Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Front lines



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Abisai González Camacho

The Bronze Medal with Valor / La Medalla de Bronce con Valor

Abisai González Camacho provides an account of the events which earned him a Bronze Medal. He details the way in which he saved the lives of many by jumping into a river and grabbing a rope to help fellow soldiers safely cross. He explains that enemy troops were nearby during the ordeal. He laments that he witnessed the way in which many others drowned during this incident.

Abisai González Camacho relata los hechos que hizo el para que le dieran la Medalla de Bronce. El detalla la forma en que le salvó la vida a muchos cuando salto al río que estaban cruzando para agarrar la cuerda que se había rota para ayudar a sus compañeros a cruzar con seguridad. También explica que las tropas enemigas estaban cerca durante esta terrible experiencia. Lamenta haber visto como muchos otros se ahogaron durante este incidente.



His Life Saving Helmet / El Casco que le Salvó la Vida

Abisai González Camacho shows off the helmet which saved his life many times in Korea. He shares that it was the most important part of his uniform as it was the first thing he put on whenever he moved. He explains that the helmet saved his life and points out where it was damaged.

Abisai González Camacho muestra el casco que le salvó la vida muchas veces en Corea. Comparte que era la parte más importante de su uniforme ya que era lo primero que se ponía cada vez que se movía de lugar. Explica que el casco le salvó la vida y señala dónde se dañó.



Basic Training and War / El Entrenamiento y la Guerra

Abisai González Camacho offers an overview of his basic training and the most difficult aspects of the war. He explains that he felt physically prepared for war as he joined the National Guard prior to his recruitment but was not ready for the realities of the war. He recounts that, having often conversed with his buddies the night before, it was difficult whenever one of them was killed.

Abisai González Camacho habla sobre su entrenamiento y los aspectos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que se sentía físicamente preparado para la guerra porque estaba en la Guardia Nacional antes de su reclutamiento, pero no estaba preparado para las realidades de la guerra. Cuenta que, habiendo conversado con sus compañeros la noche anterior, era difícil cuando moría uno de ellos el próximo día.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Abisai González Camacho recounts his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he could not believe his surroundings upon first seeing the front line. He remembers that while he was treated well by his commanding officers, they were in fact very tough individuals.

Abisai González Camacho habla sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que no podía creer lo que lo rodeaba cuando vio por primera vez la línea del frente. Recuerda que sus oficiales lo trataron bien, y sin discrimen, aunque eran personas muy duras.



Missing in Action / Perdido en el Campo de Batalla

Abisai González Camacho speaks about a friend who was lost in action after embarking on a patrol. He remembers that the lost soldier was from his hometown and was never found after multiple search expeditions. He details the efforts to recover him or his body and how fruitless these efforts were.

Abisai González Camacho habla de un amigo que se perdió en combate después de ir en una patrulla. Recuerda que el soldado que se perdió era de su pueblo y nunca fue encontrado, aunque hubieron un par de expediciones de búsqueda. Detalla los esfuerzos para recuperarlo a él o a su cuerpo y cuán infructuosos fueron estos esfuerzos.



Adam McKenzie

Clearing Sariwon

Adam McKenzie describes clearing the town of Sariwon, North Korea. Although they received no tank support from American aid, his battalion mounted their miniature tanks to make an advance. He recounts capturing roughly three thousand North Korean soldiers as a result of the advance.



Back to the 38th Parallel

Adam McKenzie discusses having to turn around and go back to the 38th Parallel after reaching Pyongyang. He explains that the command to retreat came before Chinese soldiers entered the Korean War, and it was given at the direction of United States military leadership. He expresses frustration at having to retreat, and feels that Korea would be unified today if soldiers could have kept moving northward.



Chinese Troops and a Rare Medal

Adam McKenzie describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers during the Korean War. He goes on to describe and show a rare Presidential Citation Medal that his regiment qualified to earn, yet he cannot wear along side awarded British medals. The rare medal was awarded to him by Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).



Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Adolfo Lugo Gaston recalls the worst and longest battle that he experienced, that of Kelly Hill. He explains that allied troops fought an incalculable number of Chinese communist troops. Their mission was to win the hill and help four-thousand marines that were trapped.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón recuerda la batalla de Kelly Hill porque fue la más dura. Explica que las tropas aliadas lucharon contra un número incalculable de tropas comunistas chinas. Su misión era conquistar el cerro y ayudar a los cuatro mil infantes de marina que estaban rodeados.



Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Adolfo Lugo Gaston provides an account of his first impressions of the country upon landing in Korea. He vividly remembers an eerie silence and seeing bodies buried beneath the snow near Seoul. Additionally, he speaks about the difficulty of trench warfare and explains the fact that many soldiers were shot because they left their foxholes to complete mundane tasks.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón relata sus primeras impresiones al llegar en Corea. Recuerda el silencio que había y una tristeza porque había cuerpos enterrados bajo la nieve cerca de Seúl. Además, habla sobre lo difícil que era la guerra de trincheras y explica que muchos soldados fueron fusilados porque abandonaron las trincheras para tareas mundanas.



Ahmet Tan

Destruction and Poverty

Ahmet Tan describes the conditions of the Koreans during the Korean War. He describes the people as "good," but impoverished. He also described how the Turkish troops looked after some orphaned children, feeding them and providing them shelter in the military tents.



Returning Home

Ahmet Tan describes the enemy and fighting conditions near Cheorwon when he first arrived. The action was very violent, but eased when the Armistice was signed. After the Armistice, Turkish soldiers returned home. Ahmet Tan was happy to be home in Istanbul. He has revisited South Korea once and describes it as beautiful. Also, if war ever breaks out again, Ahmet Tan would go again.



Al Lemieux

Many Opportunities to Die

Al Lemieux expresses his most dangerous time was while in the Punchbowl. In April 1951, he remembers his division was run over by Chinese forces. He says they knew the attack was about to happen when the Chinese and North Korea armies sounded bugles, chimes, whistles, and flares. He relates the attack began at night and the American forces primarily used hand grenades so we would not give away our positions by rifle fire. He argues this battle provided plenty of "opportunities" to die but the frostbite may have been more deadly.



Alan Guy

Arriving in Korea and Placement

Alan Guy recounts his arrival in Korea. He remembers bitter cold and a horrendous smell as Koreans had just fertilized nearby rice patties with human manure. He recollects a band playing rousing music upon arrival and being transported to a transit camp in Busan. He details his placement in a field hygiene section.



Health Education

Alan Guy details the health education he provided to soldiers in the infantry. He shares the means by which soldiers on the front lines were instructed to avoid malaria by taking pills and frostbite by putting their bare feet on their mate's stomach if one thought he was getting frostbite. He describes the various trench latrines used based on the time frame spent in an area.



Alan Maggs

Dangerous Moments in Korea

Alan Maggs recalls several dangerous moments he experienced in Korea. On two separate occasions, he narrowly escaped being hit by shells. However, he was eventually wounded near Hill 355. Fortunately, a passing jeep was able to transport him to the medical team, a stroke of luck that ensured he received timely care.



I Had a Job to Do and Did It

Alan Maggs does not reminisce about any particularly difficult times in Korea. He simply acknowledges that while he may not have felt brave, he had a duty to fulfill, and he did so. He shares details about life on Hill 355, mentioning that he only had the opportunity to take an actual shower only once during his entire stay there.



Albert Cooper

Secret Mission

Albert Cooper talks about a secret counterintelligence mission alongside two British spies to uncover South Koreans working against American interests. He mentions that while this mission itself bore little fruit, he developed a "love affair with the Korean people."



One Last Grenade

Albert Cooper talks about defending a radar station that had come under attack. Alone in a fox hole, he intermittently fired his rifle and threw hand grenades to keep the enemy at bay until he had exhausted his ammunition save one last grenade, which he kept and brought home as a memory of the battle.



Albert Frisina

What Did You Do in Korea?

Albert Frisina speaks about his training in the Army Security Agency and the work he did. He shares he was a radar transmission locator and was stationed in Uijeongbu, South Korea. He and his unit would listen to radar transmissions in an attempt to locate and listen to the North Koreans. He recalls how they were not always sure about what was being said, but they were able to identify the transmission location through a method of triangulation.



Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Albert Gonzales

Severe Conditions for Korean Soldiers

Albert Gonzales describes the poor situation of South Korean soldiers and those that helped the South Korean army. He explains South Korea would draft soldiers by simply pulling men and older boys from off the street and expected all men to fight for their country. He also explains those that bore the weight of carrying weapons for South Korea did not received special privileges but were often the primary targets by the North Koreans.



Albert Grocott

Saw Many Bad Things

Albert Grocott remembers being part of the advance party that operated ahead of the troops during nighttime operations. He mentions having numerous distressing memories from that time. Grocott notes that while the enlisted men endured significant hardships, civilians suffered even more. He recounts a specific incident when he was on the Han River and witnessed the railway bridge being blown up.



Memories of the Front Line

Albert Grocott finds it challenging to discuss his involvement in the Battle of the Hook, as those memories are ones he would rather not dwell on. However, he does remember a prisoner exchange near Panmunjom, specifically the Peace Bridge where Chinese prisoners were exchanged. He emphasizes that the soldiers simply carried out their duties every hour of every day, doing what was necessary without hesitation. He shares his experiences of enduring flashbacks of events he witnessed while in Korea, including the loss of close friends.



Albert Harrington

Typical Duties of the Infantryman

Albert Harrington describes the typical duties of a soldier serving in the infantry. He explains these duties consisted of checking ammunition, re-digging trenches after rain, and patrolling. He comments on the dangers of patrolling and details one particular instance where the company nearest his was hit. He also describes the penalties for taking one's boots off as they were required to keep them on during certain services.



Second Battle of the Hook

Albert Harrington describes the Second Battle of the Hook between combined elements of British and 1st Commonwealth Division forces and Chinese forces. He acknowledges that the Chinese forces were effective in battle and appeared well trained. He explains the significance of the battle, emphasizing that a Chinese victory would have allowed the enemy a more efficient route to Seoul.



Albert Kleine

Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



Surviving a Chinese and North Korean Attack

Albert Kleine was stationed near the Imjin River during his time in the Korean War. He was very fearful of the flowing river and the sounds it gave off that showed its strength. Later he would realize that the river was nothing compared to the flutes signaling the attack by thousands of Chinese and North Korean troops.



The Cold went Right to Your Soul

Albert Kleine felt that the cold weather was the worst part of fighting in Korea. Even though he was stuck there fighting the Chinese in the terrible weather, he doesn't hate them because they were only told to fight. He wasn't fighting the man, he was fighting the country.



Albert McCarthy

Code Names, Signals, and Spies

Albert McCarthy describes working with a North Korean spy. He details having to use code names and signals. He also elaborates on how this spy helped alleviate a set up from the North Koreans that almost occurred in the Chorwon Valley.



Albert Morrow

From Desolate to Utopia

Albert Morrow recounted Seoul peasants with no possessions except what they had on A frames. He described bridges over the Han River that had been blown up. After he returned in 2013 and 2018, he could not believe his eyes. He recalled Seoul had gone from "desolate" to "utopia." He was appreciative of how he was treated on the tour with charter busses and police escorts.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Battle of Old Baldy / Batalla de Old Baldy

Alfredo Forero Parra details the horrors of war as experienced at the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the way in which they were bombed for over eleven days with heavy artillery and mortars. He recounts a painful story in which his friend, Corporal Gonzalez Varela, who commanded the second squad of his platoon was brutally killed as the avalanche of Chinese troops advanced on their company.

Alfredo Forero Parra detalla los horrores de la guerra que el sufrió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe la forma en que fueron bombardeados durante más de once días con artillería pesada y morteros. Además, relata una dolorosa historia en la que su amigo, el Cabo González Varela, quien comandaba el segundo escuadrón de su pelotón, fue brutalmente matado cuando la avalancha de tropas chinas avanzó sobre su compañía.



Toughest Battles / Batallas Más Duras

Alfredo Forero Parra explains that the Battle of Old Baldy was one of the five bloodiest battles of the war. He adds that it was the worse battle for the Batallón Colombia as ninety-five troops were killed, and twenty-eight soldiers were captured as prisoners of war. He recounts the way in which he was wounded and almost died.

Alfredo Forero Parra explica que la Batalla de Old Baldy fue una de las cinco batallas más sangrientas de la guerra. Cuenta que fue la peor batalla del Batallón Colombia, porque que murieron noventa y cinco soldados y veintiocho soldados fueron capturados como prisioneros de guerra. Además, relata la forma en que fue herido y casi muere después de una explosión.



Congratulatory Message / Mensaje de Felicitación

Alfredo Forero Parra reads the congratulatory note from the commander of the Batallón Colombia to all those that fought in the Battle of Old Baldy. Within this letter, the commander describes Colombian troops not only as martyrs and heroes, but as the quintessential symbol of the virtues of a soldier. This letter captures the soul and valor of those that were lost and those that survived the Battle of Old Baldy.

Alfredo Forero Parra lee la nota de felicitación del comandante del Batallón Colombia a todos los que lucharon en la batalla de Old Baldy. En esta carta, el comandante describe a las tropas colombianas no solo como mártires y héroes, sino como el símbolo por excelencia de las virtudes del soldado. Esta nota fue escrita para que el mundo recuerde el alma y el valor de los que fallecieron y de los que sobrevivieron a la Batalla de Old Baldy.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Alfredo Forero Parra remembers the complete devastation he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He conveys the disbelief he felt when he saw the destruction of most structures and bridges. He recalls the suffering of the civilian population as they begged for food. He states that suffering was most reflected in the eyes of the children.

Alfredo Forero Parra recuerda la devastación que encontró al llegar a Corea. Habla del horror que sintió cuando vio la destrucción de la mayoría de las estructuras y puentes en el país. Recuerda el sufrimiento de la población civil y como rogaban por comida. En su opinión, el sufrimiento se reflejaba más en los ojos de los niños.



Ali Dagbagli

Battle of Kunu-ri

Ali Dagbagli shares his experience in the Battle of Kunu-ri. He describes the battle lasting for three nights and four days and being surrounded on all sides by the enemy. He recalls being shot multiple times and watching many of his friends fall.



The Pains of War

Ali Dagbagli describes the poor conditions of the Korean people. He recalls how the kids would run through the streets begging for food and cigarettes for their families. He remembers witnessing abject poverty as he traveled across Korea.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

Recounts From Post-Armistice Korea

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan vividly describes post-Armistice South Korea, painting a picture of women with small feet due to forced stunting and the widespread suffering of the war-torn population. Witnessing the people starving, he recalls giving them food, despite it being against military rules. Consequently, he spent fifteen days in military prison for his act of compassion. Additionally, he discusses the societal taboos surrounding the suffering of the people.



A Brother's Narrative

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes the Korean War from his brother's perspective, focusing on his brother's service in the Turkish Army during the battle of Kunu-ri. He recalls his brother telling him this battle, primarily a guerrilla war, involved intense close combat with bayonets affixed. The Turkish military engaged the North Koreans in perilous and hard-fought encounters.



Arriving in Korea and Heading to the Front Lines

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan recalls his arrival in Busan as a rather misty day. Among his vivid memories are the sight of people, probably refugees from North Korea, sleeping in cages. The region struck him as underdeveloped and in a pitiful state. He recounts his movements, describing his progression from the front near Uijeongbu to Cheorwan.



Ali Saglik

The Hard Job

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He recounts laying mines in the front and having dogs defending their flanks. He recalls how grisly the battles were and fighting it out with bayonets. He remembers the heaviness of losing soldiers under his command.



A Civilian War

Ali Saglik recalls how enemy forces would hide in civilian houses waiting to attack. He describes an event in which Turkish forces captured a female spy. He explains how some civilians were just trying to survive and would help the soldiers by providing fresh fish.



Gendarmerie Status Denied

Ali Saglik recalls volunteering to be a gendarmerie, a Turkish National Defender, but was refused due to his short stature. He explains how he enlisted in the infantry instead and was sent to Korea to fight in the Korean War. He describes himself as cold-blooded and not afraid of death.



Alice Rosemary Christensen

Family Military History, Message to Students, and Feelings on Women in Combat

Alice Christensen reflects on the many benefits serving in the military provided her--personally, professionally, and financially. She admits she would have liked to have remained in the military and made it a career. She expresses that she doesn’t think women should serve in combat, but that there are many jobs available for women in the military. She shares that her family have been serving since the Revolutionary War. She shares that she even tried to convince her daughter to join, but without success. .



Alistair S. Rae

Training and First Impressions

Alistair S. Rae recalls Korea as a land with numerous hills and mountains that rise from the sea. He mentions having limited encounters with Korean cities and people, primarily during periods of rest and recuperation. Additionally, he shares his wartime training on more advanced planes beyond the Spitfires he initially learned on in South Africa.



Mission in Korea

Alistair S. Rae shares his squadron's mission during his time in Korea, mainly focusing on dropping bombs on target while flying the Mustang. He recalls frequently crossing the North Korean border during these missions. Over the course of his deployment, he notes he proudly flew 75 sorties, and upon returning to fly jets, he increased his sortie total to 128.



Flying the Sabre

Detailing the main missions of the Sabres, Alistair S. Rae mentions interdiction and target bombing, along with the directive to shoot down any enemy aircraft encountered. While serving in Korea, he faced various dangers. Despite very few close encounters with enemy aircraft, he vividly recalls the encounters with "Bed Check Charlie."



Allan A. Mavin

Night Patrol in No Man's Land

Allan A. Mavin details his responsibilities as a part of the night patrol in "No Man's Land." He describes having to sleep during the day to stay up all night listening for enemy troops sounds. He describes how his responsibilities coordinated with members of the ambush and intelligence patrols.



Allen Affolter

Entering the Marine Corps

Allen Affolter describes how he earned enough money to attend college before joining the Marine Corps Reserves in 1947 while earning his degree in Education. He shares that the Marine Corps offered the program as a means of avoiding the draft, and he recounts spending several weeks training during the summer months of 1948 and 1949. He recalls finishing his degree in 1951, eventually entering the Marine Corps, and being sent to Korea towards the end of the war despite being deaf in one ear.



Ceasefire Memories

Allen Affolter describes an event leading up to the ceasefire in 1953. He shares that Bed Check Charlie dropped leaflets the night before the ceasefire at Panmunjom stating that the North Koreans always knew where the US positions were and that they could have annihilated them at any time. He recalls that he and other soldiers were instructed to turn in all of the leaflets. He recounts that the leaflets had little impact and that he and others were glad when the ceasefire was announced.



Allen Clark

Arriving in Korea and Early Encounters

Allen Clark participated in the Inchon Landing, witnessing the ladders and fighting along the beaches. Throughout Korea, he recalls trucks, troops, and mortars moving into his area. Sleeping on the ground with minimal supplies, Clark and his fellow Marines worked in shifts to protect their regiment around the clock. While establishing observation posts and maneuvering around Gimpo Airport, he shares an encounter with a family who had captured a North Korean soldier. He believed the process of handing the soldier over to the proper authorities went well but worried about the potential for being outnumbered by other POWs.



Highway Through The Danger Zone

Allen Clark vividly described the harrowing scene of leaving the Chosin Reservoir via a narrow road, which made them easy targets for the enemy. While sitting in the back seat of a Jeep, he faced an enemy shot that punctured the gas tank, quickly emptying it, and shot a hole through the tire. Jumping out, they ran behind a small hill beyond some railroad tracks, using it as a parapet.



G.I. Gear at Chosin

Allen Clark explained different GI provisions that were a life saver. He describes his field jacket, and his overcoat manufactured by London Fog that is reinforced with additional material that you slept and lived in. The temperature dropped to 42 degrees below zero and the soldiers covered themselves with the scarf all the way up to his eyes to prevent them from freezing.



Star for the Chosin Few at Koto-ri

As an Assistant Artillery Liaison Officer of the 7th Marine Regiment, Allen Clark told the story of the Frozen Chosin, who survived the 42 degrees below zero temperatures for several days while attempting to secure a place in the mountains that gave them an advantage point that overlooked a bridge. He described the conditions at Koto-ri were so bad, the scarf he described was the only thing that kept him from further hypothermia damage. Anxious and ready to go as the weather began to improve, Colonel "Chester" Pulley on a clear night had pointed to the star that was in the sky and said, "We are going in the morning," and that rallying point for the Marines when they needed it the most.



The Most Difficult Events in the Korean War

Allen Clark had difficulty choosing which event was the most difficult, but he settles on the events going into and out of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. General Smith told his fellow leaders that the Marines were now going to blow up their supplies and sneak out of the Chosin. Instead, he said that they would bring their wounded, dead, and supplies first and then head out as Marines, so everyone looked up to General Smith.



Evacuation of Civilians after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Desperate to escape, South Korean civilians left everything behind and crowded onto ships to flee the war-torn area. An estimated 99,000 civilians packed onto two boats alongside survivors from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. With the help of a chaplain who persuaded the boat skipper, Allen Clark recalls assisting in bringing all the civilians to safety.



Korean Marines and Korean Civilians

Allen Clark recalls the Korean Marines as formidable, accepting only those who could keep up. They were always prepared for battle, exemplifying the highest standards of military readiness.
During his second tour in Korea, he shares befriending several South Korean civilians. Through these newly forged relationships he witnessed traditional burials and dined on octopus with the locals. In the final days of the Korean War in July 1953, Clark remembers relying on civilian assistance at the DMZ to locate the enemy during the ceasefire.



Allen E. Torgerson

Duties as First Sergeant

Allen Torgerson describes there being short of officers during his time in South Korea. He shares that the shortage of commanding offers led to the handing down of duties to those below the usual rankings. He recounts that these duties pertained to morning wakeup calls and sorting the sick and injured.



Knowing What You Are Fighting For

Allen Torgerson describes fighting alongside KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and ROK (Republic of Korea) soldiers. He explains that while there was a language barrier, the KATUSA and ROK soldiers knew enough English among themselves to communicate with Americans. He emphasizes that both groups showed pride in their country and knew what they were fighting for during the war. He adds that South Koreans show appreciation for what America did for them.



Alvaro Almazo

Deadliest Battle

Alvaro Almazo recalls the worst battle he was in was Pork Chop Hill on March 23, 1953, in which the attack killed nearly his entire company. He remembers the Chinese attacked at night and he especially noted the artillery attacks. Because so much of his company were killed, he notes he had to be assigned to a different company.



Alvin A. Gould

Arriving in Korea as Part of the 10th Special Services Company

Alvin Gould recounts his arrival at Incheon in December 1953 and his subsequent journey to Seoul. Upon leaving the ship, he remembers his initial impressions of the capital city was one devastation with one of the few buildings still standing being the Chosin Hotel. Furthermore, he provides an overview of the 10th Special Services Company, detailing its formation, organization, and mission to entertain troops, often performing in dangerous areas near the front lines.



Daily Routine on the Road

Alvin Gould discusses the daily routine of the 10th Special Services Company. He explains how the entertainers were selected, describing the variety of acts that were part of the show. Moreover, he highlights some of the specific entertainers he toured with, providing a detailed account of their experiences.



Life in the 10th Special Services Company

Alvin Gould recalls an occasion when he fell sound asleep near the front lines, only to learn the next morning that several Chinese soldiers had overrun the line the previous night and had been captured. Furthermore, he discusses performing in shows for many UN troops, including Turkish and British units, highlighting the diverse audiences they entertained. He also shares his experiences with numerous USO performers he encountered while serving and mentions the unique opportunity he had to play for Korean President Syngman Rhee.



Keeping up Morale

Alvin Gould discusses the important job of the 10th Special Services Company in maintaining troop morale. Additionally, he shares a story about refusing to be awarded a Purple Heart after injuring his leg during a show at a MASH unit.



Alvin Jurrens

Withholding the Difficulties of War

Alvin Jurrens details an experience out on the front lines as a forward observer on the 38th Parallel. He recalls feeling safe in the bunker, but shortly after his departure, it was blown up. He shares a second close encounter he endured in a jeep incident as well. He acknowledges that someone was watching over him in both accounts. He also explains that he wrote letters home to his mother but withheld information regarding the difficulties there as he did not want her to worry.



Return to Hardship on the Home Front

Alvin Jurrens describes the ceasefire on July 27th, 1953. He remembers waking up the following morning to, for the first time, a quiet morning. He tears as he shares the hardest part for him upon his return home after the war.



Amitava Banerjee

Service in Korea

Asoke Banerjee was a medical officer in Korea from 1950-1953. He used to look after the ADS, the advanced dressing station attached to many of the battalions on the front lines. Amitava shares some correspondence his father wrote. His father recalls Korea being very cold, especially as they moved towards Pyongyang. Once the Chinese began their advance, his father's unit moved south towards Seoul. His father was working in a large hospital associated with the United States MASH hospitals.



Andrew Cleveland

Dangerous Moments

Andrew Cleveland recalls never being attacked by enemy aircraft, but he does remember being attacked by mines. He remembers constantly looking for submarines, although he could not remember finding any. He shares he was generally out of harm's way from major combat. He remembers going through a typhoon, with waves so big that they split open part of the ship. He recounts not knowing if the ship was going to sink or turnover at the time, but adds they survived the storm and were able to repair the ship.



Life Aboard a Destroyer Ship

Andrew Cleveland recalls what life was like on a destroyer ship. He remembers it being cramped though not as bad as a submarine. He recounts sleeping in a rack with only about eighteen inches between his bed and the next bed above and below him. He shares how everything one owned as a sailor was placed in a small cabinet on the ship deck. He recalls having a toothbrush and hair comb. He comments on how the food was a good mixture of meat and vegetables, sometimes even soup and sandwiches, and recollects being out at sea for six months at a time, with tankers coming regularly to refuel the ship.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Wounded in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts being wounded in battle while serving in the Pusan Perimeter in 1950. His troop had fought North Koreans all night on September 1st. Around 5:30 AM, a North Korean machine gun struck him. He vividly describes his arduous recovery after being shot five times. Lying on the battlefield bleeding for several hours, he was eventually found in a foxhole.



Convalescence in the United States

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts his recovery from his wounds back home in the United States, spending 13 months on bed rest. During this time, he notes he underwent various daily procedures and was moved between multiple hospitals. His journey through the medical system reflects the challenges he faced on his road to recovery.



Arriving in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap recounts the path that brought him to Korea, recalling his arrival in Pusan and his unit's push toward the front. During this advance, they were ambushed in a pass they soon named "Ambush Gap." He describes a couple of hours of intense fighting before they pulled back to recover.



Evacuating with the Wounded

Andrew Freeman Dunlap vividly recounts being found wounded in a heavily mined valley and placed on a jeep with four other injured soldiers. Many of them were in worse condition than he was. Despite the pain, they endured the bumpy ride back to Pusan. He provides detailed memories of his journey from Korea back to the US, which ultimately ended at Walter Reed in Washington, DC.



Andrew Greenwell

SCARWAF: Special Category Army with Air Force

Andrew Greenwell describes the special unit, SCARWAF, that he served in during his time in Korea. He shares that his unit was attached to the Air Force because, at that time, the Air Force did not have all of the capabilities to function and still relied on Army Engineers. He explains that his unit had a threefold mission which was to build, maintain, and defend.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza shares the shock he experienced during his initial encounter upon landing in Pusan. A vivid image he states he will never forget is that of hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of these children, as he describes, were "disfigured."



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Letters Home

Andrew Lanza recalls writing letters home to his girlfriend, now wife, but notes that he didn't always tell her everything that was going on. He shares a couple of stories that he included in his letters to her.



Andrew M. Eggman

Cold Weather

Andrew M. Eggman describes the bitter cold weather he encountered in Korea. He discusses coming in contact with Chinese soldiers while serving in perimeter security during the Chinese attack at Yudamni. He recalls how the men tried to focus on various conversational topics to keep their minds off the bitter cold.



Getting out of Chosin Reservoir

Andrew M. Eggman describes his experiences during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he went from being on machine-gun outpost, to taking down the tents, and moving stretchers as a part of convoy security. He recalls seeing pallets of supplies raining down over the men.



Tootsie Rolls on the Front Lines

Andrew M. Eggman talks about how code-words were devised by the American soldiers for confusing the Chinese enemy when having to call for supplies. He describes how the use of the term "tootsie roll" was misinterpreted as the actual candy, rather than as the code of a needed supply of weaponry. He explains how nice it is for veterans to receive tootsie rolls in remembrance of when they got them on the front during the Korean War.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Air Raid Support for the Chosin Reservoir

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes working on airplanes heading out for raids on the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls not knowing what was occurring in the battle as Marines who were brought in were too traumatized to share much information. He adds that airplanes evacuated wounded soldiers from there to either Japan or to hospital ships off the coast of Korea.



Angad Singh

Experience in Korea

Angad Singh speaks about his living arrangements in Panmunjom, along the DMZ. He describes their living quarters, U.S. tents, being well-built and remembers having kerosine heaters in the tents because the temperatures in Korea were very cold. He recalls some of his duties while in Korea and adds that he left Korea and arrived home in India in August of 1954.



Ángel David Jiménez Jusino

Assigned as Scout / Asignado como Scout

Angel David Jimenez Jusino discusses the living conditions soldiers faced during Korea. He relays the story of how he came to be assigned as a scout, which was a perilous job, after he disobeyed orders. He explains the living conditions soldiers faced during the brutal winter of 1952.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron los soldados durante Corea. Relata la historia de cómo llegó a ser asignado como explorador, que era un trabajo peligroso, después de que desobedeció las órdenes. Explica las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron los soldados durante el invierno brutal de 1952.



Worst Experience / La Peor Experiencia

Angel David Jimenez Jusino shares the story of the Battle of Kelly Hill. He explains that as a scout, he was tasked with engaging the enemy to draw them out from their hiding spots. During a scouting mission to Kelly Hill, his team encountered so many troops, that the sergeant screamed at them to retreat and defend themselves however they saw fit. The memory of this mission saddens him, as two within the scout group were taken as prisoners of war, and two others were killed.

Angel David Jimenez Jusino comparte la historia de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Explica que, como explorador, tenía que enfrentarse al enemigo para sacarlo de sus escondites. Durante una misión de exploración en Kelly Hill, su equipo se encontró con tantas tropas que el sargento les gritó que se retiraran y que se defendieran como pudieran. Esta misión lo entristece, ya que dos dentro del grupo dos fueron tomados como prisioneros de guerra y otros dos murieron durante el ataque.



Wounded / Herido

Angel David Jimenez Jusino details the incident which led to his hospitalization. He was in the hospital for over twenty days when fuel fumes exploded, burning his face and arms. He explains the way he was evacuated and how he returned to the front line after recovering from his injuries.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino describe el incidente que resultó en su hospitalización. Estuvo en el hospital más de veinte días después que los vapores de combustible explotaron y le quemaron la cara y los brazos. Explica la forma en que fue evacuado y cómo regresó al frente después de que se recuperó de sus heridas.



Engaging the Enemy / Enfrentando al Enemigo

Angel David Jimenez Jusino discusses the tactics used by American planes in order to pinpoint the location of the enemy. He describes how American bombs were dropped on the enemy but sometimes missed and landed close to allied forces. Additionally, he shares a story of his friend dying in combat.

Ángel David Jiménez Jusino analiza las tácticas utilizadas por los aviones estadounidenses para ubicar al enemigo. Él describe cómo los aviones tiraban bombas sobre el enemigo, pero a veces explotaban cerca de las fuerzas aliadas. Luego comparte una historia de como su amigo murió en combate.



Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez

Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez describes the patrol which almost cost him his life. He explains that he was left on patrol to guard a bridge for three days and nearly froze to death. When he was finally relieved of his duty, he was unable to move or speak and two soldiers warmed his body over a fire until he was able to move again.

Aníbal Ithier-Rodríguez describe la patrulla que casi le cuesta la vida. Explica que lo dejaron patrullando para vigilar un puente durante tres días y casi murió por el frio. Cuando finalmente fue relevado de su deber, no podía moverse ni podía hablar y dos soldados calentaron su cuerpo sobre un fuego hasta que pudo moverse de nuevo.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez describes his first impressions of the war. He explains that within the first two weeks of combat, the kitchen at his camp was bombed and one sergeant was angry that they were brought rations and demanded, at gun point, that they should all get hot food. Additionally, he shares his memories of the Korean countryside.

Anibal Ithier-Rodríguez describe sus primeras impresiones de la guerra. Explica que, dentro de las primeras dos semanas de combate, la cocina de su campamento fue bombardeada y un sargento estaba enojado porque les trajeron raciones y exigió, a punta de pistola, que todos deberían recibir comida caliente. Además, comparte sus recuerdos del paisaje coreano.



Obligatory Service / Servicio Obligatorio

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on the mandatory service of Puerto Ricans. He adds that he was one of four Puerto Ricans assigned to his company and they were soon joined by a demoted sergeant. He explains that this sergeant murdered his wife and committed suicide upon returning to Puerto Rico.

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez comparte sus pensamientos sobre el servicio militar obligatorio de los puertorriqueños. Cuenta que fue uno de los cuatro puertorriqueños asignados a su compañía y pronto se les unió un sargento degradado. Explica que este sargento asesinó a su esposa y se suicidó al regresar a Puerto Rico.



Discrimination / Discriminación

Anibal Ithier-Rodriguez discusses the discrimination he witnessed while serving in Korea. He states that the Puerto Ricans in his company were blamed for mistakes and were assigned the worse jobs. He describes an incident in which he and the other three Puerto Ricans discovered an ammunition fire, and even though they put out most of it, they were never recognized for their heroism. In contrast, the soldiers that relieved them of the fire were given medals for saving the lives of those in the camp because they put out the fire.

Anibal Ithier-Rodríguez habla sobre la discriminación que presenció mientras sirvió en Corea. Afirma que a los puertorriqueños de su compañía se les echaba la culpa de los errores y se les asignaban los peores trabajos. Describe un incidente en el que él y los otros tres puertorriqueños descubrieron un fuego de municiones, y aunque apagaron la mayor parte, nunca fueron reconocidos por su heroísmo. En cambio, los soldados que los relevaron del fuego recibieron medallas por salvar la vida de los que estaban en el campamento porque ellos terminaron de apagar el fuego.



Anil Malhotra

The Stories His Father Told Him

Anil Malhotra reflects on the stories his father, Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra, told him about his experience in Korea. On November 19, 1950, the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit of India moved in to Korea. It was the time when the Chinese army put in a massive counter-attack. His unit was ordered to evacuate because of the Chinese attack. The unit became known as the Bucket Brigade because they carried buckets of water from the nearby river to a steam engine to get it working once again. The steam engine hauled all medical equipment away from the conflict zone and was not lost to the war. The steam engine carried all of the medical equipment to Seoul, across the Han river, just in time because the communists blew up the bridge right after. He expands on other stories about the 60 Parafield Ambulance Unit. The goal of the unit was to save as many lives as possible.



This Father's Experience in the Custodian Force

Anil Malhotra talks about his father's (Brigadier Tilka Raj Malhotra) experience in the Custodian Force from 1953 to 1954. This was when Syngman Rhee was the Republic of Korea (ROK) President. The five infantry battalions that made up the Custodian Force were called the CFI, the Custodian Force of India. He reflects on how much South Korea has improved since the war.



Anthony Vaquero

Radio Operator on the Top of a Mountain

Tony Vaquero describes his duties as a radio operator in remote eastern Korea on the top of an isolated mountain. He talks about sitting in a radio truck and monitoring for aircraft in distress.



Antone Jackim

An Aircraft Mechanic's Duty during the Korean War

Antone Jackim describes his duty as an aircraft and engine mechanic during the Korean War. He talks about being a part of the B-29 flight crew, his job to help operate the air vents and electric motors when the pilot needed a break. On one mission, 3 out of 4 engines were hit by gun fire, the bomber barely making it back to Japan.



372nd Bombardment Squadron

Antone Jackim talks about the mission of the 372nd Bombardment Squadron based at Kadena Air base, Japan. He describes the 9-member crew and the typical mission that was carried out on a B-29 Superfortress.



Aragaw Mselu

Ethiopians in Battle

Aragaw Mselu describes fighting conditions. Chinese spies were a constant threat. For example, they would disguise themselves with leaves and move slowly. Also, when attacking a battle the soldiers affixed bayonets for close combat fighting. Enemies were not spared. The Ethiopians were unable to take one hill. However, they were not overrun.



Military Training and a Fight

Aragaw Mselu describes the military training. For example, there were many trainings for the soldiers, attack, defense, hunting spies, and searching for mines. In addition, soldiers were to respect other soldiers. However, Aragaw Mselu describes how he fought with other soldier. Subsequently, this caused him to end up in military prison for ninety days.



Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Remembering a Hero

Arden Rowley shared how difficult the cold was during the war, causing many to freeze to death. He shares an account of an American soldier who came across a frozen soldier. Arden Rowley shares this story as a way to remember and honor the 36,000 soldiers that passed away.



Arden Rowley

Role at the Pusan Perimeter

Arden Rowley offers an account of his role as a jeep driver at the Battle of Yongsan. He provides an overview of the troop movement that led to the North Koreans being pushed back to the Nakdonggang river. He explains his role in helping transport an inexperienced bazooka team to successfully destroy incoming enemy tanks.



Moment of Hesitation Led to Capture

Arden Rowley describes the night of November 30, 1950 and being captured by the Chinese Communist Forces. He describes how his unit was surrounded, which led them to destroy their equipment and leave the convoy. He recalls how he and another soldier became separated from the group and seeing a group of soldiers approaching. He remembers that by the time they could properly identify the approaching soldiers, it was too late. He shares how being captured was a traumatic experience because one minute you are firing at them and then you are at their mercy. He elaborates on his fears while being captured and the twenty-four day march he endured to the first POW camp.



Aristiois Zaxarioudakis

Volunteering to Save Korean Children

Aristiois Zaxarioudakis recalls the numerous challenges of growing up during the German occupation of Crete during World War II. He notes these memories motivated him to volunteer for service in Korea, knowing full well the hardships that children would endure during the war.



Firing Mortars on the Front Line

Aristiois Zaxarioudakis and his unit underwent twenty days of preparation following their arrival in Seoul in May 1952 before being deployed to the 38th Parallel. While he cannot pinpoint the exact location, Zaxarioudakis vividly describes their stationing near two hills and elaborates on his role as a mortar specialist in the Greek Army.



