He shares his thoughts and concerns about leaving his wife at home who was five months pregnant when he headed to Korea. He mentions her several times during the interview and how their separation weighed on his mind. He shares his experience of meeting Chesty Puller an awarded leader of the Marines.



James E. Fant

Being Drafted and Basic Training

James E. Fant describes being drafted in 1950. He reflects on his fourteen-week basic training with the first Airborne Division at Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky. He recalls receiving orders to go to Korea and having only seven days to prepare before taking a troop train to Chicago. He shares he was eventually shipped to Japan from Seattle. He remembers landing in Incheon, Korea, and taking a troop train to Seoul before making his way eventually to Hill 355. He comments that the war in Korea was primarily about fighting for high ground.



The Korean War - The "Forgotten War"

James E. Fant discusses the Korean War as a police action as part of the reason it is considered the "Forgotten War." He describes his sense of duty to serve when he was drafted and draws a comparison between his own feelings and those of some individuals during the Vietnam War. He emphasizes how the nature of war has changed considerably since his time serving in Korea.



James Elmer Bishop

Joining the United States Army National Guard

James Elmer Bishop discusses enlisting in the United States Army National Guard at the age of thirteen. He remembers driving a jeep and handling supplies, and how he was considered the Sergeant's favorite and would always go above and beyond what was asked of him. He shares that he missed three National Guard meetings and ended up being drafted at the age of sixteen. He describes waiting for them to call him out on his age, but they never did.



Learning to Drive a Tank

James Elmer Bishop discusses being trained as a light truck driver and learning to drive a tank at Fort Bliss in Texas. He admits that driving a tank was difficult for him due to his height. He describes the process of starting a tank in second gear as the first gear was only meant for pulling things. He demonstrates how he would shift a M47 tank and explains how to speed shift a tank. He recalls being left out in the field and told to bring the tank back, forcing him to figure out how to drive it.



James Ferris

Keeping the Memory of the Korean War Veterans Alive

James Ferris shares about his daily work to keep the memory of the Korean War alive, honor the fallen soldiers, and celebrate all the accomplishments of South Korea. He explains as State and then National Korean War Veteran Association President, he strives to reach out to all the Korean War defense veterans (soldiers after 1954) who have served at the DMZ. He expresses that the longevity of the Korean War legacy is with the next generation.



The Difficult Job as a US Marine

James Ferris shares that his assignment did not allow him to stay in Korea for a long time. He explains that his job had him flying in and out of the entire country. He shares he earned good money for the 1950s as a corporal and recalls how he sent most of it home to his family. He adds that once he arrived back home, he went on his first date with a girl he wrote to for over a year while serving in the war.



James Kenneth Hall

Sending a Letter Home

James Hall recounts how the Chinese wanted the prisoners of war to write letters home after the peace talks began in 1951. He explains how the prisoners were told to write about accolades of the Communist way of thinking and to put down the United States government. He recalls how he refused to write the letters and remembers a Chinese nurse helping him write a letter to his mother to let her know he was alive.



James Low

Truman's Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Military

Racial tension grew after the Executive Order 9981 was issued. When James Low was in the US National Guard, he saw a confrontation between Southern soldiers and African American soldiers from Harlem, New York. Racism still existed for African Americans on the home front during the 1950s. Since James Low went to an integrated school, his beliefs were different than the Southern soldiers that were stationed with him.



Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



Begging to Join the US Army

James Low wanted to join the US Army after he graduated high school because he wanted to do his part just like everyone else did during WWII. There was a group of James Low's friends that went to volunteer month after month until there was a spot open. Finally, in February 1951, he was accepted into the Army, but had to wait until he was 18 years old to sign the paperwork because his mom refused to give permission to his 17 year-old son.



James M. Cross

Heartbreak Ridge and PTSD (graphic)

James Cross describes the marches he endured and seeing fellow Marines dead in a pile with all clothing removed by the enemy. He shares that he began to resent the Chinese, so much so that if he saw one, he would kill him. His wife, in the interview, adds that he would wake from nightmares during the night, screaming and upset due to having seen his friends killed right beside him.



Proud to Be a Veteran

James Cross comments on his pride as a veteran. He shares that even though he was drafted, he would not like to see his children or others drafted. He commends South Korea for its developments since the war.



James M. Oyadomari

5 Brothers Served in Korean War Era

James M. Oyadomari shares he was one of five brothers who served either in Korea or stateside during the Korean War era. He notes that three of them volunteered after he was drafted. He recounts how he and his oldest brother were both drafted and that his oldest brother served following his return to the United States. He remarks that they were all fortunate to return home safely.



James Parker

Letters Home

James Parker recalls writing letters home to his sister. He produces a folder containing a letter he had written and offers the viewing of a magazine he was sent from the States pertaining to Heartbreak Ridge. He utilizes the map to show the routes he and other soldiers took during the campaign.



James Purcell

Life After Korea

James Purcell describes his life after he returned home from Korea. He returned to America, followed in his father's footsteps, and began working in construction. His experience in the service helped to expand his career.



James Sharp

Treatment of African Americans in the Marines

James Sharp describes his treatment by fellow Marines from New York City. He explains that Marines are a different breed of people and that he was never singled out or treated poorly. He shares his take on there being a different understanding of human beings in New York at the time compared to the deep South as a means of supporting why he was not treated poorly.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Effects of War

James Shimabuku's wife, Dorothy Shimabuku, shares how experiencing war affected her husband. She describes him as being very commanding while raising their family and details his bouts with nightmares. She details moving with him to Nevada to help him seek medical and mental care at a newly-built veterans hospital.



James Shipton

The Experience Influenced Him to Join

James Shipton reminisces about the influences of the British Broadcast Corporation, BBC, programs during WWII. He shares memories of a radio program about the adventures of the Royal Canadian Air Force which influenced his decision to join the Canadian Air Cadets in 1943. Additionally, he highlights the experiences at Mountain View Cadet Flying Training Center in Prince Edward, Ontario, with the Air Cadets, solidifying his decision to join the Royal Canadian Air Force.



James Vance Scott

Air Support and Bunker Life

James Vance Scott describes being a squad leader and furnishing air and ground support for the infantry. He explains that they moved around many times while on the front lines and were stationed mainly in the bunkers they built to sleep in during the war. He describes the mindset of the home-front concerning the Korean War draft. He says the conditions in Korea were very unpleasant.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

Knowledge of Korea and Other Countries

Jean Paul St. Aubin shares he does not recollect studying Korea in school and that he knew nothing about Korea at the time the war broke out. He remembers having some knowledge of Japan and China as well as a few other countries due to their World War II connections though. He also recalls a few specifics learned in school centering on American and Canadian history.



Letters During War

Jean Paul St. Aubin recalls writing letters home and receiving letters often. He remembers that he, collectively, received 3-4 letters from his family members and girlfriend each week despite being on the front lines and mentions that the mail service was good. He describes the topics of conversation on which most of the letters centered.



Jean Paul White

The Marine Corps Joins the War

Jean Paul White talks about where he was when he first heard about fighting in the Korean War. He describes learning about the war in newspaper headlines. He explains how he was unsure as to where Korea was located. He describes the diminished state of the USMC at the start of the war.



Paying a Speeding Ticket from 6,000 Miles Away

Jean Paul White discusses sending money (Korean Won) home. He explains how he captured North Koreans and liberated the Won he gathered from them. He explains how he used the money to pay an outstanding speeding ticket he had received just prior to leaving for Korea. He explains how he sent money to the Chief of Police and was told he was cleared.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

Concerns About Recognition KDSVA

Jeff Brodeur wishes that the US Government could replicate the Korean Service Veterans Memorial that is in Seoul here in Washington DC. There isn't any monuments in the US represents the Korean Service Veterans. He believes that veterans won't want to join or become members if they're not being recognized.



Jesse Sanchez Berain

Re-Enlisting in the U.S. Army at the Onset of the Korean War

Jesse Sanchez Berain reflects on his decision to join the United States Air Force immediately after graduating from high school in 1946. He explains how his experience with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in high school allowed him to skip basic training and become a drill and physical training instructor at Lackland Air Force Base. He describes how he re-enlisted in the military with the U.S. Army in 1950 when the Korean War began.



Self-Discipline

Jesse Sanchez Berain shares the life lessons he learned while serving in the military. He discusses how self-discipline helped him to attain the rank of Master Sergeant in just two years. He explains how he has used his self-discipline later in life to help others, such as by supporting the Farm Workers Movement in Twin Falls, Idaho.



Jesus L. Balaoro

Family Cries as Balaoro Goes to War

Jesus Balaoro completed his training in the Philippines. He learned he was being sent to Korea to fight in the war. When he told his family, his parents cried. However, he said he was not scared because he had no wife and kids at the moment and he was not afraid to sacrifice his life if necessary.



Jesus Rodriguez

Korea over the years

Jesus Rodriguez talks about his return to Korea. He tells about how he was invited to go to Korea after talking with the major of Seoul at a Veterans Day function in his city, Lahabra, which happens to be the sister city to Seoul. He discusses the changes he saw in Korea during his visit and describes the hospitality and gratefulness of the Korean people during his visit.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Korean War Rarely Taught

Even as a school teacher, Georgia rarely had time at the end of 2nd semester to teach WWII, but definitely not enough time to teach about the Korean War. She said if teachers were creative and found a way to integrate the Korean and Vietnam Wars into discussion, they were lucky. Textbooks covered little, if any, information on the Korean War. She said the textbooks skipped over the Korea War by going from World War II straight to the Vietnam War.



You'll Remember This Someday

The term "Forgotten War" upset a lot of people. Georgia remembered when she watched her black and white TV as a little girl. When her family who served in the Korean War came back to the US, her parents always said, "Remember what you are watching on TV. This will be history some day."



Fear of Communism and its Affect on the US

Georgia remembered as a child the reports about Communism and her family built a "basement" that was constructed using directions from the Civil Defense. This "basement" included provisions just in case of attack. This indoctrination was a big part of US entry into the Korean War. The Interviewer mentioned the Kennan Telegram written during this time and they explained how it unveiled the Russian's plans and the Korean War made it clear that Russia and US were not partners at that time.



Farmers vs City Boys in a POW Camp

The soldiers who had once been farmers and ranchers back at home knew which vegetation to eat on that ground while many of the city boys lacked any of this knowledge. Georgia and Linda Montoya said that before the war, Jimmie Montoya would ride out to the ranch, shine shoes, work on the farm, or do whatever it takes to help make ends meet. Whatever amount he was paid during the war, he sent home to his mother and the kids.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



Joan A. Clark

Basic Training and America's Perception of the Korean War

Joan Clark recalls learning of the outbreak of the Korean War during basic training. She explains how she began teaching and her later Officer Candidate School attendance. She shares how upon training completion, she became involved in the pilot training program where she worked the flight line giving and grading pilots.. She reflects on America's attitude towards the Korean War, recalling that many people did not understand why the United States was involved in the war.



Joan Taylor

The Importance of Care Packages

Joan Taylor describes what it was like to be a young bride of a Korean War soldier. She recalls living with her parents while her first husband was away at war. She describes the care packages she made for her husband that included warm clothes because winter military clothes had yet been provided.



Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor shares her first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. She explains his father passed away, and his mother was left to run a business and needed help. She communicates that her first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting; however, he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe Larkin

Girl In The Picture

As his battalion moved from the south to northern Korea, Joe Larkin's battalion passed through several villages coming in contact with the Korean people. The civilians were very thankful for what the US troops were doing. One little girl saw a picture of Joe Larkin's niece in his pocket, and kept pointing at the picture, but Joe Larkin didn't understand. He called over an interpreter and he said the girl couldn't believe that his niece had a flower in her hair.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe O. Apodaca

Boot Camp at Great Lakes

Joe O. Apodaca, in 1951, went through his U.S. Navy recruit training at Great Lakes. He shares how, as a new recruit, he received the traditional short “induction” haircut. He recalls how, during his time at bootcamp, he and his fellow recruits were given medical shots that made many of them feel ill, including himself. He explains how swimming tests were also conducted, and since he was a strong swimmer who had lettered in the sport in high school, he did well. However, he remembers those who struggled with swimming received tougher treatment from the officers.



Stationed on an APA Attack Transport

Joe O. Apodaca shares he was transferred to the USS Henrico, an APA 45 attack transport in San Diego, California, after completing boot camp. He remembers when he arrived in San Diego, he learned the ship had sailed to Bremerton, Washington, for repairs. He recalls how he traveled by train to Bremerton and boarded the USS Henrico the next day. He fondly remembers being awestruck by the magnificent ocean when he first saw it in San Diego.



Running the Ship’s Bakery

Joe O. Apodaca explains he started working in the galley of the USS Henrico (APA 45). He recounts how he was later sent to San Diego for a twelve-week commissary training. He notes that, upon completion, he returned to the USS Henrico and became the head of the ship's bakery. He recalls his responsibilities for ensuring that the chief's menu was met.



Baking at Sea and Corresponding with Spouse

Joe O. Apodaca recalls experiencing bouts of seasickness while aboard the USS Henrico. He shares how severe weather and rough waters made baking cakes and other goods difficult. He remembers how the ship's crew graciously enjoyed the food despite any mishaps. He explains he had married a woman in the last year of his enlistment, and during that time, his wife lived in an apartment in San Diego, working for various government agencies. He recalls how hey kept in touch regularly through letters.



John A. Ciburk

Stationed in "Puerto Rico"

John A. Ciburk describes extending his enlistment in order to be stationed in Puerto Rico and what happened to that wish once the Korean War began. He explains that his extension was redirected by the government to Japan instead. He recalls arriving at the airbase in Yokota, Japan, to a large sign that jokingly read, "Welcome to Puerto Rico."



John B. Jackson, Jr.

Democracy for Them but Not for Me

John B. Jackson describes the irony of fighting in a war so that others could have a democracy that he himself did not enjoy. He explains the difficulty of coming back home to the same segregation that existed before he left, despite being a citizen of this country and fulfilling his call to duty.



The Reality of Leaving My Country

John B. Jackson describes the moment he realized he was leaving American soil and would soon be on foreign soil. He recalls the emotional impact it had on him as his ship passed the Golden Gate Bridge. He remembers the learning experience of simply watching the sun rise and set over water, a sight he had never seen before.



John Barrett

Losing Friends from Home

Although John Barrett himself did not go to war, he talks about two friends who lost their lives in Korea. One of them died shortly after the Armistice and one right after he got to Korea. They were also from Dobbs Ferry, New York.



John Beasley

Post-WWII Recruits

John Beasley tells of his experience trying to join the military after WWII, and his father's reaction upon hearing the news of his decision to join the U.S. Marine Corps. He describes how he learned he was being sent to Korea. His recollection also includes information concerning strategical plans on the landing at Inchon by U.S. forces.



John Bierman

Military College: Preparing For Military LIfe

John Bierman grew up during WWII and joined the Boy Scouts of America so that he could collect aluminum along with bacon fat. During the Great Depression, he would eat one piece of bread with warm milk poured over with as dinner. After graduating high school, he graduated with a pre-engineering degree at a military college in 1947.



The Holloway Program

John Bierman applied for the Holloway Program which was the Naval version of the ROTC. He was accepted after interviews and an exam, so he was sent to the University of Oklahoma. He studied chemical engineering and Naval Science until he graduated in 1951 as an officer.



John Boyd

John Boyd's Call to Service

John Boyd remembers being called to service in the winter of 1951 and he wanting to join the Royal Air Force (RAF). Unfortunately, he recalls being told because of a knee injury he would never be more than a clerk in the RAF. He tried several other options before finding a route to take. When his call up papers arrived he was assigned to the Royal Signals Corp.



John Davie

Stories from Friends in Combat

John Davie recalls stories he heard about Korea from childhood friends. He received a letter from a friend who was fighting in Korea in 1953. This friend told him he was lucky to not be in Korea, that it was a cold, and a tough time. He had another friend who was wounded as a paratrooper in Korea. That friend lost part of one of his leg calves in gunfire and didn't talk much about his experience beyond that. Korea seemed so distant to him, but many of his friends were affected directly.



The Forgotten War?

John Davie speculates about the reasons why the Korean War is known as the forgotten war. He thinks many people got callous feelings about the war and took the war for granted. He also thinks the Second World War and Vietnam War were more of a focus for much of the country.



John E. Gragg

Executive Order 9981

John Gragg discusses the impact of Executive Order 9981 in 1948 which called for integration of troops throughout all of the U.S. Armed Forces. He reflects on how the major units in Korea did not follow the order, and other than White officers and later one White soldier, his unit remained all-Black. He recalls his happiest moment in Korea was when he left in July of 1951. He explains how he was able to leave based on points earned due to combat and training. He remembers being asked to stay an extra month because his commander needed top-trained people like him. He admits that staying the extra month also came with a promotion.



John Fischetti

Specialty: 3D Aerial Photography

John Fischetti details the responsibilities of his job as a photography air camera technician. He recalls what equipment he had to install on the jets that were sent to take aerial photographs over the Korean Peninsula. He recounts how when the film arrived back huge layered prints of it were used to produce three-dimensional images.



Brother's Experience in Korea

John Fischetti describes his brother's (Peter Fischetti) service experience in Korea. He recounts his brother being badly wounded after stepping on a mine. He details visiting his brother, recalling how his leg was amputated and his body filled with shrapnel metal. He shares how immensely proud of his brother's service he is.



John Funk

Fear, Pride, and Additional Thoughts on the War

John Funk describes his mixed emotions about going into war. He shares that anxiety, fear, patriotism, and pride radiated through his mind as he entered into the Korean War. He states that he was able to overcome his apprehensions about the war because he knew he was doing something good for the world, and he briefly shares his thoughts on the attitude towards the war on the home front.



John I. Reidy

Point System Explanation

John Reidy chronicles his enlistment in the Army and basic training prior to being sent to Korea in the winter of 1952. He explains the point system utilized to send troops back home after a certain number was accrued. He comments on it being a complicated system when it came to computing the points and discusses the correlation between payment and point zone in which a soldier served. He shares how the point system, unfortunately, did not apply to him since he had enlisted.



John J. Baker

Vivid Memories of Murdered Civilians

John J. Baker details movement from east of Taegu to a place called Ulsan. He recollects moving through the region with his company commander when they encountered the National Police and the Korean Army on both sides of the road. He recounts how the commander explained that these people were South Korean Communists. He notes that much of his unit had been wiped out in Taejan leaving only one hundred seventy-nine left in the unit and how they returned to Taegu and onto Kumchon with the 19th and 21st Infantry. He describes how when they arrived, they encountered a gory scene along the roadside.



John Jefferies

G.I. Bill Benefits

John Jefferies shares that he used his G.I. Bill benefits to receive a Master's degree in hospital administration at the University of Minnesota. He recounts the route he took to landing successful employment over the years. He is thankful for the G.I. Bill and comments on how his time in the military and serving during the war helped prepare him for his career.



John Juby

Losing a Friend on the Front Line

John Juby shares his experience of losing a close friend who died on the front line after being hit by an incoming mortar. He explains having to wrap up the body and take it the American Graves Registration Service. He describes the scene of the location of where the deceased bodies of soldiers were dropped off.



John Martin

Challenging Childhood

John Martin, with the help of his wife Shirley Martin, shares the challenges faced as a child and young adult. He was left in an orphanage as a baby by his mother who would later reclaim him when he turned eleven. His story includes some time training to become a jockey, a lengthy hospital stay while suffering from polio, and the search for jobs before enlisting in the Australian Air Force. These challenges allowed him to relate to the suffering of the Korean people during his time in Korea.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



Can I Please Join the Australian Navy?

John Moller recalls joining the Australian Navy when he was seventeen with his parents' permission. He describes working in the supply branch aboard the HMS Sydney, which was an aircraft carrier with three flight squadrons. He shares that he on the aircraft carrier along with multiple Spitfire planes.



John Munro

When the Nation Calls, You Answer

John Munro shares how he was called to service for the Australian National Army in 1952 and was going to be stationed on the home front. Since he wanted to fight in the Korean War, he describes joining the Regular Army in 1953. He recalls being sent to Korean as a nineteen year old in 1954 after the ceasefire to patrol the demilitarized zone (DMZ).



John P. Baker

Legacy of Service

John P. Baker discusses the legacy he is leaving behind as a Korean War veteran. He explains the significance of America helping to halt the spread of communism and the importance of the strong alliance between South Korea and the United States. He recalls what it was like to come home from the Korean War, hardly recognized for his service and how that has changed today.



John Pritchard

Why Join the Army?

John Pritchard discusses his reasons for joining the army at a young age. He was a member of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers [REME] known as "Remes" created to handle all mechanical and engineering work for the British Army. He was trained as a mechanic and he even learned to make his own tools.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Turner

Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



John Wallar

"You Needed Letter from Home"

John Wallar talks about writing and receiving letters from home. He describes the things that he wrote about to his thirteen "pen friends."



Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina

Lying to go to War / Mentiras Antes de La Guerra

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina recounts the way in which he lied to his family about his decision to go to war. He explains that he knew they would object, so he told them he was being sent to Panama to train in communications. He admits that it was only when he arrived in Korea and saw a nation turned to ashes and the devastation of the civilian population that he understood the reality of war and the consequences of his decision.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina relata la forma en que le mintió a su familia sobre su decisión de ir a la guerra como voluntario. Explica que sabía que se opondrían, por eso les dijo que iba hacia Panamá para hacer un entrenamiento en comunicaciones. El admite que fue sólo cuando llegó a Corea y vio una nación convertida en cenizas y la devastación de la población civil, que entendió la realidad de la guerra y las consecuencias de su decisión.



Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro

Letters / Cartas

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro remembers the letters he exchanged with his family. He shares the fact that it was his mother that was most worried about his safety in Korea and therefore sent him numerous holy cards with saints and Jesus Christ to protect him. Furthermore, he mentions the details of what his letters to his family included.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro recuerda las cartas que intercambió con su familia. Él comparte el hecho de que era su madre la que estaba más preocupada por él y fue por eso por lo que le envió estampas con santos y Jesucristo para protegerlo. También menciona los detalles de lo que les escribía en sus cartas a su familia.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Difficult Goodbyes / Despedidas Difíciles

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera reminisces about the emotional farewell he bid his mother as he left for Korea. He explains that it was particularly difficult for her as he was her only child. The emotional stress was compounded, as he details, by the seasickness he experienced on the month-long boat ride to Korea.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recuerda la emoción de la despedida de su madre cuando él partió hacia Corea. Explica que fue especialmente difícil para ella porque era su único hijo. El estrés emocional se vio agravado, como detalla él, por el mareo que tuvo durante el viaje en barco de un mes a Corea.



Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi

"I Didn't Know What Poverty Was"

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes the difficult living conditions for refugees in Pusan (Busan). He describes the crowded nature as well as the difficulty in acquiring foods due to the lack of good roads and transportation.



Thousands of Letters

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi recounts interesting aspects of his job as a mail clerk in Pusan (Busan). He recalls seeing thousands of letters, sometimes three months after they were written. He shares that, many times, the letters never made it to the intended soldiers due to their movements.



Emergency Leave from Korea

Jose A. Vargas-Franceschi describes his arduous journey from Korea on emergency leave. He notes how his leave allowed him to be with his pregnant wife in Puerto Rico.



Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane

Personal Impact of the War / Impacto Personal de la Guerra

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane discusses how he adjusted to civil life after the war. He speaks about how difficult it was for him knowing that his daughter was born while he was fighting in Korea. He explains that he constantly thought about her and what kind of father he would be.

José Antonio Díaz Villafañe comenta cómo se adaptó a la vida civil después de la guerra. Habla de lo difícil que fue para él saber que su hija nació mientras que el luchaba en Corea y no poder conocerla. Él explica que pensaba constantemente en ella y en qué tipo de padre sería.



Jose E. Colon

From Driving to Typing

Jose E. Colon remembers his duty as a driver for the company commander after six months of service. He discusses attending night school during his eight months driving the officer to learn typing and shorthand. He recalls the time when the commander complimented his driving and offered assistance. He recounts how he immediately informed the commander about his typing and shorthand skills which led to his new assignment as a clerk at headquarters in San Juan, Puerto Rico.



Recruiting Efforts

Jose E. Colon reflects on his three years of service in the United States Army Reserves. He shares his main duty was to reenlist WWII veterans who had recently returned home. He notes that when the Korean War broke out in 1950, he called fourteen hundred U.S. Army Reservists to report to duty in the 65th Infantry Regiment 43rd Battalion. He adds he continued his recruiting efforts in Puerto Rico while the 65th Regiment was in Korea. He discusses the lack of replacements for the 65th Regiment and his reassignment to the 7th Regiment upon his arrival in Korea.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his encounters with troops from other allied nations. He shares a story about a Korean man they called Oscar whom they spoke Spanish with and shared stories about Colombia. He remembers that many soldiers, including Americans, inquired about the ongoing political violence in Colombia.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz habla de sus discusiones con tropas extranjeras. Comparte una historia sobre un hombre coreano que lo llamaban Oscar con quien hablaban español y compartían historias sobre Colombia. Recuerda que muchos soldados, incluidos estadounidenses, querían saber más sobre la violencia política que sucedía en Colombia.



Joseph C. Giordano

War Declaration and Draft Choice

Joseph Giordano shares that he knew nothing about Korea until the day war was declared. He remembers reading about it in a newspaper at his father's barber shop. He recalls the significance of being drafted on January 12, 1951, and a choice that landed him in the Korean War. He comments on the value of his Korean War experience.



Typical Day for a Combat Engineer

Joseph Giordano describes a typical day a combat engineer in the US Army while in Korea. He speaks of waking up, eating breakfast, and then being assigned that day's duties. He recalls that they could range from clearing out trenches at the front lines to building an outhouse for a general several miles back behind the front lines. He includes that he dreamt of three things during his 18-month deployment to Korea and claims that hot and cold running water always reminds him of Korea.



The Forgotten War

Joseph Giordano discusses why he thinks the Korean War has come to be known as the Forgotten War. He describes how he was treated when he returned home from Korea, sharing that there were no bands or recognition of his service. He speaks of how public sentiment regarding the war has evolved though.



Joseph Calabria

Returning Home from War

Joseph Calabria discusses what it was like returning home from Korea. He shares how it was a normal day. He parallels the experience of what others may have felt returning home from Vietnam.



Korean War Veterans Group is Formed

Joseph Calabria discusses how veterans of the war that they would not recognize them due to it being known as the "forgotten war". He shares how the veterans needed to find a way to connect with others. He explains how the Korean War Veterans was founded to help the veterans have a place.



Joseph De Palma

Family Serving in Korea at the Same Time

Joseph De Palma describes visiting with his cousin who was also serving in Korea at the same time with the 1st Marine Division. He explains that he and his cousin grew up together since they were toddlers and he was very happy that he was able to locate him. He explains that he later received a letter from his sister saying that his cousin had been shot and had returned home but died from complications from his injuries.



Joseph F. Hanlon

Thanksgiving with the Vice President

Joseph F. Harlon talks about a would-be visit by Vice President Alben Barkley on Thanksgiving Day 1951. He describes building facilities and readying for the visit that never happened.



Joseph Hamilton

Basic Training at Camp Chaffee

Joseph Hamilton went to basic training at Camp Chaffee, Arkansas after being drafted in 1951. He recalls that they experienced really cold weather, but found a strong, cooperative group of friends. After spending eight weeks in Camp Chaffee, he tells about applying for Leadership School and Officers’ Training.



Joseph Horton

Deployed to Korea

Joseph Horton describes being drafted and not knowing he was going to Korea. He talks about going to Arkansas and California where he proposed to his wife on the phone, not knowing he was going to Korea. He discusses sailing to Korea in September of 1952 and explains that he landed in Incheon in October of 1952.



Joseph Lissberger

I Thought We Were Losing

Joseph Lissberger talks about being a platoon sergeant at the outset of the Korean War, tasked with training new recruits in basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. He mentions that 37 of the first 49 recruits he trained died in the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about the changes that were made in response to what was happening in Korea.



Mutiny!

Joseph Lissberger describes his journey home by ship from Korea. He talks about the bad conditions, an ensuing mutiny, and the aftermath of the voyage. Eventually, he made it home and was sent to Fort Knox.



Lessons from a Life in the Army

Joseph Lissberger reflects about the lessons he learned during his 23-year Army career. He talks about learning discipline, work ethic, and giving back to others.



Joseph R. Owen

Unexpected War

Joseph R. Owen describes how the Korean War was not expected. Conflict leading to war was expected in either Israel, Russia, or Indonesia. Due to its surprise, there were not enough Marines, resulting in calling up the Reserve units.



Josephine D. Abreu

Working for the Pentagon and the Korean War

Josephine describes receiving orders for shipment to Japan, which she was happy about. She shares that her commander, however, decided to send her to the Pentagon to work for the Director of Intelligence as a typist. She recalls typing up intelligence reports as well as the papers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. She discusses typing up histories of the war which, in turn, meant she had detailed knowledge of what was taking place.



The Pentagon During the Korean War

Josephine Abreu discusses the environment at the Pentagon during the Korean War. She describes her role in meetings of the "Watch Committee" which was a predecessor to the National Security Council. She explains how she would hand out agendas, pencils, and type the minutes after meetings. She admits that the meetings were always exciting. She notes her role required her to have a very high clearance level, and she recalls being told she could not discuss what she did there for ten years.



Josephine Krowinski

Army Pay During Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not recall how much she was paid while working during the Korean War as an Army nurse. She sent all the checks directly to Boston to her mother. Josephine Krowinski could tell that her mother needed the money more than she did, so that's why all her pay was sent back home.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

Colombian Military Training / Entrenamiento Militar en Colombia

Josue Orlando Bernal García shares his prior knowledge of Korea and the stories of his training. Like many others, he explains that he did not know much about Korea before he decided to enlist. He details how they were trained in Colombia and shares a story of how they were attacked by guerrilla fighters in Cundinamarca on a training mission.

Josue Orlando Bernal García comparte sus conocimientos previos de Corea y las historias de su entrenamiento en Colombia. Como muchos otros, explica que no sabía mucho sobre Corea antes de decidir a prestar su servicio. Detalla cómo fueron entrenados en Colombia y comparte una historia de cómo fueron atacados por guerrilleros en Cundinamarca en una misión de entrenamiento.



Juan Manibusan

Thoughts on the War

Juan Manibusan shares a few of his thoughts on the 60th anniversary of the Korean War and emphasizes that he would like to see a permanent resolution take place. He counts himself as a supporter for the reunification of Korea. He also adds his thoughts on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Reasons he Enlisted / Razones Por las que se Alistó

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares memories of his older brother as he was the one that inspired him to join the military during the Second World War. He remembers being incredibly young and impressed with his brother’s uniform. While deployed, he served in the Alps to restrict troop movements by the Axis Powers.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte recuerdos de su hermano mayor ya que él fue quien lo inspiró a unirse al ejército durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Recuerda ser increíblemente joven y estar impresionado con el uniforme de su hermano. Mientras estaba prestando su servicio, estuvo en los Alpes y su misión era de restringir los movimientos de tropas de las alemanas.



His Brother's Legacy / El Legado de su Hermano

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares his message to future generations and explains the toll the war had on him and his family. He explains that soldiers must defend liberty, protect poor people, and serve with dignity and valor. Moreover, he speaks about his older brother, Luis Santini, who was a Major in the Army and served thirty years.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y explica el costo que la guerra tuvo para él y su familia. Explica que los soldados deben defender la libertad, proteger a los pobres y servir con dignidad y valor. Además, habla de su hermano mayor, Luis Santini, quien fue Mayor del Ejército y presto su servicio por treinta años en el ejercito.



Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales

Lost Battalion / Batallón Perdido

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales describes his first memories of Korea. He recollects feeling uneasy in Busan and being struck by the smell of the fertilizer used. He remembers that the first few days were difficult as his battalion, Company L, was lost for days during a training mission, and they were forced to drink contaminated water. He recalls that the news of this disappearance made headlines in Puerto Rico.

Juan R. González-Morales describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda que se sintió incómodo al llegar en Busan porque el olor del fertilizante que usaban era tan desagradable. Recuerda que los primeros días fueron difíciles ya que su batallón, la Compañía L, estuvo perdido por días durante una misión de entrenamiento y se vieron obligados a beber agua contaminada. Él se acuerda que la noticia de esta desaparición llego hasta Puerto Rico.



Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales discusses his prior knowledge of the war in Korea and his feelings about mandatory service for Puerto Ricans. He explains that he did not fully form an idea on whether Puerto Ricans should be sent to war. He clarifies that he was happy to join the United States Army but did not want to be sent to Korea at that time.

Juan R. González-Morales discute su conocimiento previo de la guerra en Corea y sus sentimientos sobre el servicio obligatorio para los puertorriqueños. Él explica que no tenía opinión sobre si los puertorriqueños debiesen ser enviados a la guerra. Aclara que estaba feliz de unirse al ejército de los Estados Unidos, pero no quería que lo enviaran a la guerra en ese momento.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Vivid Memories / Recuerdos Vívidos

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez shares his insights on the recruiting tactics of the military police in Puerto Rico. The territory saw a spike in delinquency during that time, and he explains that when the police arrested criminals, they offered them a “get out of jail free card” if they enlisted in the Army. In his opinion, these former criminals diminished troop morale because they refused to take orders and caused many problems during the Battle of Jackson Heights.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez comparte su opinión sobre las tácticas de reclutamiento de la policía militar en Puerto Rico. La delincuencia subió en Puerto Rico durante ese tiempo, y él explica que cuando la policía arrestaba a los delincuentes, les ofrecían un pase libre para salir de la cárcel si se alistaban en el ejército. En su opinión, estos exdelincuentes fueron responsables por la baja de moral de las tropas porque se niegaban a recibir órdenes y causaron problemas durante la batalla de Jackson Heights.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

Living in Peace with Others

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares his hope for all war and discrimination in the world to end. He emphasizes the importance of living in peace with others. He encourages everyone to treat others kindly.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Volunteering to Return

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses his decision to return to active duty in the United States Army in 1948 after serving in the Reserves at the end of World War II. He did so because he learned that his wife was pregnant and he wanted to provide for his growing family. He elaborates on an opportunity to volunteer and compete with other Reserve officers to become a regular U. S. Army officer.



Remembering Training and Deployment to Korea

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. shares his experience of training in one of the two Black Battalions and receiving the notification that he would be deployed to Korea. He reflects on the second phase of his competitive officer tour and considers the possibility of switching units. He describes his meeting with the commanding officer and ultimately deciding to stay with his current unit. He shares that, due to the lack of soldiers, non-infantry troops were trained on the ship en route to Korea.



Returning Home and Graduation

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. describes what it was like when he returned to the United States. He shares how soldiers were generally treated and his own experience of being forced to do degrading work due to his battalion being all Black. He recounts attending officer training after his return to the United States and graduating as a commissioned officer in the United States Army.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Called to Action / Llamado Para Ir a la Guerra

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas discusses how he received the news of being drafted into the war. He explains that he wished to pursue a military career and understood that he had to serve in Korea to advance. Even though his brother returned from Korea before he left, he states that they did not discuss the war and thus he was unaware what awaited him in the front lines.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas cuenta cómo recibió la noticia de ser reclutado para la guerra. Él explica que deseaba seguir una carrera militar y entendía que tenía que prestar su servicio en la guerra si quería avanzar. Aunque su hermano regresó de Corea antes de que él se fuera, afirma que no hablaron de la guerra y, por lo tanto, no sabía lo que le esperaba en el frente.



Kaku Akagi

Experiencing Discrimination

Kaku Akagi shares he was ten years old when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. He remembers listening to President Franklin D. Roosevelt address the nation on the radio. He recalls going through town on his way to school the following morning and seeing a sign hanging from a storefront that said, “No Japs Allowed.” He speaks about a time when someone on the sidelines during a basketball game intentionally tripped him as he ran down the court. He describes the next four years as “tough” but says the experience helped him empathize with others from diverse backgrounds.



Segregation at Basic Training

Kaku Akagi remembers being drafted into the United States Army in 1951 and undergoing basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. He explains how his college ROTC experience had helped prepare him for boot camp. He describes how the barracks and training groups at Fort Leonard Wood were segregated which signified how different the United States was at the time from other nations due to this kind of discrimination.



Keith Gunn

The Forgotten War

Keith Gunn shares that the Korean War, also known as the Forgotten War, received little attention during the effort as well as today despite the positive outcome. He adds that the Korean War was the first major United Nations effort and therefore should receive more attention. He also offers his opinion on political correctness and the role he feels it is playing today regarding content being taught in schools.



Keith H. Fannon

Haunting Memories

Keith H. Fannon shares his most difficult memories of the Korean War. These include friends that were killed at Kimpo Air Base (near Seoul), his reaction at the time as well as later in life. He also briefly shares his nightmares about the children.



Returning Home from the Forgotten War

Keith H. Fannon describes how the mail worked during the war and how his family received information about the Korean war. He also talks about coming home to friends that were unaware of the war and the impact the war has had on his life since.



Keith Nutter

Meaningless?

Keith Nutter elaborates on how he does not believe he did anything special during his service. He is proud but he feels he should not be honored because he simply did his duty. He recalls reuniting with his family upon his return and facing this.



Ken Thamert

Reimagining the Incheon Landing

Ken Thamert recalls traveling to Korea aboard a ship with many seasick soldiers, learning not to take the bottom bunk due to all of the vomiting. Upon arriving in Incheon, he describes the overwhelming feeling when imagining what other soldiers experienced during the infamous Incheon Landing at the start of the war. He remembers seeing devastation all around.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Ken Thamert recalls being given a book about Korea from the United States military once he received his orders for Korea. He remembers the book containing information about Korean culture and the games Korean children played. He adds the book also included etiquette and protocols for the country.



Kenneth Borchers

A Farmer's New Invention

Kenneth Borchers reminisced about the integration of new technology during the Great Depression. Kenneth Borchers and his brother were hired to work for a farmer who had electricity even though he had never seen it before. Kenneth Borchers recalled how his brother continued to turn the light on and off in amazement of this new invention.



Kenneth D. Cox

The Broken Hearts Helped Rebuild Korea

Kenneth Cox elaborates on how the 44th Engineering outfit got its Broken Heart name. He recounts how a newspaper article title encouraged the outfit to mark all of their equipment and construction endeavors with a black broken heart. He shares how his engineering outfit helped rebuild Korea.