The Most Difficult Time

Aristiois Zaxarioudakis describes the severe cold and snow as the most challenging aspect of his service in Korea. He recounts instances when it was so cold that they had to resort to using dynamite to make holes in the ground.



Aristofanis Androulakis

Greek Pride

Aristofanis Androulakis proudly discusses the contributions of Greek soldiers in the Korean War. He vividly recalls his experiences during a hill battle and reflects on the loss of comrades during the conflict.



Photos from the War

Aristofanis Androulakis shares a photo of himself with his captain, followed by a photo of a church they built for services during the war. He then shows an image of a Greek cemetery in Korea and highlights the grave of a man he knew. This man had asked him to deliver a message to his sister when he returned to Greece.



Arthur C. Golden

Baptism By Fire (Graphic)

Arthur Golden vividly recalls his initial days in Korea and the fear that gripped him when the shooting began. He recounts his company's movement to set up the perimeter and the rifle company's nearby digging-in process. While digging a foxhole, he distinctly remembers meeting the rifle company's squad leader, only to see the soldier's lifeless body removed the following day. As part of their role with the United States Marine Corps 1st Division, they successfully pushed the enemy back. Following this success, he remembers regrouping for the Incheon Landing. Shortly after the landing, he describes the retaking of Seoul and their subsequent move down to Wonsan



We Should Not Have Gone Up There

Arthur Golden ponders the reasons soldiers were sent to Korea and General Douglas MacArthur’s decision to push further north. Reflecting on the war's events, he disagrees with General MacArthur’s choice and rationale. He vividly remembers the struggles they faced due to the cold and the shock of being suddenly surrounded by one hundred twenty thousand enemy soldiers. After fighting their way out, he emphasizes their luck in making their way to Heungnam.



Arthur Gentry

"Little" Battle at Pusan Perimeter

Arthur Gentry recalls participating in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter, where North Korean forces had seized control. Ordered to dig in amid heavy mortar fire, his commander was injured during the intense engagement. For two days, they reinforced the front line, aiding the army's efforts to stabilize the situation. This swift involvement upon their arrival in Korea exemplifies the immediate and intense nature of combat for some troops.



Inchon Landing: 15 Foot Ladders

Arthur Gentry remembers when he and his comrades constructed 15-foot ladders to scale a sea wall at Inchon, their method for landing as the tide receded six miles. Climbing over the ship's side, the Marines boarded boats amidst rocket fire and bombardments as they approached Inchon.



"Bonsai" attack

Arthur Gentry recalls surviving the "bonsai" attack near Kimpo Airfield, a tactic adopted from Japan's 35-year occupation of Korea by North Koreans. Protecting Kimpo Airfield was paramount as the U.S. Air Force continued delivering supplies during operations. After the attack near Kimpo, he visited a devastated Seoul which he found completely destroyed before moving on to Wonson.



War Torn: 1950 Heungnam Evacuation

Arthur Gentry describes an emotional experience during the evacuation from Hamheung, where he and his fellow Marines joined 100,000 North Korean refugees. As the reality of war sank in, the sight of ships in the harbor brought relief to both the troops and the refugees. Gentry vividly recalls the orderly lines of his company amidst the numerous ships, and the Marines singing hymns as they marched forward.



Legacy of the Korean War

Arthur Gentry credits the Marines for securing victory at the Chosin Reservoir, believing their efforts were pivotal. The battle resulted in high casualties, with 3,600 U.S. soldiers killed in action and another 6,000 suffering from frostbite. Reflecting on the Korean War, often referred to as the "Forgotten War," Gentry asserts it was the last conflict where the U.S. achieved significant accomplishments. He emphasizes that the Marines' steadfast defense and the U.S.'s subsequent support for South Korea were crucial in fostering its economic and democratic growth.



Arthur H. Hazeldine

Yang-do and Pirates

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes more of the engagement at Yang-do, resulting in the wounding of thirteen New Zealand navy men and killing one. The North Korean soldiers on sampans, were close enough to fire on the HMNZS Taupo using rifles. However, the firepower of the frigate was too much. He vividly recalls the bloodshed which occurred in the engagement. Arthur H. Hazeldine concludes with a description of an encounter with pirates off the coast of Taiwan.



Arthur Hernandez

White Horse Mountain

Arthur Hernandez recalls his journey from Japan to Busan, Korea, during the frigid winter. He remembers taking a troop train from Busan north towards the front lines. Upon reaching their destination, he describes being escorted up a mountain which lay on the front line. As they hiked up the mountain, he remembers seeing the remains of the enemy. He provides details of a ten-day battle which took place at the location known as White Horse Mountain.



Life on the Front Lines

Arthur Hernandez shares his experience of serving on the front lines of White Horse Mountain. He recalls facing periodic shelling, aerial bombings, and mortar attacks by the Chinese forces. He mentions meeting a soldier from Puerto Rico who purposely injured his foot to return home from the war zone. However, he recalls the wounded soldier returning to the front lines after healing, only to later become a casualty of enemy fire.



An Attack at Night

Arthur Hernandez describes the intense darkness he experienced while serving on the front lines. He remembers resting in his foxhole one night and a grenade exploding nearby. He recalls firing rounds at a Chinese soldier who was running towards their position. He explains how friendly artillery barraged their position until daylight to counter the Chinese attack. After the attack, he remembers discovering a photograph on the deceased Chinese soldier that depicted him holding a violin.



Asefa Mengesha

Action in Korea

Asefa Mengesha recounted seeing his friends die and was proud that his unit never surrendered nor left a man or body behind. He revealed his wounds suffered from 16 mm mortar rounds. One shell failed to fire from his mortar and exploded in front of him.



Chinese Prisoners

Asefa Mengesha captured two Chinese prisoners by himself. He said Ethiopians captured many Chinese but the Chinese never captured any Ethiopians. He and his unit would lie in wait at night for the enemy to pass in front and then they would attack from behind. The Chinese were trying to find their bunker but they found the Chinese first.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Engaging the Chinese

Asefa Werku Kassa describes an engagement with the Chinese that left a deep scar on his forearm. He was stationed along the frontlines and frequent encounters with Chinese infantry. On one occasion a Chinese soldier gave him a deep gash before another Ethiopian soldier came to his aid. Asefa Werku Kassa eventually shot and killed the Chinese soldier. Also, Ethiopian soldiers never surrendered due to instructions. This was for fear of what the Ethiopian military would do to their families.



Battle Experience

Asefa Werku Kassa describes his service in Korea. He cannot remember the exact locations of service due to moving around. The mountains and terrain stick out more than anything. Also, he shares an image of his scar from the Chinese military encounter. He also describes how he was in charge of a unit. He would constantly move them from danger, much to the chagrin of his commanders.



Asfaw Desta

Korean Battle

Asfaw Desta describes his Korean service. He describes being trained upon arrival in Busan. The M1 was the weapon he trained with. He also describes battles and rough terrain. Many people died and these memories stick with him. He recalls fighting conditions on Hill 1073, which is near the Iron Triangle.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Danger in Korea

Assefa Demissie Belete described the danger of Korea. For instance, he described going on patrol at night and facing the Chinese. But, he explained the soldiers did not have fear. Ethiopian soldiers were following orders. He detailed one incident of a fellow soldier being hit by a heavy bomb. The other soldiers never found his body.



Bravery through Difficulties

Assefa Demissie Belete described working with the 7th Division of the US military in the Korean War. Difficulties that the soldiers encountered was the snow and cold. Also, there were many snakes that were always following them. Overall, all of the troops fighting in Korea were very brave. When the troops came home to Ethiopia people received them nicely.



Austin Timmins

Evacuating Wounded Soldiers During the Korean War

Austin Timmins described his job evacuating wounded soldiers as part of the flight crew of a Canadair North Star (RCAF). He did not have the opportunity to speak with the soldiers or nurses. Many of the soldiers that they transported did suffer from frostbite.



Napalm and Out of Fuel

Austin Timmins described his most dangerous missions in Korea. He was responsible for delivering supplies. On one occasion he witnessed napalm being dropped on Chinese positions. On another he was flying into the jet stream. He had to lower the plane to extremely low altitudes because they nearly ran out of fuel before landing.



Avery Creef

Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Living Conditions, Daily Routine

Avery Creef recalls never being able take a shower. He recounts never being dressed properly for the freezing winter weather. He slept in a bunker and ate C-rations. He shares how he enjoyed eating the pork and beans and adds that everything else tasted terrible. He remembers receiving packages from home periodically which would include better food options. He also remembers writing letters home.



Ayhan Karabulut

Constant Danger

Ayhan Karabulut described the battle that took place at Sand Bag Castle. Most of his service, he served under constant threat. He was wounded in six different places. Many friends were killed or wounded. He describes in detail one friend who died in his lap trying to cross a minefield.



Baldwin F. Myers

Battle of Jinju Begins

Baldwin F. Myers recounts the beginning of conflict on the road from Jinju to Hadong. He discusses coming under fire from North Korean mortars. He also describes his struggles with PTSD related to that day.



Missing in Action

Baldwin F. Myers discusses getting wounded and waking up in Japan. He recounts how he learned that he was officially missing in action. He also shares meeting a fellow soldier that he saved during battle.



Fighting His Way Back to the Lines

Baldwin Myers describes the Battle of Jinju and his time behind enemy lines. As the city was falling, Baldwin Myers had to find a weapon and fight his way back to American lines. He successfully rejoined American forces the day before Jinju fell.



Barry McLean

So Many Refugees

Barry McLean shares his experience walking through Wonsun in sub-zero temperatures. During the evacuation, he shares he encountered a young girl and offered his rations, but she refused. He recalls the touching moment when the girl came back with a token to trade for his food. Along with this experience, he describes seeing thousands of refugees they loaded onto the ships to evacuate.



They Kept Coming Back (Graphic)

Barry McLean elaborates on an experience that haunts him after returning home from Korea and the toll of war. While climbing a mountain, he recalls encountering around three hundred Chinese soldiers eating lunch. He shares how, afterward, they began to monitor the routine of the Chinese soldiers. He describes the measures they took a few days later to eliminate the enemy soldiers.



Basil Kvale

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Basil Kvale fought in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir in weather that reached 40 degrees below zero. The men nicknamed the region the "Frozen Chosin" since the temperature was cold enough to freeze a soldiers' skin. He worked with a lieutenant to create locations to hit the enemy throughout his time in this battle.



Fighting in Ujeongbu and the Taebacek Mountains

Basil Kvale was taken to Ujeongbu (Northern Korea) with an amphibious military group to set up for battle. They moved a lot and were so close that they could see the Chinese right near their location. At a new location in the Taebacek Mountains, Basil Kvale was over 3,000 feel above sea level and it was an important location to give orders of where to bomb.



Chinese POW-Ping

Basil Kvale captured a Chinese POW named Ping who later was sent with other soldiers. As a Marine, Basil Kvale was asked to help give the coordinates for the bombing to aid his commander. He had the cannons and bombs attack from four different sides which led to total disaster for the Chinese.



Basilio MaCalino

First-Hand Account of Japanese Bombing Pearl Harbor, HI

Basilio MaCalino was 6 years old when he saw the Japanese pilots flew low to the ground between two mountains. He could even see the pilot because the planes were so low. He watched with his own eyes as the lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii Pearl Harbor was bombed.



The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros

Battle of Triangle Hill

Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros describes the Battle of Triangle Hill. Ethiopian forces were located on Papasan Hill (Hill 1062) during the battle. Ethiopian forces never went on the offensive and defended the Hill. He also describes how no Ethiopian forces were taken as prisoners of war (POW). Ethiopian forces never surrendered.



Bleak Aspects of Korea

Belachew Amneshwa Weldekiros describes the hardships of Korea. One of the hardest things for Ethiopian soldiers was the weather. Amazingly the heat during the summer months was difficult for Ethiopian soldiers. Further, winters were extreme and caused conditions they were not used to. In addition to weather, mortars were a constant threat.



Belay Bekele

Enemies and Obstacles

Belay Bekele describes fighting conditions in Korea. He explains how the threats from the enemy were everywhere. He discusses how the winters and mountains were the most difficult obstacles aside from the enemy.



Belisario Flores

My Brother Joe

Belisario Flores speaks about his brother, Joe. He shares that his brother suffered from physical and mental complications as a result of being in the Korean War. He acknowledges neither of them had ever heard of Korea before the war started.



"We Had Our Mission, They Had Theirs"

Belisario Flores describes the Chinese as good fighters, and he really had nothing against them. He adds that he did not have anything against the North Koreans either. All he knew was that he was fighting against communism. He describes the Colombian Infantry Battalion of which he was one of the leaders because he spoke Spanish.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Fears while Creating Smoke Screens

Ben Schrader reports as part of the Combat Chemical Engineer Corps, he developed smoke screens over the rivers which would allow the battalion to lay bridges without being attacked by the enemy. His worry was that while placing these bridges, the enemy would lay mines in the river bottoms, so the engineers hoped they had done their job well without risking the lives their fellow soldiers. He hoped that all the bombs had be deactivated prior to coming so close to these rivers.



Language Acquisition was Crucial

Ben Schrader reports communication was difficult when working with the Korean infantry, so US Army trained Korean soldiers in Arabic numerals and map reading. He explains they could help provide the coordinates to fire on the number of units, battalion or regiments they anticipated coming in. He explains it proved crucial to know which weapons worked with the right fuse and how these weapons would effect the enemy.



Army Point System for Duty

Ben Schrader explains the army point system for duty. While he was stationed in a war zone, the army gave out four points for soldiers at the front lines, three for troops farther back, two for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and one point for troops on the home front. He earned four points a month because he was in direct combat, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



Salary and a Much Needed Shower

Ben Schrader explains everything was provided for soldiers so they always sent their pay home to their families. He relates charcoal was provided for heat and water was scare because you had to carry your own water for drinking. He recalls showers were only provided about every ten days. He recounted the weather was very cold but they would be pelted with 140 degree water from trucks that gave them extreme differences of temperature but the showers were always welcome.



We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembers before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembers while cooking C-rations they would eat the raw onions and potatoes uncooked to add flavor. He notes the Koreans would have double rations of two handfuls of rice with fish. He explains the Koreans were so thankful for the war assistance they would offer to share their rations with American soldiers.



Benigno Ramos Perez

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Benigno Ramos Pérez shares some of the most difficult moments he experienced during the war. He explains how an enemy combatant tried to infiltrate their unit and was caught trying to do so. Following that incident, he recounts how a young man in his unit was killed during a forward observing mission. He shares the story in which his clumsiness saved his life as a mortar fell where he should have been if he had not dropped his helmet.

Benigno Ramos Pérez comparte algunos de los momentos más difíciles que vivió durante la guerra. Explica cómo un soldado enemigo intentó infiltrarse en su unidad y fue atrapado al intentar de hacerlo. Después de ese incidente, comparte la historia de cómo un joven de su unidad murió durante una misión de observación avanzada. Por último, comparte la historia en la que su torpeza le salvó la vida cuando un mortero cayó donde debería haber estado si no se le hubiera caído el casco.



Letter to Future Wife / Carta Para Su Futura Esposa

Benigno Ramos Pérez has his wife read a letter he wrote to her from the front lines. Within the letter, he provides a firsthand account of the dangers he encountered and comments on his inability to sleep. He details how two sergeants were injured during combat and praises American troops. He emphasizes the importance of their love in the letter.

Benigno Ramos Pérez hace leer a su esposa una carta que le escribió cuando él estaba en Corea. Dentro de la carta, provee un relato de los peligros que encontró y comenta como no podía dormir. Detalla cómo dos sargentos resultaron heridos durante el combate y comenta que las tropas estadounidenses eran buenas. Incluye la importancia de su amor en la carta.



An Emotional Letter / Una Carta de Amor

Benigno Ramos Pérez reads a letter he wrote to his girlfriend who became his wife of sixty-one years. He explains the toll the separation had on his psyche and the belief that God would reunite them. His reading brings tears to his wife who accompanies him on this portion of the interview.

Benigno Ramos Pérez lee una carta que le escribió a su novia, quien se convirtió en su esposa de sesenta y un años. Explica lo duro que fue la separación y su creencia de que Dios los reuniría. Su lectura hace llorar a su esposa que lo acompaña en esta parte de la entrevista.



Benito B. Arabe

Fighting on Hill 010

Benito B. Arabe, after arriving in Busan, joined King Company on Hill 010 on the front lines. He recalls walking three kilometers to the mountain where he joined the Americans they would soon replace. He recounts seeing many dead in the trenches. He offers a detailed account of nightly bombings including one where a bomb landed about five meters from them as they were hiding.



I Liked to Fight with Communists

Benito B. Arabe describes his units pulling out from the battle at Hill 010. He shares how members of his unit had no idea where the enemy was and states he was not afraid as he "liked to fight with the Communists". He recounts how he remained in Korea until after the armistice concluded the fighting. He offers some detail of his return trip to Korea where he saw many houses and happy people and returned to the boundary between North and South Korea.



Life on the Front Line

Benito B. Arabe describes his experience on the front lines near Hill 010. He shares the only thing on his mind was his mission to fight. He recounts living conditions while on the front which include sleeping and eating in the bunkers near the front line.



Benjamin Allen

First Days in Korea

Benjamin Allen shares he left for Korean in September 1950. He recounts his journey to Japan and then on to Busan (Pusan), Korea. He recalls riding a train towards Seoul which he remembers seeing burned as the North Koreans were retreating from the city. He offers his take on fear.



Wounded - Sent to a MASH

Benjamin Allen speaks about being wounded and narrowly escaping becoming a prisoner-of-war (POW) like one of his friends. He recalls the cold weather and the frostbite he suffered due to being issued inappropriate clothing for the conditions.



Surviving Winter in Korea

Benjamin Allen recounts the most difficult part of the entire war, the winter. He speaks about the gear he and other soldier had been issued which proved completely incompatible with the severe weather conditions. He jokingly recalls the extreme measure he might have been willing to go to in order to get his hands on a coat. He describes the severity of the frostbite he developed that impacted his health well beyond his time in Korea.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

MIA in the Chosin Reservoir

Benjamin Arriola describes his brother Fernando Arriola's motivation to join the U.S. Army. He recounts his brother's landing in Inchon and journey to the Chosin Reservoir. He shares that his brother, Fernando, went MIA (Missing in Action) during the battle there and is still considered MIA at the time of this interview.



Medals after MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes the medals his brother, Fernando Arriola, received after being declared MIA and Presumed Dead in the Korean War. He shares that his brother received the Purple Heart, Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. He displays several certificates sent by officials in South Korea as well.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Bernard Brownstein

Toilet Paper Was The Big Thing

Bernard Brownstein describes being able to visit his cousin Myron who was also serving in Korea for five days. He explains how pulling connections made it possible for them to visit in person. He also describes how the only thing that Myron wanted from him was toilet paper.



Bernard Clark

Patrol Duties

Bernard Clark went on a variety of patrols during his time in Korea. He calls these patrols "recce" (reconnaissance). "Recce" patrols consisted of five men and entailed going out to a point and returning with the intent to keep an eye on things in no man's land. His listening patrol consisted of three men who went out into no man's land and sat in a location all night to listen for enemy movements.



Living Conditions

Bernard Clark had to live in trenches near and on the front lines because there were not any shelters of any kind. The trenches were six feet deep and a fire could be made during the winter to stay warm. C-Rations were eaten most of the war, and they included beans and tea. He recalls taking over for the Greeks at "Kowang San/Little Gibraltar" area near Hill 355, and he remembers finding many dead bodies left in the trenches.



Coping with Loss and Memories of Korea

Bernard Clark is still saddened by the loss of his friends while serving. He dealt with those losses as a young man in a few different ways. He also attended several concerts during his time in Korea, and he remembers a road march while on reserve which entailed a fiery mishap. Napalm drops took place during the Korean War, and he describes the aftermath of this weapon.



Bernard Dykes

Right Place, Right Time, Right Training

Bernard Dykes describes how he became second in command after only seven days in Korea. He recalls assisting inside of a tank at the lowest rank. He shares how, with all his training in the U.S., he was able to reset the tank after it became inactive.



Iron Triangle Strategy

Bernard Dykes details the strategy at his placement within the Iron Triangle. He describes why it was named this and being there with French soldiers. He also mentions battles that happened before and after his time there and the devastation endured.



More Artillery Fire Than Raindrops

Bernard Dykes describes the constant and random attacks endured from the Chinese soldiers. He did not know where they were coming from or where they were to land. He mentions how putting his life in God's hands in these moments helped him survive.



Life in the Iron Triangle

Bernard Dykes elaborates on what living conditions were like in the Iron Triangle. He often had to sleep inside a tank with four other soldiers. He describes the food and the cold weather.



Bernard Hoganson

Telling Stories and the Bronze Star

Bernard Hoganson remarks he rarely shares stories from his service in Korea with his grandchildren. He explains that the memories are quite personal and sometimes difficult to recount. Despite the challenges these memories bring, he does recall the circumstances that led to him earning the Bronze Star.



Emotions on the Battlefield

After identifying enemy targets for attack, Bernard Hoganson reflects on the emotions that followed. He vividly describes how the targets were hit with napalm and bombs, recalling the destruction they caused as they struck enemy trenches. In the aftermath, he often felt remorseful for the devastation wrought by their actions.



Fire Direction Center and Night Attack

Bernard Hoganson explains his duties and delves into the functions and significance of the Fire Direction Center in the war effort. He vividly recounts his involvement in repelling an enemy attack on a military base, highlighting the intensity of the combat situation and the strategic importance of his role.



Bernard Lee Henderson

Care Packages from Family Members

Bernard Henderson shared he would write letters to his parents requesting fruitcakes and breads. His mother sent care packages to the front lines. He said he was able to carry the food along with all of his military supplies (almost 88 lbs of ammo) on A-frames that were designed to carry the amount of bullets and supplies.



Fire In The Hole

Bernard Henderson shared his experience of being struck in his chest with shrapnel. Puny Wilson, one of the members of his regiment, was pulling guard-men one night and yelled, "Fire in the hole" five times. After throwing the second grenade, he stood up from his fox hole and the grenade hit him right in the chest. Although it did not penetrate through his clothes, he started tearing his clothes off yelling for a corps men to help him.



Life as a Soldier During the Korean War

Bernard Henderson slept in his foxhole with his clothes on in a sleeping bag in shifts with other Marines. As a Marine, they did not shower often since they were stationed up in the mountains. The most difficult time he had was trying to escape from a Chinese attack by running down uneven railroad tracks. All he could think of was to just stay alive. He joked before the Marines were issued flak jackets, the ponchos did not do much to stop the bullets.



Most Dangerous Moment

Bernard Henderson was never injured in the Korean War. He joked it was because he was so skinny and his nickname was "Slim" that all he had to do was stand sideways and nothing would hit him. He did note one time the Chinese launched a mortar that landed next to him. The only thing that saved his life was that it failed to explode.



Bernard Smith

Bernard Smith- Struggles with Equipment

Bernard Smith described that the equipment that was set up was only good for a 50 mile radius and many times they would need to reach as far as 200 miles to get a signal. Since there wasn't a hill in between their location, they could operate from machines and make compromises to get it to work. They had multiple diesel-fueled generators to ensure they were able to continue to operate if the other ran out and the freezing cords were another concern as Bernard Smith lived through the cold winters in Korea.



Witnessing Seoul

Bernard Smith's encounter with Seoul when they arrived was a devastated and torn apart city. An example is a governmental business that had its windows blown out and walls collapsed, but what parts were still standing and areas safe enough to work, the government continued to work there. The area where Bernard Smith was stationed appeared to be untouched.



Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago

Infiltrated by the Enemy / Infiltrado por el Enemigo

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago provides an account of a dangerous battle in which enemy troops infiltrated their unit. The problem, he explains, was that the Filipino language sounded like Chinese, and they assumed that it was allied troops returning to the line. He describes the fighting which ensued and resulted in his sergeant being shot.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata una peligrosa batalla en la que tropas enemigas infiltraron a su unidad. El problema, explica el, era que el idioma filipino sonaba como chino, y asumieron que eran tropas aliadas que regresaban. Describe la lucha que siguió y que resultó en su sargento herido.



Lucky to be Alive / Vivo de Milagro

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago shares one of the most impactful moments of the war. He describes the incident in which he and others were almost killed by friendly fire when they were attempting to prepare mortars in Seoul. Following that attack, he remembers how they went on a trek and forever engraved in his memory is the sight of a little four-year-old girl begging on the side of the road.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago comparte uno de los momentos más impactantes de la guerra. El describe el incidente en el que él y otros casi murieron por fuego amigo cuando intentaban preparar morteros en Seúl. Después de ese ataque, él recuerda que hicieron una caminata y siempre le quedo grabado en su mente el recuerdo de una niña de cuatro años que mendigaba al costado de la carretera.



Unprepared for War / Sin Preparación Para la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explains why he was unprepared for combat. He states that as a member of the reserves, he was sent to Korea without basic training. He remembers how his captain, a West Point graduate, requested he not be a forward observer as he was not trained as a soldier.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago explica por qué no estaba preparado para el combate. Afirma que, como miembro de las reservas, fue enviado a Corea sin el entrenamiento básico. Recuerda que su capitán, un graduado de West Point, pidió que no fuera un observador avanzado ya que no fue entrenado como soldado.



First Days at War / Primeros Días en la Guerra

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describes his first impressions of Korea and the utter devastation he encountered. He remembers being immediately struck by the fact that the train which transported them to the front was riddled with bullet holes. Furthermore, he details the way in which Seoul was destroyed and the way in which a major bridge was blown up by the allies to prevent troop advancement by the enemy.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y la devastación total que encontró. Recuerda que le llamó la atención el hecho de que el tren que los transportaba al frente estaba lleno de agujeros de balazos. Además, detalla la forma en que Seúl fue destruida y la forma en que los aliados volaron un puente importante para evitar el avance de las tropas enemigas.



The Effects of the Winter / Los Efectos del Invierno

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago recounts the living and weather conditions they faced in Korea. He remembers being amazed by the frigid temperatures and describes the effects on both living and deceased soldiers. He further elaborates on the weather by describing how allied troops left North Korea by boat after blowing up the port.

Bernardo De Jesus Ramírez Santiago relata las condiciones de vida y del clima que enfrentaron en Corea. Recuerda estar asombrado al frio que había y describe los efectos del invierno tanto en los soldados vivos como en los muertos. Da más detalles sobre el tiempo al describir cómo las tropas aliadas se fueron de Corea del Norte en barco después de volar el muelle.



Bernhard Paus

First Patient

Lucie Paus Falck reads from her father's diary describing the first patient he treated. The patient was a 13 year old boy named Park who was severely burned in July of 1951. The boy was transferred away to Seoul but would return when Dr. Bernhard Falck engineered his return after hearing about him from a nurse who journeyed to Seoul to see him.



Beverly Lawrence Dunjill

A Typical Combat Mission in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill recounts a typical day on a combat mission in Korea. He offers an overview of a pilot's morning routine. He illustrates how the flight leader is responsible for guiding and coordinating the flight while the wingman supports and protects the leader. He emphasizes the importance of communication and teamwork in ensuring the success of the mission and the safety of all team members.



Witnessing a MIG Shot Down in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill shares he witnessed the shooting down of his first MIG while flying over the northern region of the Yalu River. He recounts how the pattern on the nose of the MIG indicated the skill level of the pilot. He recalls that the first plane he saw being shot down was a "Blue Nose," which referred to a less experienced enemy pilot.



One Hundredth Combat Mission in Korea

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill discusses his one hundredth combat mission in Korea. He explains how, during the mission, he worked as a radio relay operator between planes flying in North Korea and the bases in the South. He explains his primary objective was to fly over Choto Island. He remembers how, at the end of the mission, he found an enemy truck and fired at it. He recalls how he narrowly missed parts of the exploding truck.



Bezuneh Mengestu

Most Dangerous Moment

Bezuneh Mengestu recounts his most dangerous moment caught behind the lines by the Chinese. His unit was sent to spy on Chinese movements and did not realize they had travelled past their boundaries. The Chinese opened fire on their truck but they refused to surrender.



What Makes Ethiopian Soldiers Different?

Bezuneh Mengestu describes what he believes make an Ethiopian soldier unlike others who fought in Korea. He discusses the respect and reverence they had for their emperor who sent them with the command to "kill or be killed". They were taught to never surrender and never leave any man behind.



Bill Chisholm

Replacing Marines in Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm arrived in Korea via Wonsan and was soon sent as part of a unit to replace the 1st Marine Division on the east side of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He recalls almost immediately being surrounded by two divisions of Chinese soldiers. He describes the immense fear he felt in being surrounded by these units.



Conditions at Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Bill Chisholm recalls four horrific days in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He notes having nothing to eat and basically living in foxholes which had been made using grenades to blast areas of the frozen ground. Furthermore, he remembers not being outfitted for the -70° temperatures. He provides a detailed account of a mixup when an officer requested additional mortars, code named Tootsie Rolls.



Napalm at Hill 351

Bill Chisholm shares he was sent back to the front lines to Hill 351 following the evacuation to Pusan. On June 6, 1951, he remembers his unit having napalm dropped on them which resulted in burns to his back and eyes. He recounts spending a couple of weeks in a MASH hospital recovering. He offers some additional details on the fighting on Hill 351.



Bill Chrysler

The Battle of Kapyong

Bill Chrysler remembers hurrying into place from a rest camp, noting his half-track was not fully equipped. Sent to the higher hills while the Australians held the lower hills on their right, he quickly adapted to the situation. The Chinese aimed to gain control of the valley among these hills, which led to Seoul. Observing the Chinese circling them, he recalls immediately recognizing the impending trouble.



Hard to Forget

Bill Chrysler recalls more bad memories than happy ones from his year in Korea. Among the most horrific scenes, he remembers discovering a mother and child killed in a small house and witnessing a man using an axe to chop off his wife's severely injured leg. Even after many years, these haunting memories continue to stick with him.



Bill G. Hartline

Role in Korea

Bill Hartline shares how arrived in Korea as part of a group known as the 1st Replacement Draft. He recalls how, since none of this group had much experience, they were divided among other units. He ultimately ended up with the 4.2 Mortar Company of the 5th Marine Regiment. He speaks candidly about never having to fire either the bazooka or machine gun assigned to him in action with his company.



Doing My Duty

Bill Hartline speaks about his time in Funchilin Pass and the area around Yudam-ni. He recalls just finishing his four-hour watch shift and crawling into his sleeping bag when "all hell broke loose." He details taking a couple of men with him to hold a bridge on the road while the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir raged all around them. He notes that remarkably despite all the chaos of war around him, he never had to fire his machine gun.



Lucky You Got Lost

Bill Hartline recalls an old farmhouse at the bottom of Funchillan Pass packed full of men from his unit as well as those of a utility company all trying to seek warmth. He recounts how being tasked to look for a missing soldier, prior to his unit departing for Hagaru-ri, saved his life.



Bill Hall

Pilot Shortage in Early Days

Bill Hall recalls being stationed at El Toro, California, when the North Koreans invaded the South. He explains the pilot shortage the Marine Corps had aboard his aircraft carrier and how this challenge was met by making use of Aviation Pilots (APs), many of whom had served during World War II. He remembers how the first member of his squadron who was killed during the war had borrowed part of his equipment and his flight charts.



Aviation Combat

Bill Hall speaks about "getting" an enemy platoon with a napalm bomb from his aircraft. He explains the aircraft setup of weapons and fuel that the carrier aircraft used against the enemy. He recalls the story of one of the captains of his unit who shot down and later rescued.



New Equipment and Additional Pilots Leads to Advantage

Bill Hall recalls how with the arrival of additional land-based pilots came additional equipment for his unit. He remembers that their new equipment included a 20mm cannon as well as tracer bullets which allowed pilots to see where shots were being fired. He explains how this served as a great advantage for the American planes over the Chinese ground forces. He notes that his first mission was on August 7, 1950, but that he was soon cut because he was needed as a Landing Signal Officer (LSO).



Medical Care for Wounded

Bill Hall recalls the challenges doctors faced in treating the wounded. He remembers their inability to treat everyone, so they frequently stacked the injured up and covered them with a blanket. He vividly describes one new, very green reservist who arrived in Korea having never touched a gun. He remembers this reservist was injured and later transferred to a Navy hospital for treatment. He jokingly recalls how an Army nurse declared that this young man would live.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



The Plight of the Korean People

Bill Lynn describes the destitute conditions the Korean people lived in during the war. He has revisited Korea and compares what he saw during the war with what he witnessed when he returned. Now he describes South Korea as a paradise and is completely astonished with the way the South Koreans have developed their country.



Battle of Naktong Bulge

Bill Lynn tells about the Battle at Naktong River. He survived the battle because the Korean he was fighting was unable to reload his gun. Both of the men accompanying him were killed primarily because they were using malfunctioned equipment left over from World War II.



Bill Scott

We Called Them Hoochies

Bill Scott described what it was like on many of the hills he fought and the sand bags filled with dirt and rock used to protect them from the enemy. He described digging into trenches on the hill, and his mortar squad was placed just on the other side of the hill to fire at the enemy. Bill Scott pointed to a shadow box as he's describing the shrapnel that was collected from the battlefield that was fired at them by the Chinese.



Almost hit by the Chinese

Bill Scott described the fighting and living situations on the top of Pork Chop Hill. He recalled the area they were quartered in during their time on the hill.
Bill Scott was resting in his bed in this living quarters when it was hit and mortar barely escaped his head by inches. He said when he woke, the sound was deafening, and the area was heavily damaged. Bill Scott picked up pieces of the shell and stuck it in his pocket.



Billy J. Scott

The Black Moon of Korea

Billy Scott describes the two types of weather in Korea regarding visibility in the moonlight. He shares that the Chinese possessed the ability to adapt to the moonlight more so than the Americans. He recalls rotating watch and only sleeping a few hours in between and explains the danger of falling asleep during war.



Bjarne Christensen

Korea Then and Now

Bjarne Christensen recalls being affected by the amount of poverty he saw in Busan, South Korea. He shares that upon his revisit, he could see much progress. He explains how he was impressed and overwhelmed by the differences.



Life on a Hospital Ship

Bjarne Christensen explains how he had luxuries onboard the Jutlandia. He describes a small but comfortable space. He explains that while serving in a time of war, his life on the ship was pleasant.



Bjorn Lind

Working at NORMASH

Bjorn Lind describes his daily experience at the NORMASH field hospital in 1952. He describes the pace of about 60 patients a day that of course depended on the frequency of fighting. Even with so many wounded, the unit maintained a 1% death rate. He describes one patient with 40 shrapnel wounds. These wounds were the majority of the types of cases they saw. Bjorn worked on organizing the surgical room to increase efficiency by developing a better process for preparing and recovering patients making use of the limited number of operating tables in a better manner.



Better than the Swedes

Bjorn Lind describes how patients moved from the aid stations at the front lines, to his NORMASH unit, and then to evacuation hospitals further south to recover. He discusses death rates at the front lines being at around 4% compared to his unit's 1% rate. Bjorn Lind talks about a group of Swedes who visited from their hospital located in Busan. With pride, he pokes fun at how his unit's accomplishments compared to those of Norway's national rival Sweden.



Bob Couch

Injury and Meeting Jennifer Jones

Bob Couch discusses an injury he incurred while setting out a mine. He recounts the tripflare going off in his hand and suffering a wound from the encounter. He describes being transported back to Pusan and to a medical ship where surgery was performed on his hand and where he met movie star, Jennifer Jones.



Letters Home and Witnessing Death

Bob Couch speaks about the letters he sent home, arriving anywhere from 2 weeks to a month after he sent them, and shares a few words about witnessing death. He mentions one particular day where many suffered severe wounds and recounts ditches filled with American blood. He describes the scene as unimaginable and unlike any movie he had viewed.



Recollections of Korea and the War's Legacy

Bob Couch mentions his wound again and shares he was sent back to the States due to it not healing properly. He recalls arriving home on a Friday and returning to work on Monday. He offers his account of the war's legacy and states that he views all Korean veterans as heroes. He explains that he was fortunate compared to other Korean War soldiers and admits that he still has a hard time believing all he and others went through during the war.



Bob Garcia

A Birthday to Remember

Bob Garcia recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon on January 9, 1952, his birthday. He talks about the "repo depot" and being assigned to the 39th Field Artillery Battalion as a radioman. He describes the mission of this unit that featured 105mm artillery guns.



Daily Life of a Radioman

Bob Garcia talks about his job as a radioman. He describes his specific duties in support of the forward observer, setting up communication lines and gathering intelligence.



Fear on the Front Lines

Bob Garcia talks about his first days on the front lines in January 1952. He describes, at the age of nineteen, being "scared to death" by the strange noises found in an artillery battery.



Bob Imose

A Strange and Rewarding Career

Bob Mitsuo Imose shares about his time flying B-29 bombers with the 5th Air Force based in Okinawa, Japan. He offers details of the typical crew carried by these planes. Reflecting on his involvement in a special mission after the conclusion of the war, he details his role in the development of propaganda materials, written in both Chinese and Korean, to be dropped in Korea in anticipation of another potential war in the region.



Bob Wickman

Arriving as a Hospital Corpsman

Bob Wickman shares he arrived in Korea in May 1953 and traveled to Incheon by June 9, 1953. He explains he was attached to the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment, I Company in the area north of Ascom City, above the 38th Parallel near the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts. He recalls the words of wisdom his new duty leader told him upon his arrival and offers details about what his duties would be while serving in the region.



Treating Marines on the Front Line

Bob Wickman recalls some of the very first patients he treated while serving as a hospital corpsman near the front line in Korea. He notes that in addition to providing medical care that corpsmen were frequently mother, father, and chaplain all at once. He describes staying in "crab holes" until his services were needed and then quickly responding before returning to his "crab hole" which was cut from a side of the trench line.



Lived in Constant Fear

Bob Wickman shares he was only in Korea for a bit over a month, but he experienced some severe fighting near the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts in July 1953. He recalls that at twenty-two he was "old" compared to many of the young Marines he was treating. He notes they lived in constant fear, not necessarily of dying, but of being hurt.



What a Hospital Corpsman Carries

Bob Wickman describes the supplies he carried while attending to Marines on the battlefield. He shares that much of the gear which included battle dressings, scissors, tape, and morphine were stuffed into pockets of their uniform to avoid being easily identified by the enemy. He notes that he carried grenades but was fortunate to never have used them.