Kenneth David Allen

Contemporary Wars

Kenneth Allen continues to assist the military by helping soldiers in contemporary wars. He is active in assisting soldiers before they head to the Middle East. He makes a comparison to how Korean soldiers were not celebrated or acknowledged due to the Korean War being labeled as the "Korean Conflict".



Kenneth F. Dawson

The Children Prayed for Him

Kenneth F. Dawson describes an incident in which he heard cries for help on the front lines. A soldier had been hit and needed a stretcher. As he reached the soldiers who had called, a mortar hit them. Upon return to his truck, he discovered bullet holes in the door. Kenneth Dawson attributes his survival to the children of Niue Island.



"I Want to Go Back."

Kenneth F. Dawson speaks of wanting to go back to Korea. Friends have told him that the economy is amazing, and he wants to see the shopping malls. He is proud to have served in the Korean War and would love to return for a visit, though he mentions that Korea was too cold for an island boy when he was there during the war.



Kenneth Newton

A Message to America's Youth

Kenneth Newton offers a message to the younger generations. He shares that American youth could learn a lesson from the South Korean people regarding gratefulness. He encourages younger generations to find a love for their country if they do not already and to become stewards of good citizenship.



Kenneth S. Shankland

"When Can You Start?"

Kenneth Shankland recalls undertaking compulsory military training in high school. He shares how the army did not appeal to him, so he decided to train as a sea cadet. He recounts how learning to sail led to his love of the Royal New Zealand Navy. He describes enlisting in 1955. He shares that after training in Australia, he specialized in guidance technology such as weapons systems, communications, and tracking.



Kenneth Warner

Serving with Chesty Puller

Kenneth Warner recollected his memories of Chesty Puller, a legendary leader and most decorated member of the Marine Corps. He remembered his experiences serving alongside Puller and how he never backed down, even when facing off with General MacArthur. He explained how Puller turned down the Medal of Honor on more than one occasion despite all of his medals and honors he had received.



Kim H. McMillan

Engaged, Alone, and Cold

Kim McMillan left his fiancée, Elizabeth, to enlist in the New Zealand Army, but he wrote letters home twice weekly. Memories of Korea include going to bed fully dressed in the cold winters and the state of Seoul as he left in 1956. Seoul remained damaged by the war. Very little construction was underway, although Syngman Rhee diverted funds provided by the United States for a hospital into the building of a hotel.



Kullabhol Fakfaipuag

A Dutiful Son

Kullabhol Fakfaipuag describes his pay allowance during the war and how he used it to purchase the land his father had sold. He recalls how he had the land put in his mother's name and that he was grateful to do so. He explains how his pay was a considerable sum at that time.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Preparation for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea's job was to prepare for the Incheon landing by labeling, measuring, and counting vehicles, ammunition, and supplies. He also prepared vehicles to be secured on the Navy ships during transit. Lacy Bethea really trusted and looked up to his commander because he knew that wherever the commander went, he would be safe.



Final Preparations for the Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea worked with the embarkation captain by making diagrams for the placement of vehicles on the ship. Luckily, he was able to work with many high ranking officers while preparing the military supplies. Some officers also took Lacy Bethea to San Diego, California for drinks and finalizing preparations for the Incheon Landing.



Lakew Asfaw

Ethiopian People Were Proud of Their Service

Lakew Asfaw talks about returning home from Korea and the Ethiopian people being happy with their service. He continues to explain that Haile Selassie sent them to protect the freedom of any country against aggressors. He notes when the communists took power in 1974, they were not as happy about the involvement in the Korean War.



Larry Kinard

Letters Home

Larry Kinard explains how he wrote letters every day to his wife and once a week to his mom while he was away. He explains how he was unable to write while he was stationed in the mountains at the 38th parallel. He explains how he sometimes sent for a time of rest. He explains how he was able to receive pictures and letters once he returned to a more protected location farther down the mountain. He shares how he kept the conversation light and still has the letters.



Lawrence Dumpit

Impact: Economic & Military Relations with Korea

Lawrence Dumpit described the economic impact Korea has had on the US and its boom in technology throughout the 1990s. He mentioned that even on base at Miramar in San Diego, soldiers had a lot of LG and Samsung products which were made in Korea. He observed that there are a lot of cars on the road today that were manufactured in Korea (Hyundai, Kia).



Lawrence Elwell

A Bright Spot in the War: Humanitarian Evacuation of North Korean Refugees

Lawrence Elwell, despite all the horrors he witnessed while serving in Korea, describes witnessing the evacuation of ninety-seven thousand North Korean refugees from Korea to the United States. He muses they almost depopulated North Korea in doing so. He recalls meeting some of those refuges who were successfully settled in the Dallas, Texas, area.



Letter Home

Lawrence Elwell recalls a vivid memory of sitting on a hillside in North Korea near Yudamri. He recalls the timing of the event as early December 1950 and shares he was writing his father a letter. He remembers explaining in the letter how they are surrounded by the enemy and that he was not certain he would make it to his upcoming twentieth birthday.



Lawrence Hafen

"I Did the Honorable Thing"

Lawrence Hafen reflects about his Korean War service. He talks about being proud to have served both the US and Korea.



Lawrence T. Kashiwabara

Enlisted or Drafted

Lawrence Kashiwabara shares an amusing story of how he came to be drafted just after enlisting. He recalls how his hopes of enlisting in the United States Coast Guard were dashed when it is discovered he had anemia, but the United States Air Force accepted him. He shares how when he returned home that he discovered his draft card in the mail and ultimately ended up serving with the United States Marine Corps.



Asians and the Draft

Lawrence Kashiwaba discusses the prevalence of Asians being drafted verses enlisting. He recalls that this was during a time when Hawaii was home to many sugar plantations, so the population was primarily Asian due to the workforce needed for the fields. He remembers how there were not many White people in his area, though he felt being Asian elevated the chance one would be drafted before others.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Returning Home

Leon "Andy" Anderson explains his experience upon returning home. He explains that there was no big fanfare when he came home since many people didn't know much about the war. He shares he was discharged and just went home. He shares how he and other veterans work to help returning veterans feel welcome upon returning home.



Leon Steinkamp

Life in Japan

Leon Steinkamp describes his daily life in the military as not too bad. He explains that he and the other cooks would go bowling almost every day while in the service. He recalls that the hardest part of service was the distance from his family.



Leona Stern

Top Level Security Conference Secretary

Leona Stern describes her role with the Fifth Naval District in Norfolk, Virginia. During her final year at the local community college, she shares how a teacher provided her an incentive to sit for the civil service exam. After taking the exam, she explains how the United States Navy recruited her for a position in the administration building. Due to the security level of the meetings, she elaborates on the protocols and process she went through for each meeting.



Seeing the Troops Off

Leona Stern recalls hearing about Charles deploying from someone in her office. She shares how they were not supposed to know about the men shipping out, but her father drove her to the railroad station to say goodbye. At the station, she remembers soldiers asking them to deliver things to their loved ones because they did not know what to do with their belongings. She discusses how it took them about a week to organize and send all of the personal items to the families.



Access to the War Room

Leona Stern recounts her experience while Charles was in the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. After the Chinese attacks on Thanksgiving, she reveals sharing her fears with an admiral who authorized her to have access to the maps in the war room. She describes seeing the day-by-day movements of the units and the Chinese surrounding them. Since she did not receive a notification informing her he was gone, she assumed Charles was okay but shares it was two weeks before she knew for sure he was alive. She emphasizes how she did not stop crying until she received letters from Charles informing her he was alright.



Leonard Nicholls

"Where is That?"

When Leonard Nicholls returned home to England, people asked him where he had served. When he replied that he had been in Korea, they didn't know where it was.



Leslie Peate

Modern Korea and Appreciation for Service

Leslie Peate recalls the differences between South Korea in 1951 and the South Korea he saw later on during his revisit experiences. He states that the South Korean government as never failed to recognize or appreciate the efforts they contributed to helping secure a free South Korea. He comments on the industrial powerhouse South Korea has become and refers to the country as a place where his friends live.



Lewis Ebert

The Ebert Boys Heard the Calling to Arms

In June 1949, Lewis Ebert enlisted in the US Air Force a few weeks out of high school. He took his basic training in Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and then he was trained at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado for military supply training. While in Colorado, the Korean War broke out, but Lewis Ebert already had a lot of prior knowledge about Korea since his brothers all fought in WWII with one stationed in Korea.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



Lisa Humphreys Hwaja Lee

Monument Fundraising and Erection

Lisa Humphreys recalls her efforts to raise funds to erect a Korean War monument in Texas. She shares how she traveled to Korea to procure donations from a company there. She details how she secured an artist in Korea to design the monument and describes the monument's journey to Texas where it was erected in a prime location thanks to the city's land donation.



Lloyd Hellman

Drafted in the Marines or Commissioned in the Navy?

Lloyd Hellman discusses his efforts to secure a commission in the US Navy after he graduated college. He talks about being drafted in the Marines and then finding out he received his commission in the Navy at Marine boot camp, but at that point he would have had to apply for a Marine commission so nothing ever happened.



Lloyd Pitman

Enlisting in the U S Army

Lloyd Pitman had three brothers serve in World War II.  One of his brothers was killed in action so his parents did not want him to serve at the age of 17 when he wanted to enlist. Therefore he waited and enlisted in the Korean War at the age of 18.



Christmas In Korea

Lloyd Pitman describes a Christmas day in Korea. The army gave him two beers and two cigars. He had spent three Christmases away from home and spent some time thinking about his family. The horrors of war returned as he soon found South Korean civilians executed by the North Koreans and Chinese as they retreated.



Louis Joseph Bourgeois

The 426 RCAF Squadron

Louis Bourgeois played an important role in the 426 RCAF Squadron during the Korean War. On return trips to his military base, the aircraft brought back wounded soldiers. Their route to Asia typically started in Washington State before going to Alaska, and then onto Japan.



Becoming a Pilot

Louis Bourgeois always wanted to be a pilot because he knew he wanted to fly. On at least 2 occasions, the Royal Canadian Air Force cited his poor vision as a reason to not let him enlist. Because Louis Bourgeois went to University and he was persistent, eventually, he became a pilot.



The Importance of Pilots During the Korean War

Louis Bourgeois also had 6 North Star Aircraft that went into Korea while others went to Japan. After the war, the planes were brought back to Canada to continue their airlift duties. He is so proud to be the president of the 426 Squadron to support fellow veterans who fought during the Korean War.



Lucie Paus Falck

Beauty From Ashes

Lucie Paus Falck recalls knowing little of Korea prior to the war but comes to know the country through her father's association there with NORMASH, as well as experiencing the country through her many visits there throughout her life. She describes how the country rose from the ashes to become beautiful and productive. She discusses how Norway went on to adopt many of the Korean children displaced by war.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

Personal Effect / Efecto Personal

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández explains the toll the war took on him and laments the loss of life caused by the war. Although he was not wounded, he was troubled with thoughts about what happened to him and others once he returned home. He composed a song as a tribute to Colombian soldiers and Korea. His original song highlights the valor of the Colombian soldier and is an homage to the people of Korea.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández explica el precio que le costó la guerra y lamenta la pérdida de vidas causada por la guerra. Aunque no fue herido, se vio obligado a tratar de dejar de pensar en lo que le sucedió a él y a los demás durante la guerra. Compuso una canción en homenaje a los soldados colombianos y a Corea. Su canción original ejemplifica el valor del soldado colombiano y es una oda para el pueblo de Corea.



Volunteering for a Dangerous War / Voluntariado Para una Guerra Peligrosa

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández offers his views on why he decided to volunteer for the war even after seeing friends return to Korea with amputations. He explains that they embarked with courage and discussed their futures on the voyage to Korea. The reality of the war instilled fear within him upon arriving and he was unsure he would return as he heard his friends die over the radio.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández ofrece sus recuerdos de por qué decidió presentarse como voluntario para la guerra incluso después de ver a sus amigos regresar de Corea con amputaciones. Explica que se embarcaron el barco con coraje y discutían su futuro en el viaje a Corea. La realidad de la guerra lo lleno de miedo al llegar y no estaba seguro de si regresaría cuando escuchó a sus amigos morir por la radio.



Luis M. Juarbe

Printing Puerto Rican News in Korea

Luis Juarbe describes the many different roles he fulfilled for his regiment ranging from radioman to newsman. He describes his responsibilities for creating and distributing a daily newspaper, La Cruz de Malta, that lifted the morale of many Puerto Rican troops throughout his unit. He explains how he helped oversee roughly nine months of consecutive news coverage.



Luis Perez Alvarez

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Futuras Generaciones

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his hopes that the valor and sacrifices of Puerto Rican soldiers be remembered by future generations. He laments that Puerto Rican troops have been all but forgotten even after having fought alongside American troops in the last four major wars. He adds an anecdote about how beloved Puerto Rican soldiers were in Korea.

Luis A. Pérez Alvarez comparte su esperanza de que el valor y los sacrificios de los soldados puertorriqueños sean recordados por las generaciones futuras. Lamenta que las tropas puertorriqueñas fueron olvidadas después de haber luchado junto a las tropas estadounidenses en las últimas cuatro guerras. Añade una anécdota sobre lo queridos que eran los soldados puertorriqueños en Corea.



Lynwood Ingham

Prior Knowledge of Korea

Lynwood Ingham was in high school when the Korean War broke out, but he wasn't taught about Korea at school. Instead, he was kept in the loop because his older brother, Walter Ingham Jr., was fighting in the Korean War as a Marine. The brothers didn't speak much about the Korean War when Walter Ingham returned from the war because that's when Lynwood Ingham went away on active duty.



Lynwood Ingham Entered the Marine Corps

Lynwood Ingham went into the reserves as a 17 year old in high school while attending reserve meetings. From 1954-1956, he went into active duty and then again for 3 months over the summer. When on active duty, he was at Cherry Point, North Carolina and Atlanta.



Korean War Veteran Even Though He Never Went to Korea

Lynwood Ingham was not aware that he is considered a Korean War veteran even though he never went to Korea. Since he was on active duty from 1954 through 1956, the US government considers Lynwood Ingham and all active military a Korean War veteran. He was very pleased to hear this.



Manuel A. Bustamente

Enlisting and Basic Training

Manuel Bustamante knew about Korea when the war broke out because his brother was in the United States Navy on an aircraft carrier. Luckily, Manuel Bustamante and his brother were assigned the same ship, the USS Point Cruz. The brothers were surprised that they were allowed to be on the same ship because usually the United States military tries to separate the family members so that they would not get injured at the same time.



Manuel Antonio Gaitan Briceño

Basic Training / Entrenamiento Básico

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño explains his reasons for entering infantry school. As the son of illiterate parents, he wanted more out of life and found an education and adventure in the armed forces. He recalls that he was not aware he would be sent to fight in a foreign war.

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño explica sus razones para ingresar a la escuela de infantería. Como hijo de padres analfabetos, quería más de la vida y encontró una educación y una aventura en las fuerzas armadas. Recuerda que no sabía que lo iban a enviar a luchar en una guerra extranjera.



Marian Jean Setter

Basic Training and First Assignment

Marian Setter discusses her experience at basic training and explains her first assignment in a general hospital near Modesto, California. She notes she treated both medical and surgical patients. She recalls many of her patients were injured World War II veterans who had been in the hospital for quite some time. She reflects that this was her first experience with war casualties, and it confirmed she made the right decision to join the military.



Nursing on Medical Evacuation Trains

Marian Setter speaks about her second nursing assignment which centered on helping transport World War II prisoners of war to hospitals closer to their homes from the ports where they arrived by ship. She explains that on these medical trains, she and other nurses would ride with the patients the entire length of the trip, care for them, and assist them with any needs they had. She remembers the men being severely malnourished as a result of their time in captivity.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post-War Readjustment

Marion Burdette recounts walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed U.S. Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he recalls being able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. He describes how the impact of war on his life led him to feel that he needed to traveled the U.S. to release his stress. He recounts how he decided to reenlist in the Army for three years. He adds it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Marjorie Elizabeth Cavanaugh

Knowledge, Firing, and Perception of the Korean War

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the extent of her knowledge of what was occurring in Korea and reflects on the slow communication during that time. She remembers her reaction to General MacArthur's firing. She comments on the American public's opinion of the role the United States played in the war and the difference in opinion compared to World War II.



Treatment of Korean War Veterans and Women Veterans

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the difference in the treatment of World War II veterans upon the war's ending compared with Korean War veterans. She reflects on the impact of joining the American Legion after her discharge, saying it gave veterans a sense of belonging. She details her experience as being a woman veteran of the Korean War, remembering that women in the military were generally looked down upon.



Perception of Women Veterans and Experiences with Sexism

Marjorie Cavanaugh shares her experiences as a woman veteran, recalling implied sexism through newspaper articles and radio programs/news. She provides a specific example that happened directly to her upon her attempting to enroll in college using the G.I. Bill. She notes this interaction was just one of many obstacles she faced as a woman veteran.



Impressions of the Treatment of Women in the Military

Marjorie Cavanaugh recalls the treatment of women in the military as being very good, saying that she had good experiences and never felt deterred while in the military. She remembers her treatment upon leaving the military was much worse than the treatment she received while serving. She discusses being treated fairly by men while serving but details the caste system between enlisted servicemembers and officers.



Thoughts on the Racial Integration of the Armed Services

Marjorie Cavanaugh speaks about the racial integration of the military, offering her thoughts and experiences specifically as well as other examples she noticed second-hand. She remembers the differences in opinion based on the region where the service members were from, noting that she believes the women from the South likely did not like having to take orders from their African American officers.



Mark C. Sison

Shelling in Korea

Mark C. Sison provides an account of the U.S.S. Iowa's shelling in various locations in Korea, including Wonsan and Busan. He explains how the ship used smoke screens to conceal the transport of United States Marines. He remembers how, at Busan Harbor, the U.S.S. Iowa bombarded the North Korean's railroad construction to disrupt their supply line. He recounts how he became a member of the Intertribal Warrior Society which performs honor guard duties for veteran burials.



Martin Rothenberg

Literacy Would Prevail

Martin Rothenberg noted that there was a little girl he befriended who's mother worked in the wash tent and she would talk to him because she wanted to learn English. When Martin Rothenberg left Korea in 1955, he knew there would be a massive economic boom in South Korea because the majority of the people were literate. Plus, South Koreans had a desire to be educated and work toward the reconstruction of their country after the Korean War.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Not Drafted the First Time

Sam Bass says that he wished he had been drafted during WWII. However, he was eighteen at the time and states that they stopped drafting 18-year-olds. He remembers when his mom got the letter saying that he would not be drafted.



Marvin A. Flood

Rejection and Redirection

Marvin A. Flood shares he experienced both rejection and redirection when trying to enlist for service. He recounts how he enlisted in the Navy but failed the physical due to a hernia. He recalls how he underwent surgery to repair the hernia, and while recovering, was visited by his buddies who had proceeded through boot camp. He shares he decided the Navy was not for him. He describes how he then enlisted in the Air Force and successfully served as an airplane mechanic.



Marvin Denton

We Didn't Know We Were Poor

Marvin Denton described how much candy, movies, and cigarettes cost, along with getting no time off from school no matter how much snow, how hot, or how much rain fell. He described the manager patting him on the head and telling him "Marvin you've done a good job so we are paying you $1.25 this week," and that's how they paid you. He remembered there was a cashier who earned $15 a week and he thought if he ever made that much, he'd be a millionaire. He was moved to a cashier but never made over $12.50 a week and it all went towards helping the family. Marvin Denton commented, "We didn't know we were poor; there was always food on the table."



Marvin Dunn

Talking About the War

Marvin Dunn explains that it took him many years to talk about his experiences in the Korean War. He describes feeling as though nobody who wasn't there could possibly be able understand; thus, he refrained from recounting his experiences. He goes on to explain that only upon joining a local KWVA chapter was he able to share what happened to him with friends, family, and students.



Marvin Garaway

Complications from Injuries

Marvin Garaway shares that due to the severity of his condition he was not sent back to the frontlines and was offered a transfer to Hawaii. He describes experiencing immobility and swelling in his arm while in Hawaii. He recalls tense interactions with the doctors because of the treatment he received while in their care. He shares how he still experiences issues with mobility in this arm.



Mary Reid

Volunteering for Korea

Mary Reid discusses why she volunteered to go and serve as a nurse in Korea during the war. She shares that she had lived a sheltered life prior to her service, and serving opened the doors of a larger life to her. She recalls feeling that she owed the United States Army and country for its willingness to invest in her.



Matthew D. Rennie

Legacy of a Forgotten War

Matthew Rennie shares that he never expected South Korea to transform itself from a war torn land to a major world economic player. He offers his thoughts on why the Korean War is known as the Forgotten War despite its rich legacy, stating that it occurred on the heels of World War II and was overshadowed by the Vietnam War which was shown nightly on the news. He recounts that the Korean War was overlooked and described as a police action rather than a war, adding that veterans were not even allowed to join the Return Service League due to the labeling and lack of recognition as war veterans.



Maurice B. Pears

The Forgotten War Being Remembered in Australia

Maurice Pears states that the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because it came right after WWII and that was a time when the world was tired of war. He shares how he worked with many organizations to gather donations for a monument in Australia to help people remember the Korean War. He recalls how after thirteen months, he was able to reveal the beautiful Korean War memorial.



Maurice L. Adams

Finishing College and Being Called to Active Duty

Maurice L. Adams joined the ROTC program for three years during college to supplement his GI Bill from World War II. He discusses the benefits of joining the ROTC and eventually finishing college. He recalls being called to active duty and describes the different locations he went for training to become a second lieutenant.



Going Home Early

Maurice L. Adams shares how he managed to return home a few months earlier than expected. He explains that the date of his arrival in September would determine when he could leave. He recalls after understanding the situation and being asked when he arrived, he agreed to the earlier date and was able to return back with his division.



Returning to the United States

Maurice L. Adams describes his transportation back to the United States. He recounts how after dropping off Colombian troops in Colombia, his ship then crossed the Panama Canal. Upon arriving in New Orleans, he attended a parade thrown for the returning soldiers where a civilian made a comment about his shoes needing a shine. He recalls finding out he was being sent to Fort Lewis in Washington and keeping his cold weather gear from Korea since he knew Washington was close to Alaska and that he would be cold.



Mekonen Derseh

Excitement for War

Mekonen Derseh describes an excitement for going to war. He went to Korea partially because of his personal experience with Italy trying to conquer Ethiopia. He did not want this to happen to another country. Mekonen Derseh still has some resentment for Italy and aggressor nations.



Melvin Colberg

One-Room Schoolhouse Education

Melvin Colberg recounts his educational experience in a one-room schoolhouse growing up in Illinois. He shares that learning and even teaching on some days were cooperative efforts between students and the teacher. He expresses that the experience allowed students exposure to an environment conducive to learning how to get along with others and learning how to adapt in preparation for the real-world setting beyond the classroom.



South Korea: A Success Story

Melvin Colberg shares his views on the relationship between Korean War veterans and defense veterans along with the legacy of the Korean War. The outcome of the Korean War is a success story for both the South Koreans as well as the Americans. South Korea has changed so much, for the better, since he left, and he acknowledges that it is a shame that this success story is not taught in schools today.



Melvin D. Hill

Korean War PTSD

Melvin Hill explains having to deal with PTSD from the day he came home in 1951 up through the early 2000s. He describes driving his truck with his then girlfriend and shaking so badly he would have to pull over to calm down. He explains that he had to attend a Veteran's hospital on and off for several weeks at a time to treat his disorder.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Going to Korea

Nancy Lubbers describes her feelings when she learned that her new husband was going to Korea. She remembers being devastated because she had heard a little bit about the situation in Korea. She explains that they had only been married for a few months and she was worried that they wouldn’t be able to contact each other.



Homecoming

Nancy Lubbers describes the homecoming of her husband, Melvin D. Lubbers from service in Korea in August 1953. She was very overwhelmed and very excited to see him. She explains that she didn’t know what was going on in Korea and why she believes the war has been forgotten.



Melvin J. Behnen

Exit Out of the War

Melvin Behnen describes his journey out of Korea and his reaction to the signing of the armistice. He explains how the shallowness of the harbor made departure for soldiers a little challenging. For example, he provides an account of a man falling to his death during the boarding process. While recovering from polio, he recalls hearing about the signing of the armistice. He reflects on the feelings of disappointment over the lack of a formal treaty.



Merle Degler

Enlisting, Training, and Preparing for the Korean War

Merle Degler enlisted in the National Guard as an 18 year old in 1951. After attending Fort Polk for basic training, he was shipped to Yokohama and Tokyo, Japan to get equipment for the war. Soon after that, Merle Degler took a ship to Pusan in Jan. 1953 and he was sent right to Yeongdeungpo, Korea. After being picked up by his regiment, he was brought to his duty station in the Iron Triangle (Kumwa Valley).



Merle Peterson

Coming Home from the Korean War

Merle Peterson did not receive a big reception when he came home from the Korean War. He explains that at the time of his return, Americans were consumed with the new household staple, the television, and were not interested in hearing stories of Korea. He explains that even at the VFW and American Legion, he was not treated well since they didn't "win the war." He explains that the most respect and welcome he has received is from the Korean-American people and people of Korea who were incredibly appreciative and grateful for his services both times he revisited Korea.



Michael Daly

Bedtime Prayer

Michael Daly's earliest political recollection of the Korean War was when he was 5 years old. He and his dad knelt by the side of the bed to say their prayers and he remembers his dad praying, "We thank God tonight for the armistice in the war in Korea." Since Michael Daly was born right before the Korean War, he was too young to remember the draft and other small nuances of the war.



Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



What is Korea to United States?

As many Koreans have migrated to the US, Michael Daly feels it has inspired a community of entrepreneurs and are hungry to succeed. He has seen the impact the Korean children have had on his own children with the edge of competitiveness they have. He has learned that the younger generations don't feel the same way as their elders do with US military support in Korea, yet without US there as a safety net, South Korea is vulnerable (nuclear development).



Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce

Personal Impact / Impacto Personal

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce explains the toll the war took on his psyche. He shares the fact that seeing many of his compatriots die affected his ability to sleep upon returning, and he admits that he still cries over his lost friends. Furthermore, he became fearful and nervous, thus finding it difficult to adjust to civilian life.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce explica el precio que la guerra tuvo en su psique. Comparte el hecho de que ver morir a muchos de sus compañeros lo afectó afecto al regresar y él admite que todavía llora por sus amigos que no volvieron. Además, volvió temeroso y nervioso, por eso le resultó difícil adaptarse a la vida civil.



Prior Knowledge of the War / Conocimiento Sobre de la Guerra

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce remembers when he first heard about the war. He shares that he was aware about what was happening in Korea but never imagined he would be drafted. He recalls the way in which his family wept upon hearing of his deployment.

Miguel Ángel Ponce Ponce recuerda cuando escuchó por primera vez que había una guerra en Corea. Él comparte que estaba al tanto de lo que estaba sucediendo en Corea, pero nunca se imaginó que sería reclutado. Recuerda la forma en que su familia lloraba al enterarse de su despliegue.



Miguel M. Villamor

Life Under Japanese Occupation

Miguel M. Villamor shares he grew up near Cebu City in the Philippines. He recalls how during much of his childhood the Philippines were occupied by the Japanese. He shares how his family left the city after their home was destroyed by the Japanese and made every attempt to avoid the Japanese as they came around the countryside recruiting young boys.



Preparing for Peacekeeping Mission

Miguel M. Villamor recalls arriving in Korea in April 1954 as part of 2nd Battalion Combat Team. He shares their arrival was post armistice sining. He recalls their mission was largely supporting the restoration of democracy and freedom on the Korean Peninsula.



Mike Mogridge

Flashback to Korea

Mike Mogridge shares his thoughts about death as well as his views about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). He admits many from his generation are skeptical of PTSD but that this skepticism does not mean people do not suffer from it. He recounts a personal story of having a flashback some fifty years after the war.



Mildred Marian Thomason

Decision to Join the Military

Mildred Thomason reflects on her decision to join the United States Air Force after completing her initial nursing training. She recalls seeing many advertisements urging nurses to consider enlisting and shares she decided to join because she was bored living in her hometown. She remembers how she was able to ride on military airplanes without cost, which helped her see many places.



Monte Curry

Awarded for his Idea & Peeing in Whiskey Bottles

Monte Curry had developed a way to protect the communication cable and wiring that was internally damaged from the mortars on the front line, so when the word got back to a general, he decided to reward Monte Curry for his efforts. They brought a white truck (said it looked like a Red Cross truck) and unloaded reels of movies, a projector, and a generator to the front lines so the soldiers could watch John Wayne westerns. Monte Curry was considered a hero since it was such a special treat for the men and some soldiers would walk miles just to get the opportunity to watch the movies. They were told not to drink the whiskey on the front line since they found out people were peeing in the bottles and selling it making people sick. He said they thought it was people who may have gone down to the DMZ and picked up these bottles from the local stores.



Kitty Movie Experience

Kitty Curry, Monte Curry's wife, was not told a lot about what her husband was experiencing during the Korean War. Before a movie began, instead of previews of other movies, a black and white news reel would review what was life like for the US soldiers in Korea. This included fighting and bombs dropping on the enemy. Kitty Curry's reaction about the news worried her, but her friends and faith kept her going.



Morris J. Selwyn

Joining the New Zealand Navy

Morris J. Selwyn joined the New Zealand Navy after leaving school. Influenced by a local MP and his older brother, he trained at Motuihi Island for nine months. After basic training, he boarded the HMNZS Kaniere, a frigate bound for Korea.



Myron Bruessel

Atomic bomb testing

Myron Bruessel was assigned to the 9677 Technical Service Unit (TSU), a branch of the military that worked on atomic and nuclear bomb testing in the United States to bomb anywhere in the world. He was assigned to a TSU unit in Hawaii because the island had large antennas necessary for the program. This testing was based on earth movement (electromagnetic force) and it used all the radio antennas to monitor radio waves.



Nuclear Fallout and Test Pigs

Myron Bruessel recognized all the United States soldiers who were "guinea pigs" during the nuclear fallout. In 1953, nuclear tests were from the air and balloon to see if buildings could withstand nuclear bombs. Pigs and cows were placed in testing areas and that scientists would subsequently examine their organs to measure the amount of radiation that was present after a nuclear test.



Operation Upshot-Knothole

In 1953, Myron Brussel constructed 4 different antennae systems in Puerto Rico with different frequencies with a mile-long antenna. A portable rhombic antenna was used because it was very accurate to determine if they could find radio waves associated with atomic bombs. These tests were part of a group of nuclear tests and detection called Operation Upshot-Knothole.



Nathan Stovall

Aboard the USS Blue

Nathan Stovall returned to active duty to take a destroyer, the USS Blue, out of mothballs to sail to Korea. Once they had readied the destroyer, the crew trained to look for submarines. After a brief leave to spend time with his father, Nathan Stovall sailed for Korea in 1951, a place about which he knew nothing upon arrival. The journey was difficult, and a heavy storm damaged nets and whale boats during the leg to Japan.



Nelson S. Ladd

Dear John Letter

Nelson Ladd was very in love with a young lady and he planned to get engaged before deployment. However, after 6 months of being overseas, he received a letter from his fiance stating that she had met someone else. There was nothing he could do being 7,000 miles away from home, and by the time he had returned, she was already married to someone else.



Military Allowances during Korean War

When Nelson Ladd was drafted into the war, he was paid $88.50 a month. By the time he came home as a Corporal, he earned $135 plus 50$ in overseas pay. Nelson Ladd said he earned enough to buy his first car for $1,600 and he gave money to his family.



Nicholas Mastromatteo

Volunteered for Overseas Duty

Nicholas Mastromatteo remembers completing his military training shortly before the armistice was signed in 1953. He explains how fighting continued in Korea, he volunteered for overseas duty. He shares that he wanted to go to Korea but was assigned to Germany instead. He documents how he utilized his military resources to attend Innsbruck Medical School in Austria. Even though he never went to Korea, he feels there was a need for the United States to defend Korea, and he was not interested in the world becoming communist.



Nick Mararac

Naval Training

Nick Mararac discusses how he became a commissioned officer after graduating from college. He also discusses his basic training starting at the Naval Academy. During his explanation, pride can be heard in the tone of his voice.



Nina Movin

Off to Korea

Nina Movin, daughter or Rasmus Movin, discusses her father's medical service during the Korean War. Rasmus Movin left by ship in January of 1951 and arrived in Busan on March 10th, 1951. Rasmus Movin left his wife and 4 children at home during this time.



Noreen Jankowski

Sending Supplies from Home

Noreen Jankowski recalls a conversation about the cold winters in Korea. She mentions sending supplies to her husband in Korea to keep him warm. She highlights how he endured some difficulties with his legs later on perhaps due to the cold exposure.



Norma L. Holmes

Silence about the War

Norma Holmes shares what she heard from her husband about the Korean War. She tells a story of how her husband was ambushed at The Battle of the Hook. He told her mostly about the good times, including the fun that they had in Japan. She believes that this is because he was instructed not to share any details about his time in Korea.



Ollie Thompson

Prior Knowledge of Korea

Ollie Thompson recalls not having any real prior knowledge of Korea until the Korean War broke out. He remembers hearing about the break out on the radio and wanting to join the military because his brother had served during the Second World War. He describes his feelings of wanting to make a difference by helping the people of Korea gain their freedom.



Basic Training

Ollie Thompson recalls having received his basic training at Fort Polk, Louisiana. He describes field training and learning hand-to-hand combat. He remembers furthering his training in artillery once he arrived in Japan, before moving on to Korea.



Orville Jones

Life Aboard the U.S.S. Manchester

Orville Jones recalls life on the U.S.S. Manchester. He recalls sleeping in a bunk, eating hot meals everyday, and having the ability to shower each day if he wanted. He talks about how much money he made and what he could spend it on. He recalls being able to save some money by sending some of it home. He could also spend some of his money in Japan or Taiwan when on Rest and Relaxation.



Othal Cooper

Enlist or Be Drafted

Othal Cooper explains what it was like for a boy straight out of high school in 1950s America. He recalls all boys of age knowing that they would have to serve in the U.S. military. He shares that one could voluntarily enlist and have a choice in the matter as to which branch of the military he was placed, or the alternate, wait and be drafted with no choice.



Otto G. Logan

Reflections on Kindness

Otto G. Logan reflects on how his military service affected his life. He shares that his service taught him to love his neighbor as he would anyone else. He also commends the Korean people for job well done restoring the country following the war.



Pascual Feliciano

Training / Entrenamiento

Pascual Rosa Feliciano shares his thoughts on how well basic training prepared him for combat. He admits that while it was not enough time to prepare them as they were young, he was incredibly proud to be a member of the U.S. Army. The training he recalls was tough, shaped their character, and forced them to mature.

Pascual Rosa Feliciano comparte sus pensamientos sobre qué tan bien lo preparó el entrenamiento básico para el combate. Admite que si bien no fue suficiente tiempo para prepararlos cuando eran tan jóvenes, el entrenamiento logro a dejarlo increíblemente orgulloso de ser miembro del Ejército de los EE. UU. El recuerda que el entrenamiento fue duro, moldeó su carácter y los obligó a madurar.



Pasquale G. “Bob” Morga

Better Write to Your Mom

Bob Morga explains that he wrote to his family a few times per week. He states that Korea was a “lonely place” if you didn’t connect with others in Korea. He recalls that his mother would send him packages and got extremely worried when she heard rumors that he was injured.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

Writing Home and Killing the Tiger

Patrick Hickey and his wife Joy describe their correspondence as being about everyday topics at home. Patrick shares how he did not want to worry Joy. He recalls that the battles were tough, and he describes the last battle of the war, the Third Battle of the Hook. He remembers that on the third night of the battle, thousands of Chinese attacked. He recalls how the United Nations forces killed one million Chinese soldiers in three nights and how the Chinese withdrew to sign the peace treaty.



Paul E. Bombardier

A Last Minute Change

Paul E. Bombardier talks about enlisting in the Air Force and switching to the Army the day before leaving for basic training due to too many candidates. Paul E. Bombardier, along with some his friends, decided that instead of waiting for the draft they would enlist in the service.



Getting Paid

Paul E. Bombardier gives a detailed description of his earnings as a PFC (E-3) in the US Army in 1952. He recounts getting paid a daily (24 hour) rate of $2.40. He notes $7 came out each month for life insurance, $25 sent to his mother, $25 sent to his girlfriend (future wife) and the rest he kept.



Paul E. Newman

Main Hub of Communication

Paul E. Newman describes his main job working in the US Army Post Office during the Korean War. He explains his role as a money order clerk. He also details the importance of the particular post office he worked in as it served as the main hub for letters shipped to and from soldiers serving in the war.



Sending Gifts Home To Loved Ones

Paul E. Newman shares his most significant experience regarding his duties during the Korean War. He explains the creation of the Army & Air Force Mail Order System and the process soldiers used to send gifts home to loved ones. He expresses his pride in having played a role in this process while in Japan during the Korean War.



Paul Frederick Steen

Polio Prior to Service

Paul Steen shares how he discovered he had polio as a child. He chronicles the story and details what he saw while being treated. He admits that he was worried he would not be accepted when volunteering for the draft years later due to his bout with polio.



Reason for Volunteering

Paul Steen explains his reasoning for volunteering for the draft. He shares that he felt he was no better than anyone else and that he had a fondness for the military as a child. He admits that he questioned his decision as soon as he entered the service but adds that he was glad he made the choice to do so.



Paul Frommer

A Love of Planes

Paul Frommer describes his early life and love of watching planes and building models with his father. It was this love that led him to enlist in the Air Force even though he was in college and supposedly exempt from the draft. He recalls thinking he didn't want to be a foot soldier so enlisting in the Air Force was the best option for him.



Air Force Yearbook

Paul Frommer recounts how he helped create the first yearbook for Air Force members that were not pilots at Ellington Air Force Base. He explains that his superiors were very impressed with the final edition. He displays the cartoons, pictures, and addresses that filled his yearbook which help him remember exciting events on the military base.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Paul Spohn

Conversion from Paper to Computers

Paul Spohn shares his first experience with computers known as IBM at the time. He recounts his daily duties of comparing records and using punch cards. He explains that his duties also involved converting old written records to the newer IBM records.



Living Well on the G.I. Bill

Paul Spohn recounts using the GI Bill to continue his education. He shares that he received $110 a month and was able to live comfortably and purchase a car from the funds while attending school. He comments further on his economically sound living conditions.



Paul Summers

Extra, Extra! Read All About It!