Stories of the Wounded

Bob Wickman explains that though he only served a short time in Korea, he was there at the time of the armistice. He recalls what he terms the "fiasco" at the Berlin and East Berlin Outposts as well as the severe hand-to-hand combat in the trench lines near Boulder City. He recalls some of the more severely injured he treated during this time period.



Boonsanong Disatien

Military Action on the Tachin

Boonsanong Disatien explains that his primary duty was to the maintain the engines on board the frigate, the Tachin. He recalls one occasion where the bearings of the engine melted and a United States repair ship arrived to fix the concern. He also remembers the fear of one military action when the Tachin caught the signal of a submarine nearby and contacted the US Navy to come to their assistance.



Boonyuen Junturatana

Mission of the Tachin

Boonyuen Junturatana details the mission of the the Tachin on which he was stationed his entire time in Korea. He emphasizes the ship served under United Nations' command. Their primary duties were escorting and supplying other ships as well as patrol.



Taking Out a Logistic Point

Boonyuen Junturatana details a mission in which the Tachin assisted a U.S. ship in taking out a logistical point in the Wonsan area. He recalls how his vessel fired first to draw fire from the enemy so the U.S. forces could locate their position and destroy them.



Bradley J. Strait

Front Lines and Living Conditions

Bradley Strait explains he was stationed mostly in Wonsan Harbor. He remembers the North Koreans had pushed the Americans back to Wonsan and that a battle was taking place there, and he details the role of destroyers during this battle. He also recalls the living conditions on the ship as being very tight and cannot imagine women being stationed on the ship due to the close conditions.



Brian Hamblett

Sleeping with Gun Parts

Brian Hamblett's first memory of Korea was black and dismal. He describes winter in Korea and his battalion. He explains that they were surrounding a crater and that he was positioned with a machine gun. He describes having to cool the guns with glycerin rather than water and having to sleep with the gun parts so that they would not freeze.



An Appalling Situation

Brian Hamblett describes looking into a foxhole and finding a Chinese soldier. He explains that the soldier was just as surprised and pulled his grenade without throwing it. The Chinese soldier was badly injured from his own grenade. He goes on to describe seeing the results of napalm and growing more horrified by the memories of it as he has grown older. He describes the burned bodies and total suffocation of the land.



Bruce Ackerman

Home for Christmas?

Bruce Ackerman feared being surrounded by the Chinese in the Chosin Reservoir and had to endure the cold Korean winters, frost bite, and a near explosion close to his bunker. He thought that the soldiers would be home for Christmas in 1950, but sadly, he was wrong. Bruce Ackerman remembered the evacuation of 100,000 refugees during the winter of 1950 and that included North Korean civilians who were left homeless due to the invasion of the Chinese to support North Korean troops.



The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



North Korean Infiltration

The North Koreans infiltrated the Marine Corps by scouting out artillery positions. Bruce Ackerman noted that the artillery was a very important tool used during the Korean War. There was more artillery fired in the Korean War than in WWII.



Bruce R. Woodward

Flights to Support UN Forces

Bruce Woodward describes his duties as an Assistant to the Squadron Commander during the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He remembers receiving intelligence briefings from headquarters in Japan. He shares these briefings would then be used to brief and debrief the pilots flying in and out of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir.



Wonsan Airbase

Bruce Woodward speaks about the missions pilots flew out of Wonsan Air Base in support of the United Nations ground forces. He proudly recalls having never lost a pilot from his base. He describes the cold winter and how he was tasked with keeping the F4U Corsairs warm at night so they would be ready to fly their missions come morning.



Bruce W. Diggle

Hill 355 and the "Apostles"

Bruce Diggle shows the famous Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. The British Commonwealth forces fought for possession of Hill 355 during the series of battles that corresponded to the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge to the east. The North Koreans were positioned on three smaller hills that the Kiwis nicknamed the Apostles - Matthew, Luke, and John. He took pictures of the North Korean positions during a truce.



Bryan J. Johnson

Rescuing Refugees from North Korea

Bryan J. Johnson describes his service in the West Sea off the Island of Cho-do. He was defending this territory from North Korean invasion. At one point his ship was responsible for the rescuing a Christian family from North Korean territory.



Naval Role and Threats

Bryan J. Johnson describes the role of his ship, steering the ship and Captain of the gun. The HMNZS Hawea provided escorts for supplies and patrolled the Han River. He also explains that the main threat was not from land bombardment, rather Russian MIG's flown by North Koreans.



Wrong Shells, Wrong Time

Bryan J. Johnson, Captain of the gun on ship, ordered a shelling of a North Korean supply train. He explains that storage of the shells were switched and he fired "star shells" for illumination, instead of explosive shells. Bryan Johnson later describes two sailors who were swept away by the Han River, but later rescued after being in the water for many hours.



Detaining Smugglers

Bryan Johnson describes life aboard the HMNZS and working 90 hours a week. He describes one incident of detaining a father and son from South Korea who were "smuggling" rice to North Korea. The ship and crew were to hold the father and son until the South Koreans could come and "take them out to sea," assuring death.



Burley Smith

Hitchhiking Their Way Home

Burley Smith reminisces about the time he and a fellow merchant marine, Merl Smith, become stranded on a trip to see the front line. After hitching a ride up to the front, their pilot receives orders to head to Japan. He elaborates on their journey back to the SS Meredith Victory, which includes a ride in a Sherman Tank and an encounter with bed check charlie.



Burnie S. Jarvis

Duties of the U.S.S. Toledo

Burnie Jarvis recalls he and the crew of the U.S.S. Toledo served mainly in the waters off of the east coast of Korea and about ten miles north of where the action was. He remembers spending about two weeks in any one location. He notes there was small arms fire from the shore but that it ended up being little more than splashes in the water. He notes there really was not much resistance from the enemy toward the U.S. Navy in the region. He explains the ship's main duties were to provide artillery fire for whatever the spotter located and even breaking up ice during the cold winters to prevent the enemy from crossing the rivers to resupply troops.



Burt Cazden

Korean War Veteran Clarification and Memories

Burt Cazden recounts enlisting in the Navy in 1953. He provides clarification on the labeling of a Korean War veteran, stating that those who served during the war's time frame--despite location--are Korean War veterans. He states that he has the highest respect for those who served in Korea and shares a memory of a Native American friend who served in Korea and suffered wounds.



Calvin Karram

First Night of Combat

Calvin Karram remembers his first night of combat. They were hit by the Chinese when they were on a hill. The Chinese surrounded them and they were cut off. Calvin Karram and a friend grabbed their rifles and ran down the hill, reporting to the commanders what had happened.



The Army taught me about Life

Because his unity constantly on the front lines, Calvin Karram explains that there was often no place to sleep even during the winter. Often they would sleep under trees or in foxholes and only sometimes were able to carry their sleeping bags with them. Despite this, he says he had no regrets about joining the army as it taught him a trade and about life.



Carl B. Witwer

Torpedo Attack

Carl Witwer returned back to Korea and documents his time assisting with radar technologies on the destroyer U.S.S. Hanson in the West Sea. He compares his duties a part of Task Force 95 compared to his prior assignment. He elaborates on a time his ship saw action with a submarine torpedo attack and how it was a close call.



Carl Hissman

Evacuating Heungnam, Off to Busan

Carl Hissman describes his experience at the evacuation of Heungnam. He remembers being the last one off of the beach. He recalls seeing many North Korean refugees and remembers the roads were so full of people. He shares they were able to save some but not all. He remembers seeing a blown-up village and two civilians frozen dead. After Heungnam, his unit went down to Busan and began pushing back up north towards Seoul.



Service Role in Korea

Carl Hissman describes his experience in Korea. His shares how his job was to find new positions where the company could set up its guns. He recalls once bailing out of his jeep with his rifle because he saw some Chinese soldiers. He remembers shots being fired from both sides, but neither side was hit. He remembers seeing the Chinese soldiers use cocaine. At the closest, he remembers being about 100 yards away from the Chinese soldiers. He recalls having two KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers with him.



Protecting Himself from the Chinese

Carl Hissman describes his sleeping arrangements. He remembers trying to find foxholes that were already dug out by the Chinese. He shares that the Chinese were better at digging foxholes than they were. He recalls it being cold but adds that he did not realize it was sometimes colder than sixty degrees below zero. He recounts how his mom sent him an additional gun so he could defend himself if the Chinese tried to take him as a prisoner while he was sleeping. He remembers the Chinese soldiers being very quiet and notes that it was an advantage seeing as they did not have the equipment the Americans had.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Combat Jump

Carl Jacobsen recounts jump training in Daegu, Korea, and recalls making multiple training jumps in order to receive his wings. He offers an account of his first combat jump and details the related mission. He comments on the destruction he saw during his service.



A Dangerous Moment

Carl Jacobsen shares memories of one of the most dangerous moments he experienced in combat. He recalls being given orders to collect ammunition and receiving sniper fire on his return with the ammunition. He recounts stopping the vehicle he was driving to return fire and wondering if he would make it out of the situation alive.



Living Conditions

Carl Jacobsen describes the living conditions he endured while serving. He remembers extremely cold temperatures and not being outfitted with proper winter gear. He recalls the K-Ration meals he ate and recounts a few meals he shared with locals.



Carl Rackley

Aiming Without Seeing the Enemy

Carl Rackley describes his job responsibilities concerning weaponry of the war. His unit prepared the Artillery 155 weapons. He details loading shells and powder for combat. He also describes the inability to see their target and using spotters to help their aim.



Carl W. House

First Night with a North Korean Spy

Carl House described that his unit worked with ROK soldiers and the language barrier made it difficult to understand each other. They relied heavily on sign language as a way to interpret their needs. During the first night, Carl House discovered that the person in his foxhole was a North Korean spy with assistance from the ROK soldier. They questioned the spy and the ROK soldiers took him away. Carl House felt he was lucky and he was amazed that the ROK was able to identify the spy.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Surrounded at Jangjin: Last Line of Defense

Carl House arrived at Jangjin with his unit and was told no enemy forces were within a fifteen-mile radius. He recalls many soldiers began building fires, drinking coffee, and preparing sleeping bags. He shares that Chinese forces surrounded the U.S. soldiers in a horseshoe-shaped position around three in the morning, making it nearly impossible for them to escape. He remembers fighting for three days and running low on artillery after a failed airdrop landed in enemy territory. He recounts his captain ordering his unit to stand rear guard while fellow soldiers pulled out and recalls doing what he could to hold off the Chinese.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As he was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke his arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When he made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the thirty-degree-below-zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and he were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. He shares that he left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembers eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto

A Destroyed Korea/ Una Corea Destruida

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts his first impressions of Korea. He recalls the utter devastation of cities including Seoul and Incheon and other important villages. Amongst the destruction, he remembers the many orphans he saw while he was being sent to the front lines. This occurred while he and others were being sent to support troops from the First Battalion that were fighting with U.N. Forces.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto cuenta sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda la devastación total de ciudades como Seúl e Incheon y otros pueblos importantes. Entre la destrucción, recuerda a los muchos huérfanos que vio mientras lo enviaban al frente por ferrocarril y camión. Esto ocurrió mientras él y otros fueron enviados a apoyar a las tropas del Primer Batallón que luchaban con las Fuerzas de la ONU.



Cold Patrols/ Patrullas Frías

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describes a typical day on the front lines. He explains that night patrol as a machine gun operator was the most difficult assignment, especially on cold winter nights. Additionally, reconnaissance patrol duty instilled immense fear in him as he could not make a sound which was especially difficult on nights when temperatures were low. He concludes that he and others feared weather conditions more than combat.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto describe un día típico en el frente. Explica que la patrulla nocturna como operador de ametralladoras era la tarea más difícil, especialmente en las noches frías de invierno. Asimismo, la patrulla de reconocimiento le daba un miedo inmenso, ya que no podía emitir ni un sonido, y era más difícil en las noches cuando las temperaturas estaban bajo cero. Él y otros temían las condiciones climáticas más que el combate.



Fear During the Battle of Old Baldy/ Miedo Durante la Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto recounts the worst action he encountered during the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes being continuously bombarded throughout the night and having to hold the front until American reinforcements arrived hours later. He explains that although their camp was surrounded by landmines and barbed wire, Chinese and North Korean troops pierced their defenses. He marvels at the tenacity of enemy troops as bodies exploded in the air as they marched through the minefield.

Carlos Eduardo Cuestas Puerto relata la peor acción que vio que fue durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él describe haber sido bombardeado continuamente durante toda la noche y tener que mantener el frente hasta que llegaran los refuerzos estadounidenses horas después que empezó la batalla. Explica que, aunque su campamento estaba rodeado de minas y alambre de púas, las tropas chinas y norcoreanas atravesaron sus defensas. Se acuerda de la tenacidad de las tropas enemigas cuando los cuerpos volaban por el aire mientras marchaban a través del campo de minas.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

Wounded in the Line of Duty /Herido en La Linea de Combate

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recalls the fear he experienced during the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was injured, and his friend died. He details the way in which he and three others were surrounded in a bunker when Chinese troops infiltrated their camp. He describes the hours that passed in which they had to decide whether to continue fighting and die or risk being caught as prisoners of war. Eventually, he explains, they were rescued by American and Puerto Rican troops, but sadly one of his friend’s injuries were so grave that it was impossible for him to be saved.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco recuerda el miedo que vivió durante la Batalla de Old Baldy en la que resultó herido y su amigo murió. Él y otros tres soldados fueron rodeados en un búnker cuando las tropas chinas se infiltraron en su campamento. Describe las horas que pasaron en las tuvieron que decidir si iban a seguir luchando y morir o arriesgarse a ser capturados como prisioneros de guerra. Finalmente, él explica, fueron rescatados por tropas estadounidenses y puertorriqueñas. Desafortunadamente, las heridas de su amigo eran tan grave que fue imposible salvarlo.



Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco details the events which led to the worst battle for the Batallón Colombia in terms of casualties. He explains that tactical errors by the commanders in the United States Army led to Chinese infiltration of their camp. Enemy troops, he remembers, waited until relief troops entered the camp to attack because those that were part of the relief did not know the camp or where the ammunition was stored and thus chaos ensued. He adds that the Colombian commanding officer asked for the relief unit to come in during the day as opposed to the night.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco describe la peor batalla del Batallón Colombia en términos de bajas. Explica que los errores tácticos de los comandantes del ejército de los Estados Unidos fueron la razón por la infiltración china en su campamento. El recuerda que las tropas enemigas esperaron hasta que las tropas de relevo entraron al campamento para atacar porque los que formaban parte del relevo no sabían ni dónde estaban las guardadas las municiones. Añade que el comandante colombiano pidió que la unidad de relieve llegara durante el día y no durante la noche.



Signing of the Armistice / Firma del Armisticio

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco provides an account of the jubilation felt by allied and enemy troops on the day the Armistice was signed. He describes the way in which they cheered and held their helmets high on one hill and could see enemy troops do the same on the other side. He explains that they were elated at the the news of the prisoner of war exchange as there were over twenty Colombians that were being held captive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco da cuenta de la alegría que sintieron las tropas aliadas y enemigas el día de la firma del Armisticio. Describe la forma en que botaban los cascos tanto ellos como las tropas enemigas. Recuerda que lo más eufórico fue la noticia del intercambio de prisioneros de guerra que se produciría porque habían más de veinte colombianos cautivos.



Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco shares his opinions on why he believes that war should be avoided. He explains that wars lead to hunger, disease, fallow fields, crying mothers, orphans, and leveled cities. In his opinion, he explains that diplomacy is a better way to solve disputes. He laments the fact that the Colombian government did not use their experience to try to solve the problems with guerilla fighters in their own nation.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco comparte sus opiniones sobre por qué el cree que se debe evitar la guerra. Explica que las guerras provocan hambre, enfermedades, campos que no producen, madres que lloran, huérfanos y ciudades arrasadas. En su opinión, la diplomacia es una mejor manera de resolver problemas. Es por ello por lo que lamenta que el gobierno colombiano no aprendió su experiencia para intentar solucionar los problemas con los guerrilleros.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco discusses his first impressions of the war and Korea. He remembers that he and others experienced real fear upon first landing in Incheon. During the first two months he spent in Korea, he recalls that they trained in modern warfare and took care of prisoners of war. He recounts the desperation of the civilian population, in particular, what women were forced to do to survive.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco cuenta de sus primeras impresiones sobre la guerra y Corea. Recuerda que él y otros tuvieron miedo cuando llegaron por primera vez en Incheon y vieron lo que es la guerra. Durante los dos primeros meses que pasó en Corea, recuerda que tenían entrenamiento y los asignaron a cuidaron a los prisioneros de guerra. El se acuerda de la desesperación de la población civil, en particular, de lo que las mujeres se vieron obligadas a hacer para sobrevivir.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Carlos Julio Mora Zea describes the voyage to Korea which took over a month. He explains that traveling from Bogota to Cartagena took five days and then they embarked on a boat with other foreign troops including soldiers from the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and other nations. He describes how they were transported to the front lines from Incheon.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea describe el viaje a Corea que duró más de un mes. Explica que el viaje de Bogotá a Cartagena tomó cinco días y luego subieron a un barco con otras tropas extranjeras, incluidos soldados de Filipinas, Puerto Rico y otras naciones. Describe cómo fueron transportados al frente desde Incheon.



First Impressions/ Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Julio Mora Zea reflects on his first impressions of Korea. He explains that he still feels pity remembering the terrible conditions civilians faced. He explains that children lined up along truck routes to beg and offer unthinkable things to soldiers. He remembers the destruction in most of the cities which had no buildings but were simply heaps of rubble.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea habla sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que todavía siente lástima cuando recuerda las terribles condiciones a las que se enfrentaban los civiles. Explica que los niños hacían fila a lo largo de las rutas de los camiones para mendigar y les ofrecían cosas a los soldados que ni entendían. Recuerda la destrucción de la mayoría de las ciudades y cuenta que no habían más edificios sino que eran simplemente montones de escombros.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Dificiles

Carlos Julio Mora Zea recalls that the most difficult moments he experienced occurred during his training and during his time at T-Bone Hill. He admits that he found basic training incredibly difficult even though they were given a helper. At T-Bone Hill, he explains that the conditions were terrible as they faced constant danger.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea recuerda los momentos más difíciles que sucedieron durante su entrenamiento y durante su tiempo en la Colina T-Bone. Admite que encontró el entrenamiento básico increíblemente difícil a pesar de que les dieron un ayudante. En la Colina, explica que las condiciones eran terribles ya que siempre estaban en peligro constante.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

Difficult Moments / Los Momentos más Difíciles

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He recounts the events which occurred during the Battle of Hill 400 in which, under heavy fire, their battalion lost sixteen soldiers. He was tasked with the difficult mission of transporting the dead and wounded during this battle under heavy mortar fire.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Relata los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla de la Colina 400 en la que, bajo un fuego intenso, su batallón perdió dieciséis soldados. Se le encomendó la difícil misión de transportar a los muertos y los heridos durante esta batalla mientras estaba bajo fuego de mortero.



The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describes some of the most dangerous moments he experienced during the war. He explains the events which led to heavy casualties of Colombian troops during the Battle of Old Baldy. As a driver, he details, he was assigned to move ammunition, artillery, and personnel as they attempted to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros describe los momentos más peligrosos que vivió durante la guerra. Él explica los acontecimientos que resultaron en muchas bajas de su batallón durante la Batalla del Old Baldy. Cuenta que como conductor, él tenía que mover municiones, artillería y personal mientras intentaban reconquistar el cerro a las tropas chinas.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

Papasan Hill / La Colina Papasan

Carlos Rivera-Rivera shares his experience in a battle which took place as allied troops tried to gain control of Papasan Hill. As a mortarman, he recalls that the bombing was unending. It was during this battle, he explains, that he became desensitized to the reality of the war as so many perished during the fighting.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera comparte su experiencia en una batalla en la cual las tropas aliadas intentaron controlar la colina Papasan. Como él era mortero, recuerda que el bombardeo era interminable. Él explica que fue durante esta batalla que se volvió insensible a la realidad de la guerra, porque murieron tantos durante la lucha.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Carlos Rivera-Rivera describes his first impressions of Korea and the people in the country. He explains that he was astonished by the abject poverty and need he witnessed. He reflects on the fact that he could not understand how civilians were able to survive without water and living under the conditions they faced.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y de la gente en el país. Explica que estaba asombrado por la pobreza y la necesidad que vio. No podía entender cómo los civiles podían sobrevivir sin agua y viviendo en las condiciones a las que se enfrentaban.



Long Nights / Noches Largas

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explains that night patrols were the most dangerous moments of the war. He recalls feeling that the nights would never end as they had to wait in the trenches from six in the evening until six in the morning. He remembers the anxiety he experienced as he waited for orders.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera explica que las guardias nocturnas fueron los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra. Recuerda sentir que las noches nunca terminarían ya que tenían que esperar en las trincheras desde las seis de la tarde hasta las seis de la mañana. Recuerda la ansiedad que tenían mientras esperaban órdenes para disparar.



Carroll F. Reusch

On Patrol on the Front Lines

Carroll F. Reusch explains he served as a medic on the front lines in Korea beginning in 1952. Despite his role as a medic, his role encompassed more than taking care of medical issues. He notes that a medic always accompanied any groups larger than three soldiers on patrol at night. He recalls not really knowing what to expect on the first night but that the fear ramped up with later patrols.



The Job of a Medic

Carroll F. Reusch remembers his division getting hit pretty hard on July 16, 1953. He explains how men were evacuated by chopper and the items he carried in his aid bag. He notes that he received the Bronze Star for reasons he does not know since he felt he was simply doing his job.



Remembering the Armistice

Carroll F. Reusch remembers being stationed in Korea at the time of the armistice. He recalls eating some of the best food they had while they were there on the day the ceasefire would go into effect and then being told they were going out on patrol. He recollects the patrol quickly ended as the ceasefire took hold at 10:00 a.m. on July 27, 1953. He notes that the Korean armies were quickly moved off the lines and replaced by United Nations forces.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker describes the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during an especially cold winter. He describes poor housing because so many refugees were crammed in the Busan Perimeter. He explains how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Conditions In and Around Seoul

Cecil Walker describes conditions in and around Seoul. He explains his role bringing supplies from Incheon to Seoul and transport Australian forces from the Second Line of Defense. He remembers Seoul as "flattened" and deserted with the exception of "Street Kids." He notes when people did return to Seoul during the war, they used any scrap available to build shelter.



Resupplying on the Front Lines

Cecil Walker describes the loss of two men killed by guerrilla fighters while moving supplies. Despite these attacks, he was not scared while he was with his fellow soldiers. He also felt relatively safe because Australian soldiers would be on patrol. At times however, his trucks were held up to cross the Imjin River in case there were attacks on his convoy. He recalls having to wait until there were air strikes by United Nations forces to guarantee their safety.



Delivering Supplies

Cecil Walker describes resupplying the front lines. He details the difficulty of night driving with only a singular light, having to stay close enough to the truck you are following as to not lose them. He describes one episode during the winter when a "white out" occurred and some of the trucks in his convoy were lost. On another occasion, he shares how the road was so icy the only way they could descend down a steep hill was by bouncing down the bank of the road. Delivering supplies was essential, but very dangerous due to the conditions of the road system.



Cecil Phipps

Captured!

Cecil Phipps talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers, becoming a prisoner of war. He describes his initial three-day evasion and a fateful decision that led to his capture. He shares how he and seven fellow soldier were made to march north at night until they reached the Chinese border.



Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Poyktong POW Camp (#5) and the harsh living conditions he lived through as prisoner, offering remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions he went from one hundred ninety pounds to seventy-five pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



"Always Trying to Escape"

Cecil Phipps talks about a fellow soldier that attempted and failed several times to escape Camp #3. He describes how he tried to aid his friend and what happened when he was captured and returned.



POW Release

Cecil Phipps recalls his released from Chinese captivity on August 28, 1953, at Panmunjeom after thirty-three months as a POW. He describes the trip from Camp #3, taking several days by truck and train and spending a week in another POW camp, before finally reaching freedom at Panmunjeom.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Experiences in MASH Hospitals in Korea

Cecelia Sulkowski arrived to Korea in 1949 and began working in a MASH hospital. She recalls seeing shrapnel, fire, and fireworks but was not afraid as she felt far enough away. She explains the MASH unit was set up in an old schoolhouse because it was well built.



Describing Her Duties as an Operating Room Nurse

Cecelia Sulkowski describes her experiences as an operating room nurse. She discusses the condition of the operating room and recalls her first experience with maggots. She explains they kept the wounds very clean. She discusses her shifts and types of hours she worked as well as aspects of her daily life.



Cevdet Sidal

Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal described intimate details from the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle was the first engagement on foreign soil for Turkish fighters since World War I. He provided details about being surrounded and the heavy losses to the enemy. He also described how there were enemy war planes used in the battle. He nearly lost his life in this battle as the position he was at was fired upon just after he was pulled behind a jeep by a friend.



Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal described conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One master sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. The only defense from aircraft attacks was to turn sideways to make your body a smaller target. He turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face while shaving.



Folly During Wartime: An Important Mission

Cevdet Sidal was sent on a sudden mission. However, he and his friends had found a sul (rice wine) factory prior to receiving their orders. The Turkish troops drank at the factory and were drunk when they were sent on their mission but everyone survived that battle. The troops had trouble returning to base because their jeep got stuck. Americans had to pull them out so they could catch up with the rest of the battalion. He also describes fishing by grenade. As a result, this provided fresh fish for the soldiers.



Chaplain Ralph Lindon Smith Jr.

Outpost Harry (April-July 1953)

Ralph Smith talks about his time at Outpost Harry in 1953. He describes the terrain, logistics, and layout of the encampment. Manned only by one company, he talks about how they dealt with being grossly outnumbered by two Chinese battalions.



The Last Days of the War at Outpost Harry

Ralph Smith talks about the last days of the war at Outpost Harry. He describes the heavy shelling that took place up until the armistice was signed and recalls his memories of Operation Rollback. He tells the story of meeting a Chinese officer out on the battlefield the morning after the armistice.



Charles Bissett

North Korean Offense with Tanks

Charles Bissett describes the incoming forces of North Koreans armed with tanks against the, initially, light weapons of the American forces. He recounts no aid given after calling in artillery forces for assistance. He adds that many soldiers were killed.



K-Rations and Where a Soldier Sleeps

Charles Bissett describes eating K-Rations while in Korea as there were no cooks for them. He recounts the K-Rations containing meat products and fruit. He recalls sleeping on the ground during the summer months.



Arrival and Encounter with North Koreans

Charles Bissett recalls his arrival in Korean during the early part of the war. He recounts arriving in Pusan and then transferring north to Daegu where they were met by North Korean soldiers and suffered casualties. He shares that he served as a wireman in communications for a period of time.



Charles Blum

Having Trouble All the Time

Charles Blum describes his experiences with PTSD from the Korean War. He explains sitting on a grenade and the shrapnel that entered his body. He then describes sitting with a fellow soldier until he dies then having to quickly kill a Chinese soldier.



Second Time It Was Knees Down

Charles Blum describes his second wounding in the Korean War. He explains his encounter with a Chinese soldier with a fistful of grenades held together by bamboo. He describes jumping into what he thought was safety only to be blown out again by a grenade.



You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Mass Grave Site Filled with Civilians

Charles Buckley drove all throughout Korea during his time there and witnessed the narrow roads, trees, and the damage incurred. He recalls a massive grave site that had been unearthed full of slaughtered children. It's predicted that this grave site was from when the North Koreans overran Seoul, South Korea and killed anything is their path.



Non-Combat Related Deaths

Charles Buckley said there were many non-combat related deaths with at least 5 to 7 within his own unit. While in Wonju, a radio relay site, a young man was in a 6 X 6 truck and he was trying to get up a slick mountain with another soldier, and the 6 X 6 truck rolled over killing them both.



Charles Bull

HMS Kenya's Involvement in the Start of the Korean War: June 28, 1950

As one of the first British Naval ships to be docked in Sasebo, Japan, his ship was used as a jump-off ship that took Marines and Army troops into Korea right after the war began on June 28, 1950. Charles Bull was working on pay ledgers for every pay accounts for every sailor in his section for every payday. His job was to document pay and then make sure that the sailors had money in their pocket when they went ashore in Korea. The whole process of getting paid was very formal and Charles Bull gave a detailed description of the process of getting their well-earned money.



Fighting Along Side and Burying Allied Forces During the Korean War

While aboard the HMS Kenya, Charles Bull worked along side multiple naval allies including the Austrians, Canadians, Dutch, and Belgians. Sadly, bodies of soldiers would be found at sea, so his ship would take the deceased aboard until they were ready to provide a proper burial at sea. Charles Bull remembers the moving ceremonies that the British gave for fallen American soldiers during the sea burial.



Charles Carl Smith

A Difficult Journey

Charles Smith talks about his journey by train from Pusan to Chuncheon. He describes having to deboard the train several times because they had come under attack.



Life in the Punch Bowl

Charles Smith talks about the 11 1/2 months that he spent in the Punch Bowl and describes what it was like to be a part of trench warfare along the MLR. He tells the story of his first encounter with enemy troops and how he hoped to not be "yellow."



PTSD

Charles Smith talks about his severe PTSD from his experiences in Korea. On the front line, he describes being treated like an animal and not knowing any fellow soldier's names. He talks about how he dealt with PTSD once he returned home.



Charles Connally

Living Conditions

Charles Connally describes the dangers he faced and living conditions in Korea. He explains that mortar fire, snipers, and shrapnel were a constant concern but luckily many injuries were avoided except for two men: one was shot in the shoulder by a sniper and another was hit in the leg by a shard of shrapnel. He goes on to describe the miserable food options that led to his losing nearly forty pounds during his stay and sleeping in quonset huts.



Psychological Warfare

Charles Connally describes two psychological strategies utilized during the war. He describes connecting large speakers to the bottoms of B-52s and playing recordings of Korean women compelling the North Korean men to go home to their wives. He goes on to explain how the Chinese would fly planes over their camp at night, occasionally dropping hand grenades and bombs, in order to limit the amount of rest soldiers got. This the troops referred to as "Bed Check Charlie."



Charles Crow Flies High

Entering Korea in 1993

Charles Crow Flies High was sent to Korea for his first deployment in November 1993. He flew into Kimpo Air Force Base, and then he was sent to Seoul to get finished setting up to protect South Korea. He recounts that they were "locked and stocked" at all times from that point forward. His job was to watch for Kim Jong Il and his North Korean troops to make sure that they did not take over Seoul.



Charles E. Gebhardt

Joining the 29th Infantry Division

Charles Gebhardt talks about arriving to his unit, the 29th Infantry Division. He talks about the challenges the unit faced at the time of his arrival. Led by a Korean commander and lacking supplies and training, they were recently defeated by enemy forces.



A Day on the Line

Charles Gebhardt describes his duties as a part of the 29th Infantry Regiment. He talks about going on patrols and observing enemy movements as an artillery forward observer.



Before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the placement of his unit before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He mentions that his unit, the 39th Infantry Regiment, relieved a Marine unit that held the northernmost ground of all US forces.



The Beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the scene at the beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about the KATUSA soldiers assigned to his unit and how he thought they had gotten spooked. In reality, the Chinese offensive had already begun.



"It was Very Scary"

Charles Gebhardt describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers on the first night of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about shooting at enemy soldiers that were within arm's reach.



"You Should Not be Afraid of Some Chinese Laundrymen"

Charles Gebhardt recounts the words the General Edward Almond in a meeting of officers and intelligence personnel on the morning after the first fighting of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Describing the meeting in which he attended, he mentions that several officers present were taken aback by the comment. The comment was "You should not be afraid of some Chinese laundrymen."



Retreat from Chosin

Charles Gebhardt describes his unit's retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about destroying equipment. He also describes loading up the wounded on the slow retreat to Hagalwoori.



Losses, Conditions, and Rescue

Charles Gebhardt talks about the lives that were lost in the retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difficult conditions on the trek. He also tells the story when he and his comrades borrowed Marine vehicles to rescue wounded soldiers.



Charles Earnest Berry

Experiences with Chinese Soldiers and Rethinking War

Charles Earnest Berry discusses fighting the Chinese and how quick and mobile they were since they carried less equipment than the American soldiers. He explains how the Chinese would put human waste on their bayonets to increase the chances of wounds becoming infectious. He recounts finding an entire National Guard unit dead and hauling dead bodies from the front. All of this made him rethink war. He shares that when his mom asked what he would like her to package and mail, he requested liquor instead of cookies.



Capture and Escape

Charles Earnest Berry discusses the severe cold weather in Korea and being captured at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He describes how he was able to escape and safely return to American lines despite the challenging circumstances. He recalls the massive waves of Chinese soldiers and heavy artillery bombardments that he and his fellow soldiers endured during their time in Korea.



The Role of Aircraft at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Charles Earnest Berry remembers witnessing American aircraft attacking the Chinese and North Koreans. He saw pilots dipping their wings to American soldiers. He describes arriving at a bombed bridge and having to wait for the bridge to be airlifted, which rendered a loss of people and equipment during the wait. He describes how the USS Missouri firing on the enemy and how he was evacuated from Korea after being wounded.



Charles Eggenberger

Journey to the Front

Charles Eggenberger recalls his 1950 arrival in Korea. He describes his journey, from basic training in San Diego, California, to being stationed in both Guam and China, before the Korean War broke out. He describes his participation in the amphibious Inchon Landing, and a combat lesson he learned while fighting the enemy in Seoul.



Encountering the Chinese

Charles Eggenberger describes going up a mountain in trucks through Hagalwoori to the Chosin Reservoir area. He recalls how his unit learned that the Chinese had crossed the border near the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the surrounding units of soldiers had taken off out of the area during the initial attack by the Chinese.



Bearing the Extreme Cold

Charles Eggenberger talks about being able to withstand the extreme cold he encountered in Korea. He describes a childhood of not having enough warmth because of poverty and neglect. He recalls seeing the injuries some soldiers suffered from not knowing how to take care of their extremities in the cold.



Charles Elder

Taking Care of Myself

Charles Elder talks about the cycle of taking care of himself during his time as a wounded prisoner during the Korean War. He had moments of extreme highs or lows. He had to remind himself to have hope of survival.



Charles Fowler

Orders to Korea

Charles Fowler describes returning home on a 30 day leave after being in service a year only to find that he had received orders to serve in Korea as the war had broken out. He recounts arriving in Korea and his unit receiving orders to fight its way to Yeongdeungpo to meet the Marines coming from Incheon. He admits that he his knowledge of Korea prior to being sent was limited.



Pusan Perimeter in July

Charles Fowler describes the intense July heat at the Pusan Perimeter when he arrived in Korea. He recounts suffering severe blisters due to taking his shirt off as he attempted to cool down while digging a foxhole. He also recalls helping build the "Al Jolson Bridge" which he later helped blow up during a retreat from enemy forces.



Horrors of War

Charles Fowler describes the devastating effects of the war on women and children. He shares that the North Koreans even used children as decoys. He also recounts images of those afflicted by napalm as being some of the most difficult for him.



South Korean Effort

Charles Fowler briefly describes how the South Koreans were basically fighting for their lives, freedom, and country. He emphasizes that South Korean soldiers fought just as hard as the United Nations soldiers and served on the front lines as well. He recalls verbal communication being a barrier at times due to a difference in languages but adds that soldiers found other means to communicate.



Charles Francis Jacks

Journey to Korea and Main Line of Resistance

Charles Jacks recounts his journey to Korea. He describes the vessel on which he traveled and recalls enduring a typhoon during the twenty-one day voyage. He remembers stopping in Japan for a twelve-hour break before sailing on to Korea. He describes landing at Incheon in 1952 and moving up the Main Line of Resistance (MLR).



Assignment, Living Conditions, and Patrol Dangers

Charles Jacks speaks of his assignment with the Marines and shares how they used a trench line for protection from incoming fire. He explains that Corpsman were sent where they were needed, and he recalls being sent to various locations via jeep transport. He remembers the dangers he and others faced while out on patrol.



Medical Duties

Charles Jacks recounts bandaging the wounded on the battlefield. He recalls jeep ambulances transporting the wounded to field medical stations. He describes serving with Dog Medical Company (D Company) stationed between Seoul and Incheon and remembers assisting two doctors--one Korean and one American--at a hospital. He shares that they treated minor to more serious wounds which occurred on the front lines.



Charles Gaush

Psychological Warfare with Propaganda

Charles Gaush talks about his time in the US Army's physchological warfare unit. He describes creating, designing, photographing, and printing propaganda leaflets during the Korean War. The leaflets were printed in Russian, Korean, and Chinese to promote democratic values.



Charles H. Brown

Attacking a Target

Charles Brown describes the attacking of a North Korean target. He remembers just beginning his shift work. He went on deck and noticed how close the ship was to shore. He recalls the sky being very bright. His ship was attacking a North Korean target.



Charles Hoak

Last Push by the Chinese

Charles Hoak tells the story of when the Chinese Army were making a last push. He recalls being in the trenches with weapons loaded and U.S. Army airplanes dropping flares on their location so that they could see what was taking place on the battlefield. He remembers how the Republic of Korea (ROK) troops held the line and thwarted the advance of the Chinese Army.



Charles L. Chipley

The Bombing and Return Fire of Incheon

Charles L. Chipley Jr. describes the USS Rochester bombing of Incheon prior to soldiers landing. He shares that the landing, in his opinion, was very successful. He recounts that return air attacks came from the north while his ship was sitting in Incheon Harbor, and 4 bombs were dropped targeting his ship.



First Assignment

Charles L. Chipley Jr. recounts his first assignment on the USS Rochester CA-124. He recalls the weaponry installed on the heavy cruiser and describes its use as gunfire support for ground troops, adding that some of the weaponry on the ship served the purpose of protecting the ship from enemy aircraft. He explains that the ship's mission was also to rescue flyers at sea and to clear out underwater mines.



Charles L. Hallgren

When Bomb Drops Go Wrong

Charles Hallgren describes the dilemma of dealing with ammunition and explosives that were produced during World War II but sent to be used in Korea during bomb drops. He explains the task of having to diffuse weapons before they actually exploded to prevent deaths. He describes the challenges that accompanied working with B-26 bomber aircraft. He recounts how the enemy would also run wire in between mountains to take down planes which may have been how General Van Fleet's son was killed.