Paul Summers enlisted in United States Marines with his brother Eugene. They went to boot camp together at Paris Island, South Carolina. While home attending a Yankee baseball game with his parents, he learned of the Marines being sent to Korea. Paul Summers couldn't wait to go.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Growing Up in Boot Camp

Paulino Lucino Jr. was taught responsibility by serving the in Army. In boot camp, he had a lot of hard times, but although it was rough, it helped him later in life to accomplish his goals. Perseverance was a major life lesson that Paulino Lucino Jr. learned while in boot camp.



Pedro Julio Jackson Morales

Impact of the War / Impacto de la Guerra

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales reflects on the impact the war had on his personal life. He admits that suffered from nightmares about what happened during the war until his old age. He surmises that he may have picked up a disease while in Korea and that might be the reason why he returned unwell.

Pedro Julio Jackson Morales habla sobre el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su vida. Él cuenta que tuvo pesadillas sobre lo que sucedido durante la guerra hasta su vejez. Supone que puede haber contraído una enfermedad mientras estaba en Corea y esa podría ser la razón por la cual regresó mal.



Pell E. Johnson

Welcome Home

Pell E. Johnson remembers all the details about returning home from his duties in Korea. When he got home, his outlook on life changed. United States civilians did not understand the lifestyle soldiers had lived. He also feared the uncertainty of the future to come.



Pete Arias

Second Raiders

Pete Arias has vivid memories of being chosen as a Second Raider in the United States Marine Corps. He vividly recalls the excitement he felt when he became a part of the special outfit that was newly created. He shares the meaning behind the name Gung-ho Raiders, which translates to “work together.” He details his rigorous training as a Raider, which involved learning hand-to-hand combat and water rescues. However, he admits to feeling a sense of arrogance due to the fancy equipment and unique uniforms they received as Raiders.



Pete Flores

Attitude Toward Military and War

Pete Flores says he had two brothers who served in the military as well as a brother-in-law in World War II. He emphasizes that military service taught him discipline and determination which he applied in his successful business after his four years of service. He shares how he helps returning veterans when they leave service.



Peter Ruland

Being a Weatherman at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

Peter Ruland describes going to military training in Norfolk, VA to become a weatherman. He later describes being stationed at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the weather and things to do. Peter Ruland's service at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba was prior to the revolution led by Fidel Castro.



You Do What The Navy Tells You, sometimes

Peter Ruland was married and wanted to be a civilian. He was not that interested in serving in the Navy. Upon return from his last deployment aboard the USS Albany (CA-123), he decided not to re-enlist and go to the Korean War. He wanted to get on with his life and after serving three years he did just that.



Phil Feehan

More Good Times than Bad

Phil and Joanne Feehan describe their marriage and their desire to help Korean children. They discuss their six born children and their five adopted Korean children.



Adopting Children

Phil and Joanne Feehan adopted five Korean children in addition to the six children already in their family. They considered human life was more important than gaining material things. The couple had difficulties getting mixed children but believe it was most important to adopt them because of the challenges they faced in Korea.



Phillip Olson

Letters, Cookies and War

Phillip Olson tried his best to consume his time while he was not on the front lines working with large equipment. He wrote letters to his family about Korea. They in turn sent cookies and letters back to him while he was stationed there from 1952-1953.



Transitioning From Basic Training to Running Heavy Equipment

Phillip Olson enlisted in 1951 and attended a variety of training while in the United States as part of the United States Army. His specialty was heavy equipment such as bull dozers, cranes, caterpillars, and earth movers. One of the roles that he remembered fondly was building an air strip between the 36th and 38th parallel so that the US Air Force could drop bombs on North Korea.



Pieter Visser

Precious Packages From Home

Pieter Visser reminisces about the parcel he received from his mother. He shares that letter writing was very important for the soldiers. He recalls opening the parcel to find the dried meat was all moldy. However, he remembers brushing off the mold and having no issues eating the meat. Surprisingly, he recalls no one asked him to share his package from home.



Rafael Gomez Hernandez

Enlistment and Request to Serve in Korea

Rafael Gomez Hernandez recounts his enlistment into the US Army on June 20, 1950--merely five days before the Korean War broke out. He recalls traveling to Panama to receive his basic training and speaks of how he requested to serve in Korea rather than accept a hospital pharmacy position in Panama. He states that he was not afraid to fight as he was in his early twenties and was not really afraid of anything at the time.



Segregation in the US Military

Rafael Gomez Hernandez recounts the segregation in the US military at the time. He recalls squads within the 3rd Infantry Division being divided by backgrounds. He shares that there was a squad of Black soldiers, one of Puerto Rican soldiers, and two of White soldiers from the US.



Utilizing the G.I. Bill

Rafael Gomez Hernandez shares that after his return from Korea he remained in the US Army to complete his three year service. He describes utilizing the G.I. Bill to study economics at the University of Puerto Rico and states that he worked for the government for roughly twenty-three years. He adds that he retired as a lawyer working for himself.



Ralph A Gastelum

Death Results in PTSD Chosin Reservoir

Ralph describes the number of bodies on the battlefield as far as the eye could see both the enemy and their fallen comrades frozen the way they had fell. The bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up.The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and the bitterness they have. Their wives didn't talk at the time but when they sleep they tell them what they say and their reactions to it. Both Ed and Ralph live with this daily they just learn to cope with it.



Ralph Hodge

Growing up in a Segregated America

Ralph Hodge joined the U.S. Army on March 12, 1951. He jokingly admits he liked the stylish uniforms and wanted to "fight" a war. He shares his recollections of growing up in a segregated community and the impact it had on his life.



Segregated Unit?

Ralph Hodge recounts returning to the United States after serving about a year in Korea. He shares he was assigned to the 522nd Infantry at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. He recounts how, while there, he trained artillery officer candidates. He explains that at the time, his unit was an all-black organization with white officers. He remembers how, on one occasion, he met with the general in charge of Ft. Sill and told the general about the all-black unit. He shares the general had no idea, so he was sent to Ft. Sill to address his experience at Ft. Sill with the staff there.



Meeting Colin Powel

Ralph Hodge shares he was appointed by General Jones to serve as Jones's Equal Opportunity Officer for all of Europe. He details how during his time in the service after Korea, he had the opportunity to meet and work with some of the most decorated members of the military. He notes that among those was Colin Powell whom he had the privilege to attend the pinning ceremony as full colonel. He adds Powell would later go on to become a four-star general, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the first African-American Secretary of State.



Ralph Howard

The U.S. President Wants You for the US Military!

Ralph Howard recalls being in Alaska when the Korean War started and listed as 1-A (available for military service). He mentions he was disappointed after being drafted because he was making good money. He recounts being sent to training as a paratrooper after having his hair cut, passing the aptitude test, and taking a physical.



U.S. Paratrooper Training

Ralph Howard discusses how he was trained to be a U.S. paratrooper in January 1952 after being drafted into the Army. He emphasizes that a great deal of physical training and practice using the parachute was needed. He recalls how his job was to drop into battles, cut off supply routes for the enemy, and support the U.S. Marines who had been fighting in the war since 1950.



Raul Segarra Alicea

Basic Training / Entrenamiento

Raúl Segarra Alicea presents an overview of his military training in Puerto Rico. He remembers how quick the process to enlist was and how he was immediately taken in the same day he took his exams. He provides details about the training in Buchanan and Tortuguero. With pride, he reminisces about his excellent performance during his training as he strived to be the best in the company.

Raúl Segarra Alicea presenta la historia de su entrenamiento militar en Puerto Rico. Recuerda lo rápido que fue el proceso para alistarse y cómo lo aceptaron inmediatamente el mismo día que hizo sus exámenes. Cuenta los detalles sobre la que hizo en Buchanan y Tortuguero. Con orgullo recuerda su excelente desempeño durante su entrenamiento poque quería ser el numero uno de la compañía.



Raymond DiVacky

A Difficult Job

Raymond DiVacky remembers his basic training and responsibilities in Texas. He had infantry training but became one of the first enlisted men placed in the air traffic control system. He describes he almost quit this very intense, difficult training.



Raymond L. Fish

Returning Home

Raymond L. Fish recalls the moment his ship approached land, and he saw the lights of the Golden Gate Bridge when he returned home in 1951. He remembers going right to the Army mess hall, and receiving fresh milk for the first time in three years. He explains having to serve additional time in active duty at Walter Reed Hospital, and how he later became a veterinarian.



Raymond Unger

Bittersweet Homecoming

Raymond Unger talks about coming home after spending most of the war as a POW and his treatment from family and friends.



Raymond V. Miller

The Power of Prayer

Raymond Miller describes a time where the odds were stacked against him, yet he survived. He credits the power of God and the prayers from home with making a difference in his outcome. He struggles to understand why he was spared from the sniper's bullet while both men accompanying him were not.



Rebecca Baker

Why the Navy, Boot Camp and How Nursing Changes a Person

Rebecca Baker explains that she decided to join the Navy since she lived in Cairo, Illinois, and was always near and in water. She describes boot camp and her U.S. Marine Instructor saying all of the nurses had two left feet since they struggled at marching. She explains when she visited home, she saw mostly family. She conveys how the life and death nature of being a nurse led her to outgrow her old friends.



Reed F. Hawke

Living Conditions on the USS Philippines C

Reed F. Hawke recalls the living conditions aboard the USS Philippines C as pretty good. He notes that he spent more time topside than below and shares they had access to daily showers and a laundry. He adds that he always felt safe on board the ship. He fondly remembers the letters that were exchanged between him and his wife, Fern, as well as the home-baked goods she sent him.



Postcards and Other Memorabilia

Reed F. Hawke and his wife, Fern Hawke, share some of the postcards and other memorabilia he sent home from his trip from the Great Lakes Naval Station in Illinois to San Diego where the USS Philippines was based. They share they were married in 1951, and she recalls not knowing much about the events going on in Korea at the time.



Reginald Clifton Grier

Experiencing Racism When on Day Pass

Reginald Clifton Grier reminisces about an incident that occurred during his basic training. He narrates how he was asked to vacate his seat on a trolley car while on a day pass in Louisiana. He recalls refusing to do so, stating he was from New York and not accustomed to being treated in such a disrespectful manner.



Experiences in a Desegregated Military

Reginald Clifton Grier explains how the desegregation of the military transformed the institution but not necessarily the people within it. He recalls how he received lower evaluations simply because his commanding officer could not give a Black and White soldier the same rating. He notes how during his evaluations of junior officers, he drew upon his own experiences and upheld the principles of impartial assessment to evaluate their leadership and skills with utmost fairness.



Reginald V. Rawls

Life Leading into the Army

Reginald Rawls grew up living in a poor section of town and he had limited options to improve his quality of life. These circumstances served as the impetus for his enlistment in the Army. He rose up the military ranks because he was respectful to everyone and he went to a lot of training.



Returning Home

Reginald Rawls arrived back home after being gone for three years. He was stationed in Japan before being sent to fight in the Korean War. Most people did not know where he was, or what he had been doing since the media had not discussed the Korean War on the home front.



Ricardo Roldan Jiménez

A Difficult Voyage / Un Viaje Difícil

Ricardo Roldan Jiménez reminisces about the difficulty he had in bidding his family goodbye before being sent to war. He explains that they were given five days to go home before their deployment, but he feared telling his family where he was being sent so he lied. He admits that he only truly understood the magnitude of his decision when he arrived in Busan and received training on how to kill, what to expect if taken as a prisoner, and how to proceed if he were wounded in battle.

Ricardo Roldán Jiménez recuerda la dificultad que tuvo para despedirse de su familia antes de ir a la guerra. Explica que les dieron cinco días para regresar a su casa antes de su despliegue, pero temía decirle a su familia adónde lo enviarían, así que mintió. Admite que sólo entendió la magnitud de su decisión cuando llegó a Busan y recibió entrenamiento sobre cómo matar, qué esperar si lo tomaban prisionero y cómo proceder si era herido en batalla.



Richard A. Houser

The Korean War Draft and Basic Training

Richard Houser was working and got married before he was drafted in 1953. He didn't think that he would get drafted and one month after getting the letter, he was sent to boot camp.



Returning to the US After Serving in the US Army

Richard Houser returned to the US in the spring of 1934 and most of the people from his town didn't even know he was gone. Newspapers didn't publicize the Korean War since it was tired from WWII, so most of the veterans did not get a warm welcome home.



Richard Arthur Christopher Hilton

Missiles and the USSR

Richard Hilton recalls the threat posed by the USSR as a reason for the U.S. military focus on missiles. He explains that the Russian support for the North Koreans and their advancement in missile creation led to the U.S. proliferation in missile production. He goes on to explain that his proficient math background earned him a position in the missile department, mostly in Albuquerque and in White Sands, New Mexico.



Richard Brandt

Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Helping a Father See His Son

The most memorable moment in Korea was when a young soldier from Iowa ran up daily for mail call to get information about his new baby. Every time they got mail, the young soldier received many pictures of his son bathing in the tub (always naked), he was so proud. The young soldier asked Richard Brandt when he was going home and he replied that it was within two weeks, but after speaking to his commander, Richard Brandt allowed the young soldier to go home in his place to see his son.



Richard Carey – Part 1

From High School to the Marines

Richard Carey discusses what is V-5. He discusses his path to military service. He explains how he wanted to be a Marine Corps aviator. He shares how the V-5 program was discontinued and he had to go to ROTC or take discharge. He explains how he chose to discharge and enlisted in the Marines.



Richard Carey – Part 2

Forgotten War

Richard Carey discusses how the Korean War followed many wars. He shares the sacrifice and casualties that happened in WWII may have led civilians to be ready for war to be over. He explains why he feels the Korean War may have been forgotten.



Richard Davis

Thoughts on War

Richard Davis shares his thoughts on war. He vocalizes that it does not really settle anything and that many lives are lost in the process, often at the hands of politicians. He comments on the need for a military force and offers his thoughts on how to stock US forces.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Drafted Into the U.S. Army

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experiences of being drafted by the United States Army at the age of twenty-one and undergoing his basic training. He explains how his boot camp training equipped him with the necessary skills to survive and serve during the war. He recalls the weapon training he received, which included the M1 rifle, bazooka, and mortar.



Arriving in Korea

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experience of undergoing an extended leadership training of two months while most of the other trainees were sent ahead to Korea. He vividly recalls the night when he first arrived in Korea via Incheon Harbor where commands were given in low whispers and troops were instructed to load their weapons with live ammo as a precautionary measure. He explains his role and responsibilities as a member of the mortar squad.



Richard Faron

Soldier Pay

Mr. Faron describes his pay during the war. He explains how the money was used during the Korean War. He talks about how soldiers supported their families back in the U.S. He shares about the task of getting the money to pay soldiers.



Richard Franklin

Revisiting Korea

Richard Franklin talks about revisiting Korea. He mentions the graciousness of his Korean hosts and the unique opportunity to witness a speech by President Barack Obama.



Coming Home from War

Richard Franklin recalls coming home from the war. He talks about how little fanfare or appreciation was shown to returning soldiers outside of close family members.



Richard Friedman

Adamant about Serving in Korea

Richard Friedman shares how his father used his political clout to pull strings in order to have him sent to Germany out of harm's way instead of Korea. Richard Friedman refused to leave his company despite his father's actions. To negate his current predicament, he specifically volunteered to serve in Korea against his father's wishes.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Richard Friedman coveys his views on the Korean War Legacy. He shares that no one was there to thank him for his service upon his return home. Richard Friedman states that the Korean War's Legacy needs to be built upon, and he acknowledges that measures are being taken by various individuals and groups to do so. He shares that he respects why he was there, what was achieved, and was proud to have served.



Richard H. Fastenau

I Did My Duty, Spent My Time, and I Feel Good about It

Richard H. Fastenau shares that he really does not think about the impact his service during the Korean War had on his life after his return. He claims he did his duty, and no one can argue that he did not. He notes that he rarely talks about his experience to others beyond those who have served in Korea.



Richard Houser (Wife)

Life After War

In this clip Mr. and Mrs. Houser discuss what life was like after Mr. Houser had come back from his service.



Why This Project is Important

Mrs. Houser describes why this project is important.



Building a Future After War

In this clip Mr. and Mrs. Houser describe how Mrs. Houser saved all of Mr. Houser's military paychecks in order to buy a home.



Richard J. Dominguez

Being Drafted and Training With Mules

Richard J. Dominguez shares how, after graduating high school in 1942, he wanted to join the United States Army Air Corps. He notes, however, he was unable to pass the physical exam due to a muscular imbalance in one eye. He recalls spending a year rehabilitating his eye and taking university courses. He describes how, in 1943, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and sent to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, for basic training. He explains how during his training, he was part of a special group that trained with mules to carry a 0.35 millimeter Howitzer. He remembers the discipline and physical fitness required to work with the animals and hike across hilly terrain.



U.S. Air Corps and Infantry Training

Richard J. Dominguez explains that the United States Air Corps was a division of the U.S. Army before the establishment of the U.S. Air Force. He shares how, in 1944, he was sent to Arizona State Teachers College to complete coursework in preparation for his duties in the U.S. Air Corps. He remembers how, at that time, women did not serve in the U.S. Air Corps. He recalls his experiences during his training at the college, which included ten hours of flying instruction. He recalls, however, before he could complete his Air Corps training, he was transferred to the Army Infantry, 13th Armored Division, where he received instruction on firing anti-tank weapons.



Preparing for the Korean War as a U.S. National Guard

Richard J. Dominguez shares he made the decision to join the United States National Guard while working as a police officer. He mentions that his choice to reenlist in the service was largely influenced by the payment of thirty dollars he received each month which helped to supplement his income from the police department. He remembers how, a few months after joining the National Guard, he was sent to Camp Cook, California, to train as a medic and mobilize for the Korean War. He describes how his training and departure affected his wife and young daughter who went to live with relatives.



Korea Arrival and Departure

Richard J. Dominguez shares his experience of arriving in Korea during a ceasefire for negotiations among opposing forces. Upon arrival, his unit was sent to replace another division on the front lines. He describes how the previous division had constructed trenches and tents to maximize protection from incoming fire. He recalls his own division losing men on the front lines, including a fellow medic. He reflects on receiving an emergency furlough while in Korea to travel home and visit his ill mother.



Richard Knoebel

After the Return Home

Richard Knoebel recounts returning home and focusing on the future. He remembers a book about the Chosen Reservoir being published in 1985 which got him interested. He also learned about a Chosen group from his daughter. These led him to be involved in the community of Korean veterans.



Richard L. Boxwell, Jr.

Navy Injuries Led to Lifelong Pain

Richard Boxwell experienced lifelong injuries he incurred from his service on an aircraft carrier. A plane ran over part of his leg. Earplugs were not used on aircraft carriers during the Korean War and this led to his permanent hearing loss.



Richard Miller

Truant from High School While in Korea

Richard Miller recalls he was sent to Fort Ord for leadership school after he illegally joined the military after his sophomore year of high school. He notes he was in an advance group to Pusan, Korea, in 1950 for six weeks on a fact-finding mission for training purposes. He recalls having to return to California for high school because a truant officer found out he was not in high school and was violating state law because he was under eighteen and not enrolled in high school. He shares he was honorably discharged in February 1951 so he could return to high school.



Richard S. Smith

Memories of the Korean War and Coming Home

Richard S. Smith does not recall any really difficult parts of the war, but he notes that this might be because he was such a young man at the time. He remembers there were times he was pretty scared, but he really does not count that as a difficulty. He concludes that the happiest time of his service was the coming home which included a trip through the Panama Canal and an awaiting soon-to-be bride.



Richard V. Gordon

Life on the Ship and in the Navy

Richard V. Gordon describes life aboard the HMS Tutira. He describes making his hammock and putting it up every morning and the food. He also describes the pay in the Navy and sending money home to his new wife. Richard V. Gordon also describes the waves on the ship, even in a frigate.



Richard W. Edwards

You Can Tell They Are Hard Workers

Richard Edwards describes his admiration of the Korean people and their survival during the Korean War. He explains that he grew up during the Great Depression so that he feels a little relation to the plight of the Koreans in such dire circumstances. He describes his legacy as a Korean War veteran being easier for him growing up on a farm so that he further understood what the Korean people had to do to survive.



Richard W. Malsack

A Good Colonel

Richard W. Malsack remembers one colonel in particular he was very fond of serving alongside, Colonel Reynolds. He recalls the colonel making him and the other men feel special in the way he handled them. He describes the desire he had to locate him, stating he would go anywhere to see him and talk with him, but later found out he had passed away.



Richard W. Robinson

Completing Education Through the GED Program and GI Bill

Richard W. Robinson talks about dropping out of high school to join the Army and then completing the GED requirements for a high school diploma while serving. He discusses taking advantage of the GI Bill after his service to complete two college degrees from New Hampshire College. He shares his gratitude for the Army allowing him the opportunity to complete his education.



Robert Chisolm

Letters Home and Life on the Home Front

Robert Chisolm shares he married his childhood sweetheart in 1946 and wrote letters to her throughout the Korean War. He notes that she volunteered with the Red Cross. He recalls a time she had to ask the Red Cross to determine if he was alright after the Battle of Pork Chop Hill since their local newspaper wrote a large article about his regiment in that major battle.



Robert Dahms

Training for the Korean War in the US and Cuba

Once Robert Dahms graduated high school, he volunteered for the military. He was sent to the Great Lakes for 16 weeks of basic training. After training, Robert Dahms went to Pensacola, Florida to rescue downed planes by using a lot of different types of technology to aid the rescuers.



Training and Protecting Pilots While Purifying Water

Robert Dahms continued to work on the home front to train and protect pilots while they were learning to become effective soldiers. While doing so, he also ran evaporators to purify salt water in order to turn it into drinking water. Both of these jobs were important for the soldiers during the Korean War.



Robert F. Towns

Family Reunited

Bob Towns remembers an exciting story of uniting a husband and wife on the phone. The wife was in Fairbanks, Alaska at the hospital getting ready to give birth and the husband was serving in Okinawa, Japan. With his job as a radio operator, he was able to reunite families in this manner and it always warmed his heart to do so.



Robert Fickbohm

Friendships and Brotherhood among Dog Handlers

Robert Fickbohm explains that friendships were made within the 26th Infantry Scout Dog Division. He shares that a brotherhood has formed not only within his particular unit but among all dog handlers in the military, from World War II to present. He discloses that he continues to share his experiences with United States Army Special Operations teams.



Return Home

Robert Fickbohm details his return home. He expresses that there was very little attention paid to the veterans returning and that it was rather disappointing. He does mention that it was a better reception than that given to Vietnam veterans.



Robert Fitts

Seasickness En Route to Korea

Robert Fitts details his journey to Korea aboard a ship. He experienced sea sickness and as did other servicemen on board. He recounts his arrival in Japan and narrates his transport from there to Korea and to his post in Korea via train.



Return Home with Veteran Pride

Robert Fitts shares his experience returning home to no reception. He states that no one, including his family members, questioned him about his service. Looking back, he shares he is proud to be a Korean War veteran and is proud of what South Korea has accomplished since the war.



Robert H. “Bob” Lewis

Group Therapy and Camaraderie

This clip discusses how soldiers after WWII experienced the journey home after their service. During WWII, soldiers were in a solidified unit and were able to travel home together. Per Mr. Lewis, this camaraderie served as group therapy for the soldiers. After WWII, soldiers were shipped home individually, and were not able to experience the bonding that soldiers traveling together as a unit home, from a war, could possibly experience. Mr. Lewis also touches upon the fact that many contemporary soldiers suffer from PTSD.



Robert H. Pellou

No Real Training

Robert H. Pellou shares he wanted to join the U.S. Army but failed the physical. He explains how, with a little luck and a less than competent person administering the physical, he did pass the U.S. Marine Corps physical and became a member. He notes how there was very little training as a reservist before he was sent to Korea. He estimates he was one of between three hundred to four hundred reservists who did not even go to bootcamp before being deployed to Korea.



Returning Home

Robert H. Pellou shares he left the service in early Fall 1952. He remembers there was a rather low-key reception when he returned home. He notes that for the next forty years he simply worked. He describes how, beginning in 1990, he became involved in several military organizations and has served as treasurer in four of these organizations. He expresses his opinion on war as sometimes you have it.



Robert Kappes

I Never Made It to Korea

Robert Kappes describes how he and his fellow soldiers were headed to Korea and were deterred by a typhoon forming, forcing them to head back to Okinawa. He shares that while they were in Okinawa, the Armistice was signed. Due to this, he never actually made it to the war.



Military Life Was Good for Me

Robert Kappes shares how military life was good for him. He describes the $82 a month he made. He tells how serving in the United States Army as a personal records specialist opened his eyes as it related to him making real money for the first time in his life.



Robert R. Moreau

R and R and Returning Home

Robert R. Moreau recalls how, with each tour of duty in Korea, soldiers were offered a R and R trip to Japan. He remembers attending theaters and shopping in stores. Nearing the end of his tour, he recalls being approached by the captain of his company asking him to stay on if he would offer him a field commission. He shares how he turned in him down and returned home to marry his fiancee. He notes that there was little hoopla surrounding their return and emotionally recalls waking his parents up early in the morning upon his return.



Robert Steven Duffy

Marines or Probation?

Robert Duffy talks about his choice of joining the Marine Corps or staying on probation. He explains how the military offered his more opportunities as well as the discipline that he needed. His probation officer was in absolutely in agreement with his decision.



Robert W. Stevens

A Forgotten War

Robert W. Stevens details the beginning of his military service which included a short time with the Illinois National Guard before enlisting in the U.S. Navy. He recalls his basic training in Newport, Rhode Island, where he learned the same academic materials as the cadets at Annapolis. He reflects on why he believes the Korean War is often considered a "Forgotten War."



Rod Asanaphon

Life After the War

Rod Asanaphon discusses making the transition back into civilian life after his service in Korea. He describes going back into the classroom but never discussing his experiences of the war. He recalls how he felt the students were uninterested in the Korean War.



Rodney Ramsey

From Rubble to Riches!

Rodney Ramsey is the president of his Korean War regiment's organization and ever since 1989, they meet for a yearly reunion. The year of the interview was the 27th reunion and about 50 members attend. During his Korea revisit in 1991, Rodney Ramsey was shocked to see the improvement in living conditions. He took a picture when he was in Seoul, South Korea in 1952 and it only had an ox cart and a military jeep, but in 1991 during his revisit, it was filled with cars.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Working His Way from Wyoming to Korea, What a Ride!

Rodney Ramsey studied petroleum jelly at the University of Wyoming. He graduated from there in June 1951 and was activated to right away because he was in the United State Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After receiving basic training at Fort Benning, GA and additional training in California, he received his orders for Korea in 1952, but Rodney Ramsey figured that he was being sent there because he had been tracking the war since 1950.



Rodney Stock

"That's Just the Breaks of the Game"

Rodney F. Stock shares he knew where Korea was from studying maps. He remembers hearing about the beginning of the war while driving to his parents' house. Citing no fear of dying, he recalls convincing the draft office to speed up his processing. After transferring among multiple training locations in the United States, he recounts boarding a ship for Korea at the end of 1951.



Roland Dean Brown

PTSD Experience

Roland Brown shares his experience with PTSD. He describes being found standing in bed, fighting and yelling, on occasion upon his return home. He expresses that he has learned to manage it through the years with help from his wife, religion, and PTSD group.



Ron Kirk

Military Family

Ron Kirk's family has a strong military background. His grandfather fought in the Boer War. His father fought both in World War I and World War II. During World War I, his father was gassed and bayoneted in the Battle of Ypres. During World War II, his father reenlisted and trained pilots. He also had two uncles and three cousins to fight in the Korean War.



Orphanage Needed Baby Clothes

Ron Kirk noted an orphanage on an island where he patrolled. A missionary from Australia remarked the orphanage needed baby clothes the most. He requested his mother send clothes and they were provided in the next care package he received.



Ronald A. Cole

Proud Korean War Veteran

Ronald Cole offers his impressions of Korea and the Korean people. He recalls fearing that North Korea would simply take over when the Americans withdrew. He speaks of pride in being a Korean War veteran. He shares the challenges that many Korean War veterans faced in receiving appropriate recognition when they returned and how those still impact them today.



Ronald C. Lovell

Life on the Front Lines

Ronald C. Lovell paints a vivid picture of life on the front lines. Showers were a rarity, and meals typically consisted of Australian C-Rations. Despite emerging from his deployment unharmed, he acknowledges the constant threat of death that loomed over him at any given moment.



Ronald P. Richoux

PTSD

Ronald Richoux transports himself back to a moment on the front lines where incoming rounds wreaked havoc and destruction, wounding himself and a fellow soldier. He describes the fear and trauma of that moment that remain with him to this day. His wound subsequently leads to him coming home and being stationed stateside.



Ronald Rosser

Medal of Honor

Ronald Rosser explains the Medal of Honor, the highest award an American can receive from Congress. He received the award from President Harry Truman. He shares that nineteen men in his division received the Medal of Honor though only four of them had lived.



Rondo T. Farrer

My Mother Thought I was a Burglar

Rondo T. Farrer describes his homecoming from the Korean War. He explains how no one knew he was returning. He talks about the lasting effects of the war upon his life.



Rose L. Gibbs

Joining the U.S. Army and Basic Training

Rose Gibbs recounts her decision to join the U.S. Army after seeing a sign about Uncle Sam needing women to serve. She admits that the idea of free clothes, food, boarding, training, and $75 a month seemed like pretty good. She shares that she didn’t travel far at first since she was stationed thirty miles from home. She explains that during basic training you could request a pass to leave the post. She admits that she requested a pass every weekend, and received it every time. She admits she was only allowed one pass but used eight passes during basic training.



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Enlisting and Understanding His Mission

Roy Orville Hawthorne recounts how he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1943 at the age of seventeen. He shares he initially wanted to enlist in the “Silent Service” (the submarine force of the United States Navy). He remembers his desire to serve on a submarine originated from reading the novel, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas by Jules Verne. However, he recalls how he was informed at the induction ceremony that all Navajo males were required to be inducted into the US Marine Corps during WWII, per federal legislation. He discusses going to the Navajo Communications School at Camp Pendleton where the mission for Navajo soldiers during WWII was made clear.



Education is Like a Ladder

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he utilized the benefits of the GI Bill to attend a Bible Seminary school where he earned a bachelor's and master's degree, followed by a Ph.D. He emphasizes the significance of education by citing Navajo Chief Manuelito's analogy of education being like a ladder which his people must climb to achieve opportunity and happiness. He acknowledges the positive influence of his military service in attaining his professional and personal aspirations.



Rudolph Valentine Archer

Enlisting and Choosing Aviation

Rudolph Valentine Archer discusses the influence of Buck Rogers and comic books in his decision to pursue aviation when he enlisted in the U.S. Army. As a child in Chicago, he recalls watching planes fly overhead and dreaming of being a part of aviation. He recounts deciding between marching and carrying a rifle or flying in an airplane. He easily chose the latter option.



Integration of the U.S. Military

Rudolph Valentine Archer reflects on the segregation of the United States military in 1948. He recollects being a part of an all-Black unit before the integration of the armed forces. He remembers that the African American officers he served under after integration were highly skilled individuals and excellent mentors. He narrates his experience of arriving at his first job assignment and being informed that he was not allowed to supervise white troops, even though the military had been integrated.



Ruth Powell (Wife of John Powell)

Electric Shock Therapy

Ruth Powell shares how her husband, John Powell, received electric shock therapy as a means of aiding his PTSD. She provides details regarding electric shock therapy, the process, and its intended purpose. She recalls the effects it had upon John Powell.



Forgotten Memories

Ruth Powell, wife of Korean War POW, John Powell, talks about the things that he remembers from the war. She explains that he has forgotten many experiences from his time spent in Korea. She shares that her husband's memory has been compromised as a result of his electric shock therapy.



Salvatore Buonocore

Basic Training

Salvatore Buonocore recalls the basic training he received after joining the Navy. He remembers demonstrating his swimming ability and being assigned as the swimming instructor for his unit. He shares that many men did not know how to swim. He comments further on his other talents being noticed in training which led to his placement in a construction company.



The Breakout of the Korean War

Salvatore Buonocore shares that he knew immediately when the war broke out as he was in the Naval Reserves at the time. He states that he was teaching at the Naval Reserves Station and recalls being put on standby. He remembers some of the men he was teaching being put directly aboard ship as they had prior experience.



Air-sea Rescue

Salvatore Buonocore shares his thoughts on the Navy providing clean bunks and decent meals but mentions the dangers of drowning. He compares his naval experience to the experiences of those who served in Korea. He recalls high jump training to prepare servicemen for an emergency and comments on his time in the Air-sea Rescue, detailing his duties and one particular rescue he conducted.



Salvatore Scarlato

"Joining Hands"

Salvatore Scarlato describes the story behind a drawing he was given. He shares that during a revisit to South Korea in 1999, a high school student promised him she would create a drawing depicting the relationship of the United States and South Korea. He recalls the drawing arriving in the mail several months later and states that her drawing shows how, after sixty years, the United States and South Korea are still united.



Salvatore Schillaci

Wounded During a Mission

Salvatore Schillaci recounts being wounded in the abdominal during a nighttime reconnaissance mission. While on patrol, he remembers his Sergeant ordering him to investigate what looked like an abandoned enemy machine gun. As they approached, he describes how the enemy began their assault and how he was hit in the abdomen. Shortly after being stitched up in the medical tent, he shares how his wound opened up and that he was evacuated out of Korea. He recounts his experience before a military board and receiving an honorable discharge.



Pieces of His Body (Graphic)

Salvatore Schillaci reflects on how a lot of bad things happened during his service. He elaborates on the experience seeing his friend die only a few feet in front of him. Years later, he can still recall the horrific memory of his friend stepping on a landmine and the remains of his friend scattering around him.



Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr.

Decision to Join the Marine Corps

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., shares how his brother's war stories inspired him. He recalls a conversation with his father about joining the Marine Corps and how his dad almost fell off of his chair when he asked if he could join. He explains how he expressed his desire to go to Korea and felt he would end up safe.



Samuel Henry Bundles, Jr.

Using the GI Bill After World War II

Samuel Bundles, Jr. shares that he was drafted at the end of World War II. After the war, he used the GI Bill to finish his studies at Indiana University. He recalls how he fell in love with photography during his time in the US Navy and even wrote for a Navy base newspaper. He reflects on how this experience caused him to change his major to journalism at Indiana University.



Joining the US Army

Samuel Bundles, Jr. discusses how he signed up for the US Army Reserves in 1948 to avoid being drafted. He explains that he joined the Army Reserves because there was no Navy reserve in Bloomington Indiana where he lived at the time. He explains that he was married and had a new car when the Korean War started. He notes that due to his Navy experience, he was a sergeant in basic training. He shares that he took the test for officer candidate school but was ordered to Korea before he could attend.



Sanford Epstein

Korean Orphans

Sanford Epstein recalls sending half of his monthly wages home to his family and shares that he gave quite a bit of his money away as there were many orphans. He shares how orphaned children would follow them around and offer to do odd jobs. He recounts fellow soldiers adopting Korean orphans and elaborates on how one of the orphans, with monthly support from the men in his unit, graduated from college in Buffalo, New York, and became a CPA.



Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz

Surviving the Battle of Old Baldy / Sobreviviendo a la Batalla de Old Baldy

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz recounts the dangers he encountered during the battle of Old Baldy. After two soldiers within his post were killed and his machine gun overheated, the only way for him to survive was by hiding for two days. The most difficult part of the battle was escaping as he found a fellow soldier with injured legs begging him for help which he then carried for one-and-one-half kilometers. He courageously carried him to safety while maneuvering through artillery falling nearby.

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz relata los peligros que encontró durante la batalla de Old Baldy. Después que mataran a dos compañeros y su ametralladora se sobrecalentó, la única forma de sobrevivir fue escondiéndose durante dos días en un bunker. La parte más difícil de la batalla fue escapar, ya que encontró a un compañero soldado con las piernas lesionadas que le suplicaba ayuda y camino un kilómetro y medio cargándolo. Lo llevó a un lugar seguro mientras maniobraba a través de la artillería que caía cerca.



Volunteering for Korea / Voluntariado por la Geurra en Corea

Segundo Miguel Angel de la Cruz offers an overview as to why he enlisted in the army and was among the first to volunteer to fight in Korea. He was disillusioned with his homelife and wanted a distraction from the misery of his house. He believes in the importance of war and if he were young, he would enlist once again.

Segundo Miguel Ángel de la Cruz ofrece su historia de por qué se alistó en el ejército y porque fue uno de los primeros en ofrecerse como voluntario para luchar en Corea. Estaba desilusionado con su vida aburrida y quería distraerse de la miseria de su casa. Él cree en la importancia de la guerra, y si el fuera joven se alistaría una vez más.



Sergio Martinez Velasquez

Entering the Military / Entrar en las Fuerzas Armadas

Sergio Martínez Velásquez explains the process by which he joined the Batallón Colombia. He shares he was initially not allowed to join the military because he looked younger than he was, and the lieutenant questioned his motives. He explains that it was only after he insisted on fighting that he was allowed to join the ranks of the other volunteers.

Sergio Martínez Velásquez explica como ingresó al Batallón Colombia. Él cuenta que inicialmente no lo permitieron a unirse al ejército porque parecía más joven de lo que era, y el teniente cuestionó sus motivos. Explica que fue solo después de que él insistió en luchar, que se le permitió unirse a las filas de los otros voluntarios.



Saying Goodbye / Las Despedidas

Sergio Martínez Velásquez shares the story of how he informed his parents he had volunteered to fight in Korea. He emotionally remembers the way in which his parents insisted he abandon his plans. He recalls believing he would never see them again as he was certain he would be killed in action.

Sergio Martínez Velásquez comparte la historia de cómo les informó a sus padres que se había ofrecido como voluntario para pelear en Corea. Él recuerda con emoción la forma en que sus padres insistieron en que abandonara sus planes y que se quedara en Colombia. Recuerda haber creído que nunca los volvería a ver porque estaba seguro de que lo iban a matar en combate.



Sheridan O’Brien

Naval Career Begins

In 1947, Sheridan O'Brien joined the Australian Navy after seeing an advertisement in the local paper. He served aboard the Arunta until the end of World War II. While walking with his family in a local park, he vividly recalls receiving news of his deployment to Korea. Assigned as a sonar man on the anti-submarine frigate Culgoa, he patrolled most of Korea's coastline during his deployment in 1953.



Shirley F. Gates McBride

To This Day, That is Unfair

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes the training all of the women received at basic training at Fort Lee, Virginia, and the shock of encountering racism for the first time. During a trip off of the base, she shares her first experience with segregated facilities. She explains being aware of the racial issues in America but did not understand it until her friend provided further explanation. The experiences involving segregation are some of the things she can never truly get over.