Back to Korea During the Vietnam War

Charles Hallgren describes being deployed to Japan in 1970 for the purpose of inspecting Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units in Korea. He explains that Korea had tactical nuclear weapons which had to be inspected in various base locations on the peninsula. He describes his impressions of seeing a modernized Korea in 1970.



Charles Rangel

The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Segregation in the Armed Forces

Although the military was desegregated in 1948, Charles Rangel still experienced segregation during his military career. The only thing that was integrated, were two units. Even when he returned to the United States after the war, Charles Rangel had segregated barracks back on the military base.



Charles Ross

Inchon Landing and Movement Northward

Charles Ross describes his experience during the Inchon Landing. He recounts an order given to his unit to hold its ground at all costs and shares that it was one of the scariest moments he experienced while in South Korea. He describes traveling north, receiving little resistance along the way, and recalls North Korean soldiers surrendering as his unit crossed the 38th Parallel and made its way to Pyongyang.



Initial Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross recounts being under the impression that the situation in Korea was under control and in the process of ending during the fall of 1950. He recalls his unit being sent north to help a unit which had run into some resistance and being attacked by the Chinese on the way. He describes an emotional scene once the attack had ended that left a lasting impression on him.



Chemical Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross describes being trapped for three days following the attack at Unsan, near the Nammyon River. He recalls waiting for the 5th Calvary to come to the rescue and overhearing that it had met resistance and would not be able to help. He recounts a strange explosion and shares how a phosphorus chemical attack allowed him and other soldiers to make their escape.



Charles Stern

Never Laid Down to Sleep

Charles Stern reflects on his experiences with limited resources in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He elaborates on the consumption of turnips found in the fields on the way to the Reservoir which landed him in the hospital. Due to being in the hospital recovering, he remembers not receiving a parka and relying on many layers of clothing to stay warm. After the Chinese attack on Thanksgiving, he recalls receiving orders to get rid of all of their supplies, including sleeping bags. After Thanksgiving, he shares how he never had a chance to lay down but it may have been a good thing. Even though he experienced long term effects of frostbite, he shares how frequently changing his socks saved his feet.



Thanksgiving in the Reservoir

Charles Stern describes the evacuation from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. As they started out, he notes how no one told him they were surrounded by the Chinese. Since it was Thanksgiving, he remembers being told they were to have a hot turkey dinner, but they never saw any hot meal. He provides an account of the chaos during the Chinese attack on his unit and holding their position on the hill. After surviving the Chinese attacks, he recalls being promised time in the warming tent but only being allowed a quick walk through the tent.



Surviving the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Stern shares the tactics he used to survive the cold in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. Due to his shoe size being thirteen, he explains how they had to issue him a smaller size boot and he was unable to rely on the rubber shoe packs to keep his feet dry. Lucky for him by continually changing his socks and not relying on the rubber shoe packs, he states he did not lose any toes to frostbite. Along with protecting his feet, he discusses the inability to eat most of the food in the c-rations because they were always frozen and they were unable to build fires to heat them. After not eating for so long, he shares the challenge of keeping food down after he came out of the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir.



Charles T. Gregg

Protection of the DMZ in the 1960's

Charles Gregg talks about his time in Korea as an Assistant Executive Officer for I Corps Artillery. He describes his job which was to help plot where the rounds would go. A typical day protecting the DMZ included training, cleaning, and patrolling day and night.



Poverty in Korea

Charles Gregg talks about some of his experiences with Korean civilians in the mid-1960's. He describes seeing dead people beside the road, a Korean man killing and eating a dog, and how Koreans fertilized their fields.



Interactions with KATUSA

Charles Gregg talks about KATUSAs. He describes how KATUSA soldiers were organized and used within his unit. He tells the story of dealing with a KATUSA soldier that had killed another soldier in an argument.



Charles Weeks

One Mortar Round

Charles Weeks describes being under attack by North Korean mortar fire and how a foxhole saved his life. This circumstance still haunts him to this very day. He elaborates on how this situation strengthened his relationship with God.



"I Didn't Change My Socks"

Charles Weeks talks about his decision not to change his socks which resulted in him being sent to Japan to recover from frozen toes. He feels like he dishonored his country, by not doing something so simple. He discusses this situation and his regrets.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

"Outgunned and Outflanked"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the beginning of the Korean War. Stationed in Japan, he describes hearing the news of the North Korean invasion of South Korea and his unit's quick deployment to the war. He talks about being "outgunned and outflanked" by North Korean forces at Masan because of substandard equipment and supplies.



"The Fire Brigade"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the 25th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Fire Brigade." He describes his regiments makeup and how the unit was used during the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter.



Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the fighting at Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang. He describes the enemy forces that his unit faced and being outflanked many times by North Koreans.



Fighting the Chinese at Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about fighting Chinese forces at Pyongyang. He describes eating Thanksgiving dinner before the difficult withdrawal south from Pyongyang. During the withdrawal, he says they often went for days without food and their vehicles ran out of gas.



Chester Coker

Joining the Front Lines at the 38th Parallel

Chester Coker discusses joining the front lines when American troops took Seoul and crossed the 38th parallel. He recalls meeting severe resistance and his company losing twenty-five percent of its men, about fifty total, crossing the Imjingang River. He remembers one of his only thoughts at the time was survival. He recalls jumping into the river instead of crossing the bridge, without knowing how deep it actually was.



Chong Rae Sok

Inchon Landing and Osan

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Inchon Landing. His unit landed at Inchon on September 18, 1950 and fought their way to Suwon. One day later, he describes moving by foot to Osan and losing soldiers along the way, including a fellow KATUSA.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the conditions that his unit faced including cold weather, loss of communication, and little food. He talks about the fighting that took place, taking one hill at a time.



Chuck Lusardi

Making Roads

Chuck Lusardi shares how after arriving to the Headquarters and Service Company of the 65th Combat Engineering Batallion, 25th Infantry Division, he received his assigned duty which was to operate a D-4 Bulldozer near the front lines. He explains his main job was to provide means of access to support everything going on. He boasts that after a while he could probably have made the longest access routes for troops there.



One of Those Things You Did, Survived, but Never Want to do Again

Chuck Lusardi offers a detailed account of what it was like to be on the front lines as a heavy equipment operator. He recalls living conditions and that they varied greatly depending on what type of unit to which they were attached. He shares a recollection of the front wash stations to which they would occasionally have access. He recounts how his second winter in Korea worse than the first.



The Hardest Part

Chuck Lusardi describes the hardest parts of his time in Korea revolved around seeing the great suffering of the civilian population. He recalls the worst living conditions for Koreans seemed to be near the Iron Triangle. He shares how much of his time was spent within sight and sound of the front lines, and he is proud he never hit a mine with his equipment and was never hit by a sniper. He remembers jeeps bringing out the severely wounded as tough times as well. He notes feeling totally helpless at times.



Clara K. Cleland

Caring for Patients at Incheon

Clara Cleland discusses her arrival in Korea, approximately ten days after the Incheon landing. She describes entering a harbor full of ships of all sizes. She explains how some of the nurses were sent to a Prisoner of War Camp for captured North Koreans and how she went with nurses to an old schoolhouse that was being used as a hospital to treat civilians. She remembers the children, many of which suffered from burns, and how they cried all night. She recounts how she and other nurses came under fire while attempting to help injured servicemen when a headquarters company was attacked.



Nursing Wounded Soldiers After Various Campaigns

Clara Cleland describes her nursing duties as various battles were occurring, including taking care of patients from the Jangin (Chosin) Reservoir. She recalls how she and her unit set up various Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH) and remembers witnessing the U.S.S. Missouri firing its guns and heavy fire from other ships as well. She explains how her unit was then moved to assist another unit on a hospital ship and how, from there, they began treating non-emergent patients with illnesses.



Living Conditions and Food in Korea

Clara Cleland describes how her time in Korea was spent in tents and school houses. She explains they wore fatigues and boots. She admits it was hard for her to find boots her size, so she would wear snow packs to make them fit. She details how she used and cleaned her mess kit and canteens. She shares she often drank coffee in the middle of the night and details the typical foods, including C-Rations when they were moving and pancakes which she thought was the best food served.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Chinese Were Everywhere

Clarence Sperbeck describes when he arrived on the front lines when the Chinese were all over the place they controlled everything. When he came back to the states, counter intelligence asked him how he knew the Chinese were everywhere dominating the region, and he said, "that was easy to detect." When you entered a traditional Korean home, you were supposed to take off your shoes outside and put rubber slippers on. Clarence Sperbeck said most of the houses he saw had Chinese Army Boots at the door, so that's how he knew they were sleeping in the Korean houses.



P.O.W. Capture: Right Into The Lion's Den

Clarence Sperbeck retails the story of being captured as a prisoner of war north of the Imjin River. He was sitting with a group of experienced "ol' timers", who told him that the Chinese were going to come around this valley, but Clarence Sperbeck told them there was no way it was going to happen. The soldiers heard the bugles blow (as a means of communicating with each other from afar) and mass firing ensues as they are given orders to pull back (which he never understood). General Ridgeway devised a trap within this valley to make the Chinese think that we were pulling back giving them the advantage, but when the Chinese made it to the center, General Ridgeway closed the gap which killed over 50,000 Chinese. However, when the original order was given, Clarence Sperbeck's platoon started to retreat and took the wrong turn. Turns out there were captured vehicles and they walked right into a group of Chinese soldiers.



Frozen In Fear

Clarence Sperbeck recalls while on the move picking up extra men who had been displaced from their unit and abandoned weapons. He found one guy frozen (not literally), just sitting there whether fear or uncertainty, Clarence Sperbeck kicked him in the shin with his combat boot (said it hurt like hell), handed him a weapon, and told him to fall in line with the rest. The other soldier was a new replacement paralyzed again with fear who didn't speak or move even after being kicked by Clarence Sperbeck.



My Capture

Clarence Sperbeck remembered April 25, 1951 because that was the day he was captured by the Chinese. Having been warned not to walk on the ridge line since it made it easy for the Chinese to detect your movement, the US troops walked the ridge line anyway. Clarence Sperbeck made an attempt to shoot in the direction of a sound behind him when a concussion grenade landed near him knocking him to the ground damaging his back. When he came out from under a rock, a Chinese soldier screamed at him to put down his weapon; he jumped behind a pine tree to try to shoot at the enemy, but the Chinese soldier's buddy was pointing his weapon at Clarence and he wouldn't have been able to shoot both. He put his rifle down and spend the rest of his time with the Chinese after walking for 3 months to get to the POW camp.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



Hope This Never Happens to You Too

Clarence Sperbeck commented on how fast the Chinese moved compared to the US troops. It was said that the average number of steps per minute the Chinese took were 140 to Americans' 120. While unable to hear, see, or walk due to his illness (amoebic dysentery), most of the American prisoners bypassed Clarence Sperbeck when he needed help, but a few soldiers helped him up. He was often the last in line (so weak/sick) during the march which would put him at a greater risk of being shot.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



Performing Medical Experiments on the Prisoners

In the 3 month stay in this hospital at Camp 1, the Chinese performed medical experiments on the prisoners by implanting a gland from an animal into POW's bodies. POWs were told that if the gland stayed in their body, they would potentially run a high fever and die from an infection. Clarence Sperbeck said the soldiers wouldn't let the incision heal over and they would attempt to squeeze the gland out to keep it from infecting their body.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clarence Jerke

Help from South Korean Soldiers and Civilians

Clarence Jerke recalls his experiences with KATUSA soldiers and South Korean civilians. He describes one particular South Korean soldier who was especially adept at laying communication lines. He talks about civilian boys who washed military uniforms for food or money.



Claude Charland

Helping the Hungry

Claude Charland describes the most vivid memory he has of his time in Korea. He shares the experience of a Korean family while on the front lines. He describes how he and his platoon led a Korean family down a hill to recuperate the food that the family had stored before the war.



The Hardship of Just Living

Claude Charland describes how hard it was to stay clean while serving on the front lines. He describes where they lived. He describes the attack by the bugs. He describes the weather and how it affected his living conditions..



Share the Wealth

Claude Charland describes how the troops would share with everyone any goods/letters that were sent as part of a care package. He describes it as a party. He speaks about the camaraderie this experience created. He says this helped everyone feel less lonely.



Letters from Home

Claude Charland details the different people with whom he would correspond during his time in Korea. He describes how there were certain things that he could only write about with certain companions. He explains how with one penpal he could discuss the war, but would not do that with his letters to his mom or girlfriend back home.



Claudio De Felici

Field Hospital #68: Italy's Contribution to the Korean War

Claudio De Felici, author of the book La Guerra di Korea, 60 anti dopo, explains that after the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States and other members of NATO requested Italy send military troops to Korea. He notes that the Italian government was unable to afford to send men at the time so it requested the Italian Red Cross assist with sending sanitary services to Korea. Field Hospital #68 opened in November 1951 and would serve until December 1954 when it was donated to the Korean government.

Note: The interviewee responds in Italian. English Translations begin at 7:44, 10:04, and 10:27.



The Legacy of the Korean War and Italian Field Hospital #68

Claudio De Felici, author of the book La Guerra di Korea, 60 anti dopo, offers his opinion of the legacies of both the Korean War and the Italian Field Hospital #68. His thoughts are based on the countless interviews he did with Italian veterans, Italians who worked in the field hospital and over fifteen years of research on the topic of Italy's contribution to the war.

Note: The interviewee responds in Italian. English Translation begin 39:14.



Clayborne Lyles

Jubiliation at Sea

Clayborne Lyles participated in the Navy's ocean search and rescue efforts when there were US pilots that were shot down over the Pacific Ocean. He felt jubilation to be part of 22 pilot rescue missions, but he was sad when none of these missions were discussed in the newspapers. One mission that made him laugh, but it was still serious event was when a pilot was shot down and he was shot in the butt. Clayborne Lyles remembered how the sailors would give each other grief to lighten the mood of war.



The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Friend or Foe?

Clayborne Lyles was part of General Quarters, "All arms, man your battle stations." The USS Toledo didn't realize that the incoming planes were US planes, so everyone was told to get ready to fight in the middle of the night. Thankfully, sailors used the Identifying Friend or Foe (IFF) gear before any shots were fired from the USS Toledo.



Cletus S. Pollak

Useless Waste of Men

Cletus S. Pollak describes his feelings towards the Vietnam War after having served in the Korean War. He explains his feelings of ambivalence towards the war itself. He also includes his feelings that the war was a waste of men and resources.



Clifford Allen

The Unarmed Chinese Decoy

Clifford Allen shares his second-hand knowledge of the Korean War. He details a story he heard from another veteran involving the Chinese. He explains that the Chinese would send up unarmed Chinese decoys to make American forces waste their bullets.



Clifford Bradley Dawson

Basic Training and Advanced Training

Clifford Bradley Dawson discusses his eight weeks of infantry training where he learned to use various weapons such as the M1 rifle, the .30 caliber machine gun, and rocket launchers. He recalls being assigned to signal training, where he learned how to climb poles and string communication wires. He describes their equipment, which included lineman gear such as spikes on his boots. He recalls how he was assigned to an artillery unit when he arrived in Korea, and his job was to ensure that the communication wires between different units were functioning properly.



Maintaining Communications in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson recounts how he was assigned to B Company as a replacement in Korea. He describes his crucial responsibility of maintaining communication between the artillery batteries, headquarters, and the fire direction center. He explains how he operated a switchboard by connecting multiple switches together, ensuring that everyone was connected. He recalls that in Korea, wired communication was more commonly used than radio.



Cease Fire and Christmas in Korea

Clifford Bradley Dawson shares his experience of the cease-fire being called in July 1953. He describes watching across the Han River and seeing the final rounds going off that night. Despite the cease-fire, he remembers there being no celebrations and how he felt suspicious of the Chinese and North Koreans. He remembers celebrating Christmas in Korea even though they had no tree. He shares how, to pass the time, they played cards.



Clifford L. Wilcox

A Great Discovery

Clifford Wilcox talks about experiencing cold nights while on duty as a forward observer. He stayed in a cave and froze for about two nights. He quickly discovering the ancient Korean way of heating a home.



Religion on The Front Lines

Clifford Wilcox talks about religion as a soldier on the front lines. He had to rely on prayer to persevere. He also details a priest who didn't want to be there during a monsoon.



A Close Call

Clifford Wilcox describes a time when on duty as a forward observer, an enemy shell exploded in front of his foxhole. He was lucky that the shell fired right over his head, missing him. Thankfully, he was covered with dirt with no shrapnel.



Why Do Veterans Not Talk About Their Experiences?

Clifford Wilcox discusses the reasons he think veterans do not talk about their experiences in war. He mentions the killings, prisoner of war experiences, as well as wounds inflicted. Although he understands this, he feels differently wanting to share his experiences in the Korean War.



Clifford Petrey

Injuries at the Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir

Clifford Petrey describes landing at Inchon. He recounts injuries he received as a soldier both at Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir. He details his subsequent capture by the Chinese and camp movements while a POW.



Clifford Townsend

Radar Operator Description

Clifford Townsend details the duties of a radar operator. He comments on the challenges of using old equipment and shares that the radar team sat as close to the front lines as possible. He shares that his full color vision worked to his advantage as a radar operator.



Return Home and Forgotten War

Clifford Townsend recounts his return home following his service in the Korean War. He shares that soldiers were not warmly welcomed back. He vocalizes his opinion on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Clyde Fruth

"You Can Take Your Purple Heart..."

Clyde Fruth describes the mission and the dangers of being a forward observer. During one instance, rock shrapnel bounced off and hit his arm. His Lieutenant advised him to seek medical attention and that he could probably have received a purple heart but he refused.



"Up to the Hill"

Clyde Fruth describes the daily routine of an Army forward observer. He spent most of his time on the lookout, observing through binoculars at the enemy. He details the type of technology he used as well. He couldn't look too high because he didn't want to be hit by a sniper. He also describes his living conditions.



Snow and Supplies

Clyde Fruth talks about the most difficult times he had in Korea. He describes deep snows forcing traveling by foot to his mountain forward observer post. In this predicament, they had to carry all their food, supplies, water, and weapons that were heavy to carry in the cold.



Day by Day

Clyde Fruth talks about the dangers he faced as a forward observer from incoming artillery and snipers. He details about an enemy unit that was always prepared to attack them and would sneak up through the trenches. He describes always have to keep his eyes open for the enemy.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



Radio Operators in the Korean War

Colin Carley shares that he worked alongside an Australian brigade when he patrolled near Panmunjeom in late 1950 through early 1951. As a radio operator for his New Zealand Battery Brigade, he recalls being scared of all the tracer bullets that would whiz by him. He remembers how he would feel sick when battles began because he never knew if he would be able to return home again.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Colin J. Hallett

Ship Description and a Funny Story

Colin Hallett describes the HMNZS Kaniere. He describes the guns on the ship and overall living conditions. The HMNZS patrolled the West Sea and really did not encounter too many North Korean forces. He also provides a story of a mistake by the US Naval forces that could have ended in disaster.



Engaged During the War

Colin Hallett describes his engaged to Ina Everitt. Both Collin Hallett and Ina Everitt sent letters to stay in contact. Colin Hallett sent letters that spoke of daily and weekly events. Ina Everitt had a busy life at home that kept her busy and not just thinking of her fiancé.



Congressman James Conyers

Combat Engineers

Congressman Conyers describes the front line service of the combat engineers. These duties included, but weren't limited to, establishing fortifications for troop support. What was unique about combat engineers was their ability to serve in a dual capacity, as both combat operators and engineers.



Conrad R. Grimshaw

Joining the National Guard and Duties

Conrad Grimshaw recounts joining the National Guard and the training that followed. He describes being in charge of 12 2.5 ton trucks and chaining the wheels due to mud issues in order to get up to the firing batteries. He recounts a switch out of trucks later on.



Curtis Pilgrim

Facing Fear With Courage

Curtis Pilgrim recalls living in a constant state of fear while serving on the front lines, yet finding courage to stand firm. He remembers being in awe of the Chinese soldiers and their determination to survive and how the Chinese often used American weapons against them. He recalls feeling unprepared when it came time to pull the trigger, despite being trained for combat.



Dan McKinney

An Amazing Coincidence

Dan McKinney describes his capture by enemy forces and the way he was able to let his family know that he was still alive. He talks about telling another POW who was scheduled to be released, to tell his girlfriend and family that he was still alive when he returned stateside. In an amazing coincidence, the Marine told him that he had actually double dated Mckinney's girlfriend back in Texas before the war.



Captured

Dan McKinney describes how he was captured by enemy forces. His entire company was nearly wiped out. He talks about how all the members of the squad he commanded were killed and enduring friendly artillery shelling before he was captured.



The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly sixty-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Food and Living Quarters in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes what he was given to eat during his journey to POW Camp #1. He describes the POW Camp and how it was in a former Korean village. He also details what the prisoners' small living quarters were like.



Day-to-Day Work at POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the day-to-day work of POW's at Camp #1. He describes going to nearby mountains to harvest firewood during the warm months for the upcoming winter. They would hike about four miles to and from, carrying the large logs.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Food, Clothing, and Propaganda in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the food he was given as a POW in Camp #1. He talks about the clothing that he wore during his captivity. He also tells the story of a captured photographer whose photographs the North Koreans used to create propaganda materials.



Fifty Years of Silence

Dan McKinney talks about his reluctance to talk about his POW experience for the first fifty years after the Armistice was signed. He describes how he decided to start talking about the war to graduates of a leadership class at Cannon Air Force Base in 2005. He mentions that he has talked to every graduating class since (over 70 groups).



Daniel Carvalho

Wonsan Landing

Daniel Carvalho discusses his landing at Wonsan and subsequent retreat to Busan after being overrun by North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. He explains how the Chinese had sticks of bamboo. He shares how the LST was the mode of transport. LST stands for Landing ShipTank or tank landing ship.



Dodging Mines

Daniel Carvalho describes the spotlight on the water. He remembers having to use bamboo sticks to poke mines away from the LST. He discusses moving from Wonson to Buson.



Living Conditions

Daniel Carvalho shares details of the living conditions he faced while in Korea. He describes the little food he had. He shares how the cold was new for him. He shares the lack of water for hygiene purposes.



Daniel J. Rickert

Becoming a Demolition Corporal

Daniel Rickert talks about the jobs he performed as a part of the 3rd Combat Engineering Battalion. Trained as an infantry soldier, he describes assuming his job as Demolition Corporal being given a manual. He set up removing explosives in landmines, etc.



Chinese Box Mines

Daniel Rickert talks about Chinese box mines. He describes what these mines looked like and how they operated. He also details how he went about his job to find and disarm them.



Enemy Bunkers and Trenches

Daniel Rickert talks about the many enemy bunkers and trenches. He describes how they were designed and built. They were very hard to find.



Dangerous Times

Daniel Rickert talks about several times he was in danger while serving as a demolition corporal in Korea. He talks about suffering a concussion and a severe leg injury. He also mentions that because of his attached status, though deserving, he was not written up for a Purple Heart.



Operation Nomad

Daniel Rickert talks about his role in Operation Nomad. This was the last major UN offensive of the war. He describes in detail the demolition of a railroad tunnel near Kunsan.



Life in the Winter of '51-'52

Daniel Rickert describes life during the winter of 1951-1952. He talks about his duties, frozen food, and "hot bunking." He also details other aspects of bunker life on the front lines.



Regimental Combat Team

Daniel Rickert gives a description of a regimental combat team. He talks specifically about the 5th RCT. This was his battalion he was attached to.



Daniel Kawaiaea

I'm a Squad Leader Now

Daniel Kawaiaea speaks of the challenges he faced as a squad leader who was provided with very little training to prepare him for commanding others. He discusses the mindset many felt in having to take a human life to save his own. He concludes with a brief account of being wounded in the jaw while serving in Korea.



The Most Difficult Thing

Daniel Kawaiaea recalls some of the challenges of being a squad leader. He often wonders what may have happened to his men after he was wounded and evacuated from Korea. He discusses the challenge of losing his hearing as a result of being wounded in his jaw during one battle which the name and location he cannot recall.



Daniel M. Lopez

A Strange Sound in the Night

Daniel M. Lopez recounts a dangerous experience on guard duty. He remembers hearing a sound and waking his fellow soldiers and sergeant. He recalls that North Koreans attacked them shortly after. He shares the aftermath of the battle, putting the dead on stretchers and trucks, was the worst moment of his touring career in the Korean War.



Strung to a Barbed Wire Fence

Daniel M. Lopez shares a memory of an American sergeant being captured by North Koreans. He recalls the sergeant being hit and strung to barbed wire. He remembers a captain calling in a Marine plane to destroy the body and remembers watching the scene unfold. He adds that memories like that stay with a person, but he expresses that he is not sorry he joined and is proud to have served.



Bridge Over Barbed Wire

Daniel M. Lopez details capturing an enemy soldier. He explains that the North Koreans would make a man-bridge over the barbed wire separating American and enemy troops in an effort to attack. He recounts capturing an enemy soldier scratched up from the barbed wire and requesting an interpreter to translate. He shares that the enemy soldier escaped and ran towards the South. He also adds that the interpreter ended up joining the U.S. Marine Corps.



Danny Dorzok

Being Deployed Aboard the USS Nimitz

Danny Dorzok gives an account of his first two deployments while stationed aboard the USS Nimitz. His first deployment was to the Gulf to assist in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom where the crew offered air support to the ground troops. Upon returning to San Diego, the sailors were given scheduled down time so that the ship could undergo maintenance and the crew could enjoy some liberty. Both ship and sailor were preparing for deployment number two, which was an unnamed diplomatic mission somewhere close to India.



Darold Galloway

Fighting on the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about the mission of the USS Fletcher. He describes the destroyer's mission as an escort of other ships to Korea and it's mission once it arrived in Wonsan, as a decoy and recovery vessel.



Mission of the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about the ongoing mission of the USS Fletcher during the ship's involvement in the Korean War. He describes drawing fire from enemy artillery and heading out to sea to rendezvous with naval ships that had greater artillery range.



Darrell D. McArdle

Incheon Landing

Darrell McArdle describes his experience during the Incheon Landing on September 15, 1950. On his way to Korea from Japan, he recalls the men dealing with seasickness and equipment on deck breaking loose during a typhoon. Once the typhoon passed, he remembers stepping on deck and seeing the surrounding vessels ready for the invasion. He explains once Incheon was secured by the United States Marines, his squad went ashore to clear out any remaining enemy snipers or combatants in the area.



Directing Traffic at the Pass

Darrell McArdle describes the position of MP’s at the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir and their role as traffic control at the Funchillin Pass. Because the reservoir was blown apart, he explains the challenges of escorting units and the engineering of makeshift timber bridges for the trucks to cross areas. He recalls coming under fire during one escort through the pass and heading back down the pass to ensure that a 30-caliber machine gun did not fall in the hands of the enemy.



Daryl J. Cole

"People needed us."

Daryl J. Cole describes his motivations while in battle. He explains that his position was only two or three miles away from the front lines and all the while he was continuously thinking the war needed to end. He explains feelings of great sympathy for the South Korean people whose entire lives had been reduced to rubble.



Living Conditions

Daryl J. Cole describes the living conditions he experienced while in Korea. He describes living in a basic canvas tent with a cot and sleeping bag and a small stove in the middle of the tent. He recalls always having a good, hot meal, being able to take a shower about once a week and the foot fungus he brought home after the war. He goes on to recount his correspondence back home with his father.



David Carpenter

Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



Modo Island

David Carpenter lost four Marines who were taken as POW's off the coast of Wonsan. He stayed on Korea's islands until peace talks began in 1953. He recalls going on leave to Japan to get some rest and relaxation (R & R) before he returned to England.



David Carsten Randby

Electrician for NORMASH

David Randby served as an electrician for NORMASH. Electricity was important for a field hospital. The electrical equipment was very rudimentary and required skill to keep running. He kept the generators running in times of great need.



Military Life

David Randby described conditions in Dongducheon. He provided details about helping with surgery at one point due to the many actions at the front. He described going on a trip from Dongducheon to Seoul and having to watch a video over how to act when out on leave.



David Clark

Travel to Korea

David Clark discusses the route that he took to get to Korea via the U.S.S McCloud. He describes going through Pearl Harbor, Midway, and into Sasebo, Japan. He shares how he was immediately introduced into the war zone when they arrived in the East Asia Sea.



U.S.S McCloud and Military Occupation

David Clark shares details of the U.S.S McCord (DD-534). He describes the weapons available on the ship. He describes his job as a Quartermaster.



Ship Life

David Clark discusses the living conditions aboard the U.S.S. McCord while serving in the Navy. He explains the sleeping area. He explains the food and the cooks. He describes showering, entertainment, and letters on the ship.



David Espinoza

Traveling to Korea

David Espinoza describes his journey to Korea and his arrival on the front lines. He explains having to board a ship in California, and his arrival at Inchon in late 1950. He recalls having to replace other men who were much younger and had been fighting for some time.



Koje-do Prison Camp Riots-1951

David Espinoza speaks about his participation in the combat operations within Koje-do Prison Camp. He recalls having to use flame throwers to help stop the riots incited by North Korean and Chinese prisoners. He remembers that he and the men he served with had to use hand grenades and bayonets to restore order in the camp.



On the Front Lines

David Espinoza recounts being attacked by North Korean and Chinese forces. He recalls carrying five-gallon cans of water on his back while digging trenches. He describes sustaining mortar and sniper fire by night during patrols. He recalls hearing the loud bugles sounded by Chinese soldiers during an enemy attack.



David H. Epstein

Meeting a Friend from Home

David H. Epstein shares an endearing story about being reconnected with a childhood friend who was his military superior. He recalls that both of their mothers arranged the meeting between he and the other soldier prior to both of them being shipped overseas to Korea. He explains that after the Korean War was over, they both continued to reconnect as friends while they were both still serving in South Korea.



Drafted, Training, and Starting a Family

David H. Epstein recalls being drafted, going through basic training, and starting a family around the same time. He explains how he came to be in the United States Marine Corps, rather than the United States Army, although he was drafted. He describes his arrival in Korea, and the duties involved in being assigned to Command Post Security for Headquarters Company of the 1st Marine Division.



David Heine

Dangers at the DMZ

David Heine faced many dangers while stationed near the DMZ, including one night when he worked to restore communication lines that had been cut every 20-30 feet. He describes the anxiety he faced not knowing what he might encounter.



David J. Smith

The 47th MASH Unit

David J. Smith talks about his job as a medical technician attached to the 47th MASH Unit. He describes his job working with doctors during surgery, interviewing patients who came in off the field, and taking care of sick soldiers during sick call. He also describes the layout of the unit, comprised of seven quonset huts.



David Lehtonen

The Critical Role of the B-26 Missions

David Lehtonen recalls flying in B-26s as a radio operator. He shares a map of some mission routes and explains how the information gathered was critical for the planning of F-86 jet fighter strikes. He describes the mission that earned him the Distinguished Flying Cross.



Images of Experiences

David Lehtonen shares images of his experiences during the war. He recounts when he switched duties and the individual who took his place was overtaken by guerillas. While continuing to look at images, he offers insight into how it felt being thrown around the back of the B28 airplane during missions. Using maps to identify different types of missions, he reflects on one dangerous mission close to Shanghai.



Two Close Calls

David Lehtonen recounts two missions that put him a little too close to enemy jets. While on a day mission, he remembers radar alerting the crew that three bogies were converging on their position. He describes the dramatic maneuvers the pilot made to avoid the bogies and then the surprise of enemy ground fire. He recalls another instance where the crew encountered an enemy jet and were lucky to avoid the enemy.



David Lopez

Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but he tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge and First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. He was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Simon

I Feel Very Fortunate

David Simon recalls his service in units which focusing on mapmaking and distribution of these maps during the Korean War. He briefly shares how fortunate he was to serve as he did during the Korean War. He recalls that many of those who were onboard the Breckinridge were shipped to Pusan. He counts himself lucky that he had a background in printing that kept him from the dangers of the front lines.



David Valley

Arrival in Korea

David Valley talks about arriving in Korea. He was sent to Jinju and attached to an intelligence reconnaissance platoon. He describes bring separated from his unit on his first night of fighting and having to make his way back while behind enemy lines. He also talks about a friend that never made it back home.



Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles

David Valley talks about his participation the Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles. He describes what happened to enemy soldiers that were captured and tells a story of opening a vault in Pyongyang.



Retreating from Pyongyang

David Valley talks about what happened as his unit retreated from the north into Seoul. He describes burning villages as they moved south and talks about the condition of Seoul upon their return.



David White

Life as a Platoon Leader

David White talks about his duties as Platoon Leader. His responsibilities included setting up ambushes and relieving his men and the conditions under which they operated. Most of these operations were against the North Koreans and took place at night.



Stacking Up Bodies

David White describes one of the jobs he and his men were assigned, clearing the battlefield of fallen soldiers from both sides. He had to get a body count of both sides. They also had to put out more barbed wire and traps as well.



Danger from Mortar Fire

David White talks about the frequent danger of enemy mortar fire. A lot of soldiers would get scared and try to run. However, they would get hit and it was better to lie low to the ground to avoid it.



A Close Call from an Enemy Mortar

David White tells a story about an incident when he and his sergeant's position was hit by a partially exploded enemy mortar shell. Both he and the his sergeant were not injured. In surprise, they laughed after the situation.



Kill or Be Killed

David White describes in detail a battle that began when the patrol he was leading came across a North Korean soldier. During the ensuing battle, both sides sustained heavy losses. He was wounded by an enemy mortar.



Wounded in Battle, Recovery, and Returning Home

David White describes how he was recovered from the battlefield after being wounded by an enemy mortar. He talks about his month-long recovery. He also discusses returning to service before going home.



Delbert Ray Houlette

Massacre in a Korean Village

Delbert Ray Houlette recollects here on some of his toughest moments while serving in Korea. He describes the disconnect between the Marine Corps with the Army and ROK soldiers. He also details having to build a causeway over a river in the middle of fighting. Lastly, he remembers witnessing a village after it had experienced a massacre.



Seasoned for the Incheon Landing

Delbert Ray Houlette recalls being sent to serve at the Incheon Landing. He and his outfit were sent due to being "seasoned" in combat compared to other troops with their experience in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes the tides of the area where he was on Red Beach.



Collecting the Dead

Delbert Ray Houlette describes how one of his duties during combat was to collect the dead bodies of fellow soldiers and put their bodies in the beds of trucks. He remembers one incident where a soldier's eyes had opened unexpectedly while in the truck. Believing the body might be alive, he told the personnel he was getting ammunition and would try to come back to see if he was okay later. However, he was never able to return and check.



Delcio Rivera Rosario

Near Miss

Delcio Rivera Rosario recalls most of his time in Korea was spent in formal combat lines and trenches. He remembers those times as akin to a game for him. He recounts one occasion when he narrowly escaped being shot after making a mistake he would never make again. He briefly describes an attack on Outpost Kelly which resulted in the loss of a high school friend.



Battle of Jackson Heights

Delcio Rivera Rosario recalls his unit replacing South Korean troops at the outpost at Jackson Heights. He notes that moving through the Kumwha Valley meant traveling very close to enemy lines. He recounts how, when they arrived to the outpost, there were no trenches or fortifications, only hard rock. He shares that on the third night after their arrival, they were ordered from the mountain as the enemy was approaching. He reflects on the events of that night which led to his own injury.



Injured at the Battle of Jackson Hill

Delcio Rivera Rosario received the Purple Heart for injury suffered during the Battle of Jackson Heights. He recalls the enemy throwing hand grenades in his vicinity which resulted in his injury. He describes despite being wounded in his heel running downhill to escape the enemy advance. He notes that while he still suffers pain from this injury, he does not regret his service.



Delmer Davis

Special Forces: The Raiders

Delmer Davis talks about a special forces unit called the raiders which he was chosen to be a part of. He describes the selection process, training, and mission of this close combat unit of 100 men.



Gunsan Landing: Sept. 12, 1950

Delmer Davis talks about the Gunsan Landing, an operation that he and the special operations company participated in on Sept. 12, 1950 while the Inchon Landing was taking place. Delmer Davis describes the operation in detail and remarks that he feels his unit was used as a decoy for the Inchon Landing.



Missions on Gimpo Peninsula

Delmer Davis talks about several missions that his unit participated in on the Gimpo Peninsula. He describes working with other military units and capturing enemy soldiers.



Searching for the Chinese

Delmer Davis talks about the raiders' mission near Wonsan. He describes moving far forward of the front lines in search of enemy forces, eventually locating 10,000 Chinese troops.



Demetrios Arvanitis

The Fog Dissolved

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of the Chinese army, just days before the armistice, attempting to penetrate through the center of the UN lines. He recalls the fog creating more issues for the Chinese than anticipated. As the fog lifted, he comments on the heroism of his men, which led to the capture of fourteen Chinese soldiers and their commanding officer.



He Would Have Surrendered in 1950

Demetrios Arvanitis provides an account of an altercation he had while the Chinese soldiers were surrendering. He describes a wounded Chinese soldier turning an automatic rifle on him and his quick actions that led to disarming the soldier. Because of his interaction with the prisoner of war, he shares how the prisoner of war tried to give him a service medal and sent a letter to President Eisenhower praising Demetrios Arvanitis.



I Thought I Would Not Survive

Demetrios Arvanitis recounts the battle in which he thought he would not survive. He describes receiving a communication detailing a Chinese attack on the hill in which he was positioned in the Iron Triangle. After being bombarded by the Chinese artillery, he remembers the American artillery successfully pushing the Chinese back.



Danger Remained Before Our Eyes

Demetrios Arvanitis discusses his near death experience shortly before the ceasefire went into effect. He describes how the Chinese seemed focused on removing his unit from their location north of the 38th parallel. During the night before the ceasefire, he remembers shells detonating and cutting down all of the trees surrounding his trench. He reveals how the chaplain held a mass the following morning at the location in which he escaped death.



Dennis Grogan

The Auster Aircraft

Dennis Grogan describes the mechanics and construction of the Auster aircraft. He explains that it was a very practical plane with no armored plating, and a metal frame that was covered with canvas. He shares how he was proficient in helping to start the aircraft, which involved switch off, throttle closed, brakes hard on. He explains the details of checking aircraft maintenance in the winter compared to what needed to be done in the summer.



Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Dennis Kinney

One Hundred Percent Disabled

Dennis Kinney describes the list of disabilities he accrued while serving in the military. He explains that his first disabilities came from malaria and jungle rot in Guam. He then explains his accidents in cars and planes crashing while on missions.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Dispatch Rider

Desmond Vinten initially lied on military documents to enlist in the military at nineteen. He arrived at Busan in June of 1951 and remained until the Armistice. He served as a dispatch rider based in the headquarters of the Forward Maintenance Area. He left July 27, 1953, as the cease fire came into effect. He has returned to Korea four times since his service.



War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



War is Hell, Winter is Worse

Desmond Vinten describes spending twenty-seven days in an English military prison. His charge was "firing on the Queen's enemy without the Queen's permission." His sentence reflected the reality that sometimes shooting at the Chinese created more danger due to the Chinese soldiers' skill at firing mortars in retaliation. Besides the challenges of engaging the enemy, the heat, cold, and dust left him with the understanding that "war is hell, but winter is even worse."



Dick Lien

Combat Remembrances

Dick Lien recounts moving often while out in the field with his artillery unit. He describes defensive firing that his unit conducted while in the Marine Corps and explains that white phosphorus would be thrown into caves. He describes feeling guilty about it afterwards.



A Turk on a Mission and Losing Friends

Dick Lien describes meeting a Turkish soldier and shares that the soldier was dedicated to collecting an enemy's head every night. He recounts that the Turkish soldier would come back with the decapitated head and place it on a stake in front of his pup tent. He adds his thoughts on losing comrades while serving and states that the losses increased his anger.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

A Brother's Sacrifice

Dimitrios Matsoukas describes two engagements in which his brother, George Matsoukas, fought. The first was at Hill 313, also known as Scotch Hill, where the Chinese and the Greeks took part in hand-to-hand combat resulting the Greeks ultimately recapturing the hill. The second battle happened to the northwest of Hill 313 on an unnamed hill where George would be mortally wounded by a Chinese grenade.



Remembering a Brother

Dimitrios Matsoukas explains how he learned about his brother's valiant final days through a war correspondent's book entitled "I Die for Greece". He reads the story of the battle in which his brother gave his life.



Dirk J. Louw

South African Servicemen

Dirk J. Louw describes how the South African government sent a squadron to Korea based on a deal with the Americans where the United States equipment was used against payment to the South African government. 826 South African volunteers served in Korea during the war.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

Letters from Korea and Digging the DMZ

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls a particular letter from her husband at the developing DMZ. She shares that her husband spoke of the quietened guns after the ceasefire. She explains that her husband described the digging of lines at the present-day DMZ and living on C-Rations.



Domingo B. Febre Pellicier

Danger on the Front Lines

Domingo Febre Pellicier describes his experiences on the front lines. He shares that they would often be on patrol watching for the Chinese troops. During the attacks on the hills, there would often be mortar flying around. He recounts a mishap he had with a hand grenade that almost cost him his life.



Lack of Water for Hygiene

Domingo Febre Pellicier explains how scarce water was on the front lines. He explains that they were only able to shower once per month and how brushing one's teeth was a luxury. While some of the hills had a water pipe, using it often meant making oneself a target for the Chinese who were watching.



Domingo Morales Calderon

Wounded in Action / Herido en Batalla

Domingo Morales Calderon details the events which took place during the Battle of Hill 427. He remembers how his friend, who was much stronger, died during the battle while saving his life. He recalls his rage at Chinese forces and shares the fact that he wanted to kill every one of them himself to avenge his friend’s death.

Domingo Morales Calderón detalla los hechos que ocurrieron durante la Batalla del Cerro 427. Recuerda cómo su amigo, que era mucho más fuerte, murió durante la batalla después que le salvo la vida. Cuenta de su ira contra las fuerzas chinas y comparte el hecho de que quería matar a todos ellos él mismo para vengar la muerte de su amigo.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Domingo Morales Calderon shares his first impressions of Korea. He describes a nation that was cold, mountainous, and devoid of adults. He recalls an incident in which he helped a small child and was hailed as a hero as he brought her to a doctor.

Domingo Morales Calderón comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Describe una nación fría, montañosa y desprovista de adultos. Recuerda un incidente en el que ayudó a una niña pequeña y fue aclamado como un héroe cuando la llevó al médico.



War's Toll on a Country / La Destrucción de la Guerra

Domingo Morales Calderon shares his beliefs on why diplomacy is better than war. He recalls the hardships of civilians and the utter destruction of the nation. He provides an account of a mission in which they were tasked with finding North Koreans hiding in Seoul as evidence of the brutality of war.

Domingo Morales Calderón comparte sus opiniones sobre por qué la diplomacia es mejor que la guerra. Recuerda las dificultades de los civiles y la destrucción total de la nación. El comparte un relato de una misión en la que se les encomendó encontrar a norcoreanos escondidos en Seúl como explicación de la brutalidad de la guerra.



Don McCarty

The Nevada Campaign: Bloody Nevada

Don McCarty fought North Korean and Chinese soldiers during the Nevada Campaign. He experienced battle fatigue and fear while fighting at the front lines. Don McCarty still thinks about the death of his assistant gunner and ammo carrier.



Big Muscles were Needed for Machine Gunners

Don McCarty's specialty during the Korean War was a heavy machine gun operator. The tripod was 54 pounds and the gun with water was 40 pounds. He left for Korea in March 1953 and landed in Inchoeon. Once he arrived in Seoul, it was devastated and there were children begging for candy and cigarettes.



Fear on the Front Lines That Led to PTSD

Don McCarty was afraid every minute that he was in Korea. Even after the Korean War ended, North Koreans continued to surrender to the Marines by crossing the 38th parallel. Don McCarty feels that he has a better understanding of life once he fought in the Korean War because there were so many Marines that lost their lives. Every night at 2 am, he wakes up with nightmares from his time at war. PTSD is a disease that Don McCarty is still living with 60 years after the Korean War ended.



Don R. Childers

Arriving in Korea

Don R. Childers recalls his journey to Japan and Korea by ship, where some of the men suffered from severe seasickness. After landing in Korea, his company was loaded onto trucks and taken to a small, remote town called Wonju. There, they set up camp in a dry river bed and were immediately told to "dig in." It was only later, when someone yelled "incoming mail" - referring to enemy artillery shells - that he realized the importance of this command. He was then assigned to the Weapons Company and the Eighty-one Mortar Patrol, starting as an ammunition carrier and eventually volunteering to be a forward observer, responsible for identifying target locations.



Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Donald C. Hay

Engaging North Korea

Donald C. Hay describes engaging the North Korean military. The Royal Marines would land, go ashore, and engage the North Koreans. He describes the New Zealand Navy providing cover to Royal Marines. He recollects on one occasion when the Royal Marines took two North Koreans prisoners. He explains the HMNZS Rotoiti often moved fairly close to the shore to provide support including one occasion where he felt uncomfortably close to the enemy.



Action on the Han

Donald C. Hay describes his service aboard the HMNZS Rotoiti. The ship completed three missions up the Han River attacking enemy positions. He recalls one occasion when an Australian ship patrolled further up the Han River. This ship was attacked and received substantial damage. Donald Hay recollects seeing dead bodies floating down river on many occasions.



Deployed to Patrol Waters Off West Side of Korean Peninsula

Donald C. Hay recalls several excursions the HMNZS Bellona took including to Australia, New Zealand, and other islands in the region. He notes that when they arrived "home" after one of these trips they learned of the outbreak of the war. He explains he was "drafted" as part of the crew of the frigate the HMNZS Rotoiti. This frigate was the third ship sent to Korea from New Zealand. He details his duties while serving on the Rotoiti.



Donald Campbell

From Hitchhiker to Prisoner

Donald Campbell describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese on November 2, 1950. He describes being attacked by a hand grenade. He shares how they fought back against the Chinese. He explains how he ended up in that area in the first place.



Interrogation Process

Donald Campbell explains how he was interrogated as a Prisoner of War (POW). He explains how the Chinese handled the questioning. He shares how he coped with relentless questions.



Donald Clayton

Dump Truck Driver

Donald Clayton shares about the time he was supposed to drive a dump truck of gravel. He explains how he was set to head to the DMZ. He shared his Company's location during this time as being between Liberty Bridge and Freedom Gate Bridge.



Demilitarized Zone

Donald Clayton discussed the Armistice. He discusses how the DMZ was still the site of skirmishes even after the Armistice was signed. He shares how the infantry was on an island between two bridges on the Imjingang River where there was continued action. He shares his concern about leaving gravel in the middle of the road.



Donald D. Johnson

No Idea What I'm Doing

Donald D. Johnson elaborates on his job responsibilities in Korea. He had no idea initially how to handle the artillery. He describes having to organize all the vehicles inside the LST, learning as the war continued. He describes becoming First Lieutenant Parrot's personal Jeep driver.



Miscommunication With The Air Force

Donald D. Johnson recalls landing at Inchon in 1950 at night. He remembers it being hard to drive through the warfare. He elaborates on how miscommunication with the Air Force caused this incident to occur.



Donald Duquette

Typical Day as a Combat Photographer

Donald Duquette talks about what life was like as a combat photographer in the Korean War. He explains that most photographers were looking for action shots, but they took pictures of everything that was going on. He remembers that some shots were dangerous.



A Famous Photograph

Donald Duquette discusses taking a photograph of John Allen (35th Infantry Division) going up a hill. This photograph, Donald Duquette's most famous, was published nationwide back in the United States. He shares the photo with the interviewer.



Donald H. Jones

"To Hell with the Wire, Let's Move!"

Donald Jones tells the story of his group's reaction to being strafed by enemy planes when laying communications wire and subsequent encounter with a new Lieutenant during their escape.



Both Heels Shot Off

Donald Jones describes a specific night battle when the heels of both of his boots were shot off yet he was uninjured.



Bunker Description

Donald Jones describes the interior of a US Army bunker.



Donald Haller

War Speciality

Donald Haller recalls never attending boot camp due to the short time between his signing up for the Reserves and his being drafted. He explains he was a great shooter, so he was assigned to the Navy ordinance as a gunner. He shares how he flew as a gunner in a bow turret located in the front of a seaplane. He remembers never feeling unsafe. He adds that before flying in Korea, he was stationed in the Philippines.



Donald J. Zoeller

Edge of MLR

Donald Zoeller describes the battalion which was located close to the MLR. One time they were even in the 'no man's land' zone. They had to build bunkers on their own by cutting down trees designed to hold up under artillery.



Defending Seoul

Part of Donald Zoeller's platoon was sent to Seoul when the Chinese tried to retake the city. He describes how his colleague "fell apart" and he was asked to take over leadership. He describes living in a foxhole constantly hearing shrapnel and was called upon at times to open fire.



Donald L. Mason

At the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Donald Mason recalls his experience at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He remembers having Thanksgiving dinner while there, and they stayed at the Reservoir through Christmas. He was responsible for guarding the ammunition. He remembers how bitterly cold it was.



Incheon Landing

Donald Mason discusses his experience during the Incheon Landing. He knew it was high tide and shares that he was in a LST landing craft. His unit, the artillery unit, went in after the infantry landed, and they pushed beyond Incheon to Seoul. He was surprised at all of the destruction he witnessed.



Donald Lassere

Hill 907

Donald Lassere describes his first real encounter with the enemy in the Battle of Hill 907. He recounts the struggle to climb the hill and how they were almost wiped out. He remembers the will of the North Koreans as they fought to the death for their country and how he knew they were weakening when he encountered young children behind the weapons.



Battle Wounds

Donald Lassere describes the moment he was shot and the events that followed. He tells of how he was transported to receive medical services. Just as he was being put to sleep, he recounts hearing a gunny sergeant with a severe leg wound begging to keep his leg only waking up to find out that he passed.



Donald Lynch

Serving in Korea

Donald Lynch recalls how he landed in Incheon, South Korea, and recalls taking trains through Seoul and seeing many starving children. He shares how he and his unit gave their c-rations to the children. He describes being sent from Seoul to Chuncheon and then on to the frontlines where he served as a unit supply sergeant and was a part of the K Company, 197th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. He comments on how he was wounded, bayonetted in the abdomen by a Chinese soldier and shares how he later served in a medical unit.



Injuries and Difficult Experiences

Donald Lynch talks about being injured twice. He recalls going on a patrol one day on Hill 812 and the lead man stepping on a "Bouncing Betty" release-type booby trap. He recounts how all eight to ten men were hit by pellets. He shares how a pellet hit his thigh and came out about 50 years later when he was messing with it. He notes another injury which entailed a bayonet. He recalls of his war experience occurring in the Punchbowl region, close to the 38th parallel. He references witnessing all of the wounded men leaving the frontlines when he first arrived as his most difficult experience in Korea. He also recalls assisting the sewing of wounds.



Duties and Living Conditions

Donald Lynch recalls the patrols he went on along the Kansas Line, a line back from the frontlines. He details how he would help refill supplies and bring back any North Korean defectors they came across. He recalls there being a kitchen at the medical outfit and eating hot meals every day. He remembers showering opportunities varying based on his location and shares how, at one point, shampoo saved his life.



Donald Michael Walsh

Daily Life in a Tank Battalion

Donald Walsh talks about a typical day as part of the 64th Tank Battalion.



Donald R. Bennett

Moving to the 38th Parallel and Back to Incheon

Donald R. Bennett recalls his unit moved from Seoul to the Han River shortly after his arrival and fought its way to the 38th Parallel. He details their movements toward the 38th Parallel and their return to Incheon and eventually Wonsan Harbor. He notes Bob Hope actually beat his unit into Wonsan because of the delay they faced in landing due to someone, possibly the Russians, mining much of the harbor. He discusses the challenges of being a young tank commander in charge of four other men who had relatively little knowledge or training related to tanks.



Approaching Chosin Reservoir

Donald Bennett recounts moving to the base of the mountain at Chosin (Jangjin). He shares how the tanks were unable to make it up the roads which were too narrow until the engineers fixed the roads in spots. He recalls being awakened early on November 28th and being told the Chinese were attacking everywhere and that they needed to move out. He explains encountering other service members who had encountered Chinese. He finishes this segment by discussing his arrival at Kor'to-ri.



We Were in Big Trouble

Donald Bennett begins this portion of his account of the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir with his unit's departure to headquarters. Along the way, he remembers seeing burning trucks and witnessing American and Chinese units shooting at each other. He recalls their encounter with the Chinese who eventually knocked the track off of the first tank and then shortly thereafter surrounded the American trucks and tanks, including his. He details the night being very cold and dark. His tank was hit by something, which he later would discover was an anti-tank weapon that knocked off his 50-caliber machine gun. He shares the damage that was done to his tank and the destruction of another tank.



Last One Up the Mountain, Last One Down

Donald Bennett recounts living conditions while they were in the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He shares a detailed account of a close encounter between the Chinese and his tank. He recalls the challenge of driving the tanks back down the mountain after the snow had been packed down into the ice. He remembers that his tank was the last tank down. He shares how those that remained in his unit were taken by boat back to Busan and were reformed at an airstrip where they conducted foot patrols before fighting their way up the center of Korea across the 38th Parallel in support of the 1st Marine Regiment.



Donald Schneider (Part 1/2)

Memories of time in a MASH hospital

Donald Schneider received a leg wound when he was hit by a mortar round, and in this clip he explains his experiences in a MASH hospital. He recalls the stretchers of men that were waiting out in the open for the operating table. He states that it was "terrible" and that he felt "foolish" because his wound was nothing compared to others.



The Challenges of Letter Writing

Donald Schneider colorfully describes not only the challenges of writing letters from the front lines, but also the dangers faced by the soldiers whose job it was to deliver the incoming mail. He remembers having to use his helmet to write on while having to use pencils because the pens were frozen. He said that while it was difficult to write, everyone looked forward to the mail that they received.



The Moon during Patrols

Donald Schneider explains the effect that a full moon can have on foot patrols, and how memories of those patrols still influence him today. He associates that moon with the night patrols that became very dangerous since the enemy could see them. He said that always meant "someone was not coming back."



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Medical Care in the Field

Donald Schneider describes how important the “Whirlybird” helicopters were during the war. Because the mountains were so steep, often it was difficult to get the wounded down to receive treatment. The Whirlybirds and their talented pilots were able to maneuver the mountains and rescue the wounded, making them a “lifesaver.”



Experiences at Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge

Donald Schneider was a participant in several battles while stationed in Korea, including Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge. He provides a firsthand account of what it was like in these two areas, including how hard it was to take them. He explains why they gave Heartbreak Ridge back to the Chinese.



Sleeping Conditions on the Front Lines

Donald Schneider describes the limited opportunities that soldiers on the front lines had to get any sleep, which often resulted in what he called a "zombie-like" state. While they had sleep bags sometimes that wasn’t a guarantee- they often would cover themselves with snow as an insulator on their ponchos. On a typical day, they would only get 2-3 hours of sleep.



Weather in Korea

Like many other soldiers in Korea, Donald Schneider talks about how cold it was during the war. He states that the weather was like that in Wisconsin- really hot in the summer and freezing in the winter. He said that the difference was the monsoon season, which would include massive amounts of rain in short periods of time.



Donald Schwoch

Red Cross Nurses and Generator Repair

Donald H. Schwoch arrived in Korea on January 6, 1955, wading ashore to the welcome of Red Cross nurses offering donuts. He changed his wet clothes aboard a railway car and traveled by train to a tent encampment where a Lieutenant McNair assigned him to generator repair. In one case, an officer from his unit needed a generator for the cook house so badly that he cannibalized a new ambulance for parts.



A Close Call

Donald H. Schwoch stayed busy maintaining generators. In one instance, an I Corps general took him with the First Marines to the front lines. During a stop, he left his truck during a smoke break. Fortunately, he remembered his M2, for as he rounded the front of the truck he encountered a young Korean wearing a vest with hand grenades.



Donald St. Louis

Mortar Shrapnel Wounds

Donald St. Louis elaborates on his wound from mortar shrapnel while stationed in Korea. He recounts he was in Korea for a majority of the war while healing in the military hospital. He mentions how he is unaware of how prosperous Korea has become.



Donald Stemper

Importance of Topography: Life or Death

Don Stemper pulls out a map and uses it to explain the importance of topography. These skills proved that the tiny details could mean the difference between life and death, winning, or losing the war effort. He says accuracy is so importance during war.



Mobile Topography Units

During the Korean War, the US military had mobile TOPO (an acronym like M.A.S.H) units in trucks that were like a caravan vehicle. They included cameras, printing presses, plate making, survey and drafting equipment, as well as ink and paper just behind the lines because that's where the information was coming from. All these tools were needed to create the maps at any time and diligence was crucial. He is very proud of the work he did and in his mapping instruction.



Process of Making the Maps for the Soldiers

Don Stemper explains in detail the process of how the US military photograph images from both sides of the plane. Using stereo-projectors and drafting tables with special magnifying eye wear, mappers drew the contour of hills so troops knew the exact height of each hill directly from a flat photograph. The details were then added to the map and copied onto plastic with specific colors to identify certain landmarks.



Donald Urich

Learning About the Armistice

Donald Urich recalls being in Korea when the Armistice was signed. He felt relieved and believe the Armistice was a good thing because there would be no more fighting or killing. He remembers thinking that nobody told the North Koreans about the Armistice because they were sending shells over the DMZ when he traveled up there with a supply truck.



Working with Foreign Troops

Donald Urich recounts his unit caring for the vehicles belonging to the Ethiopians, the Greeks, and the Turks. He remembers these foreign fighters as staunch in their religion and as ferocious fighters. He notes that the Ethiopians in particular were tall and muscular and nearly impossible to see at night until they were right upon you.



Doug Mitchell

Captured North Korean Soldier

Doug Mitchell and some men in his unit that were in their foxholes spotted a North Korean solider who was coming down the road towards them. Rather than shooting him, the soldier held up his hands in the air. The North Korean soldier surrendered to the US Army, and the men behind the lines took him back.



First experience with death

Doug Mitchell recalls a night where it was difficult to see, especially since there wasn't any light and the sites had glass installed in them which made it very hard to see through. While on duty as a machine gunner, he noticed a tank that was coming around a turn and they halted to tell them who it was or they'd shoot. It turned out that it was a lieutenant that walked up to present himself before they moved the tank any further. As they were standing on the deck, Doug Mitchell heard a mortar going off and he was able to get to safety, but the lieutenant was blown apart.



3 Dreadful Components of the Korean War

Doug Mitchell described 3 things that he hated about war: Patrol at night, crawling on the front line to knock out machine guns, and dreaming about the stress soldiers felt. He said it was scary when the guys behind you were firing at a machine gun while you were told to crawl close enough to throw a grenade at the machine gun while hoping a riflemen wasn't there to shoot you. Bayonets were another dreadful memory from the Korean War and Doug Mitchell said that no one needs to go through fighting against bayonets.



Douglas C. Fargo

Heartbreak Ridge

Douglas C. Fargo talks about his assignment as a Platoon Leader on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about serving with South Korean soldiers and the soldiers he lost under his command. He also describes capturing North Korean soldiers during an attack and on patrol.



A Leaders View of Leadership

Douglas C. Fargo shares his happiest moment while serving. He also decribes his personal view of leadership.



Douglas Koch

Leading the Charge

Douglas Koch describes the 5th Marines' role in the Inchon Landing. He explains that the Inchon Landing was imperative in the cutting off of the rail lines that led to Seoul and fed the North Koreans the supplies they needed to fight in South Korea. He recalls that upon hearing the Marines were headed to Seoul to recapture the city, the civilians fled for the hills.



Rice Paddy Ambush

Douglas Koch describes being shot after the recapture of Seoul. He explains that he was ordered to establish an outpost on the other side of a rice paddy with his squad. As he led his men across the paddy, a North Korean machine gunner shot him multiple times in the leg and hip. He recalls ordering his squad to leave him in the field until help arrived.



Doyle W. Dykes

Working with the KATUSA

Doyle W. Dykes describes having to work with the KATUSA (South Korean soldiers) because there were not enough American soldiers to prepare and fire the ammunition. He led training with them due to his knowledge of the Korean language. He describes his relationship with them, enduring the experience of the Nakdong River Battle, as well as preparing and carrying ammunition along the Manchurian border.



Ruined Gloves

Doyle W. Dykes reminisces on a time he wrote his family asking for a new pair of gloves to endure the extreme cold. Upon receiving them that day, he had to bury over two hundred and seventy Chinese soldiers who died after a napalm attack. He shares that his gloves were immediately ruined and that he buried them with the soldiers.



Duane Trowbridge

Landing at Inchon and Fighting to Seoul

Duane Trowbridge describes nearly non-stop activity after arriving at Inchon. He explains, in detail, coming under mortar attack on the way to Seoul and receiving shrapnel in his knee. He explains how his injury sidelined him for a little while but shares he was soon back in the line of fire. He explains the struggle of a fellow soldier who got trapped in a foxhole and how a friend, Bill, lost his eyesight due to a mortar attack. He shares how he received his Purple Heart.



General MacArthur Gives Korea to Syngman Rhee

Duane Trowbridge discusses the handoff of the key to the city. He discusses the devastation he saw as he went back to Icheon. He explains his trek back to Wonsan and then to a town between Wonson and Seoul where his regiment captured North Koreans. He discusses how he captured one thousand six hundred North Korean (NPKA) soldiers in October and November of 1950.



Grenade Game

Duane Trowbridge discusses how when he was stationed in Hamheung, he would play a trick on his fellow soldiers. He describes how he would remove the powder from grenades and then pretend to ignite them by pulling the pin. He explains how fellow soldiers would run, but the grenade would not detonate. He describes how he found it humorous but others did not.



Dwight Owen

Landing in Korea

Dwight Owen describes landing on the beaches of Wolmido, near Inchon. He mentions the artillery used and his mission once he landed on the beach. He states that it was the worst night of his life and remembers questioning what he had gotten himself into.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Ed Donahue

The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed M. Dozier

Operation Mouse Trap: Dog Company Used as Bait

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951. He notes that his company, Dog Company, was used as bait to lure the enemy to a mountain near the front line. He recalls the Chinese coming across the valley and being met by a squadron of American Black Widow aircraft. He explains how a few of the Chinese were able to drop in between Dog Company and the tanks in their rear as well as the fighting which ensued.



Operation Mousetrap: The Loss of a Friend

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951. He notes that Dog Company was to follow the assault on a hill after Fox Company, but when Fox Company was hit so badly his company became the first ones up the hill. He recalls how, in the end, there were only three of the twelve men in his squad that survived the attack. He shares the struggles to come to terms with the loss of a friend during this operation and how closure came through connecting with this soldier's widow years later.



Wounded by a Mortar Shell

Ed M. Dozier recalls his experience of being wounded by a mortar shell while on patrol along a rice paddy on April 10, 1951. He describes how he suffered shrapnel wounds to his shoulder and near his jugular vein. This resulted in an evacuation by helicopter, despite his own disagreement, to "Easy Med" (E Med) near Chuncheon.



Something I Want to Forget

Ed M. Dozier describes the lasting impact of his experiences in Korea. He shares the importance of "protecting yourself" from the carnage of war and the impact it had on relationships with others. Although he has thought about returning to Korea, he frankly states that this experience is something down deep he wants to forget.



Struggles but No Regrets

Ed M. Dozier candidly shares the struggles that he and many Korean War Veterans faced following their service. He speaks about his struggles with PTSD after the war and discusses his thoughts about today's soldiers. Despite the challenges since returning home, he claims he has no regrets.



Eddie Reyes Piña

A Change to Trench and Outpost Warfare

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls receiving training with heavy mortars in Hokkaido, Japan, and moving to Incheon and then on to the area of Pork Chop Hill. He notes that by the time he arrived, fighting had transitioned to more trench and outpost warfare. He offers insight into the differences between outposts and listening posts.



Witnessing the Horrors of Pork Chop Hill and Then the Armistice

Eddie Reyes Piña served his country as part of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He reflects on how the unit fought back against the Chinese and North Koreans. He notes how he left his position in the rear guard to assist a medic in bringing the dead and wounded back. He further explains that the medic received a Bronze Star for Valor, but he did not in part because he did not know how to advocate for himself to ensure he received the medal. He concludes by sharing his recollections of witnessing the Armistice.



Impressions of Korea and the Korean People

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls always being in danger while serving in Korea. He recounts how, prior to returning home in 1954, he assisted in building Camp Casey and protecting the DMZ. He reflects favorably on the country of Korea and the Korean people themselves.



Discrimination

Eddie Reyes Piña, as a soldier of Mexican-American ancestry, recalls only one real incident of seeing discrimination which dealt with a Puerto Rican Infantry unit that refused orders. He remembers becoming a translator for several of them when their unit was disbanded for refusing orders. He notes he did not personally experience any discrimination while serving in Korea.



Edgar Green

Shipped to Korea

Edgar Green describes the feeling of nervousness he and fellow soldiers experienced boarding the HMS Unicorn in Hong Kong destined for Korea. He shares that having World War II veterans among the crew was helpful as they offered advice. He recounts having to line up with other fellow soldiers along the flight deck and endure a round of injections prior to arriving in Korea.



Edgar Tufts

The Best Thanksgiving Ever

Edgar Tufts describes rotating to reserve after being on the front lines in eastern Korea after three months without a shower or change of clothes and solely eating c-rations, . He talks about getting cleaned up and enjoying a wonderful Thanksgiving meal that "rivaled his grandmother's."



Most Fearful Time in Korea

Edgar Tufts describes his most fearful memories in Korea when the advanced party he was in was heavily shelled by the Chinese Army,



Edith Pavlischek

44th Mash Unit Korea

Edith Pavlischek discusses her role as an Army nurse. She talks about the MASH triage unit that was created to perform neurosurgical procedures on the front lines of the war. Edith Pavlischeck worked diligently every day to help the wounded soldiers and witnessed some devastating events during the War.



Edmund Reel

Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Captured by Chinese

Edmund Reel explains the circumstances that led to his capture and imprisonment for thirty-four months. He recalls there being roughly five thousand enemy soldiers advancing towards him. He shares that he had no choice but to surrender.



Edmund W. Parkinson

Wounded on the Battlefield

Edmund Parkinson describes his role as a forward observer in the 161st Battery Regiment. He details providing targets and fire orders and acknowledges that he was often in dangerous positions on the front lines. He recounts the incident where a mortar landed near him which wounded both of his legs and being transported to Japan where his left leg was amputated below the knee.



Eduardo Arguello Montenegro

First Bayonet Fight / Primera Batalla de Bayoneta

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro recounts one of the most fearful nights in Korea. Lieutenant Vasquez never allowed his soldiers to use sleeping bags, but because soldiers were tired and cold, many of them disregarded this order. One night, North Koreans infiltrated a Colombian platoon and killed twenty soldiers while they slept. Two Colombian platoons surrounded those North Korans and were forced to draw their bayonets to fight them. It was his first bayonet offensive, and he was amazed at the fear that the bayonets evoked in the North Koreans. Through their actions, they were able to save fifty percent of the platoon that was attacked.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro relata una de las noches más temibles que paso en Corea. El teniente Vásquez nunca permitió que sus soldados usaran sacos de dormir, pero como los soldados estaban cansados y tenían mucho frío, desobedecieron la orden. Una noche, los norcoreanos infiltraron un pelotón colombiano mientras dormían y mataron a veinte soldados. Dos pelotones colombianos rodearon al enemigo y usaron sus bayonetas para combatirlos. Fue su primera ofensiva de bayoneta y él estaba asombrado al miedo que las bayonetas provocaban en los norcoreanos. A través de sus acciones, pudieron salvar el cincuenta por ciento del pelotón que fue atacado.



Most Honorable Mission / Misión más Honorable

Eduardo Arguello Montenegro was asked to participate in what he recalls as the most honorable mission, which, was the rescue of two deceased Colombian soldiers. They were all dressed in while camouflage as Korea was blanketed by eighty centimeters of snow. They crawled for hours in the middle of the night and utilized hand signals and mine detectors to remain undetected by enemy forces. The mission took the majority of the night, and they successfully returned to their base by five in the morning.

Eduardo Argüello Montenegro participo en lo que recuerda como la misión más honrosa, que fue el rescate de dos cuerpos de soldados colombianos. Todos estaban vestidos con ropa de camuflaje blanca porque Corea estaba cubierta con ochenta centímetros de nieve. Se arrastraron horas durante el medio de la noche y utilizaron señales manuales y detectores de minas para no ser detectados por las fuerzas enemigas. La misión tomó la mayor parte de la noche y regresaron con éxito a su base a las cinco de la mañana.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Flashbacks and Nightmares

Eduardo Sanchez is describing the loss of men when they were seeking for mines. The mine seekers actually hit a mine and members of the navy who were on the three boats lost their lives. For years after the explosion, he continued to have flashbacks and nightmares of the event. This event is forever in his memory and has impacted his life overall.



Edward A. Gallant

First Weapons Monitory System

Edward Gallant was assigned as a weapons monitoring repairman on a MSQ 28 System (Fort Bliss, TX). This 40 foot computer could provide 6000 miles of microwave radar which was 2 times the distance of the United States. Edward Gallant said they could see all the way to Russia. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Edward Gallant said that the Russians who had pulled their weapons out of Cuba, gave the WMD to China, and the Chinese sold it to North Korea which is why they have access to the materials they claim they have. They gave 3 of these Weapons Systems to Germany, 2 Korea, and Edward Gallant operated one that sent over 256 missiles towards their target (mission led by Howard Hughes).



Camp Howard (near Osan) during the Cold War

Edward Gallant is a Korean War defense veteran because he protected South Korea starting in 1966. During his time in Korea, he was stationed at Camp Howard near Osan to work on the monitoring system for missiles that could reach across many countries. This 40 foot computer was watched over constantly just in case it needed to be used during the Cold War against communists.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Truckin': The Relative Freedom of Army Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced relative freedom as an Army transport truck driver. On one trip, his truck separated from the convoy to take a shortcut recently built by the Americans. Another memory involves the excitement of transporting rowdy Welsh soldiers to the front lines at night.



Edward B. Heimann

Marine Rotation

Edward Heimann describes the Marine rotation on the front lines in Korea before the draft. He explains that when the Marine sector in North Korea was hard hit, they were asked to volunteer to fill in on the front lines. He recalls how the North Koreans seemed to know when new Marines were being rotated in and describes how the North Koreans would hit them the hardest when the new Marines arrived.



Edward Brooks

Night Patrol to Apprehend Migun Wianbu

Edward Brooks patrolled at night to catch American soldiers looking for US military comfort women & their pimps. They apprehended them on many occasions.
The comfort women and their pimps were turned into the Korean authorities and then the soldiers were disciplined for their illegal actions.



Was the Korean War a Police Action?

Dr. Han, the interviewer, made the statement that, "some say the Forgotten War was a police action. Do you agree with that?" Edward Brooks replied by saying that, "when someone is shooting at you and you have to shoot back, that's not police action." Edward Brooks continued by saying, "And with what's going on over there today we need to be there in case situations begin to flare up."



Edward C. Sheffield

Surrounded by the North Koreans

Edward Sheffield describes the events leading to his capture by the North Koreans. He recalls receiving incoming fire and being surrounded roughly fifty miles outside of Seoul. He comments on the poor treatment he endured as a POW.



Bayonets and Belts

Edward Sheffield describes the physical treatment he endured from his North Korean captors. He shares that he was stabbed with a bayonet as well as kicked when he was first taken prisoner. He recalls thinking they might kill him due to possessing a belt he had taken as a souvenir.



Edward Greer

Arrival to World War II in Europe

After about a year of training, Edward Greer was shipped to Europe during World War II. After being in England for about two weeks, he and his comrades, all part of an artillery unit, boarded LSTs and landed in France. By this time, the combat had moved ahead, but his unit would be catching up to the war. Edward saw his first bit of combat in Belgium. In this clip, he further explains the support that his unit provided during World War II.



Moving Ranks and Combat in Korea

Edward shares the trajectory of his military service by describing moving up in rank and describes some of the officer training he received. After finishing a basic course, in January of 1950, he was sent to Japan with a field artillery unit and was there when the war in Korea began in June of 1950. In December of 1950, he was promoted to an officer position, and he wrapped up that portion of his tour in December of 1951. Edward also describes the supply system during the Korean War and compares it to that of World War II.



Casualties and Injuries in Korea

Edward Greer recounts a time in Korea where his unit was involved in an infantry attack during their time in Korea. As a result of this action, he was awarded the Silver Star. He describes witnessing people being wounded and killed, and he himself had narrowly missed being shot, but also received minor injuries from fragments of mortars.



Edward Hoth

Thanksgiving in Hungnam

Edward Hoth met Felix DelGiudice and Myron "Jack" Leissler at the mess hall on Thanksgiving. Their regiments joined together and Edward Hoth's rifle platoon supported the regiment by using machine gun support at Heungnam.



Battle of the Chosin Reservior

Edward Hoth fought in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the winter of 1950. The weather was 42 below zero and it was so cold that guns became sluggish while oil froze on the guns.



Christmas in Korean War and Iron Triangle

Edward Hoth was excited to receive two Christmas dinners, one from the Marines and the Navy including turkey, candy, and beer. After Christmas he fought in the Iron Triangle at Cheorwon and then he went to Wonsan, North Korea where he found many dead soldiers along the road.



Edward L. Kafka

Inchon Landing and Radioman Training

Edward Kafka landed at Inchon in April 1952 and the military switched his MOS (military operational specialty) from surveyor to radioman while being stationed two miles from the front lines. While dealing with severe battles every day, he deciphered messages that were send through Morris Code from the outposts.



Life as a Soldier in Korea War

Edward Kafka worked near a mess hall and the headquarter's battery since he ran radios. Therefore, he had access to a shower once a week and he was able to get clean clothes too.



Korean Terraign and Fighting in Major Battles in Korean War

Edward Kafka described the mountains and farm land that reached all over that land. He fought at Heartbreak Ridge, the Iron Triangle, and Porkchop Hill.



Edward Langevin

Hawk Missile

Edward Langevin learned how to repair Hawk (Homing All the Way to Killer) missiles which are semi-active radar surface to air missiles. He spent 40 weeks in Huntsville, Alabama for basic training. While in Korea, he did repairs on the missiles near the DMZ.



DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



Edward Mastronardi

We Were Alone and the Chinese Were Everywhere

Edward Mastronardi described the scene at hill 464 and 467 as two humps on a camel. They lacked communication due to the terrain (mountains), no air support, and overcast caused artillery to shoot without knowing directly what it was going to hit since the visibility was so bad. Edward Mastronardi brought Colonel up to witness several hundred Chinese only yards away, so the Colonel wanted to take out his 9 mm to attack the several hundred Chinese himself! They decided that attempting to attack the Chinese was too much, but they did it anyway and didn't succeed in taking Hill 464.



The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



"Let's Go You Bastards, You Can't Live Forever!"

Within 100+ yards of their objective to attack the Chinese at Hilltop 187 near Samich'on River, Edward Mastronardi described how close the shells were from the tops of their heads, but it didn't stop their advancements since the shrapnel flew forward not putting them in any immediate danger. Edward Mastronardi held his 9 mm gun in his hand and waived it in the air shouting to his men, "Let's go you bastards, you can't live forever!" Bravely charging ahead, breaking the Chinese hold without losing a single man, Edward Mastronardi fought the Chinese at Hill 187.



"Canada boy, tonight you die!"

Before the Battle of Song-gok Spur, a Chinese Company Commander walked straight up to the front line and leaned over and said, "Canada boy, tonight you die!" To which Edward Mastronardi replied, "Come and get us you SOB!" which was documented in the Canadian documentary 28 Heroes. They located the company Commander in Beijing after the war to interview about this event. The battle resulted in only 6 Canadian deaths.



Edward R. Valle

Frightened During Guard Duty

Edward Valle expresses his surprise when he was directed to take guard duty while serving in Korea. He shares he thought this duty was left up to the Army. He recalls the fear he experienced when he encountered ROK soldiers patrolling the same perimeter.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



The Battle at Pyongyang

During the Battle at Pyongyang, Edward Redmond, his battalion had their first casualties. Everyone became very determined to fight. He believed that the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) and the Americans were not well-trained.



Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edward Rowny

Inchon Landing

Edward Rowny describes the planning of the Inchon landing in detail. He remembers how his team had to convince the Joint Chiefs of Staff to move forward with the plan, and this ultimately saved the Marine Corps. He remembers explaining some of the logistics of the landing and General MacArther's reaction when the landing was successful. He describes how moving the troops forward across the Han River was a controversial decision.



Dropping the Bridge in Chosin Reservoir

Edward Rowny reveals that he is the Corps Engineer who designed and later famously dropped the bridge from the air into the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. This was one of the most important parts of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir Battle. He shares how the Chinese were firing at them while they were building it. He recounts how this project was successful in stopping the Chinese long enough to evacuate the troops, without which there would have been tremendous casualties.



Why Didn't MacArthur do More About the Chinese?

The interviewer provides some background about the Chinese involvement in early October. As a response, Edward Rowny explains that the numbers began increasing slowly, and his staff reported this as a concern to a skeptical General Willoughby in Japan. He recalls inviting General Willoughby to meet two of the Chinese they had captured. He shares he had studied anthropology and knew from the folds of their eyes that they were Chinese, but he was not believed. He remarks that General Willoughby was mistaken, and, unfortunately, General MacArthur believed General Willoughby instead of him and his corps.



Evacuation from North Korea

Edward Rowny shares was put in charge of the evacuation of the 600,000 tons of supplies, 100,000 troops, and 100,000 refugees at the port at Heungnam, North Korea. He recounts his job also included blowing up the port so that the Chinese could not use it. He recalls he was scheduled to be on the last ship to leave, but that ship was blown up. He recounts how the commander thought he had gone down with the boat, but, instead, he was stranded on the beach with his radio operator and jeep driver. He describes how they were finally rescued by an American plane and made it home by Christmas, despite being shot at.



Edward T. Smith

Becoming a POW during the Battle of Kunuri

Edward T Smith was taken as a POW during the Battle of Kunuri at the beginning of December in 1950. He remembers being with a few stragglers when they ran into a Command Post of Chinese. He states they were told they were not being killed but that the Chinese wanted prisoners.



Life in Camps

Edward T. Smith describes life in the camp. He shares that most of the day focused on whatever work detail there was, often either wood or burial detail. He recalls how the Chinese tried to indoctrinate the prisoners and some believed it enough to move to China. He remembers the cramped sleeping quarters and limited uniforms.



Edwin Durán González

A Difficult Night / Una Noche Peligrosa

Edwin Durán González describes an attack in which North Korean and Chinese troops advanced on their trenches. He and another soldier did not hear the command to retreat from their observation post and were forced to hide while they heard footsteps above them. He recounts the fear he felt that night.

Edwin Durán González describe un ataque en el que las tropas norcoreanas y chinas avanzaron sobre sus trincheras. Él y otro soldado no oyeron la orden de retirarse de su puesto de observación y se vieron obligados a esconderse. Ellos oían los pasos del enemigo por encima de ellos. Cuenta del miedo que sintió esa noche.



Unexpected Reunion / Reunión Inesperada

Edwin Durán González explains that although both he and his brother were in the army at the same time, they were not allowed to be deployed together and thus flipped a coin to decide who would be sent to war. He further explains how Puerto Ricans were subdivided into different companies once they arrived. He adds that it was through sheer luck that he found his bother three months later as he too was eventually deployed to Korea.

Edwin Durán González explica que, aunque tanto él como su hermano estaban en el ejército al mismo tiempo, no se les permitió desplegarse juntos y así tiraron una moneda al aire para decidir quién sería enviado a la guerra. Él explica cómo los puertorriqueños fueron asignados a diferentes compañías una vez que llegaron a Corea. Termina contando que fue por pura suerte que se encontró a su hermano tres meses después, ya que finalmente él también fue enviado a Corea.



First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Edwin Durán González details his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival in the winter of 1951. He was most shocked by the cold he encountered. Furthermore, he explains that he could not understand how a country could divide itself in the way Korea did. He still remembers the fear he felt upon arriving and the relief that followed periods of rest and relaxation.

Edwin Durán González relata detalles sobre sus primeras impresiones de Corea a su llegada en el invierno de 1951. Lo que más le impactó fue el frío que encontró. Además, explica que no podía entender cómo un país podía dividirse en dos como lo hizo Corea. Todavía recuerda el miedo que sintió al llegar y el alivio durante los períodos de descanso y relajación.



Edwin Maunakea, Jr.

Rescue at Nakdonggang River

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes his rescue of a Captain during fighting at the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about carrying the wounded soldier across the Nakdonggang River. He discusses what happened when he found medical help.



Crash and Burn

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes an incident when a US Navy plane crashed nearby his location. He explains his attempt to rescue the downed pilot. During the rescue attempt, he explains how he was burned by a napalm bomb that exploded on the downed plane.



Edwin R. Hanson

Incheon Landing, September 15, 1950

Edwin Hanson remembers his boat was supposed to land around 5:00 PM as the 3rd wave, Boat 5, on Blue Beach at high tide. They were delayed when the tracks on the LST was lost resulting in them encircling the area before they could land. He recalls approaching shore in an Amtrack and slogged their way through mud in his last remaining clean pair of Dungarees. Once they made it to shore down the road, they climbed a hill and three Soviet T-34 tanks coming right towards them. The US forces hit the gas tanks located in the back of the tank, watching them blow up right in front of him.



Experiences During the Wonsan Landing

After the Seoul recapture, the men were now at the Wonsan Landing where they were sent to secure a pass that North Koreans were using to get away. The North Koreans had barricaded the road and began to open fire on US troops. Edwin Hanson described how over 93 North Koreans were killed and seven US troops were killed including Sergeant Beard from his regiment.



You're the Guy that Saved My Life

Edwin Hanson recalls his first encounter with Chinese at Kor-'o-ri. Edwin Hanson threw four grenades and two went off, so the following morning he went down and picked up the 2 that didn't go off and threw the remaining grenades at their front lines. Ralph Alfonso Gastelum vividly details the chaos breaking out one evening while he was eating as the Chinese moved near his tent. He remembers grenades going off and it proves to be decades later that he finds out the Hanson saved his life.



First Shots at the Chinese at Chosin Reservoir

Edwin Hansen describes an occasion when a Chinese soldier played dead near an American campfire. He recollects US troops were heating C-rations by the campfire when noticed about 15-20 yards away, the enemy had lifted up off the frozen ground and began firing upon the US servicemen. Hanson shot and killed the Chinese soldier attacking his regiment. He and Ralph Gastelum recall the immediate impact of killing the enemy and its long-term effects.



I Jumped In Front of a Torpedo Bomber to Mail My Postcard

Edwin Hanson reminisces about one occasion at Kor-'o-ri when a torpedo bomber (plane) came through to pick up wounded soldiers. He had a postcard that he wanted to deliver to his mother. He remembers the bomber sitting at the end of the runway, preparing to take off, and running down the middle of the runway blocking his takeoff and waving his letter. This postcard was among the many sent home to his mother, but he notes that most dealt almost exclusively with the weather.



Edwin Vargas

First Impressions of Korea

Edwin Vargas gives his first impressions of Korea. He explains that while the hot summers did not bother him, he really struggled with the Cold Winter. While he did not have the chance to interact with many people, he recalls that those he met were very friendly.



Fighting for a KATUSA

Edwin Vargas shares that while he was company commander, he took it upon himself to advocate for his KATUSA when the KATUSA accidentally hit a South Korean soldier with a vehicle. He explains that the soldier was not hurt, but the KATUSA was on the brink of being arrested until he spoke to the commanding officer for the South Korean Regiment. He shares that after the incident, he became very good friends with this commanding officer.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

MASH Got It Right!

Eilif Jorgen Ness explained how the television program, MASH, accurately displayed life in a MASH unit. He was amazed at how if faithfully depicted the camp set-up and living conditions. His one complaint was the show overstated the use of helicopters which only became a major part of delivering the wounded toward the end of the war. He also demonstrated pride at the speed his unit was able to get the wounded to the operating table.



Seoul Was Nothing

Eilif Jorgen Ness's first recollection of Korea was of the cold wind from the north. When he had an opportunity, He would visit the front lines of the battlefield and occasionally went to Seoul. He remarked "Seoul was nothing...It was all ruins, a battleground." He noted there was lots of activity in Seoul but was amazed people could live there with no services and the city being totally destroyed.



Elbert H. Collins

Living Conditions

Elbert Collins explains that they had to eat C-rations and smoke cigarettes from World War II. He describes the foxholes in which they slept, including the one in which he dug that flooded out. He admits that he was scared to death during this time and questioned why he was there.



Incheon Landing

In preparation for the Inchon Landing, Elbert Collins had to stay in a warehouse during a typhoon that came through the area. He remembers all of the preparation that they were given. He describes the instructions that they were given for the landing, but explains that he was so scared that he did not follow the directions.



Elburn Duffy

Engagement at the Battle of Chail-li

Elburn Duffy recalls the Battle of Chail-li as being the first major battle he was involved in once in Korea. He shares how Chail-li was a target because it was a transportation hub in the region and a step along the way in capturing Chorwan's dam and power station. He remembers his company, D (Dog) Company, was ordered to go up one hill with B (Baker) Company taking another and A (Able) Company being held in reserves. He recalls that while the plan was a good one, the weather that day did not cooperate, so the outcome was not as they had hoped.



My Life was on the Line

Elburn Duffy recalls several incidents from his involvement in the Battle of Chail-li where lives were in peril. He explains that as a soldier they never caught enough sleep. He offers details on the daily lives of soldiers serving in Korea.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Preparation for Joining the Greek Army

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis states he knew nothing about the Korean War when it began. At the time, he was a civil servant responsible for caring for military horses. He explains his role during the Korean War involved transporting food and ammunition on mules.



Entering the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis shares he joined the Korean War in December 1950, entering through Pusan. After some time there, he moved through Seoul and then advanced to the 38th Parallel. Throughout this period, he notes he did not engage in any combat.



Scars From the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis shares he sustained numerous injuries during the Korean War. He explains that a grenade exploded near his face, causing pain and scarring on his right cheek. Additionally, a military artillery shell detonated close to him, almost costing him his right leg and arm.



Destruction in Seoul

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis shares the extreme hunger and devastation he witnessed upon entering Seoul. The recalls the situation being so dire that he felt Korea was a century behind Greece in 1950. He remembers Korean children would beg UN troops for food as they left restaurants and food tents.



Eleuterio Gutierrez

Living Conditions

Eleuterio Gutierrez described the living conditions while in South Korea. He received food from both the United States and Philippines, preferring Philippine rice over US C-rations. He noted it was much more comfortable staying in bunkers at Camp Casey than it was on the front lines.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Landing in the Pusan Perimeter

Ellis Ezra Allen shares his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls landing in the Pusan Perimeter in August of 1950 and remembers enemy fire beginning shortly after arrival. He describes being in charge of all wheeled vehicles and supplying men with ammunition.



Ellsworth Peterson

72 Days on the Front Line

Ellsworth Peterson talks about the difficulties of being on the front line without rest for 72 straight days. He describes the fear and experience of falling under the attack of heavy shelling. He elaborates on his unit suffering many casualties during these attacks.



Alone on a Chinese Outpost Raid

Ellsworth Peterson talks about a mission in which he and others in his unit raided a Chinese Outpost. In the skirmish, he describes finding himself separated from the other members of his party. Surrounded by Chinese soldiers, he laid down and pretended to be dead before making his way back behind friendly lines.



Epifanio Rodriguez Nunez

Christmas Propaganda / Propaganda en Navidad

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describes the moments of the war that were most impactful. He recalls how during the Christmas he spent in Korea, the Chinese broadcast propaganda over the radio aimed directly at Colombian troops. While he does not know if anyone was dissuaded from fighting, he shares that most of the soldiers laughed at the failed attempt to brainwash them.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describe los momentos de la guerra que más lo impactaron. Recuerda que durante la Navidad que pasó en Corea, los chinos emitieron propaganda en español por la radio dirigida a las tropas colombianas. Si bien no sabe si alguien fue disuadido de pelear, él cuenta que la mayoría de los soldados se reían del intento de lavarles el cerebro.



Tense Moments / Momentos Tensos

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describes a difficult moment during the war in which he and his captain were attacked by the enemy. He recounts that they were ambushed from behind thereby pinning them to their location. He recalls how they were supported by American airplanes but were forced to jump from their jeep and landed in a septic hole.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez describe un momento difícil durante la guerra en la cual él y su capitán fueron atacados por el enemigo. Él cuenta que fueron atacados por atrás, fijándolos así en su ubicación. Fueron apoyados por aviones estadounidenses, pero se vieron obligados a saltar de su jeep y cayeron en un pozo séptico.



Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explains that he was sent as an advanced group to Korea and, therefore, his voyage was different from that of other Colombian troops. Upon arriving, he was sent to Busan to organize the training for troops that would follow. He recalls the warm greeting they received from dignitaries which included Syngman Rhee.

Epifanio Rodríguez Núñez explica que fue enviado con un grupo avanzado a Corea y por lo tanto su viaje fue diferente al de otras tropas colombianas. Al llegar a Corea, fue enviado a Busan para organizar el entrenamiento de las tropas que seguirían. Recuerda que los recibieron bien con muchos dignatarios incluido Syngman Rhee.



Ernest Benson

How to Earn a Promotion

Ernest Benson describes how he pursued opportunities for new training and promotion to get away from the mostly manual labor that he was initially assigned to do when he arrived in Korea. He thought that there must be a better way to be promoted. He explains that he got interested in being a forward observer and he went up the ranks quickly.



The Culture of Alcohol

Ernest Benson very frankly discusses the culture of alcohol that permeated base camp during the War.



Ernest J. Berry

Skating Over Dead People

Ernest J. Berry describes traveling by truck from Busan to the Han River. He recalls the unsettling realization that people were paid and encouraged to kill him. Upon arrival, he and his unit found Canadians skating on the frozen river, so the new arrivals joined them. Beneath the ice, he saw the faces of dead soldiers and people peering up at him.



"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



"Luxuries, which we dreamed of"

Ernest J. Berry describes being ordered to move out quickly at one point. His unit encountered an abandoned American M.A.S.H. outpost. He describes his amazement at encountering the luxurious conditions and resources the Americans had abandoned. Ernest J. Berry describes American abundance. When Americans left a camp, they buried their supplies. In contrast, New Zealand soldiers would have to pay for lost socks.



Service in Korea

Ernest J. Berry describes helping in delivering a baby during war. He also describes becaming ill during an attack and was rescued from a foxhole by an American M.A.S.H. unit. He was treated in the M.A.S.H. hospital and flown to Japan, where he watched many soldiers die from what he later learned was a hantavirus known as Korean hemorrhagic fever. Overall, he felt he had to go to help the people of Korea.



Ernesto Sanchez

Trench warfare like WWI

Ernesto Sanchez describes how serving in the Korean War was probably similar to World War 1, digging trenches, putting up fences and placing mines. As a result of creating a No Man's Land the forces were probably able to hold off the Chinese. Most noteworthy, Ernesto Sanchez also describes taking the Chinese soldiers as prisoners and how civilians would aid in this effort.



Attacked by 135,000 Soldiers

Ernesto Sanchez describes the night 135,000 Chinese soldiers attacked in an effort to push back UN Forces . The Chinese pushed the United Nations forces back, but with the help of the American Soldiers they were able to hold off the Chinese and no land was ultimately lost. This location was a strategic position because it was a gateway to Seoul.



Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Esipión Abril Rodríguez

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discusses the most difficult moments of the war and the fear he felt during dangerous missions. He details the Battle of the El Chamizo Hill in which they were under fire for over twenty-four hours and slowly advanced to reconquer the hill from Chinese troops. Furthermore, he remembers the dangers he faced during night patrols and advanced observation missions.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez discute los momentos más difíciles de la guerra y el miedo que sintió durante las misiones más peligrosas. Detalla la Batalla del Cerro El Chamizo en la que estuvieron bajo fuego durante más de veinticuatro horas y eventualmente avanzaron para reconquistar el cerro de las tropas chinas. Además, recuerda los peligros que enfrentó durante las patrullas nocturnas y las misiones de observación avanzada.



The Voyage to Korea / El Viaje a Corea

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recalls feeling a sense of adventure as he left for Korea in 1951. He explains that the voyage lasted about a month with a one-day respite in Hawaii. He shares his memories of the devastation he encountered in Korea as he arrived after Busan had been attacked. Additionally, he remembers the poverty of the civilian population and the way in which civilians helped soldiers with everyday tasks.

Esipión Abril Rodríguez recuerda la sensación de aventura que tuvo cuando partió hacia Corea en 1951. Explica que el viaje duró aproximadamente un mes con un respiro de un día en Hawaii. Comparte sus recuerdos de la devastación que encontró en Corea cuando llegó que fue después que Busan había sido atacado. Además, él recuerda la pobreza de la población civil y la forma en que los coreanos ayudaban a los soldados en las tareas cotidianas.



Eugene Buckley

Dog Tags Saved Eugene Buckley

Refusing to surrender while trapped in a ravine, Eugene Buckley and another soldier (O'Donnell) were climbing out of the ravine when they noticed a soldier who had been shot in the neck. Trying to save his life, Eugene Buckley was shot once in the shoulder and another shot went through his dog tags under his arm. He was lying on the ground trying to help another soldier who wouldn't make it out alive.



Hunger

Eugene Buckley was trying to make it back to the front line after escaping from the ravine when he and O'Donnell got on the back of a family ox cart and spent most of the day traveling. Not having eaten in 4 or 5 days, Eugene Buckley broke into a large container of applesauce and ate the whole thing. He said it wasn't long after that when they were back in the same situation of extreme hungry again.



Returning to the Front Line: Casualties and Hunger

The interviewer asked what happened to the rest of the platoon that was left behind, and Eugene Buckley replied that everyone had been massacred except for himself, O'Donnell, and another soldier. Eugene Buckley had dysentery at the time and he got back so the infirmary gave him a lollipop shaped pill that he consumed to help with the problem. He said when he went into the war, he was 165 pounds, but when he was taken for his wounds, he was only 95 pounds, practically a skeleton.



Eugene Dixon

Taking Terrritory in the Busan Perimeter

Eugene Dixon talks about the role of the United States Marines in securing the Busan Perimeter. He describes the sounds and smells he took in upon arrival in South Korea. He recalls the casualties he encountered during his first months in combat.



Incheon Landing

Eugene Dixon recalls landing at Incheon. He describes how this landing was a gamble on General McArthur's part as it relied heavily on high tide in the evening. He describes the reality of ships being stuck in mud during low tide.



Surrounded by the Enemy at Thanksgiving

Eugene Dixon gives a detailed explanation of encountering the Chinese soldiers just after Thanksgiving in 1950. He recalls being prohibited from crossing the 38th Parallel, and recounts his experiences during the landing at Wonsan. He describes having a hot Thanksgiving meal just before providing relief for other soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir, where the Chinese had cut the supply lines.



Home, Food, and Weather

Eugene Dixon describes how he communicated with his family through letter writing during the Korean War. He details experiences in eating combat rations, and recalls the difficulty in accessing food in extreme cold weather conditions. He recounts the impact of low temperatures on the functioning of weapons and communications devices. He describes the precautions he took to prevent having frost-bite during the war.



Eugene Evers

Shot Down in a RB-29 Over North Korea

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being shot down. He explains flying over North Korea during his reconnaissance mission. He describes the Russian MiG that ultimately took him out of the sky.



Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions as a Prisoner of War. He explains the circumstances of his first seven months in North Korea. He elaborates on how he was treated by the Chinese and North Koreans.



Isolation in Chinese POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being isolated in a Chinese POW camp. He describes his knowledge of Marine Colonel Frank Schwable. Schwable was a fellow POW in the Chinese prisoner camp.



Details of Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult daily living conditions of being a prisoner of war. He explains what it was like during a seven month period (July 1952-January 1953) as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



Eugene Gregory

The Purpose of the Password

Eugene Gregory describes serving in artillery which placed him in an artillery fire support position off of the front lines where the combat was occurring. He recounts his duty of traveling between artillery bases to provide communication and to pass along the daily changing password. He shares that the purpose of the password was to ensure that those on guard duty knew who was a friendly and who may not be.



The Biggest Threat Support Faced

Eugene Gregory describes the dangers faced by artillery support and how they differ from the front lines of the battlefield. He shares that the biggest threats were not from rifle fire but from martyrs and artillery and recounts having to jump into foxholes often to take cover. He recalls the North Koreans and Chinese being very skillful in artillery weaponry and attributes their skill to their recognition of possessing limited ammunition resources.



Experiencing Fear

Eugene Gregory shares that he experienced fear while serving in Korea. He recounts his amphibious landing as the time he was most fearful due to having never been in combat and being unsure of whether the enemy would be there to counter the landing. He shares that as he became more experienced and more combat aware, the fear diminished but never went away.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Eusebio Santiago

Life in the Bunkers

Eusebio Santiago describes his experience in the bunkers along the frontline. He recalls the bunkers were about four feet high and eight feet wide. During threats from the Chinese, he remembers having to quickly move between the bunkers to get to food services. While in the bunkers, he explains how they might go for a month or more without access to a shower.



Defense of Democracy

Eusebio Santiago describes the loss of fellow Puerto Rican soldiers who were there to help a country under attack. Sadly, he shares of never knowing what happened to these men. He reflects on his choice to re-enlist in order to continue the defense of democracy. He elaborates on the division of Korea by the United Nations after World War II and emphasizes his wish for the two Koreas to be a free and unified country again.



Everett G. Dewitt

Scary Moments

Everett G. Dewitt describes being in combat. He explains a particular incident when his unit was caught up in a fire-fight. The Air force cleared the way for them but they suffered many losses. He goes on to describe another incident that occurred several months later that involved being shelled by mortars.



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



Federico S. Sinagose

The Most Difficult Time

Federico S. Sinagose, with the support of his daughter and granddaughter, recounts one of the most challenging moments he faced in Korea. They remember him sharing stories about the young Korean boys who helped the soldiers with daily tasks. He vividly recalls a sign warning everyone to duck due to a sniper threat. Assuming the young boy had seen the warning, he was devastated when the boy was shot and killed by the sniper.



A Nostalgic Revisit

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, provides details of their return trip to Korea. She remembers him being amazed by how much the country has progressed. The trip was nostalgic for her grandfather, who often shared with her as a child his fears of not knowing if he would see the next sunrise. Charlene adds that her grandfather feels that what he and the other soldiers did for the Korean people was ultimately worthwhile.



Duty to Defend People in Need

Federico S. Sinagose's granddaughter, Charlene, remarks on the stark contrast between the Korea of the 1950s, as described by her grandfather, and the country they experienced during their revisit. She recalls him speaking about his longing for home but also his determination to serve his country and assist the Korean people. Tearfully, she expresses her immense pride in her grandfather's service.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Discrimination in the Army / Discriminación en las Fuerzas Armadas

Felipe Aponte-Colon faced discrimination in the army. He noticed that American and Puerto Rican troops were treated differently. This discrimination was most evident during the Battle of Kelly Hill in which casualties were overwhelmingly Puerto Rican. Orders were given for Puerto Ricans only to take the hill and he refused to go with his men because he did not want forty-one more casualties. He recalls that there were two colonels but after an investigation, neither was blamed for the mistakes which led to the deaths of over six hundred Puerto Ricans.

Felipe Aponte-Colón sufrió de discriminación en el ejército. Se dio cuenta de que las tropas estadounidenses y puertorriqueñas eran tratadas de maneras diferente. Esta discriminación fue más evidente durante la Batalla de Kelly Hill en la cual que la mayoría de las bajas fueron puertorriqueñas. Se dieron órdenes para que los puertorriqueños solo tomaran el cerro Kelly. El se negó a ir con sus hombres porque no quería cuarenta y una bajas más. Recuerda que había dos coroneles, pero después de una investigación, ninguno fue culpado por los errores que resultaron en la muerte de más de seiscientos puertorriqueños.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos más difíciles

Felipe Aponte-Colon describes an incident in which he was walking along a river with other troops when they found themselves surrounded by gunfire in every direction. After the leaders were killed, he directed six others to crouch down for safety and eventually led them back to safety in the middle of the night. He credits God for having saved him that night.

Felipe Aponte-Colón cuenta la historia de un incidente en el que caminaba al lado de un río con otras tropas cuando se encontraron rodeados de disparos en todas direcciones. Este fue el momento de más dificultad en la guerra. Después que mataron a los líderes, él le ordenó a otros seis que se agacharan para ponerse a salvo y, finalmente, los guio de regreso a un lugar seguro en medio de la noche. Le da gracias a Dios por haberlo salvado esa noche.



Combat Pay / Pago de Combate

Felipe Aponte-Colon discusses that while he was not paid much for his service, it was very difficult to get his paycheck to his family. He recounts talking with his father on how to best use the money he sent them.

Felipe Aponte-Colon cuenta que Aunque no le pagaron mucho por su servicio en el ejercito, era muy difícil mandarle su dinero a la familia. Él cuenta la historia que tuvo que hablar con su padre sobre mejor cómo usar el dinero que les envió.



Felipe Cruz

Training and Operating Heavy Equipment

Felipe Cruz shares his experience of basic training in the United States Marine Corps. He comments on his training in rifle qualification, infantry, and amphibian tractor school. He recounts how he spent six months as a crewman on amphibian tractors in Busan, Korea, before being deployed to the infantry on the Imjin River. He notes that due to his prior experience in driving trucks, he was reassigned to the Headquarters and Service Company as a heavy equipment truck driver.



Felix Byrd

Ist Marine Division.

In July 1950, Felix Byrd was called from the Reserves to go to Korea, where he participated in the Invasion of Incheon in Sept 1950. He describes himself as lucky because was in communications, behind the infantry, which was not as dangerous. He landed in Incheon and proceeded to Seoul, where he helped run the telephone lines to each military outfit.



A Week as an Infantryman

Felix Byrd describes a week where his outfit moved north, and he served with the infantry until they reached Hamhung, where they were evacuated. He recalls being shot at. He says they had to sleep without sleeping bags in 30-below temperatures.



Felix DelGiudice

Tootsie Rolls

Felix DelGiudice and his peers recall how important Tootsie Rolls were to them during the war. They explained how they were able to warm them up inside the soldiers' coat since they would often freeze in the weather. The Tootsie Rolls were not only a treat, but they were used for other purposes as well.



Freezing Cold Weather

Felix DelGiudice explains how cold it really got to be in Korea, with one night being 42 degrees below zero. This impacted their guns, the machinery, and even their bodily functions. While he says that its not something people like to talk about, it was the reality of their living conditions.



Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Felix DelGiudice participated in the Inchon Landing on September 15th and then fought the North Koreans during the Seoul recapture along with his 1st Marines Battalion. He remembers getting injured shortly after arriving in Korea. He also explains that Seoul was covered with sandbags, blown railroad tracks, and exploded glass domes from the railroad station.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Felix DelGiudice and his battalion describes how their battalion was ambushed and fourteen people were killed. He explains how the units were divided and argues that the General was in too much of a hurry. He remembers how much of a struggle the units had during that time.



Felix Miscalichi Centeno

Impressions of Korea / Impresiones de Corea

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describes his first impressions of Korea. He explains that even though Busan was a city, most of the civilians were farmers who were incredible different to the people he knew. He details the way in which Koreans built their homes and utilized heated floors.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Explica que, aunque Busan era una ciudad, la mayoría de los civiles eran agricultores que eran increíblemente diferentes a la gente de Puerto Rico. Detalla la forma en que los coreanos construían sus casas y utilizaban suelos radiantes.



Most Impactful Moments / Momentos Más Impactantes

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares the moments which were most difficult during the war. He explains that while fighting in the North, he ran out of ammunition and felt unprepared for the weather. Moreover, he explains the importance of his job finding sounds from the enemy.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Explica que mientras luchaba en el norte, se quedó sin municiones y no tenía la ropa necesaria para el clima. Además, explica la importancia de su trabajo encontrando sonidos del enemigo.



Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Félix Miscalichi Centeno shares his thoughts on the legacy of the war. He remembers that even though Koreans were very different, he made friends and learned some of the language. This skill was useful when a group of Koreans burned by napalm were asking for water.

Félix Miscalichi Centeno comparte sus pensamientos sobre el legado de la guerra. Recuerda que, aunque los coreanos eran muy diferentes, se hizo amigos y aprendió algo del idioma. Esta habilidad fue útil cuando un grupo de coreanos quemados por napalm les pedían agua.



Fermín Miranda Valle

Impact of War / Impacto de la Guerra

Fermín Miranda Valle was negatively affected by the war as he suffered from PTSD. He explains that he drank too much, and suffered from nightmares and sleepwalking upon his return. He attributes the difficulty in returning to normal life to the fact that he witnessed many soldiers killed.

Fermín Miranda Valle se vio muy afectado por la guerra ya que sufría de TEPT. Explica que por años bebía demasiado, sufría de pesadillas y sonambulismo a su regreso de la guerra. Atribuye la dificultad para volver a la vida normal al hecho de que fue testigo a la matanza de muchos soldados.



Fidel Diaz

A Scary Place

Fidel Diaz describes how scary it was his first few nights in Korea after the Inchon Landing. He said that seeing the other soldiers that had been captured as an effective form of psychological warfare. He explains how close the North Koreans got to his foxhole.



Land Mine Injury

Fidel Diaz was traveling on foot with his South Korean partner through a field when they went under attack by the North Koreans. Both his South Korean partner and Field Diaz were injured from a land mine. He recalls getting treatment and the people and Bible that saved his life.



Only Seventeen

As a seventeen year old boy, Fidel Diaz says that he really didn’t have any other experiences to draw upon and was really unsure of what he was doing. He describes what happened as the unit headed down to Taegu. He shares a story of what happened to a woman that was pushing a wagon.



Forrest D. Claussen

Sleeping Near Artillery Fire Zones

Forrest Claussen describes arriving in Korea and not having sleeping quarters established yet. He explains how his group was sent to sleep inside a makeshift tent with artillery rounds and recalls artillery fire throughout the night. He adds that his group was later moved to other sleeping quarters.



Frances M. Liberty

Off to Japan and Korea and the Hospital Trains

Frances Liberty recalls traveling to Japan and then Korea after being recalled by the military following her World War II service. She recounts she was stationed on the hospital trains. She explains these trains transported patients from the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (M.A.S.H.) units to hospital ships. She shares that once she dropped the patients off on the hospital ships, she was able to get clean clothes and take a hot shower. She admits that she often would take medical supplies from the M.A.S.H. units for use on the trains.



Francis Beidle

To Free You People From the Commies!

Francis Beidle explains what a difficult time he had while in Korea. He recalls being drafted into the military in 1951 and not understanding the reasons and motivations behind the war other than "to free you people from the Commies!" Even all these years later, he still questions U.S. involvement and how the war concluded.



Francis John Ezzo

Just Doing My Job

Francis Ezzo explains that he does not remember specific hills or battles because he was just doing his job. He describes being outnumbered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the Chinese were not well equipped as some did not have rifles or shoes.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Difficult Moments during War - Momentos difíciles durante la guerra

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the first battle he encountered and the trench warfare in which his battalion supported American troops. He remembers patrolling the hills and thinking about how little experience he and his fellow Colombian soldiers had prior to arriving in the north. In order to engage the enemy into battle, they had to cross a narrow ridge as there were landmines surrounding the area and dead Chinese soldiers on the barbed wire. He describes the mortar attacks which were near his platoon they endured and the heroism of his fellow soldiers as they endured a day long battle. He recalls one of his soldiers, while bleeding heavily, asking the rest of his company to leave, but they refused.

Francisco Caicedo Montua describe la primera batalla que enfrentó y la guerra de trincheras en la que su batallón apoyó a las tropas estadounidenses. Recuerda que tenían que patrullar los cerros y en esos momentos Francisco pensaba en la poca experiencia que él y sus compañeros colombianos tenían antes de llegar al norte. Para enfrentar al enemigo en la batalla, tuvieron que cruzar una cresta en la cual habían minas por toda la área y soldados chinos muertos en el alambre de púas. Describe los ataques de mortero que cayeron cerca de su pelotón y el heroísmo de sus compañeros mientras pelearon una batalla que duró un día. Uno de sus soldados, mientras sangraba mucho, le pidió al resto de su compañía que se fueran, pero ellos no estaban dispuestos a dejarlo solo.



Recognition of the Importance of the Colombian Troops - Reconocimiento de la importancia de las tropas Colombianas

Francisco Caicedo Montua recalls many important targets were captured by the Colombian troops while advancing to Kumsong. He describes the fighting which took place alongside the platoon led by Lieutenant Agustin Angarita Niño, and he discusses the important targets captured on the way to the Trans-Siberian railway. Resulting from this mission, the Commander of the 8th Army, General James Van Fleet, made a public recognition which was published in the newspapers. As Commander of the United Nations in Korea he stated: “I congratulate the Battalion Colombia for its outstanding action during the battle. It is interesting to underline that it was the first and sole allied from South America in Korea. It was also the first element of the United Nations in reaching the vital target of Kumsong. This fact is itself enough to put the Battalion Colombia as a unit of the highest importance to restrain the communist aggression in Korea. General James Van Fleet.”

Mientras avanzaba el Batallón Colombia hacia Kumsong, las tropas colombianas capturaron muchos objetivos importantes. Francisco Caicedo Montua describe los combates junto al pelotón liderado por el teniente Agustín Angarita Niño y comenta sobre los objetivos importantes que capturaron en el camino hacia el ferrocarril Transiberiano. Como resultado de esta misión, el Comandante del 8º Ejército, general James Van Fleet, hizo un reconocimiento público, que fue publicado en muchos periódicos. Como Comandante de las Naciones Unidas en Corea el dijo : “felicito al Batallón Colombia por su sobresaliente actuación en combate, es interesante en subrayar que fue el primero y único aliado de Sudamérica en Corea y fue también el primer elemento de las Naciones Unidas en alcanzar el objetivo vital de Kumsong, este hecho basta por sí solo para colocar al Batallón Colombia como unidad de la más alta importancia de nuestro esfuerzo para contener la agresión comunista en Corea. General James Van Fleet."



Trench Warfare and Faith - Guerra de trincheras y la Fe de los Soldados

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the stories that war writes for each individual soldier. He describes how he survived machine gun fire and mortar attacks by Chinese troops during a fierce battle. He offers a first hand account of a battle in which a Chinese bunker was taken over after intense fighting in which his platoon advanced into enemy lines. He credits this victory, and the fact that none of his men died in the conflict, to the Virgin Mary. The portrait that he carried to battle hangs over his bed to this day.

Francisco Caicedo Montua habla de las historias que la guerra escribe para cada soldado. Durante una feroz batalla, describe cómo sobrevivió al fuego de una ametralladora y a los ataques de mortero de las tropas chinas. Él ofrece un relato de primera mano de una batalla en la que un búnker chino fue tomado después de intensos combates en los que su pelotón avanzó hacia la posición de los enemigos. Él atribuye esta victoria y el hecho de que ninguno de sus hombres murieron en la batalla a la Virgen María. El retrato que él llevó a la guerra todavía cuelga sobre su cama hasta el día de hoy.



Frank Abasciano

Landing at Incheon

Frank Abasciano describes landing at Incheon. He explains that there was a lot of small arms fire when he was there. He remembers how they dropped the LSTs and that the landing was not ideal.



The Chosin Reservoir

Frank Abasciano describes how it felt to be in the Chosin Reservoir alongside a WWII Battle of the Bulge veteran. He remembers being trapped there for several nights and that the WWII veteran said their situation in Korea was worse than his prior experience in WWII. He explains how they "didn't even have a chance to be afraid."



Escaping the Chosin Reservoir with Frostbite

Frank Abasciano shares he was a radioman and sorted communication between the companies. He describes how cold the Chosin Reservoir felt and his frostbite. He explains that they only had a pair of combat boots. He notes that he still suffers the effects of the frostbite.



Frank Churchward

Arriving in Korea Busan to Incheon

Frank Churchward describes his arrival in Korea. He explains how he landed in Busan to Icheon. He shares about a project that was finishing up when he arrived. He also shares how the area has since changed.



Frank E. Butler

Enlisted at Age Fifteen

Frank E. Butler enlisted in the New Zealand Navy in 1951. He completed basic training in Auckland before sailing to Korea aboard the HMNZS Kaniere. At fifteen, he was the youngest New Zealand soldier to go to Korea. He traveled to Pusan, Seoul, and North Korea. He describes being under constant attack by North Koreans.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

"War Just like Any War”

Frank Cohee served in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars and was asked about the difference. In Korea he says that they always knew where the front line was, but in Vietnam there didn’t seem to be a front line. He recalls that they both were “war just like any war.”



Frank Torres

Experiences at the Inchon Landing

Frank Torres describes being part of Inchon landing. He discusses how the group made ladders for the terrain. He shares a story about witnessing the death of his commanding officer. He describes the dangerous situation.



The Reality of the Front Lines

Frank Torres describes defending a pass at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes situations he experienced on the frontlines. He shares the outcomes of his experience and provides insight into the reality of decisions that are made under those conditions.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. He remembers one of his friends drowning while clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. He notes another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. He shares the horrific conditions that the soldiers endured in the "Frozen Chosin".



The Hell of Living in Trenches

Frank Zielinski was stationed at Old Baldy when the Armistice went into effect. He remembers the danger of living in cold trenches filled with water. The enemy would attack at night, so soldiers stayed awake to guard their positions. With no hot food available, C-rations included pork and beans, cookies, cigarettes, and instant coffee. He recalls soldiers leaving part of their rations for the children living in nearby villages.



Fond Memories and Lessons Learned

Frank Zielinski describes the use of Korean "house boys" by various officers, though he himself did not take on a house boy. KATUSAS brought food up the paths to the front lines to feed soldiers. At Thanksgiving, the KSCs delivered much-appreciated turkey. Korea taught Frank Zielinski to respect and protect others.



Franklin M. Sarver, Jr.

Calculation of Combat Pay

Franklin Sarver, Jr. describes the responsibility he was assigned to calculating enlisted men's pay. He shares how he and a small group of men handled the payment of soldiers. He explains the criteria necessary to receive combat pay.