Cry Until You Can No Longer Cry

Shirley F. Gates McBride describes the first lesson she received at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania. Shortly after her arrival, she describes walking into a room and a sergeant separating her from the other soldiers. She explains that he instructed her to go cry in a room until she could not cry anymore. After following his orders, she shares how he explained to her that she would see a lot of death, and she acknowledges this helped to train her to deal with death.



We Saw A Lot

Shirley F. Gates McBride discusses different types of injuries she treated while serving at Valley Forge. She describes doctors trying to restore circulation for soldiers suffering from frostbite would open the soldiers' abdomen and place their frostbitten hands inside. She remembers one particular patient, who was a pianist, suffering from frostbite and how they tried to save his fingers. While working with some soldiers, she recalls they were struggling mentally and had to be in a special unit. She highlights that their youth made some of them unprepared to deal with some of the experiences. Not only did she work with soldiers coming home from Korea, but she shares some of her experiences dealing with Korean women in the maternity ward.



I Was So Young, I Did Not Understand

Shirley Gates-McBride reflects on her experience as a nurse during the Korean War and connecting to other veterans. She admits, as a young nurse during the war, she did not really understand what the men in Korea were going through. After listening to veterans open up to each other, she shares now has a better understanding of what the men she treated experienced and why certain procedures had to be performed.



Shirley Toepfer

Spy School

Shirley Toepfer describes her basic training as well as transferring to Ft. Holabird, Marylind. This facility housed U.S. Army Intelligence training. Shirley Toepfer was based here for counterintelligence training or as she calls it spy training.



Leaving the Military

Shirley Toepfer describes the circumstances surrounding the end of her service. She began dating her future husband at Ft. Holabird. She got married and then she and her husband both left the service and moved to Illinois where she raised four children.



Sotirios Patrakis

Preservation and Educating Youth

Sotirios Patrakis shares his thoughts on preserving the memory of Korean War veterans' service and on educating youth about the Korean War. He expresses that this endeavor began rather late as many veterans have since passed or mix their facts due to age. He adds that it is good to do it even now though so that everyone knows and remembers this history.



Message to Veterans and South Koreans

Sotirios Patrakis offers a congratulatory message to Korean War veterans from Greece as well as to the South Korean people. He shares that the veterans went on their own accord as the people of Greece believe in democracy and freedom. He commends South Korea's economic strength developed through the years since the war and adds that it is a very good example for many countries like his own.



Stanley Fujii

Glorious Mail Call

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of mail call for soldiers, and the camaraderie that came along with getting communication from loved ones on the homefront. His heartwarming testimony reflects on his writing letters for a fellow soldier from Minnesota who was illiterate. His friend from Minnesota later died in a bombardment.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Stephen Frangos

Impressions of Korea and of Koreans

Stephen Frangos reflects on his impressions of Korea and of Koreans. He describes a Seoul that was devastated but adds he did see signs of revival. He remembers having tremendous optimism for Korea because of the hard working and industrious people. He comments that he knew they would be successful but states he did not realize just how successful they would turn out to be.



Steven G. Olmstead

"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Writing Letters Home

Steven Olmstead talks about writing letters home. He mentions that there were not opportunities to write when on the front lines and that while he received letters from family and friends, he did not write back very often. He recalls a fellow marine asking his permission to write to his sister and shares that the marine and his sister were eventually married.



Returning Home

Steven Olmstead recounts his trip home to see his family. He describes two encounters with people on his way to Albany, New York. He expresses his amazement when one individual did not know where Korea was located and details a kind gesture offered by another.



The Legacy of the Korean War

Steven Olmstead describes why he thinks the Korean War was important and its legacy. He compares his opinion if he were to have been asked in 1950, his first time there, versus his opinion about its importance in 1965 when he returned. He comments on the remarkable progress Korea had made in such a short time and how seeing it firsthand made him feel.



T.J. Martin

Korean War Experience Impact

T.J. Martin reflects on what Korea means to him. He speaks of his experience with pride and appreciation. He shares that he developed a deeper and stronger urge to defend freedom following his service than he possessed before the war.



Ted Kocon

Switching from Foxhole to Airborne

Ted Kocon shares that he joined the Air Force following World War II as he did not enjoy living in a fox hole while in the Army during the war. He recounts receiving his orders to go to Japan in 1952, leaving behind his wife and child. He adds that he was stationed at Brady Field in Japan, served as a crew chief and engine mechanic, and assisted in flying cargo planes carrying troops and supplies to Korea.



Memories from WWII Resurfacing in Korea

Ted Kocon shares his soft side of service and well as some memories from World War II. He recollects his earnings and sending money home to his wife. He shares that seeing wounded during the war brought back memories from his time serving in World War II. He recounts his departure from Japan in 1953 and receiving the Air Force Commendation Medal for his service during the Korean War.



Telila Deresa

Smell of the Gun Makes You Drunk

Telila Deresa describes his experience in battle. He describes how the enemy was like snakes. The Chinese soldiers killed three of the commanders. However, he was not scared. Telila Deresa describes how youth and the smell of the gun makes a young man drunk with power.



Still Hatred

Telila Deresa describes how he still has a hatred for Chinese. China has built many things in Ethiopia like trains, bridges and roadways. However, he still loves Korea. Korea is like a mother and provides for the veterans.



Tereda Mersha

Recovery, Return, and Rejection

Tereda Mersha discusses recovering in a division hospital and returning wounded to Ethiopia. He struggled to move due to his wounds and spent time in the hospital back home. When the communists took power, he was denied medical care. Tereda Mersha describes being deprived of care and being seen as the enemy by the communist government.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Daily Non-Combat

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes the living conditions for the soldiers. He describes that there were no beds and soldiers slept on the ground. He provides his pay in the Ethiopian dollar. His pay could buy a sing good chicken and two medium chickens per month. Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen also describes life upon returning to Ethiopian. People did not care, however, the majesty did receive the soldiers for a dinner.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Humble Beginnings to Big City

Teurangaotera Tuhaka grew up on a farm in New Zealand. His life was simple, and people were considered wealthy if they owned a bicycle. Once he passed the Navy test and traveled to the big city of Aukland, he had to get used to city life with cars and ships. He was also trained on an island outside Auckland.



Tex Malcolm

Arriving to Korea in Dec. 1950

Tex Malcolm was shipped to Korea on Nov. 1950 after stopping in Japan. All the different US branches were on one ship and the conditions were packed with multiple soldiers getting seasick. He landed at Pusan on Dec. 12, 1950 on his 21st birthday.



Theodore Garnette

Basic Training in Geneva, New York

Theodore Garnette expresses his desire to enlist in the United States Air Force as a means of receiving advanced training to further his education. He discusses his upbringing on an Indian Reservation in South Dakota and how it had prepared him for the physical demands of basic training. He shares how the officers at boot camp were impressed by his marksmanship despite his small stature.



Eagle Feather Ceremony and Radio School

Theodore Garnette acknowledges that his decision to enlist in the United States Air Force was highly admired by other members of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. He vividly recalls being honored as a warrior with an eagle feather ceremony, the highest recognition awarded to members of the tribe. Later, he was transferred to Biloxi, Mississippi, for radio school where he received training to become an intercept operator.



After a Year in England

Theodore Garnette remembers his year-long assignment in England where he encountered many people who were fascinated by his American Indian heritage. He recalls feeling disappointed when the military halted personnel promotions after the Korean War ended. He shares how this development prompted him to not re-enlist. He recounts how after returning to Illinois he worked in a watch factory and car garage to support himself and his mother.



The Effects of Serving

Theodore Garnette expresses his frustration regarding his discharge from the military due to the classified duties he performed while serving in Korea. He reveals that he signed a secrecy act upon leaving the service which prevented him from discussing his missions during the Korean War. He shares he did not receive any medals for his classified work. Despite these challenges, he acknowledges that serving in the military had a positive impact on his life and admits he has continued to receive excellent care from the VA hospital.



Theodore Paul

We're Going to War!

Theodore Paul describes how he received the news of the outbreak of the Korean War. He recounts playing baseball with other fellow corpsmen when a truck drove onto the field with the driver yelling for them to get in the truck because they were going to war in Korea. He adds that he knew where Korea was due to having a grammar school teacher who taught his class where countries were.



Thomas B. Smith

Freezing Air Force Enlistment

Thomas B. Smith describes the events leading to his enlistment in the Marine Corps in 1951. He recounts his willingness to join the Air Force first; however, too many youths had the same idea. The Air Force froze enlistment to stop everyone enlisting in that specific branch of the military. He shares that he joined the Marines instead as he did not want to wait for the Air Force to unfreeze.



Thomas Carneal

Don't be a Grunt

Thomas Carneal feared being a grunt in the Korean War. Everything he heard about being in Korea led him to believe that life as a grunt on the front line was the worst case scenario. Even though he was not taught about Korea in school, Thomas Carneal learned military horror stories from his barber.



Thomas DiGiovanna

Why Study Korea?

Thomas' wife, Andrea DiGiovanna, shared the stories he told her over the years. The two were married on October 10, 1993, and she recalls the stories he told her about the sea sickness he experienced on his way over to Korea. She also recalls stories about his father passing, as well as him finally returning from war and taking his first wife on their belated honeymoon. She also explains why it is so important to learn about Korea.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Proud to be a U.S. Marine and Korean War Veteran

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. expresses his pride in serving his country as a U.S. Marine during the Korean War. He appreciates the recognition he receives for his service. Despite being injured, he does not harbor any bitterness, considers himself fortunate to have good health, and acknowledges the sacrifices made by all who served. He reflects on the support he has received from the Veterans Administration after being injured and is grateful for their assistance.



Thomas F. Miller

Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Miller was not taught anything about Korea during high school since the teachers never made it to that section of the textbook. Later in life, he knew more about the Korean War because he was interested in history.



The Job of a Korean Defense Veteran and the Draft

Thomas Miller was a Korean Defense Veteran since he served in Korea after the Korean War from 1965 through 1966. He was drafted even though he was an only child, farmed for his family, and he had only one good eye.



Thomas J Dailey

Modern Korea

Thomas Dailey comments on Korea's progress since the war. He shares his pride for having served there but conveys that he still has many dark memories from that time. He elaborates on the kindness Koreans have shown him over the years.



Thomas M. McHugh

What is a Korean War Veteran?

Thomas M. McHugh describes his size as particularly smaller than the other soldiers because of his young age, a reason he thinks he was not sent to serve in Korea during the war. He discusses his life after the Korean War, and having difficulty finding a job in his field of expertise. He explains what a veteran of the Korean War is, and that although he served without seeing combat, he considered the combat soldiers his as his peers.



Aviation Engineers

Thomas M. McHugh tells his experience enlisting into the Army on his 17th birthday. He describes his uniquely short basic training experience in 1951, at Camp Pickett, Virginia. He explains that the military was expanding the Aviation Engineers, and needed men to run heavy equipment in airfield construction with the U.S. Airforce. He was sent to engineer school, at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, where he learned to run every piece of heavy equipment that the Army had.



Thomas Nuzzo

The Forgotten War

Thomas Nuzzo felt that the Korean War was the forgotten war. Since it was so close to the end of WWII, the civilians in the United States didn't want to fight. Soldiers didn't even have supplies that they needed, so this hurt the moral.



Prior Knowledge About Korea

Thomas Nuzzo was attending Fordham University when he was drafted for the Korean War. Unlike most draftees, Thomas Nuzzo knew about Korea from stamp collecting and his schooling. Being sent to Korea was not scary he said because he found the Korean culture so interesting.



Thomas O’Dell

No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Volunteering, Training, and Entering the Korean War

Thomas Parkinson shares how he tried to volunteer for the Korean War when he was seventeen years old but that he was too young and had to wait until April 1951. He recounts how all of the Australians volunteered to join the military and that no draft was needed. Thomas Parkinson recalls being trained in Puckapunyal, Australia, for three months and being shipped away to Korea on March 3, 1952.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



Tine Martin

Where in the world is Korea?

Tine Martin discusses Americans' lack of knowledge about Korea, the "conflict", and the geography of Korea during the 1950's. He discusses the fact that television was in its infancy, and there were no corespondents on the ground in Korea documenting the war. He further states that the Korean War was not a notable war on the American Homefront. This clip could serve as a precursor for students to research, discuss, analyze, investigate the role the American media played in the Korean War in relation to the Vietnam War. Analysis should include the anti war movement(s) that were influenced by media coverage during the Vietnam War Era.



Letter from Home

Tine Martin shares that he missed his mother the most and wrote letters to her often. He recounts one painful letter from his girlfriend while in Korea which he refers to as a "Dear John" letter and resulted in a breakup. He recalls having to censor the content in his letters and provides an example of one incident he was not allowed to write about due to its sensitivity.



Tirso Sierra Pinilla

Deciding to Go to War / Decidir Ir a La Guerra

Tirso Sierra Pinilla shares the reasons why he decided to join the Batallón Colombia knowing that he would be sent to Korea. He recalls thinking that the living conditions and treatment would be better if he joined the Allied forces. He was tired of patrolling in the hills near Medellin.

Tirso Sierra Pinilla comparte las razones por las que decidió unirse al Batallón Colombia sabiendo que sería enviado a Corea. Recuerda haber pensado que las condiciones de vida y el trato serían mejores si se unía a las fuerzas aliadas. Estaba cansado de patrullar los montes cerca de Medellín.



Titus Santelli

Air Force Selection and Knowledge of Korea

Titus Santelli explains his reasoning for joining the Air Force in 1950. He details his experience in basic training and shares his view of the war. He admits he could not figure out why the U.S., at that time, felt required to protect Korea, but he offers his opinion.



Tom A. Bezouska

Meaning Behind Rakkasan

Tom Bazouska reminisces about the trip he took with his brother to the dedication of the Korean War memorial in Washington D.C.. He recalls seeing many veterans with the name Rakkasan on their shirts at the dedication and elaborate on its meaning. Rakkasan translates to "man fall with umbrella (or) parachute" and was originally given to the first American troops who landed on Japanese soil. He outlines the history of the name's association with the 187th Airborne Division and the specific connection to the unit during the Korean War.



Returning Home

Tom Bazouska recalls the strange experience he shared with his brother when returning home. After their father picked them up from the airport, he remembers stopping at the hangout where they often meet their buddies. He recalls walking in with his brother and many of their buddies simply asking where they had been. He shares how few people knew about the war. The brothers admit that their friends treated them differently and nothing felt the same. They explain the impressive show of gratitude they experience when interacting with the Korean people.



Tom Muller

Critique on Truman and MacArthur

Tom Muller describes his take on the MacArthur v. Truman debate. Tom Muller provides the quintessential military perspective on MacArthur. He then compares this event to what is happening under President Trump.



Homecoming for Korean Veterans v. WWII Veterans

Tom Muller describes pride in his service during the Korean War. He recollects his time as a teen and going to victory parades for World War II veterans. Tom Muller then compares this experience with his own coming home and a "tie" parade.



Tony Espino

War Comparison

Tony Espino comments on the Korean War being forgotten despite its successful outcome. He feels that no other war post World War II has rendered the level of prosperity as seen in South Korea over the years. He laments that textbooks in the United States cover little of the war and its outcome.



Tony J. Bezouska

Never Finding that Comfort Zone

Tony Bezouska describes returning home and dealing with PTSD. Even while dealing with these symptoms, he never missed a day at work and managed his new family. He recalls waking from dreams and shares that he turned to alcohol to ease his mind. He notes that now we know more about PTSD and at that time they did not realize anything was wrong with them.



Troy Howard

Livin' in a Fantasy World

Prior to seeing his cousin return from war as a wounded veteran, Troy Howard said that he was living in a fantasy world where war was action packed just like the movies but no one died. Troy Howard decided to enlist when he started seeing wounded soldiers return to the states. He claims it was his duty to watch his brothers backs.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

2013 Korean Visit

Tsege Cherenet Degn describes his return to South Korean in 2013. Upon his return to Ethiopia, a Korean citizen visited his home and built 13 homes including one for Tsege for which he is grateful.



Tsolakis Akrivos

I Chose to Fly

Tsolakis Akrivos discusses his decision to choose the Air Force and the mission of Greece in Korea. He shares a personal story about promising his dying father to pursue medicine. In order to fulfill his promise, he recalls taking the exam for medicine and the air force. After scoring well on both exams, he notes how he chose the airplanes. He provides an overview of the main mission for the Greek pilots during the combat years and proving their worth to the Americans.



Ulises Barreto González

Impact of War / Impacto de la Guerra

Ulises Barreto González discusses the impact of the war and his mental adjustment upon returning home. He considers himself lucky as he did not experience much PTSD, but he still has nightmares sixty years later. When he reunites with other veterans, he prefers not to speak about what happened.

Ulises Barreto González habla sobre el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su futuro y como se ajustó al regresar a su hogar. Se considera afortunado ya que no tuvo mucho TEPT, pero todavía tiene pesadillas sesenta años después de la guerra. Cuando se reencuentra con otros veteranos, prefiere no hablar de lo sucedido.



Vartkess Tarbassian

Headed to Korea

Vartkess Tarbassian spent time training for war at boot camp. After that, he was given a 10-day leave to spend time with family. On the train to the coast, he was treated like royalty by the the train's workers.



The Last Leg of Travel to Korea and Training in Japan

Vartkess Tarbassian rode on the USS General Collins for 14 days to get to Japan. When he arrived in Japan in 1953 he was trained there for a few weeks, but when he was supposed to be shipped out to Korea, he was chosen to receive more training in Japan. His MOS was a radio operator.



Returning Home

Vartkess Tarbassian struggled with nightmares once he returned home from Korea. His mother would have to wake him when he was screaming in his sleep. After about a year, the nightmares began to go away.



Veli Atasoy

Captivity

Veli Atasoy describes life after being taken as a Prisoner-of-War (POW). He, along with other prisoners were held near the city of Pyoktong, a city in North Korea near the Chinese border. While a prisoner, the Chinese military tried, unsuccessfully, to use propaganda to convince the Turkish troops to switch sides. There were massive infestations of lice in the camp and even a "fake" Sergeant. Veli Atasoy describes how, above all, even in the most dire of situations he turned to Allah above.



Pride and Family during Imprisonment

Veli Atasoy describes his pride in South Korea. He sacrificed so much being imprisoned, subsequently he is more prideful of his service in Korea than his native country of Turkey. While imprisoned, he had no communication with his family. His family had no news and even asked the Turkish government about their son. Therefore a certain hardship of not knowing and suffering occurred between Veli Atasoy and his family occurred.



Vern Rubey

Harsh Weather

Vern Rubey recalls the harsh weather he experienced during his time in Korea and likens the cold conditions to Minnesota weather. He shares how a monsoon delayed his rotation back home. He recalls his journey home aboard ship.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Racial Segregation Issues

Victor Spaulding details how racial segregation was an issue while he served in a mixed troop. He elaborates on a memory in basic training when one of his fellow Black soldiers was denied a drink at a bar despite fighting for the country in the United States Army. He describes how these racial tensions were commonplace then.



Experience with PTSD

Victor Spaulding discusses his experience with PTSD following his time in Korea. He shares that he dealt with alcoholism and divorce and admits that he found little relief until he begin sharing his story. He emphasizes the importance of sharing distant memories in order to relieve some of the burden.