Losing One's Lunch

Franklin M. Sarver, Jr. describes being on the ship heading to Asia. He describes the seasickness him and others experiences. He shares memories of that time on the ship.



The Armistice

Franklin M. Sarver, Jr. explains how he was in the middle of fighting when the Armistice was signed. He shared the struggle of getting a count of all the men within 48 hours. He shares how the job got done.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Barbed Wire Fence along the Yalu River

Franklin Gillreath describes the march north as a prisoner of war (POW) deep into North Korea. He explains that villages would be emptied so that the prisoners could be stowed in the huts of North Korean civilians where there was only enough room to sit up. He describes the camp along the Yalu River where barbed wire used to keep in cattle was the only border between him and escape.



Lice Popping Contests

Franklin Gillreath describes the grass mats they were given to sleep on in the POW camps. He explains that the mats were infested with lice as well as the clothes they were forced to remain in for two years. He describes contests between the captured men to see who could kill the most lice between their fingers.



Fred Barnett

Life in the Camp

Fred Barnett describes life at the camps. He describes the food, showers, etc, generally saying that life wasn't too bad and that the food was actually better than what he was getting at home. He says he had a good time in the camp, as he was away from the front lines.



Fred J. Ito

Thanksgiving at Usan

Fred Ito describes Thanksgiving in Usan. The 25th Division came to relieve the 2nd Battalion while they enjoyed their turkey, but the Chinese unit, which had been hiding behind the mountains, made a big offensive against the 25th Division, including Fred Ito's friend. Fred Ito and some of the 2nd Battalion went back to help, but found themselves having to escape through the deep river.



Fred Liberman

Fearing For One's Life

Fred Liberman experienced many situations of death while he was in Korea, but in this clip, he describes a moment when he thought he was going to be killed. As his group was being attacked on a hill, he found himself in a hole in the line of fire of a Chinese soldier with a burp gun. Fortunately, he was able to escape and began shooting back at the enemy.



Fred Liddell

The capture of Fred Liddell: POW

Fred Liddell was captured by the Chinese in May 1951 at Hill 151 (Jirisan Mountain). His regiment was supposed to hold this hill until the US artillery saturated the hill. As Fred Liddell went down a slope around rocks, he met up with the Marines that were milling around near multiple vehicles on fire. The Chinese surrounded the US soldiers even as Fred Liddell was killing some of them in the bushes. Injured US soldiers were burned to death in a hut while over 300 POWs were forced to march to a cave and then onto Camp Suan.



Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Fred Ragusa

"I'll Tell You What You Can Do with Those Poles"

Fred Ragusa recalls an incident when his troop was under intensive fire, coming from both sides. When they lost communication, one of his peers grabbed a spool of wire and ran up a hill to reconnect communication, risking his life. While this sergeant survived, he was reprimanded for disrespect until the superiors realized how important his act was.



"We Were Glad to be Alive"

Fred Ragusa recalls one of his scariest experiences in Korea. In a mission to try to bring jets into the area, the smoke round burst into two because the density of it was not correct. As he was running toward that unit, the smoke rose as the jets were coming in with napalm. Fortunately, the jets did not fully come in and the troops were just glad to be alive.



Fredrick Still

Running a Road Grader

Fredrick Still describes his job in Korea, maintaining roads as a part of the 116th Combat Engineer Battalion. Because of his experience on the farm, he was familiar working with heavy equipment, but his first hand road grader was too dangerous due to the rocky terrain. He explains that he then got a motorized road grader that was much easier to operate after a few days.



Galip Fethi Okay

Korean War Experience

Galip Fethi Okay describes his Korean War experience. He was stationed at three different fronts during the war (Vegas, Elco and Berlin). He was also at Sand Bag Castle. Galip Fethi Okay also describes his injury from shrapnel that hospitalized him for two months. For his service, he earned many medals.



In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



Garry Hashimoto

Experiences on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto talks about his experiences on the front lines. He was originally a rifleman, but because he was more experienced than most after only three months out there, he became a forward observer. He shares how he had to stay one hundred feet ahead of his platoon and keep a lookout for ambushes. He reflects on the dangers he faced, including facing machine gun fire. He remembers being bombarded with artillery shells all the time, especially from the Chinese.



Chinese Soldiers and PTSD

Garry Hashimoto discusses his perspectives on Chinese soldiers. He remembers Chinese soldiers being crazy. He shares how they were often high, and that they would find drugs on them. He believes they took drugs so they would stay awake and fight all the time. He comments on his sleep schedule and shares that he suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He reflects on how one of his replacements was killed soon after taking his post.



Life on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto remembers what it was like to be on the front lines in Korea. He recalls having to spend at least thirty days on the front lines, never having a shower or brushing his teeth. He remembers having to wear the same uniform and socks the entire time. He recalls how even if his boots were filled with water, he could not take them off until he made it to a safe place. He remembers his socks smelled so bad and how he ended up suffering from trench foot. He recounts how the allied forces would wear fluorescents so the airplanes knew where to drop food. He shares how they had c-rations to eat and remembers the ham or pork and beans being the best. He explains that he never went hungry and had plenty of cigarettes. He describes his bed being a foxhole, and he remembers it was very cold.



Gene Bill Davidson

Critical Messages

Gene Bill Davidson explains the procedure of delivering messages to the frontline and which levels of messages were expedited. Because of the information he was receiving and delivering, he provides insight into the level of clearance he held and differentiates between operational immediate and flash operation messages. He elaborates on the specifics of his job and one specific delivery that was a close call.



Delivery From the Commander

Gene Bill Davidson gives an account of how he eventually received his winter gear. Since he arrived during the spring, he shares he was equipped with summer gear. As it grew colder, he recalls the other soldiers receiving their winter clothing but he still lacked equipment. He describes making multiple requests for winter boots. After being caught in a blizzard and arriving back to the bunker with severe frostbite, he shares how he decided to take further action. In order to get the name of his Senator, he recalls how he decided to write to his mother. Eleven days later, he remembers pulling a message off of the teletype demanding resources for Gene Davidson. The next day, he remembers a helicopter landed with his size fourteen boots. He reveals that his mother wrote President Eisenhower a letter, and that is why he received his winter boots.



Gene C. Richards

Avoiding the Final Mission

Gene C. Richards earned 4 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters in addition to his Air Medal. He was one mission away from earning his fifth. He was determined to make one last mission, however, last minute was convinced not to make the attempt. Gene C. Richards describes how he is grateful to not have taken that mission due to that plane being shot down.



Gene Jordan

A Pile of Rubble

Gene Jordan describes what it was like when he landed in Incheon. He describes the horrific scene and the utter despair of Korean children. He describes the shock he experienced from the damage and civilians begging for food.



Night Patrolling

Gene Jordan describes being on the trench line at night for thirty days straight during the Korean War. He describes how the enemy was on one side and they were on the other. He explains that it was a stationary war at this point, and that they lived in the trench lines and bunkers depsite the extremely cold weather.



Gene Peeples

The 7th Med Battalion

Gene Peeples describes his role as a combat medic in the 7th Med Battalion. He describes combat medics rotating between different units every two weeks. He explains that he would spend time with engineering troops, then switch to another unit such as infantry.



Mostly Gunshot Wounds

Gene Peeples describes his treatment of the most common wounds he encountered as a medic during the Korean War. He explains his quick treatment of gunshot wounds before sending injured soldiers off to evacuation. He also describes another of the most common conditions they saw in the hospital, venereal disease.



Gene Spicer

Empathy for the Dead

Gene Spicer recounts his most difficult memories from Korea. The image of a dead Chinese soldier stuck in his mind. It reminds him of the reality of war and its consequences for families and the young.



Gene Stone

Attachment to the 1st Marine Division

Gene Stone became part of the twelve men attached to the 1st Marine Division in order to establish the 181st Counterintelligence Detachment. He notes the Marines did not have counterintelligence units so spies were coming through the Marines "like gangbusters". He shares the involvement of counterintelligence units in Operation Little Switch and Operation Big Switch in which prisoners of war were exchanged following the armistice.



Interrogating Infiltrators

Gene Stone recalls his major duties as a member of the 181st Counterintelligence Detachment included interviewing and interrogating enemy infiltrators. He remembers having eight hours to determine if the person was indeed an enemy infiltrator, complete eight copies of an eight page report, and send them onto 1st Corp Headquarters in Uijeongbu. He recounts one particular incident with what turned out to be an Chinese infiltrator.



Learning Counterintelligence Techniques

Gene Stone recalls several members of his detachment served as part of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II. He notes learning many techniques from sitting in on interrogations with these experienced members of his detachment.



Dangerous First Night on the Front Lines

Gene Stones recalls a dangerous situation the first night he was on the front lines with the 1st Marine Division. He details one of his tent mates returning from the outhouse to alert everyone the Chinese were coming over the concertina wire fence into their camp. He remembers not really recognizing the danger while the event was occurring but later realizing the enemy had shot at him.



Geoffrey Grimley

Recollections of Korea

Geoff Grimley remembers seeing Korea for the first time and observing telegraph lines down and burning T-34 tanks. He speaks about having to sleep in a field and waking up with frost on his things, but he says it was better than school because he would get a beating every day. He briefly recalls the Battle of Kapyong.



George A. Edwards

Typical Day as A Reconnaissance Pilot

George Edwards describes the reconnaissance missions on which he would fly. While every day was different, they often had to go out and take pictures of the area. His trips included photographing the Yalu River and much further north in Korea.



The Process of Taking Reconnaissance Pictures

George Edwards explains that he would fly solo missions to take photos. He states that the quality of the photos were rather good. He remembers that they would process the film upon returning back to base and would them disseminate it to whoever needed it.



George Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Son's Death

George Brown recounts learning of his brother Arthur L. Brown initially being classified as Missing in Action on July 7, 1950. He shares that Arthur was serving in Korea as part of the 21st Regiment, 24th Division, Company K where when he was not actively carrying out his duty as an infantryman. He recalls how the family later learned he was being held as a Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. He recounts learning how Arthur died on his twenty-first birthday in January 1951 and that some of the returning soldiers told his family Arthur had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



Regrets of Hearing About Their Son's Death

George Brown recalls his parents were hit very hard by the news of their son Arthur Leroy Brown's death. He recalls his mom was pregnant with their first daughter and all were excited with the news. He remembers how Arthur eagerly shared the news with his fellow soldiers. He recounts how before Arthur left for boot camp, he and his father got into a scuffle because his father did not want him to quit school to join the Army.



The Burial of a POW

George Brown shares he was only six years old at the time his family was notified of his brother Arthur's death in POW Camp 5 in North Korea. He states that Arthur was temporarily buried in North Korea in a shallow grave due to the ground being frozen solid. He explains that the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency lists Arthur as unaccounted for and shares that Arthur is memorialized on the Courts of the Missing at the National Cemetery of the Pacific.



George Dixon

Death Soon After Arrival

George Dixon was sent two miles into North Korea after landing in Incheon in February 1952. His squad leader kept a close watch on him since he did not have infantry training; George Dixon was shot in the helmet during this time, but his protective squad leader was killed right next time. Shortly after this, George Dixon explains how he captured the first POW for his regiment



George Drake

A Life Abroad Before Korea

Dr. George Drake explains how growing up in poverty affected his life decisions. He describes his travels to South America and Europe before enlisting into the United States Army. He recounts wanting to be a part of the Army Corps of Engineers to study topography, but he was placed with Intelligence instead.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



Radio Transmitters, Ghost Towns, and Orphanages in Seoul

George Enice Lawhon Jr.'s job in the US military was to fix a BC 610 (a Collins radio Transmitter). When he arrived in Seoul, there was not anyone there and it was a ghost town. Sadly, some old and young people found in a rice field shot and bayonetted. He had a Chaplin in his group that started an orphanage for Korean children because there were so many that were left alone.



PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George J. Bruzgis

Befriending The KATUSA

Short on men within his own division, the KATUSA pictured with George Bruzgis is Corporal Yu daek yoo. He described him as a great man and he was considered a part of the division. George Bruzgis mentioned how little the KATUSA was paid, so the men in his division pitched in 5 dollars each, so that they could paying him over 20 dollars a month. This was a lot of money in 1953.



Signed To Cease Fire; Look What We Hit!

George Bruzgis vividly recalled on July 26, 1953, a Major approached them with a document they (both US and ROK) had to sign agreeing that at 10 p.m. on July 27, 1953, they had to stop firing their weapons. Shortly afterwards, a two-ton truck arrived taking most of their ammunition away, so they wouldn't shoot. However, at 6 a.m on July 27, 1953, they got a phone call that they were given coordinates to fire 5 rounds on what they thought maybe a cave or a bunker. He later learned in 2000 when he received a battalion pamphlet, his story of that morning was located within it saying his division destroyed a Chinese Observation Post.



Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



R&R, Hitchhiking, and Trench Injuries, Oh My!

After reenlisting in the military in March 7, 1954, George Bruzgis was given a 30 day leave and 7 day R&R in Japan, but he had difficulty getting back to Korea since the French were fighting in Indochina.
After finally being shipped to Pusan, he had to hitchhike for 3 days to get back to his unit. George Bruzgis would rest/sleep along his hike by signing paper work that would allow him to eat and sleep before moving to the next Army unit and so forth. After he met up with his division, he fell into a trench and injured his knees for 2 weeks.



George Koustoklenis

Member of the Resistance

George Koustoklenis first experienced military life as a resistance fighter during the Macedonian rebel war. In his account, he recalls sustaining injuries on two occasions: first in Kaimak Tsalan and later in Beles.



It was Miserable

George Koustoklenis recalls reading in the newspapers about North Korea's invasion of South Korea in June 1950, followed by the United Nations' call for help. Instead of being sent directly to Korea, he spent some time training in Lamia, where they assessed each soldier's best role in the military. After completing his training, he arrived in Busan in December 1950. He offers commentary on both the city and his journey to Suwon.



All Moments are Hard in War

As a member of the Greek Expeditionary Forces, George Koustoklenis specialized in working with mines. Despite the inherent danger of this task, he managed to avoid injury, though he witnessed many comrades who were not as fortunate. He details his involvement in battles on Hill 381 and Hill 402, describing the daily struggles from May 1951 until his departure from Korea.



George Myron

Earning the Silver Star

George Myron describes the moment in which he earns the Silver Star. He recalls climbing Hill 1305 to assist fellow soldiers who had been pinned down and were needing a way out. While coming under heavy enemy fire and not seeing from where it was coming, he recalls standing up and letting the enemy fire at him, therefore exposing the enemy's position and allowing his unit to take the enemy out and to rescue those trapped.



George P. Wolf

Flying in the Berlin Airlift

George Wolf was a pilot in the Air Force during the Berlin Airlift after WWII. He provided food, but mostly coal to the people living in West Berlin during the Russian blockade. He flew the same path that the famous, Gail Halvorsen, flew during the 11-month blockade.



Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf was a "Mosquito" pilot who flew reconnaissance missions in support of Army infantry. These missions took him very low to the ground. Tanks would hide under foliage and shoot at his plane from the ground.



Scouting Troop Movement During the Battle of Jipyeongri

George Wolf was a Mosquito pilot during the Korean War who located enemy troops and directed fighters during the Battle of Jipyeongri. During the February 1951, he helped provide information from the air to help lead the UN troops to victory. This was a tough battle against the Chinese troops near the village of Chipyong-ni, present time Jipyeong-ri.



The Role of a Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf's role during the Korean War was that he was a Mosquito pilot that provided reconnaissance for UN nations. The Chinese wore dark green uniforms and he only flew 100 feet off the ground. Both the North Koreans and Chinese would hid really well with their camouflage uniforms.



Nobody Believed Us

George Wolf encountered Chinese troops early in the war while performing reconnaissance as a Mosquito pilot in February 1951. He reported many times about Chinese presence, but he felt they were ignored. In late October through early November 1951, George Wolf saw thousands of Chinese cross the Cheonggyecheon River, so he reported this information to the US intelligence officers, but they did not believe that the Chinese were fighting in the Korean War.



Air Force's Job in the Korean War

George Wolf remembered how many of the US troops would say, "Thank goodness for the Air Force!" US pilots worked with Australian, South African, New Zealanders, and British pilots during the war. George Wolf easily recognized the British by their accent and he loved the Australians' sayings during combat.



George Staples

Service in Korea

George Staples describes is role in the Korean War. He shares how he piloted a Huey B-35 and transported wounded soldiers from the front lines to MASH. He describes how the enemy shot through the helicopter and hit him in the abdomen and leg. He recounts how the helicopter could not make it back to base. He shares he was able to return to U.S. controlled land north of Incheon, though, and was taken to MASH.



Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He recalls he was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. He notes he is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. He shares that, above all, the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



Nightmares of War

George Staples describes the horrors of combat. He details how these events have haunted him, seeing the wounded men. He shares that the events of flying into the frontline and saving men show up in his dreams--images he cannot forget. He describes these events as PTSD.



George Sullivan

Impressions of Korea

George Sullivan talks about his experiences in Korea during the 1950s. He remembers how cold the weather was and how destitute the South Koreans were. He recalls many of them living in tents or broken down cars and shares that Seoul was totally destroyed. He is amazed at the transformation South Korea has made over the last half century and adds that he really enjoys kimchi.



Pushed Back by China

George Sullivan recalls experiencing the push back to Busan by Chinese forces. He remembers hearing that General MacArthur said they were going to push back. During the push back, his tank broke, and he ended up in hand-to-hand combat with a Chinese soldier. He recounts that his arm was cut by a bayonet and had to be treated.



On the Front Lines

George Sullivan recounts his experiences in tanks along the front lines. He shares his tank unit had a direct confrontation with the enemy and recalls being wounded in the leg by gunfire. He comments on his fortune that it did not break any of his bones. He shares he continued to fight after he was mended.



The Most Severe Battle

George Sullivan shares he lost a cousin at the Battle at Heartbreak Ridge. He remembers digging a trench and crawling into it. He recalls not being able to move the next morning and shares he ended up with malaria. He recounts how he healed after a short hospital stay and returned to the front lines.



George Van Hoomissen

Becoming Part of the VMO-6

George Van Hoomissen shares that by June of 1952 he was transferred to division headquarters in the G-2 section as an intelligence offers. He recollects one of his classmates recommend he fly planes just like the classmate was in the Air Force. He shares how difficult of a task this was since he was part of the Marine Corps. He remembers reaching out to the commander of a squadron of Marine observers near division headquarters expressing interest in joining the squadron which he was eventually able to do. He shares he, in late 1952, was assigned to the VMO-6, the Heavier than Air (V), Marine (M), Observation (O) unit.



Duties as a Member of VMO-6

George Van Hoomissen explains he served as part of the Marine Corps's VMO-6 unit from late 1952 until he returned from Korean in 1953. He offers details of what his job was as an observer. He recalls always being in danger because they were constantly flying about 3000 feet over the Chinese lines.



George W. Liebenstein

Assigned to Battery Supply

George "Bill" Liebenstein details his assignment beginning with his arrival in Korea. Initially, he was assigned to the motor pool, but when his commanding officer learned he was trained in supply, he was quickly transferred to battery supply. He quickly moved up to the rank of Battery Supply Sergeant. He describes his role in battery supply serving Batteries A, B, C, and Headquarters. He notes the types of products they were in charge of distributing but does share that most rations did not typically come through supply.



George Warfield

Military Reconnaissance

George Warfield was in the reserves when he was called into active duty. He was sent to Fort Campbell for two to three weeks to retrain for war. After training, he was shipped to Japan to set up for the Korean War with the 25th Reconnaissance Company, 25th Division. As a radio operator in a reconnaissance company, he had to find the enemy, go to fill-in the front line if the enemy broke the line, and he was the last unit to retreat.



Destruction on Christmas Eve

George Warfield landed in Korea on December 24, 1950 and had Christmas Eve dinner on the ship before he was dropped off at Inchon harbor. He counted 17 tanks that went out to battle from Inchon, but only 1 came back the next morning after fighting. George Warfield passed through Euijeongbu one night and saw the terrible conditions for civilians, but he did not stay in any location longer than a day.



Experiences Working With the Turkish Troops

George Warfield worked with the Turkish Army and they were tough. The Turkish Army even practiced hand-to-hand combat with their own troops to stay battle-ready. George Warfield said that he would fight with them against an enemy at any time.



George Zimmerman

Working as a welder for transportation company

George Zimmerman worked at the Transportation Headquarters at Camp Casey. He recalls his experience welding in FFA in high school led him to volunteer to serve as the company's welder. He details 'going to the field,' and using his welding skills to repair damaged vehicles. During these forays, KATUSA soldiers accompanied him for training. He notes they traveled to areas near the DMZ and to Seoul, wherever troops needed their services.



Well Worth It

George Zimmerman describes the landscape of Korea as "something else." Winters were especially cold near the DMZ and the Chosin Reservoir. At one point, he had permission to take R and R in Japan, but he felt too committed to his work in Korea and turned it down. He recounts his return trip to the states following his service in Korea. George Zimmerman reminds students of today that Korea was important, with terrible loss of life for an important cause.



Georgios Hahlioutis

Tears in My Eyes

George Hahlioutis vividly describes the scene of catastrophic destruction that greeted him when he first set foot in Korea. He recounts the profound suffering and pain of the locals, particularly the hungry children, which left a lasting impact on him



Thoughts of a Soldier

George Hahlioutis recalls a moment of combat where he was ordered to shoot at two figures, possibly North Korean soldiers. Despite the circumstances, he maintains a belief in his heart that he didn't take any lives. Expressing regret over the ordeal, he finds solace in the knowledge that his actions contributed to aiding the Korean people



Georgios Margaritis

Mine Sweeping

George Margaritis explains his role as a mine sweeper during his time in Korea. He notes one occasion on the Inchon Plain where he and another mine sweeper were ordered to search what appeared to be a collection of cables for potential mines.

Note: English translation begins at 21:37



Battle for Outpost Harry

George Margaritis vividly recalls the events of the attack on Outpost Harry, which he references as Hill Harry in June of 1953. He explains his unit was sent to replace the American forces on the hill after devastating fighting. He shares his memories of the brutal fighting that went on at the hill.

Note: English Translation begins at 29:49



Brutal Fighting on Harry Hill (Outpost Harry)

George Margaritis offers vivid details of the devastating fighting at Outpost Harry (Harry Hill). He recalls death and brutal fighting. He concludes by sharing the happiness felt when the armistice was reached.

Note: English Translation begins at 39:36



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Battle of the Hook 1953

Gerry Farmer describes the Battle of the Hook and how he was wounded. He says the Hook was action from the start compared to Hill 159. He recalls there being four or five solders in the bunker which connected to trenches and other bunkers. He adds there were different types of patrols.



Wounded

Gerry Farmer describes being wounded at the Hook after he volunteered to drive a jeep to Area 3. He remembers he was blown forty yards from the jeep, and adds he still has injuries and shrapnel in his back. He recalls being transported to a Norwegian MASH and then to Seoul where he underwent three operations.



Gerald Edward Ballow

Jubilation after Inchon Landing

Gerald Ballow remembered the jubilation that took place after the successful Inchon Landing took place. He also felt that General MacArthur was doing a fantastic job during the Korean War and that it was Generals George Marshal and Omar Bradley's jealousy that flushed General MacArthur out of the Korean War.



Crossing the Yalu River

Gerald Ballow expresses his opinions about what he considers an “intelligence disaster” at the Yalu River. He believes that the officers knew that the Chinese were amassing across the river before they got there. He explains how the US was completely outnumbered by the Chinese and there were not any additional troops to send up there to help fight the Chinese.



GHQ 1st Raider Company

Gerald Ballow describes the book he wrote about the GHQ 1st Raider Company that was made up of the soldiers in General MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. He explains that soldiers fought through the Chosin Reservoir and they helped with the Inchon landing too. He describes their roles and what they achieved during the Korean War.



Gerald Harbach

Moment of First Combat

Gerald Harbach describes his first real moment of combat and how the weather impeded their efforts. He describes how water filling the trenches from heavy rains and then a sudden and drastic drop in temperatures made for a very difficult maneuver. He recalls they had yet to receive winter clothing and were sleeping standing up to avoid frostbite, though many did suffer from it. He remembers relieving the company on duty and shaking hands with one fellow only for him to fall dead minutes later from incoming shells.



Just Keep Running

Gerald Harbach describes scenes of intense battles that he witnessed at Outpost Harry and Pork Chop Hill, as well as the Battle of White Horse. He recalls moments where all he knew to do was to try and keep running. He vividly remembers the sound of the bullets as they whizzed past his head.



Gerald Land

Bayonet Checks "Across His Neck"

Gerald Land admitted he had never heard of Korea before he was sent and he described his Marine friend, Bill Carroll, of Fox Company, who Gerald Land thought had been wiped out at the "Frozen Chosin." Bill Carroll managed to survive after being shot by laying on the ground pretending to be dead during "bayonet checks". His friend recalled the bayonet sliding across his neck, but he survived and woke up on the hospital ship even though he wanted to go back with his Company. A soldiers' best advice was, "don't get captured!"



Government Issued (G.I.) Gear

When they arrived at Inchon, Gerald Land had to wear khakis and a short sleeve shirt in the middle of the winter while traveling to Chuncheon. Once the soldiers arrived at Chuncheon, they were given two pairs of long underwear, a towel, soap, brush, pants, fatigues, field jacket, and pile lined jacket (no overcoat). The men were also given a M-1 Rifle w/ bandolier, cartridges, and a helmet.



Homesick Soldiers

Gerald Land described how he felt in December 1952 on Heartbreak Ridge in the middle of the winter. An Army loudspeakers would play Christmas carols and a woman would be telling stories back home of your girlfriend cheating on you with your best friend. He also recalled a time shortly after New Years when one of the guys started firing his weapon by making a series of shots that sounded funny and the Patton tank at the base of that mountain fired a round which it lifted their spirits. He said he felt very homesick.
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Gerald Land's First Encounter with North Koreans

Gerald Land described how his Company Commander and his Sergeant were at an Outpost at Kumwha Valley for 3 days for 3 nights with no sleep. They barricaded themselves with barbed wire and hung C-ration containers so if anything hit the wire, it would make a sound, and the men knew where to shoot. Gerald Land spoke often of rats crawling around touching the C-rations, but it did alert him when the North Koreans were near.



War Is Hell: My First Kill

Gerald Land recalled when he was shot by North Koreans for the first time, and how terrible he felt knowing that he was tearing the enemy to pieces with his gun. As a Methodist, he carried a prayer book around and prayed for guidance/forgiveness for his time in the war. He also hoped and prayed that he would make it home safe to his family.



Released POWs Had a Blank Stare In Their Eyes

Panmunjom was the site of disembarkation at the time when Gerald Land left in September of 1953. He came across American soldiers who had been held as Prisoners of War. Gerald Land was overcome by sadness when he saw how sick the POWs looked. They just stared into space and this made Gerald Land reflect how lucky he was to come out alive. He couldn't imagine the type of torture those men had been put through.



Geraldene Felton

Serving as a Nurse in Korea

Geraldene Felton describes military nursing in Korea and the living conditions while there. She recalls feeling very protected by the men in Korea. At the time of her service in Korea, she says she was a regular nurse and was there when there was active conflict. She describes how the MASH units worked and how they would move depending on where the fighting was located. She notes her tour of duty in Korea was thirteen months.



Setting up MASH Units and Feelings on Respect for Women in Korea

Geraldene Felton reflects on the treatment of women in Korea and feels that she was highly respected by her superior. She shares she felt very protected by the men serving there. She describes the process of moving the MASH units as well as her living conditions within Korea.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Shooting Chinese from Hidden Vantage Points

Germaye Tesfaye was a heavy machine gunner for the Third Battalion. While manning the front lines, he and his battalion hid under heavy cover to avoid being discovered and killed. Using heavy weaponry to shoot the enemy from a distance, he and his fellow Ethiopians killed numerous Chinese. At one point he was shot in heavy fighting.



Stopped by the Armistice

Germaye Tesfaye left Korea in 1953. So many people had died by that time. He still wishes the Armistice had not prevented him and his fellow Ethiopians from continuing their fight. They really wanted to take over North Korea. Germaye Tesfaye praises Korea's surprising progress since the 1950s. He is happy that the nation he fought to protect has achieved such economic success.



Gilbert Hauffels

Death of a Hero on White Horse Hill

Gilbert Hauffels recalls the Luxembourg Platoon on White Horse Hill found themselves just 600 meters ahead of the trenches, with North Korean artillery a mere 400 meters away. Amidst the barrage, he reflects on the valor shown by Luxembourgian Sergeant Robert Mores exhibited who rushed to rescue soldiers trapped under collapsed bunkers. Sadly, he notes Sergeant Mores was one of the two soldiers from Luxembourg who lost their lives in the Korean War.



Christmas Joy on the Front Lines

Following a period of rest and relaxation in Japan, Gilbert Hauffels’ platoon returned to the front near Cheorwon in late December. He remembers on Christmas Day, helicopters delivered turkey dinners to soldiers stationed on the front lines. This brought a sense of joy and festivity to the Luxembourg troops in Korea, who were eagerly anticipating their imminent return home to Luxembourg. The combination of the special turkey dinner and the excitement of going back home created a delightful atmosphere for the soldiers' Christmas celebration.



Time When I Became a Man

Gilbert Hauffels reflects on how his service in Korea contributed significantly to his personal growth and maturity. He recounts witnessing numerous instances of death and injury during his time there, which had a profound impact on him and helped shape his understanding of life.



Gilberto Diaz Velazco

Most Difficult Night of the War / La Noche Más Difícil de la Guerra

Gilberto Diaz Velazco explains why the Battle of Old Baldy was the most difficult fighting of the war. He recounts that the Chinese took advantage of the fact that Company A was being relieved by Company C and attacked UN troops in the midst of this confusion. The Chinese and North Koreans were relentless, and the fighting seemed never-ending. He and others would be relieved for a while and then were reintroduced to the battlefield. He recounts walking over dead fellow soldiers and the measures he had to take to find a fallen friend.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco explica qué la Batalla de Old Baldy fue la lucha más difícil de la guerra. Él cuenta que los chinos aprovecharon del hecho que la Compañía A estaba siendo relevada por la Compañía C y atacaron a las tropas en el medio de esa confusión. Los chinos y los norcoreanos sequian atacando toda la noche y la lucha parecía interminable. Lo relevaron a él y otros por un tiempo y luego serían reintroducidos a el campo de batalla. Cuenta haber caminado sobre compañeros muertos y las medidas que tuvo que tomar para encontrar a un amigo que había muerto.



Recovering the Fallen / Recuperando a los caídos

Gilberto Diaz Velazco recalls the difficulty of the fighting at Hill 180 and the carnage of war. He recounts that they suffered casualties during the fighting but were not allowed to leave the dead behind. As a follow up mission, he was a member of the operation to recover the dead. He explains that he felt like bait because the enemy was waiting for them to recover the fallen and fired at them injuring his lieutenant.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco recuerda la dificultad del combate en el Cerro 180 y la crueldad de la guerra. Cuenta que sufrieron bajas durante la batalla, pero no se podía dejar atrás a los muertos. Como segunda misión, él fue miembro de la operación para recuperar a los
cadáveres. Explica que se sintió como carnada porque el enemigo estaba esperando que recuperaran a los caídos y les dispararon hiriendo a su teniente.



Night Patrol / Patrulla Nocturna

Gilberto Díaz Velazco details his duties as a forward observer. He explains the measures he took to remain undetected. He additionally explains how they had to rely on all their senses to detect the location of the enemy.

Gilberto Díaz Velazco detalla sus funciones como observador avanzado. Explica las medidas que tomó para no ser detectado de noche. También explica cómo tuvieron que confiar en todos sus sentidos para detectar la ubicación del enemigo.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

Losing a Brother / La Pérdida de Un Hermano

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama remembers the painful events which resulted in the death of one of his best friends. He recounts how his friend was an amazing athlete and expert rifleman and because he was an excellent soldier, he was in the first line. He laments the way in which his friend and so many other young men died during that battle.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama recuerda la batalla que resulto en la muerte de uno de sus mejores amigos. Cuenta que su amigo era un atleta increíble y un fusilero experto y, como era un excelente soldado, estaba en la primera línea. Lamenta la forma en que murió su amigo y tantos otros muchachos jóvenes durante esa batalla.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama shares the most difficult moments of the war. He discusses an incident in which their platoon was in trouble as they were forced to fight Chinese troops into the night. He remembers that air reinforcements helped save them after the intense fighting.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Habla de un incidente en el que su pelotón estuvo en problemas al verse obligados a luchar contra las tropas chinas hasta la madrugada. El recuerda que los refuerzos aéreos ayudaron a salvarlos después de horas y horas de combate.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes serving as a Medical Assistant during the Korean War. He observes that Ethiopian soldiers were not assigned a doctor. Instead, there were six medical assistants designated for every shambles, which consisted of two hundred fifty men. He confesses to still having nightmares about many of the wounded he helped treat.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw recounts his time during the Korean War, where men resided in bunkers without access to hot meals and suffered from sleep deprivation due to frequent attacks. The constant barrage of mortar shells would shake the ground at any given moment. Additionally, soldiers were only allowed to shower every ten days under orders from the Americans. Despite these hardships, he still considers his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Serving as a Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw remembers arriving in Korea in 1952 and noticing the poverty and extensive destruction in the country. He then delves into his role as a medical assistant, specifically serving Ethiopian troops. He acknowledges the difficulty of administering first aid to injured comrades during his service.



Glen Collins

The Ongoing Effects of PTSD

Glen Collins shares his struggles with memories of his assignment in Korea as a gunner. He describes waking up at night in tears because he has recalled his role in the loss of human life, even though his exposure to their deaths was at a distance. Although it has been over 60 years, he still struggles.



Shelter and Rations

Glen Collins recalls the hardships of war. He describes living in a pup tent. He recalls his favorite rations and the occasional hot meal.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Arrival in Busan and Seoul

When Gordon McIntrye first arrived in Busan, the New Zealand troops were met by an American Dixie band. He describes seeing Seoul's utter destruction, claiming it must have been one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Fronts of buildings were blown out on either side of the wide streets, but he encountered a relatively untouched brick cathedral.



Life Near the Front

Gordon McIntyre transferred to an English unit due to the extensive loss of life in the English outfit. Near headquarters he noted a Canadian field hospital and rows of drums filled with napalm. Throughout his first night he was not afraid despite the explosions from incessant artillery fire. The next morning he left the truck to find an unexploded mortar shell that would have killed everyone at the post had it exploded.



Battle of Maryang-san

Gordon McIntyre describes five to six days of continuous fighting at the Battle of Maryang-san. He camped around eight hundred meters from the front lines. The second and third nights all soldiers stood ready to leave in the middle of the night if overrun. The Battle of Maryang-san featured combat between the Australian Army and the Chinese as the North Korean army had been decimated by that point. The danger did not scare him because he was too busy to think about it at the time.



Grace Ackerman

PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Graham L. Hughes

Stress and Relief for the Radio Operators

Graham Hughes was a radio operator and worked in four-hour, two-man shifts. Radio operators had to find time to sleep, wash, and rest in four hours. This exhaustion caused him to get shingles. There was a constant, intense pressure for his military specialty throughout the Korean War. He even went fishing with hand grenades in the East Sea during the few hours that he had off.



Loss of Sailors and Shingles

Graham Hughes lost three sailors while he was stationed in the East Sea. None of the sailors died in combat, but all their lives clearly had an impact on him. He discovered one of the sailors who hanged himself. After getting shingles, he was sent to an island in Japan for Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



The HMNZS Pukaki During the Korean War

Graham Hughes experienced an intensive nine-month basic training as a radio operator. The training included typing and touch typing. The HMNZS Pukaki, his ship, was armed with a variety of weapons to aid in the Korean War.



Inferiority of the North Korean Navy

Graham Hughes believed that the North Korean Navy was inferior to those in the United Nations (UN). An example of this occurred when his ship fired on a specific target at the 38th Parallel. North Koreans fired in retaliation, but they missed. The great thing about being part of the UN was the cooperation of lots of countries patrolling the West Sea, including Argentina.



Gregorio Evangelista

Fighting on the Front Line

Gregorio Evangelista remembers his front-line service as extremely dangerous, with gunfire occurring day and night. Although he is unsure of the battle's name, he recalls that they won a crucial battle on a hill shortly before peace talks began.



The Most Difficult Times

Gregorio Evangelista recalls having to stay close to the ground often while on the hills fighting. He notes they slept in bunkers. He recalls having one Korean houseboy who helped serve the soldiers food.



Gregorio Roxas

Winters and Children in the Bunker

Gregorio Roxas shares how the winters were the hardest part of his service but the bunkers on the frontline were the best place to be during these months. While in the bunker, he remembers Korean children being with the soldiers. He recalls interactions with one Korean boy who he met in the bunker.



Gregory Garcia

Change in Plans

Gregory Garcia remembers that he left for Korea around August or September 1950. He recalls how they put the battalion together and they were going to land in Seoul to help the Marines, but the Marines had retaken Seoul. Therefore, he explains that his job at Gimpo was to clean up dead and injured in addition to on guerrilla missions to clear out the mountains around the area.



Jumping into Combat

Gregoy Garcia spent time in Pyongyang trying to stop the infiltration of Chinese and North Koreans in the fall/winter of 1950. He remembers his most dangerous moment was jumping into combat and landing while shooting. He explains that his griswold bag with his knives fell off due to their weight.



Guidberto Barona Silva

Impact of Experience / Impacto de la Experiencia

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva discusses the importance of the experience for the Colombian Marine Forces. He provides an account on the tensest moments of the war. He concludes that what they learned in Japan and through the war helped him professionally and allowed the marine forces to evolve. The war changed the Colombian Marines as they were able to grow and understand the logistics of warfare.

El Almirante Guidberto Barona Silva habla sobre la importancia de la experiencia para los marinos de Colombia. Discutió los momentos más tensos de la guerra. Concluye que lo que aprendieron en Japón y durante la guerra lo ayudó profesionalmente y permitió que las fuerzas marinas se desarrollaron. La experiencia cambió a los infantes de marina, porque pudieron entender la logística de la guerra.