Víctor Luis Torres García

Impact on his Life / El Impacto de la Guerra

Víctor Luis Torres García shares his pride in being an American and a veteran that raised five boys that also served their country. Additionally, he recounts the personal toll the war took on his psyche as he is unable to shake bad memories of his friends that were killed in action. He confidently states that anyone that has the Third Division badge suffered in Korea as much as he did.

Víctor Luis Torres García comparte su orgullo de ser estadounidense y un veterano que crio a cinco hijos que también prestaron su servicio para el país. Además, relata el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su psique, ya que no puede borrar las memorias de sus amigos que murieron. Afirma con seguridad que cualquiera que tenga el escudo de Tercera División sufrió en Corea tanto como él.



Basic Training / El Entrenamiento

Víctor Luis Torres García details his basic training which he believes fully prepared him for the war. He describes each phase of the training from how he learned to shoot different weapons to how to infiltrate enemy territory. He remembers that he learned how to conduct reconnaissance patrols and navigate a minefield.

Víctor Luis Torres García detalla su entrenamiento que en su opinión lo preparó bien para la guerra. Describe cada fase del entrenamiento, desde cómo disparar diferentes armas hasta cómo infiltrarse en territorio enemigo. Recuerda que recibió aprendizaje sobre cómo realizar patrullas de reconocimiento y navegarse en un campo minado.



Vincent Ariola

The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



Virgil Malone

Avoiding the Draft

Virgil Malone knew that the draft was after him, so he tried to get into the Marines, but due to color blindness and missing a lot of teeth, he was denied enlistment. He recalls not wanting to be in a foxhole with the Army, so he joined the Air Force with a friend. He notes he was not a stellar student so he knew little about Korea at the time of his enlistment.



Virgil W. Mikkelsen

Delivering your own Dear John Letter

Virgil Mikkelsen describes his time as a mail carrier in 1953 and how letters were a ray of hope for deployed troops. He recalls the worst part of his experience in Korea, receiving a Dear John letter from his wife of five years. He talks about the emotional blow of reading that letter and how it made him a stronger man.



Voelia Thompson

Japan

Voelia Thompson discusses her journey to Japan and becoming a Top Secret Control Office. This job with the Fifth Air Force involved top secret clearances in a windowless guarded office in Tokyo.



Wallace Stewart

Out of the Reserves and into the Marines!

Wallace Stewart joined the U. S. Marines Reserves in high school. When the Korean War broke out, he reenlisted in the U. S. Marines. He knew nothing of Korea. Despite pursuing basic training at Camp Pendleton, he was too young to go to Korea and served stateside until he was old enough to see combat.



Walter Bradford Chase, Jr.

Korea Reminded Me of My Childhood

Walter Bradford Chase, Jr., grew up in Boston, Massachusetts, during the Great Depression. He shares what the city was like and the challenges his family faced during one of the most challenging economic time periods in our history. He emotionally recalls how Korea reminded him a lot of his early years as a child growing up in Boston.



Walter Dowdy, Jr.

Decision to Enlist

Water Dowdy, Jr., discusses his fear of being drafted, which would have interrupted his education as he pursued his dream of becoming a doctor. He shares his parents' reaction to his decision to enlist in the United States Army. He recalls going through basic training at the same camp where his father had received training during World War II. He remembers qualifying for Officer Candidate School (OCS) but was shipped to Japan in 1950 before he could begin.



Becoming a Forward Observer

Water Dowdy, Jr., recalls receiving orders to Officer Candidate School (OCS) just as the Korean War broke out. He describes how he was always on alert and ready to go to Korea at any moment. He remembers being told that the US Military needed soldiers and not cooks in Korea, so he was given the choice of becoming a machine gunner or radio man. He chose the radio and eventually became a forward observer.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Growing Up During the Great Depression

Walter Kreider, Jr., shares that he grew up as an only child. He recalls his family experiencing hards times as many others did during the Great Depression, but he fondly remembers the love and support his parents, aunts, and uncles shed on him during his upbringing. He recalls the willingness of neighbors to help one another.  



Landing in Korea and Military Entry

Walter Kreider, Jr., recounts landing in Korea. He shares that he was greeted by soldiers waiting to return home and recalls how they shouted words in an effort to frighten the arriving soldiers. He details riding a train up to the front lines near Panmunjeom. He backtracks and describes how he was drafted and his placement in artillery.



The Korean People

Walter Kreider, Jr., with no prior knowledge of Korea before serving, shares what Korea is to him now. He comments on the Korean people specifically, describing them as hardworking, creative, and caring. He adds that they are a good ally and represent freedom and liberty. He comments on similarities between Korean and Amish farmers.



Warren Housten Thomas

Letters From Home

Warren Housten Thomas describes the difficulties in communicating with family back home. He recalls having to communicate the old-fashioned way with letters and that it could often take four to six weeks for mail to reach them. He remembers how sometimes the news was old by the time it reached him.



Warren Middlekauf

Chapter 312: "The best thing that ever happened"

Warren Middlekauf discusses the Korean War Veteran's Association Chapter 312 located in Maryland. Chapter 312 is the most active chapter in Maryland, the East Coast, and perhaps the country. He also makes a contemporary connection analyzing the help and support veterans receive today, unlike the Korean War Veterans who never even got a proper welcome home. He remarks about the numerous entities that exist today to honor, and provide assistance to war veterans.



Basic Training and Specialty Training to Join US Army

Warren Middlekauf was drafted into the US Army in 1952 and he was informed of this event from a letter through the mail. After attending multiple training locations, he was prepared as a Stevedore to load and unload ships during the Korean War. Stevedores were also known as the transportation corps. After that, he was trained to use amphibious duck vehicles to transport supplies to troops.



The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



School, Letters, and the Excitement of the Armistice

Warren Middlekauf's military base was located near a Korean school that continued through the war. During the armistice of 1953, he was in Korea and was excited to send the US soldiers home. Throughout his time in the war, Warren Middlekauf wrote letters to his wife along with money to save for after the war.



Warren Ramsey

A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Early Entry into the Military and Loving Every Minute of It!

Before the Korean War, Warren Ramsey was in high school and joined the Air Force before he graduated high school in 1947. After graduating high school, he went to Lackland Air Force Base for boot camp. Thankfully, warren Ramsey thought that the transition to the United States military was not difficult because we grew up in Boy Scouts and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC). After training, he was stationed at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where he worked with troop and supply transport.



Wayne R. Uptagrafft

Living With PTSD

Wayne Uptagrafft discusses the difficulties of living with PTSD. He recalls how hard it was to remain classified as top secret for so long which rendered his inability to share his stories. He describes the social implications, such as sitting with his back against a wall in public, carrying pistols while walking in the middle of the night, and isolating himself from friends.



Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar

Transportation Disaster / Desastre de Transporte

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar explains the catastrophic start to his deployment in Korea. He recounts the way in which everyone on his truck convoy was hurt following an accident with a train. While everyone on the truck wanted to be taken to the hospital, he insisted on boarding the train that led him to the boat he would take for Korea.

Wenseslao Espinal Villamizar explica el catastrófico inicio de su despliegue a Corea. Relata la forma en que todos en su camión fueron heridos tras un accidente con un tren. Mientras todos los heridos en el camión querían que los llevaran al hospital, él insistió en abordar el tren que lo llevó al bote que tomaría para Corea.



Wilbur Barnes

Basic Training and Integration

Wilbur Barnes discusses his experiences in the newly integrated United States Army, including basic training at Camp Chaffee in Arkansas. He shares how the camp still had separate clubs based on race, even though anyone could go to either club. He explains why he chose to undergo training in Arkansas instead of California, as it was closer to his home and would allow him to travel easily during his leave.



Promotion Experience

Wilbur Barnes shares his experience of almost missing out on a promotion to Sergeant. He credits the Master Sergeant in his unit for advocating for his promotion. He takes pride in being the only Black Sergeant in his unit.



Willard Maktima

Basic Training and Ship Duties

Willard Maktima recounts his experience attending boot camp where he was the only American Indian in his company but was able to interact with people from different backgrounds. He shares how basic training involved a lot of marching, learning about Naval history, and firing weapons. He recalls how, upon completing boot camp, he was stationed on the USS Furse destroyer ship which was docked at the San Diego Harbor. He explains their main responsibility was to protect battle and supply ships that sailed out at sea. He details how the crew would track foreign submarines and prepare to intercept any potential torpedoes.



Discrimination in the Southeast U.S.

Willard Maktima explains that during the war, his squadron was split in half with one half being sent to Korea and the other half (to which he belonged) being stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, to prepare for the Cold War campaign. He shares how he, unfortunately, experienced discrimination while stationed in the southeastern region of the United States due to being an American Indian. He recounts how this discrimination was enforced by the Jim Crow laws which required him to use separate bathrooms and drinking fountains from White people. He recalls how, on one occasion, he informed a bus driver he was an American Indian, not White, and chose to sit in the back of the bus where African Americans were also segregated.



A Desire to Learn

Willard Maktima shares his experience as a second-class petty officer at the air missile test center in Point Mugu, California. He explains he was responsible for documenting court marshals that took place on the base and delivering confidential messages between missile test sites. He notes how, during his downtime, he would often read books in the library. He reminisces on one of the librarians asking him about his future plans after the service which inspired him to obtain a GED and later pursue a college degree.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Get Rid Of Me

William "Bill" Beasley explains how he went to enlist the day after graduation. He describes marching straight to the Post Office to enlist in the Navy, but it was closed. He explains how he met an officer at the Marine Corps who told him that if he chose the Marines, he could leave sooner. He describes how he found out that the officer was dating the same girl he was, and that led him to arrive in San Diego quickly.



William “Bill” Hoyle

Don't Talk About the War

William Hoyle explains why he doesn't want to go back to Korea. He explains that being above the 38th parallel, he wouldn't be able to revisit the Korea he knew, regardless. He goes on to explain that his experiences, including "Bouncing Betties" that blew people's legs off and seeing other horrible things, has impacted his desire to discuss it. He recalls arriving in San Diego and given a notice/letter not to talk to anyone about what they did or saw during the war. He explains that his experiences stayed locked up for over 30 years in a drawer before he was able to talk about it.



William B. Sheets

Learning to Educate Future Turret Mechanics

William B. Sheets joined the U.S. Air Force shortly after receiving his initial draft notification at the end of 1952. He details the training he received that ultimately led to him becoming an instructor at Lowery Air Force Base where he taught turret system mechanics.



Teaching Turret Mechanics at Lowery

William B. Sheets spent his military career preparing servicemen to repair and maintain the B47, B52, and B36 turret systems on planes. He offers details of the classes he taught as well as the learning that was required on his part to keep up-to-date on turret mechanics.



B36 Turret Training

William B. Sheets notes that he another instructor helped develop the training manual for B36 Turret Mechanics and then taught the course at Lowery Air Force Base. He recalls that one of his first classes was completely made up of officers who were preparing to become maintenance officers of different wings of B52 aircrafts. Among his students was Wally Schirra who would later go on to become one of the early U.S. astronauts. He shares that his favorite aircraft has always been the B52 which is still in service today. He shares he was discharged from the U.S. Air Force on April 17, 1957.



William Bishop

"I saw the worst part of it"

William Les Bishop relives seeing wounded marines at a army hospital in Maine while he was in high school. Although he did not know much about the war, he became very familiar with the consequences. This was especially impactful because he was close in age to those wounded veterans.



Schooling with the G.I. Bill

William Les Bishop describes his continued education that was in part paid by the G.I. Bill. He majored in government and economics before getting a masters in international relations. He explains that he was also working towards a doctorate.



Continuing the Legacy

William Les Bishop discusses the future of the KWVA and what he would like to see happen to allow for its continuation. He has been involved for many years though the development of his chapter and around the country. He shares that he thinks that its very important to focus on the legacy of Korean War veterans, relying on the younger veterans like him to do this.



Crypto-analysis

William Les Bishop recounts his military occupation trajectory working for the National Security Agency from the beginning. He states that after taking a battery of test, he went to crypt analysis school. He explains why this was important.



William Burns

Hey Bill Where Have You Been?

William Burns was very excited to come home after his time in the war because he missed his mother's favorite chicken dish. After meeting up with a friend back on the home front, he did not remember that William Burns went away to war due to the lack of media coverage. The Forgotten War was definitely evident in his hometown of Auburn, NY because WWII was so publicized and there were not a lot of information coming to the US about the Korean War.



William D. Freeman

Gone for Good

William Freeman elaborates on how he has no interest in returning to the Korean Peninsula. He communicates his knowledge of South Korea's successes today and adds he has a great rapport with the South Koreans in his community. He shares his pride for his war efforts but continues by stating that he had enough experience in Korea for a lifetime.



William Edwards

Base Life in Korea

William Edwards describes daily life at the 607th Aircraft Warning Squadron.



Moby Dick Project

William Edwards describes his job with the Moby Dick Project, a reconnaissance program based in New Mexico tasked with monitoring North Korea and Russia with high altitude balloons.



The Cuban Missile Crisis

William Edwards talks about the only time he was truly scared during his military service and his experience at Biggs Air Force Base during the Cuban Missile Crisis.



William Eugene Woodward

U.S. Marine Corps

William Eugene Woodward remembers the rigorous physical demands he faced during his basic training at Camp Pendleton. He recalls how he was chosen to be the squad leader of over fifty troops during his time in boot camp. He shares how he was later assigned to the 5th Machine Gun Platoon and served in Korea from 1950 to 1951.



Wounded and Returning Home

William Eugene Woodward recounts how, after being wounded in Korea, he returned to the United States with forty-two other wounded Marines for treatment. He recalls how when he disembarked the naval ship in San Francisco, he was overwhelmed with joy and kissed the deck in gratitude to be home. He remembers how people expressed their gratitude for his service in Korea.



William F. Borer

Don't Take Your POW Clothes Off

William Borer describes the day of his release as a bright sunny day. He recalls that once in UN territory the US Military Police Officer ordered him not to immediately remove his Chinese prison clothing, as many Chinese POWs had done, and was taken into a medical facility to be deloused with DDT, fed, examined, and given new clothes with rank chevrons sewed onto his sleeves. He recalls being asked what he wanted to eat and he said a big bowl of ice cream. As he was eating his ice cream he was asked if he was anxious about going home to which he said he wanted to go back to his unit.



William Hall

Hot and Cold Basic Training Conditions

William Hall reminisces about his time at Camp Pendleton, California, where he underwent rigorous training as a United States Marine Corps recruit. He recalls the intense physical training, weapon qualifications, drill sergeants, and church services. He remembers when his unit was sent to Nevada for additional training where they had to endure the frigid temperatures.



William MacSwain

Tricking the US Government to Join the National Guard

In 1945, William MacSwain lied to recruiters at the age of 15 when he told them that he was 17 so that he could join the National Guard with friends. Due to the low number of military divisions, recruiters signed him without a second thought. In 1949, he was put to work in Oklahoma to protect businesses after a tornado tore through the state.



Military Leadership Training

In September 1950, William MacSwain reported to a military leadership school that was led by WWII veterans. Since he was already trained on a variety of weapons, William MacSwain felt that psychological warfare treatment was important lessons that he learned. Once he returned to Fort Polk, he was in charge of 4th platoon (an infantry division) who were all older than him.



William O’Kane

Volunteering After WWII

William O'Kane volunteered for the Marine Corps because his brother was in the military along with many of his friends. While in bootcamp at Camp Pendleton, SC, he read about the war and followed it because many people he knew were involved in the war. He said that since he was so young when he enlisted, he felt that he was invincible.



William Rooyakkers

Coming Home

William Rooyakkers describes coming home after being wounded. He remembers the warm welcome he received from his hometown and how special it was to be welcomed with cheers and appreciation. He especially remembers the joy coming from putting aside differences and becoming friends with former enemies.



William Steele

The Honor Flight

William Steele describes the emotion felt when participating with the Honor Flight, a flight where veterans are taken to the nation's capital to be honored and celebrated for their service to the country. He recalls the warm send-off and all of the details that go into that day. In particular, he shares the tribute made by a ninety-four year old woman who was a retired B-17 Bomber mechanic that stood outside and saluted them as they went by her house.



William Trembley

Returning Soldiers

William Trembley describes how he felt guilty about leaving his wife with newborn twins. He developed an ulcer which sent him to the hospital. This led his duty to change to helping take care of soldiers returning from service in the Korean War. This experience changed his life as he became aware of the suffering many of these veterans experienced.



William Weber

A Very Special Honor

William Weber talks about his role in the creation of the Korean War Veterans Memorial and the honor of being selected as a model for one of the nineteen statues (Statue #16). He shares that the sculptor was instructed to include the differing ethnicities serving in the United States Armed Forces during the Korean War. He details the unique symbolism associated with the statues and the accompanying wall.



Forgotten and Unknown War

William Weber quantitatively compares the Korean War to other twentieth century wars. He comments on the personnel utilized during the war and shares that this information and these statistics are largely lost in American history. He elaborates on the need for an additional Wall of Remembrance for Korean War veterans on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.



Through the Cracks

William Weber expresses his frustration of the placement of the Korean War in American history despite the honorable conduct by the United States. He shares how he feels it even exceeded the United States' conduct in WWII. He comments on how the Korean War has fallen through the cracks and is only given a few paragraphs in textbooks.



The Portrayal of the Korean War

William Weber discusses how the generation of Korean War veterans is not portrayed as a generation of heroes in American media. He comments on the lack of Korean War focus in education and shares how students will never be able to appreciate what it meant and demonstrated due to this reality. He adds that Korean War veterans are merely guest lecturers rather than seen as significant additions to the curriculum as students are not required to learn about the war.



William Whitley

Whitley's PTSD

William Whitley shares the names that many of the Korean War soldiers were called when they returned home following their time in Korea. He notes that many of them were ashamed to even share they were part of the military for fear of people's reactions. He recollects occasions when he would be out with his wife and recalls feeling like everyone was staring at him and wanting to do him harm. He recalls it taking over a year home before he could overcome this feeling.



Willie Bacon, Sr.

Infantry and Engineer Training

Willie Bacon, Sr., shares his experience as a part of the infantry and later receiving engineering training at Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri. He discusses his experience hunting with a shotgun, which helped him shoot the M1 Rifle. He explains that his battalion was made up of three companies, out of which two were all-white and his was all-black. He recalls running and walking long distances as the toughest part of his training. He remembers building a bridge across a river and feeling scared due to his inability to swim. He mentions working in a sawmill and the early hours of training.



Willie Frazier

Integration of the U.S. Military

Willie Frazier provides an overview of President Truman's order to desegregate the United States military in 1948. He discusses Eleanor Roosevelt's role in helping to integrate the armed forces after her visit to Camp Lejeune. He explains that Eleanor Roosevelt questioned why African Americans received basic training at Montford Point, a segregated facility within Camp Lejeune. He notes that the first African American to become a Marine was in 1942, just three years before his induction into the U.S. Marine Corps.



Wilma Altizer

Specialty in the Military-Computer Communications

Wilma Altizer was trained in IBM computer communications. After her training, she used her knowledge to help on the home front during the Korean War. She explained that after the war was over, she couldn't find a job in this field since you were expected to carry heavy computer pieces, but the businesses wouldn't let women try to do this job.



Korean War Soldier on the Home Front

Wilma Altizer is a Korean War Era veteran even though she worked on the US home front. She explains how military looks at the time period, not the soldier's location to determine the time of service.