Guillermo Frau Rullan

Earning the Bronze Star / Como se Gano la Estrella de Bronce

Guillermo Frau Rullan discusses one of the worst battles he experienced while in Korea. He explains that he was conducting a patrol in the area near Panmunjeom with brand new soldiers the day before he was to leave the war. He remembers that he did not want to go on the mission because he did not want to be killed a day before the end of his tour. He details the battle which ensued and resulted in his earning a Bronze Star for bravery.

Guillermo Frau Rullan habla de una de las peores batallas que vivió mientras presto su servicio en Corea. Explica que estaba realizando una patrulla en la zona cercana a Panmunjeom con soldados nuevos el día antes de irse de la guerra. Recuerda que no quería ir a esa misión porque no quería que lo mataran un día antes de irse. Él describe la batalla y lo que hizo el para que le dieran la Estrella de Bronce por su valentía.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Guillermo Frau Rullán provides an account of his first impressions of Korea. He describes a nation full of starving and impoverished people. He laments the fact that some civilians had their houses burned because North Koreans used them to hide in and attack UN forces.

Guillermo Frau Rullán relata sus primeras impresiones sobre Corea. Él describe una nación llena de gente con hambre y empobrecida. Lamenta el hecho de que a algunos civiles les quemaron sus casas porque los norcoreanos las utilizaron para esconderse y atacar a las fuerzas de la ONU.



Four Friends Killed / Cuatro Amigos que Murieron

Guillermo Frau Rullán discusses the stories and names of four of his friends who were killed in action. He explains that he was on R&R when they died and as a result, he was promoted to platoon leader. He shares that he met the son of one of his friend’s years later in New Jersey and shared stories about his father during their encounter as they had never met.

Guillermo Frau Rullán discute las historias y los nombres de cuatro de sus amigos que murieron en combate. Explica que estaba en R&R cuando murieron y, como resultado, fue ascendido a líder de pelotón. Él comparte que conoció al hijo de uno de sus amigos años después en Nueva Jersey y compartió historias sobre su padre que nunca conoció durante su encuentro.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Korea at the Beginning of the War

Haralambos Theodorakis left for Korea in 1950 and came back in 1951. Everything was destroyed when he arrived and the people were very sweet people. Korean civilians didn't have a lot of clothes to wear or food to eat. If Haralambos Theodorakis had extra food, he gave it to the civilians and he saw a lot of Korean children running the streets during his 8 months there.



Modern Korea

Haralambos Theodorakis knew that he was fighting communists during the war. Now, Korea is the 10th strongest nation in the world and he feels that it was a destroyed country in 1950. Now, he's excited to see the progress that has been made in Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harlan Nielsen

Living Conditions and the Front Lines

Harlan Nielsen explains the living conditions on the front lines and not wanting to talk about Korean War battles he witnessed from the front lines. He recalls that many soldiers were killed. He continues to say that he feels war is close again with the activity of North Korea.



End of the War and Its Effects

Harlan Nielsen offers an account of his duties while in Korea following the signing of the armistice and his return home. His wife chimes in and explains his reaction of dropping to the floor anytime there was a loud noise after his return. She describes a story in which she hid and jumped out to scare him. He dropped to the floor and told her afterwards never to do it again.



Harold Barber

Thanksgiving Day at War

Harold Barber describes a Thanksgiving Day that he spent during the Korean War. The soldiers were given a bowl of soup to eat, but they had to leave and return to patrolling their area and became completed surrounded by the enemy. Those who did return after the ambush, only returned to soup that was frozen solid.



Snowballs and Tootsie Rolls

Harold Barber is describing being shot in the leg and being transported to the hospital by a corpsman. The corpsman fed them snowballs and tootsie rolls as they journeyed sixteen miles. It took them eight days to traverse the dangerous terrain, but the injured soldiers ultimately reached the hospital.



Harold Beck

Bed Check Charlie

Harold Beck describes “Bed Check Charlie.” Each night a small biplane would come and drop bombs or grenades just around bed time. Their crew moved the lights toward the mountain, and one night Bed Check Charlie flew right into the cliff.



Harold Bill Christenson

The Loss of Friends

Harold Christenson describes moving towards the fronts lines, escorted by ROK soldiers, and the fear he felt hearing small arms fire and artillery and seeing the flashes associated with the weapon fire as his company pressed inland near the mountains. He shares that within the first two months of arrival, the friends he went to Korea with were gone. With sorrow, he recounts the loss of one friend when his company was overrun by the Chinese at Gibraltar and remembers the injuries another friend sustained from a landmine.



A Bad Part of War

Harold Christenson describes being promoted to Platoon Sergeant and having to assign men every other week to go on patrol. He shares of his attempt to be fair with the men by rotating their assignment to the duty. He describes one particular assignment where a soldier, despite nearing his rotation home, insisted that he take his turn patrolling, and he was killed while on duty.



Stealthy Chinese

Harold Christenson describes the location of bunkers near the front lines and communicating with them each night. He explains guard duty rotation and his role in making sure someone was awake and alert throughout the night at each bunker to avoid being overrun. He details the stealth of the Chinese and recounts instances where men out on patrol who had fallen asleep were found dead in their sleeping bags.



Harold Don

Seeing and Experiencing Battle

Harold Don shares that he was apprehensive about arriving to Korea. He recalls witnessing the destruction from prior battles upon landing in Incheon. He remembers how his unit experienced fire from North Korean tanks at Yeongdeungpo and observed the destruction at Seoul. His unit then boarded another ship and attempted a landing at Wonsan but was forced to wait due to mines needing to be cleared.



Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir

Harold Don shares memories from the front lines at the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. He recounts how the United States units were surrounded by the North Koreans and Chinese on all sides. He notes how cold the temperature dropped in the winter and how the lake would freeze over. He comments on how the Battle of the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir was one of the epic battles in United States Marine Corps history, evidenced by many Medal of Honor recipients.



Extremely Cold Conditions

Harold Don describes the challenges of digging foxholes in Korea's frozen ground during the winter. He details how one had to clear enough snow to make an indentation to rest in. He notes how, as he was assigned to heavy machine guns, his foxhole was located at the most vulnerable point. He explains how, in an effort to keep the machine guns' barrels from freezing, he had to utilize antifreeze.



Redeployed as Machine Gun Squad Leader

Harold Don discusses being redeployed to Korea during the Chinese major offensive. He shares he was unaware, at the time, that Chinese forces had retaken Seoul and that he became a machine gun squad leader. He remembers partaking in Rest and Relaxation, which meant moving back several miles from the front for a hot shower and food. He notes he remembers the country itself when asked what he remembers most from this eleven-month tour in Korea. He describes Korea as being like a third-world country at the time with primitive farming, sanitation, and construction methods.



Harold Heckman

Terrified and misguided from the very first night

Harold Heckman remembers his first night on the front lines of Korea - a night that resulted in seven American causalities. Due to the ineptitude of a senior commanding officer, American soldiers on night patrol) ended up walking through a minefield which resulted in many unnecessary causalities. Harold Heckman never saw the commanding officer again.



Earning his Bronze Star

Harold Heckman talks about the mission that ended up earning him a Bronze Star. The assignment was to seek-and-capture a North Korean soldier for intelligence. He recalls how he led a mission team through the dark to captured and bring back a North Korean soldier from the North Korean front line - an effort that almost rewarded him with a Russian war-time trophy.



Decisions made, prices paid

Not every decision that Harold Heckman made during the war is one that he's proud of. He mournfully recalls how he was made to deal with an American soldier who defected during the onset of battle. A tough decision he can still remember clearly, and ultimately, effects him to this day.



Harold Yamauchi

Miracle On the Hill

Harold Yamauchi recounts his personal experience with religion after witnessing what he calls a miracle on the hill. He recalls the predicament he and fellow service personnel faced--pinned down by the enemy with no visual of a way out. He describes how an unexpected airstrike on both sides of the hill provided the cover needed for all seventeen of them to make it out alive.



Challenges of Race

Harold Yamauchi explains how he was repeatedly placed as the point man due to his oriental heritage. Without understanding why he was placed in that position, he would go forth and face the task, while managing to come back alive despite the odds being against him. He shares a touching story of an unsung hero that he encountered on the hill that was holding his friend as he lay dying, a bond of brotherly love not broken by racism.



Million Dollar Wound

Harold Yamauchi recalls the time he got a "million dollar wound", a term meaning he was lucky to be alive. He describes the ordeal of transporting to a medic facility and meeting other wounded along the way. He tells of the joy of discovering wounded fellow soldiers to be alive after thinking they had surely passed.



Harrison Lee

When war makes you leave a friend behind

Harrison Lee recalls a story that he never told anyone for a very long time - a story that follows him to this day. During the Battle of Taejon Harrison Lee and his best friend engaged a North Korean machine gun nest setting up along a dirt road. Upon realizing that the machine-gun nest had them outgunned he begs his friend to retreat with him... only to realize his friend was KIA.



"Baptism by Fire"

Every front line soldier has a "baptism by fire" story (i.e. first enemy contact story) and here Harrison Lee shares his. He remembers how a peaceful dining experience in Korea turned into his first moment of military combat. He can still remember the intense feeling of fear during those drawn-out moments many years ago.



Seeing the face of war

Within the first two nights in Korea, Harrison Lee witnessed the effect of war in a way that made what him and his comrades were getting into real danger. After retrieving a KIA soldier from the front lines the commanding officer at Harrison Lee's post made each soldier look at the body. It was then that Harrison Lee felt the full gravity of his situation in Korea.



Harry Burke

Incheon Landing

Harry Burke describes his first days in the orient. He shares how he was surprised with the odor and stench in Japan and Korea. He recalls the initial landing on Incheon happened on the 18th but that he arrived on the 21st to see the devastation that had taken place three days prior.



My Most Difficult Days

Harry Burke is describing how eight men were killed and twelve were wounded is his company. After experiencing this, he was sent back to Incheon and went around from the west side of Korea to the east side to Wonsan. He describes their days in the war.



Entrapment by the Chinese

Harry Burke describes how the Chinese knew where they were on the morning of November 3rd. He recalls how their entire division was attacked and suffered tremendous losses. He adds he did sustain some injuries as well.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Frostbitten and Wounded

Harry C. Graham talks about his experience during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes suffering frostbite and being shot through the shoulder while performing his duties as a Radio Operator. He was evacuated on a truck convoy, narrowly escaping the heavy fighting against the Chinese.



Escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Harry C. Graham talks about his escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes having to wait until dark to traverse a mountain by foot because of being stranded in trucks on the mountainside. He recounts how after hours of walking, he and seven fellow soldiers found themselves in a minefield before being rescued by United States Marines.



Training and the Inchon Landing

Harry C. Graham describes his arrival in Korea. He details the circumstances of training Republic of Korea (ROK) soldiers at Mt. Fuji, in Japan, before moving on to take part at the Inchon Landing in September of 1950. He describes his first impressions of Korea.



Harry Castro

Experiences at Incheon in 1945

Harry Castro described experiencing snow for the first time. He shares that he spent Thanksgiving there. He describes the visuals of the area. He shares that they had no weapons and were there due to a typhoon. He shares the destruction he saw in other places as well.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American United States troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River on Hill 144

Harry Hawksworth shares how he and the rest of his company were forced to retreat back to a village near Choksong along the Imjin River in late 1950 due to the Chinese entering the war. After digging into trenches, performing reconnaissance trips, and guarding Allied trenches, he was startled by a possible Chinese invasion of Hill 144.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment, fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. He shares how most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below due to the quick retreat. He describes how he used six crates of two-inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, he recalls that Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth shares how he walked at night for six weeks until he reached the prisoner of war (POW), Camp Changsong, in May 1951. He remembers how many of the British POWs escaped but notes that all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. He recalls becoming very sick after getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day. He recalls brainwashing sessions held by the Chinese and remembers how the US and British POWs had to fight to survive every single day.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth recalls knowing that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. He shares how this helped him fatten up after being held captive since May 1951 and weighing only ninety-five pounds. He explains that once the Armistice was signed in July 1953, he and other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. He recalls that it was there where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Heath

40 Degrees Below

Harry Heath describes the harsh cold that faced the soldiers in Korea. He shares the injuries that caused him to spend two months in a hospital. He describes the failure of equipment given to the soldiers. He explains things that were limited due to the harsh temperatures for soldiers and their hygiene.



The Chosin Few

Harry Heath describes the organization he belongs to which includes American soldiers who found in the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War. He shares the struggles that both he and his fellow Chosin Few members faced such as frostbite wounds and PTSD. He shares how he feels fighting in Korea made him a better person.



Harry McNeilly

The Power of a Map

Harry McNeilly's speciality during the war was Motor Transport. For the majority of the war, his job was to escort correspondent's from various countries to the front-lines. Harry McNeilly jokes about his ability to take people where they needed to go without ever studying Korean geography.



Harry Olson

Dangers of Protecting the Retreat

Harry Olson recounts how his extremely depleted battalion protected the line during the retreat from Unsan. He describes his experience returning from protecting the line and experiences in the rice paddies. He shares details about his first near-death experience and the enemy fire just down the hill from his position.



Physical and Mental Toll of War

Harry Olson elaborates on the physical toll and terrible conditions of the retreat. He remembers the relief the soldiers felt upon returning from the frontline. After his return from the front, he explains how he was resupplied and reassigned to the United States Army, 61st Field Artillery Unit, 1st Cavalry Division. He reflects on not have any buddies while in Korea and how that made it easier for him during the war.



Henk Bos

The Best Period of My Life

Henk Bos recalls the early days following his arrival in Korea. He shares he served as an infantryman attached to the 38th Regiment of the 2nd Division of the 3rd U.S. Army. He remembers being a soldier as the best period of his life. He shares with pride how he and his fellow soldiers maybe helped save a whole nation. He recalls the challenges of living in bunkers along an ever-changing front and the death of one of his Korean buddies.



Henri Socquet

Not Time to Think

Henri Socquet recounts that the fighting persisted for months, primarily occurring at night. During this period, he served as a sergeant with the medical aid troops but also participated in combat. He explains that in such intense moments, there is no time to reflect on the situation; the sole focus is on the objective of saving lives.



Hard to Forget

Henri Socquet shares he absolutely is still troubled by the scenes of death still he witnessed. He explains recently, at a Korean War veterans' meeting, he encountered a man he had saved after a grenade injury in combat. Socquet vividly remembers the night of the incident, along with many other such moments, as they are impossible to forget.



Most Difficult Time

Henri Socquet describes the Chinese strategy of attacking in waves. He recalls that after one such assault, bodies were piled high near their position, creating an unbearable stench from the heavy casualties. He notes that the most challenging moments were facing intense offensives close to their positions. However, he proudly shares that despite the fierce assaults, the Belgians never retreated.



Henry Martinez

Unable to Deliver to the Chosin Few

Henry Martinez remembers what it was like delivering supplies during the war. He describes one particular event when he was going to deliver supplies and a Thanksgiving meal to the Chosin Few. However, he and the men had to turn around because not only were the mountains frozen, but the Chinese were quickly approaching.



Henry River, Jr.

Living Conditions

Henry River, Jr., talks about his wife and how much he was paid. He recounts what his living conditions were like. He recalls his division having a tent compound which included the officer's tent, mess tents, and squat tents for the soldiers.



Henry T. Alex

Chop Chop

Henry T. Alex recalls feelings of grief when seeing children suffering from the pangs of war. He describes children begging them for food and how it would make him cry knowing there was so little they could do to help. He shares how it is still upsetting to this day to think back on those moments.



Laundry Service

Henry T. Alex describes the process of laundering clothes when serving on the front lines. He explains how the tents were set up for showering and that the Korean men would take the dirty clothes and the Korean women would have freshly laundered clothes for you to exchange. He recalls the importance of having to know your size because you did not get your clothes back but simply exchanged dirty laundry for clean laundry.



Building Bridges

Henry T. Alex describes the protocol for building bridges in the midst of war. He remembers the feeling of fear and how it would make him sick to go out on the front lines despite knowing what to do and how to do it. He recalls always having enough material due to the importance of being able to move the infantry along.



Henry T. Pooley

Shelling

Henry T Pooley describes when he was shelled in his bunk near Hill 355. The Chinese artillery attack left him dazed and two comrades wounded. Henry miraculously wasn't wounded.



First Patrol and the Chinese

Henry T Pooley describes his first patrol near Hill 355 on the front lines. He describes the geography of the area including a nearby minefield. He discusses the respect shown between the Chinese and the Australian soldiers on the battlefield.



Henry Winter

Replacement Duty

Henry Winter speaks about his arrival in Korea at Inchon. He was a replacement for injured soldiers and joined a new unit assigned to duty at Heartbreak Ridge.



Heartbreak Ridge

Henry Winter describes his first time in combat. He vividly recalls the shelling and the sound of a horn blaring as the enemy charged up the hill. They repelled the charge suffering 60 casualties during the course of the battle. Henry Winter recalls another instance of shelling when one brother found another dead.



Living Conditions

Henry Winter describes what it was like to live on the front line on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about sleeping in trenches and army rations. He recounts taking showers once a week in the rear. Henry Winter also remembers the cold and the many cases of frostbite suffered by soldiers.



Herbert Currier

Survival

Herbert Currier shares how although he didn't go to Korea he knew things. He shares how he has pictures from the 38th parallel. He describes the pictures and how they show the only way to save men out of the foxholes in the cold temperatures of Korea. He shares how he felt it was a good thing that America went to help the Koreans.



Herbert Neale

Close Call on the Front Lines

Herbert Neale recounts a close call with incoming artillery fire on the front lines. He remembers waking up, lying over the artillery, from a concussion and hearing a friend call out that he had been hit. He details his friend's wound and the effort made to transport him safely to an evacuation site. He reflects on his friend's healing process after losing a lung and on how one never really recovers from the wounds of war.



How to Deal with the Memories

Herbert Neale discusses how he deals with the memories of war. He shares that he closes his mind to the visuals as dwelling on them, he insists, would drive one crazy. He admits that even after several decades since the war though, visuals of dead Chinese soldiers enter his dreams and, every now and then, wake him up in the middle of the night.



Called to Serve and Sent to Korea

Herbert Neale explains how he ended up serving in Korea after being fully discharged from the Marine Corps following World War II. He recounts his arrival in Korea and recalls being sent to the front lines as there was a need at the time to fill holes in the lines left by casualties. He also describes the weaponry, the 155mm howitzer, he used while there.



Herbert Schreiner

Loss of a Brother in Korea

Herbert Schreiner details his brother's death while serving in the infantry in Korea. He recounts that his brother was killed by a landmine and recalls his body being delivered back to America in a bag. He shares that the news of his brother's fate was hard to deal with at the time and that it still weighs on him to this day as he and his brother were very close.



Herbert Taylor

Chingu (Friend)

Herbert Taylor describes witnessing the destruction of Incheon following his arrival in 1954. He shares how he saw just walls and shells of buildings there. He describes the trees and how they had been shot off and the land was barren in the countryside. He describes the straw huts people were living in. He shares his experiences with local children.



Herbert Werner

Refugees During War

Herbert Werner became very emotional as he described being an 18 year old seeing war first hand. He said witnessing the wounded, being under fire, civilians fleeing, and children affected by war made him overcome with emotion. He never saw as much fear as he did while there and it still gets to him even today. Herbert Werner made an instant personal connection with the refugees during the Hamheung Evacuation since he was an orphaned child himself.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Herbert Yuttal

On The Frontlines

Herbert Yuttal talks about being on the front lines as a Forward Observer at an outpost near Kaesong. He explains that they fired a lot of artillery rounds, destroying a lot of the landscape at Old Baldy and Pork Chop Hill. He remembers seeing his friends dying during these battles.



Enemy Infiltrating the Lines

Herbert Yuttal shares how the North Koreans would cross through the front lines and attack by pretending to be refugees fleeing the South. They would come through as a family group to sneak through the lines. After they were able to get through the front lines, they would throw hand grenades and kill as many people as they could before they were killed themselves.



Herman F. Naville

Captured by the North Koreans

Herman Naville remembers that only 16 of the 180 men in his company made it out alive. He explains how he and others found a place on a hillside to hide. There was an explosion that hit Herman Naville in the head causing him to bleed heavily, develop blindness in his one eyes, and shattering his collarbone- he thought he was going to die. While continuing to hide, he was found by North Koreans who took him as a prisoner.



Herman H. Holtkamp

Losing a Friend on Your Shoulder

Herman Holtkamp explains how difficult life on the front lines could be as you could be shot at very quickly by the Chinese who were “much quicker than the Koreans.” He says that they lost a lot of lives, including two medics. He recalls how he carried on of his comrades on his shoulders, but he didn’t survive and passed away as Herman Holtkamp was carrying him.



Capturing a Chinese Soldier

Herman Holtkamp tells how he captured a Chinese soldier. He had to throw a hand grenade into the trench and then carry the prisoner out to officers that were waiting. He received an award for capturing this prisoner.



Tough as Nails

Herman Holtkamp explains how being a tough farm boy helped him do well in Korea. He tells a story of when they were on the front lines and tried to capture a Russian tank. According to Herman Holtkamp, experiences like this weren’t things that you thought about- they were just things that you did. He states that his crew was “tough as nails.”



Homer Garrett

Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Captured Submarine & Firing at the UN Troops

Homer Garrett described encounters with North Korean agents during his service in Korea. His unit captured a 2-man operating submarine that was trapped on a sand bar which carried 4 North Korean agents. That same submarine is now located in the 2nd Infantry Division Museum. The other close call incident involved their Military Police Jeep and a lady who was standing in the road. She ran from the intersection when suddenly shots were fired piercing the radio in their jeep.



Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Homer M. Garza

Arriving in Korea

Homer M. Garza talks about his first combat experience in Korea, seeing the results of the massacre at Nogeun-ri. He also describes their retreat south to set up the Pusan Perimeter.



Account of Noguen-ri Massacre

Homer M. Garza shares his thoughts of the Noguen-ri massacre (about 100 miles Southeast of Seoul). He speaks about his units’ encounter with the North Koreans during their time near the site of the massacre.



Crossing the Han River

Homer M. Garza speaks about his unit crossing of the Han River in their push to force the enemy back north. He also speaks about losing men from his unit.



North Korean Brutality

Homer M. Garza describes the treatment of U.S. causalities and prisoners of war by the North Koreans.



Homer W. Mundy

Wounded in Combat

Homer Mundy describes being wounded in Korea only 13 days after arriving in Korea. He also talks about the withdrawal of his unit from the Yalu River area when the Chinese crossed into Korea.



Cold Weather

Homer Mundy talks about the cold weather and the lack of proper cold-weather equipment. He discusses the injuries he and other men sustained as a result.



Enemy Attacks

Homer Mundy talks about what it was like being under enemy attack. He also talks about fighting the enemy during withdrawal and encirclement near Gotori. He also recounts his second major injury.



Hong Berm Hur

Korean War POW and the Simple Ways to Show Appreciation

Hong Berm Hur met Mr. English Model who was a POW (prisoner of war) during the Korean War. English Model was captured by the Chinese and was put into a camp for over a year. Thankfully, he escaped and made his way to Hawaii. This is where he shared his story with Hong Berm Hur. Hong Berm Hur not only likes to hear the stories of Korean War veterans, he also takes care of these veterans when he's not working so that he can properly show the veterans gratitude that they deserve for their service during the Korean War.



Horace Sappington

Half Dead or Captured

Horace Sappington describes his encounter with North Koreans and Russians a few miles outside of Osan. Ill-equipped and undermanned, he details the scene of a Major driving out in a jeep to meet and talk with the oncoming mass of North Korean and Russian troops. He shares that the enemy fired a cannon, blowing up the jeep and killing the major, continuing to advance upon their position. He adds that he was wounded during the fighting and was tended to by a medic who was killed shortly after during their retreat. He explains that over half of US soldiers there that day were either killed or captured.



Soldiers Pouring In Everywhere

Horace Sappington recounts his experience at the Pusan Perimeter. He shares that the North Korean soldiers were pouring in on them and they received assistance from the Air Force and the USS Missouri roughly 1 mile off of the coast. He explains he was in charge of providing the ship with coordinates for firing. He recounts an injury to his head and shoulder received from enemy fire.



Nothing Worse Than The Cold

Horace Sappington describes being cold as the most difficult thing during his service. He recounts low temperatures near the 38th Parallel and during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. As part of a task force, he shares that he was sent in to help bail out Marines before the Chinese took it all.



Howard A. Gooden

Landing at Incheon and Traveling to the 38th Parallel

Howard A. Gooden shares his experience of landing in Incheon, Korea. He remembers being on a barge with two hundred to two hundred fifty soldiers, heading to land, and being passed by another landing barge with the same number of soldiers who were ready to go home. He describes taking a Korean train from Incheon and how small the seats were. He explains that guards would ensure nobody was getting on or off at every stop. He recalls how trucks finally met the train and how he was dropped off at the 38th Parallel with the field artillery.



Supervising Artillery Fire

Howard A. Gooden describes his role as a section chief overseeing an eight-inch howitzer. He remembers how his job was fairly straightforward since he was a replacement, and the rest of the crew knew what they were doing. He explains the different roles of each gun crew member, which included loading and ramming the two-hundred-pound artillery shell into the gun. He describes the process of firing, which involved sending the first shot over the target, the second shot in front of the target, and then adjusting the aim for the third shot to hit the target accurately.



Housing, Coffee, and Warm Clothing

Howard A. Gooden describes his sleeping arrangements on the firing range and in squad tents while on the front line. He explains how they fired at a range due to the Armistice. He remembers having to set up the guns before going to bed since there was no time to do so under fire. He admits that he started drinking coffee in Korea to keep warm when on the firing range. He expresses his appreciation for warm clothing while in Korea, describing "Mickey Mouse" boots, parkas, and warm hats.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Faley

An Unlucky Mortar Round

Howard Faley describes being hit by a mortar round at Little Gibraltar. He recalls being later told that there was only one mortar fired that whole day, the one that badly injured him. He explains that he was taken on a stretcher to Forward H station where the doctor put a cigarette in his mouth and then four sticks of gum before setting his leg and ankle back into place.



"You Go to Hell, Sir"

Howard Faley describes being relocated to Seoul before leaving for the hospital in Japan; he and other patients were told they had to wait for a General to come and thank them. After reluctantly waiting for five days, though the General had not arrived, they were flown to Japan. He recalls the severity of his injury, how the nerve in his leg was slashed and how every movement was excruciating. When a Capitan told him to get on a table he refused and told him to go to Hell.



Howard Lee

Landing at Incheon

Howard Lee recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon landing at Incheon. He remembers the early morning journey on a Landing Ship Tank (LST) and walking in waist-deep water towards the shore where he saw a city on fire. He recounts dead bodies floating in the water and the fear he felt as he and his company made land and rallied at the assigned checkpoint.



Water Velocity Readings

Howard Lee details his duties as a member of the 55th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company. He recounts having to take readings of the water velocity six times a day and make records for the related reports. He recalls that the readings had to be taken every four hours and describes the process.



Howard R. Hawk

Legacy of Korean Defense Veterans

Howard R. Hawk explains the role of the Korean Defense Veterans in Korea after the armistice. He recalls a strong desire by the Korean officers to reunite the country by attacking the North. He states they were always prepared for a potential attack by the North Koreans.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Howard Bradshaw's Love for Orphaned Koreans

Howard Bradshaw encountered many orphans during his time in Korea. He offered them candy and expressed his love for these kids.
Howard Bradshaw took pictures of these children while he was there during the Korean War.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Hugo Monroy Moscoso

Dangerous Moments / Momentos Peligrosos

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recounts the most dangerous moments of the war, which occurred near the 38th Parallel. He explains that some of the most difficult memories are those of witnessing fellow soldiers die under mortar fire. Additionally, he provides an account of the battle for Kumsong and the importance of regaining territory which was previously lost.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso relata los momentos más peligrosos de la guerra, que ocurrieron cerca del paralelo 38. Él explica que algunos de los recuerdos más difíciles son las memorias de cuando vio morir a sus compañeros cuando el batallón estaba bajo fuego de mortero. Además, ofrece un relato de la batalla por Kumsong y explica la importancia de recuperar el territorio que anteriormente se había perdido.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Hugo Monroy Moscoso remembers his first impressions of Korea. He details the destruction he encountered in every town as they arrived after the Chinese and North Korean invasion. He recalls that it gave them pleasure to share food with civilians because they understood how much they were suffering.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Detalla la destrucción que encontró en cada pueblo porque llegaron después de la invasión china y norcoreana. Recuerda que les daba placer compartir comida con los civiles porque reconocían la miseria y el hambre que sufrían.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Hugo Monroy Moscoso describes the living conditions Colombian troops faced in Korea. He gleams as he remembers the order, cleanliness, great food, and organization of military life under the command of the United States Army. He explains that the Americans taught Colombian troops a new concept of military life.

Hugo Monroy Moscoso describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas en Corea. Con orgullo se acuerda del orden, la limpieza, la excelente comida y la organización de la vida militar bajo el mando del ejército de los Estados Unidos. Explica que los estadounidenses les enseñaron a las tropas colombianas un nuevo concepto de vida militar.



Ian Crawford

We Must Remember

Ian Crawford recalls meeting a fellow Australian, Mike Cawthorn, aboard a British ship, who was later killed in action. He remembers the extraordinary circumstances surrounding this individual in that he was Australian but had never stepped foot in Australia due to his father's military stations and then later his schooling. He describes his mission to get his friend the recognition he deserves for his service and sacrifice to his home country, though unrecognized for having served on a British ship at the time of his death.



Ian J. Nathan

Platoons within Ten Company

Ian Nathan arrived at Pusan in September of 1951. After three weeks organizing the vehicles and men of Ten New Zealand Transport Company, his workshop platoon moved north to merge with other platoons. There was a lot of equipment needed to maintain military vehicles, but the jobs were shared among the skilled company of about fifty men.



Winter Quarters: Engineering a Tent and Shower

Ian Nathan and the Workshop Unit designed warmer quarters with petrol tanks for the troops. They pieced together a building for relatively warm showers in the frigid Korean winters. Many of their projects involved re-purposed military equipment to make new supplies the soldiers needed.



Small Boys, Heavy Loads, and Weather

Ian Nathan shows pictures of his time in Korea. One photo has a small Korean boy carrying a load supported by an A-frame pack. Other photos represent living conditions such as a tent covered in winter snow and a swollen creek blocking access to the latrines in the rainy season.



Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Gulek

Sandbag Castle

Ibrahim Gulek described the conditions at Sandbag Castle. War had stopped briefly due to a ceasefire, while negotiations were occurring. However, the enemy attacked without warning. There was about two months of constant warfare in close combat. He was a sniper and told to fire at a certain location where the enemy was located. He claimed soldiers were told to consume alcohol as a ploy to not fear death.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Iluminado Santiago

Nightmares

Iluminado Santiago reflects on the impact his service in Korea had on his life. Because of the experience of seeing wounded and traumatized soldiers, he highlights the mental struggles which plagued him for a long time. Often the names of some places escape him, yet he recalls his nightmarish experience on Kelly Hill. During this experience, he describes their withdrawal from the hill and a negative interaction with American troops as they retreated further down the hill.



Rice and Beans

Iluminado Santiago elaborates on the living conditions for the United States Army’s 65th Regiment while in Korea. Since the regiment was primarily made up of Puerto Rican soldiers, he notes how the U.S. Army provided rice and beans, which reminded him of traditional Puerto Rican food. Yet when he was not attached to his regiment, he explains having to adapt to American food. Even though his platoon often slept in tents and with sleeping bags, he remembers battling the extreme cold. He clarifies how he is lucky to have served his country and help Korea fight for democracy.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Agony of the Wounded

Inga-Britt Jagland vividly recounts the emotional distress experienced by wounded soldiers, particularly those who had lost limbs and grappled with uncertainty about their futures. She emphasizes that beyond the physical care, a nurse's crucial role is to provide emotional comfort and support to those in need.



Nurse Work

Inga-Britt Jagland recounts her nursing duties during her time in Korea. Initially assigned to the tuberculosis ward, her responsibilities expanded when the Red Cross began receiving UN soldiers engaged in North Korea. These soldiers would stay for brief periods, usually just two or three days, before being evacuated to Japan. As a nurse, Inga-Britt recalls working long hours from 6 am to 10 pm, tending to soldiers with severe injuries. She notes some of these men experienced panic episodes, requiring assistance from fellow Marines to provide restraint.



Irwin Saltzman

Experiences with Counter Mortar Radar

Irwin Saltzman describes Initially trained as a radio operator. He explains that he then was told he would receive additional training on equipment built for counter mortar operations. He describes rotating between headquarters at Yeongdeungpo and traveling to the front line to check on equipment. He explains how the Signal Corp maintained twenty-six positions in front of the artillery at the front lines and regularly sent harassing fire into enemy positions.



Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez

Battle at Bloody Ridge

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez fought during the month-long battle at Bloody Ridge. He recalls fighting and pushing the Chinese off of the hill multiple times. After pushing the Chinese back, they would return and the fighting would begin again.



Life in Korea During the War

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez was constantly traveling during the war and had to sleep wherever he could find a spot to rest his head. Eating canned food rations was the norm. He recalls the extreme cold in Korea.



Isamu Yoshishige

To Korea with the Whole Outfit

Isamu Yoshishige served in the United States Army in Korea beginning in 1951. He offers a brief account of his travels to Korea with some detail included on the areas within the region where his unit deployed. He speaks of working within a heavy weapons company as someone who fired 75mm recoilless rifles which possibly caused his hearing loss. He provides limited descriptions of the conflicts with the Chinese in the area in which he served.



Ismael Heredia Torres

First Days / Primeros Dias

Ismael Heredia Torres describes his arrival in Incheon and then Seoul. He explains that immediately after he arrived, he was assigned to an observation post and then to a listening post. It was during this second mission that he saw intense fighting which lasted over six hours. He was lucky to survive this attack as he was unable to move or communicate with the rest of the company.

Ismael Heredia Torres describe su llegada a Incheon y luego a Seúl. Explica que enseguida que llego al frente, lo asignaron a un puesto de observación y luego a un puesto de escucha. Fue durante esta segunda misión que vio intensos combates que duraron más de seis horas. Tuvo suerte de sobrevivir el ataque porque no podía moverse ni comunicarse con el resto de la compañía.



Saddest Battle / La Batalla Más Triste

Ismael Heredia Torres shares the story of his participation in the worst battle of the war. He explains that they were trying to climb Hill 223 when the Chinese intercepted their company and a battle ensued for over four hours. He, and others in the company, were saddened because Captain Lyman was killed in action that day.

Ismael Heredia Torres comparte la historia de la peor batalla de la guerra en el que el participo. Él explica que estaban tratando de escalar la colina 223 cuando los chinos interceptaron a su compañía y se produjo una batalla de más de cuatro horas. Él y otros en la compañía estaban tristes porque el Capitán Lyman murió en acción ese día.



Ismail Pasoglu

Valiant Turkish Soldiers

Ismail Pasoglu describes the Turkish soldier. He describes the opinion that the United States wanted to pull out of the war. However, the Turkish soldiers arrived and changed this attitude. The Turkish soldiers advanced after the Chinese counter-offensive. Therefore, this advancement help the US stay in the war. Koreans are proud of Turkish support in the Korean War.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Manning the Observation Post

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez speaks of being put on alert every night at midnight. He shares memories of the tactics used by the Chinese to lure the Puerto Rican soldiers out of their bunkers with Puerto Rican music and beer. He recounts losing two members of a patrol.



Observation Post Attacked

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares memories of the fear he experienced while being in Korea during the war. He recounts being in a foxhole and an attack on his Observation Post (OP) occurring. He elaborates on how he defended his position with hand grenades.



Ivan Holshausen

Missions

Ivan Holshausen provides details of typical missions during his time in Korea, where his squadron worked closely to support ground troops in distress. Often, these planes carried napalm bombs as well. Notably, he proudly mentions being the last pilot in a Sabre to drop napalm in Korea.



Facing Anti-Aircraft Firing

Ivan Holshausen recalls the intense anti-aircraft firing in Korea and notes that survival as a pilot often depended on luck. He recounts an instance when his squadron encountered a train protruding from a tunnel, which they promptly attacked, facing severe flak from enemy forces



J. Robert Lunney

The SS Meredith Victory Volunteers

J. Robert Lunney discusses the decision by Captain LaRue to volunteer his ship for the evacuation efforts in Heungnam. He recalls the urgency to evacuate the military personnel and civilians. He explicitly breaks down the positions and resources involved in the evacuation and the chaotic scene they encountered in the port. Because of the great leadership exhibited by Captain LaRue, he shares the crew never questioned his decision to assist in the evacuation.



Jack Allen

Concussion Grenades and the Aggressive Chinese Army

At the end of November 1950, Jack Allen was wounded by the Chinese who overran the US troops. The Chinese had so many troops that they easily came over the hills. A concussion grenade took the nerve out of Jack Allen's right arm, so he couldn't use it and his knee was shot too. He was laid on straw and a tarp until a helicopter basket took him back off the line and onto Japan to recover. There were hundreds of wounded that accompanied Jack Allen, but he knew that he wouldn't be left behind because that's a Marines' motto.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Cooper

Journey to Korea

Jack Cooper details his journey to Korea. He describes his train ride down to New Orleans, boarding the US William Weigel, and sailing through the Panama Canal enroute to Asia. He shares that the trip took 30 days from the time he boarded the ship in New Orleans to the time he arrived in Hokkaido, Japan. He recalls roughly 6 months of combat training in Japan before being sent to Korea where he was first assigned to test weapons.



A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



Duties and Thoughts on Battle

Jack Cooper details the duties of soldiers assigned to a howitzer weapon and shares that there never was really any downtime. He recalls men rotating on and off shifts and most of the action taking place in the afternoon and evening. He shares that the intensity of battle made one nervous at times but that one grew accustomed to the reality over time. He adds that one did what he had to do.



Jack Goodwin

First Engagement: Task Force Smith

Jack Goodwin recounts his experience in Task Force Smith, the first group to engage with North Korean soldiers during the Korean War. He shares that they were severely outnumbered and ill-equipped with only four hundred or so men against roughly twenty thousand North Korean soldiers, having severely limited ammunition. He recalls remaining U.S. soldiers being forced to leave their position and walk during the night to a village where they were captured the following morning.



Jack Howell

Screams from Hill 1080

Jack Howell shares his memories of combat against Chinese troops as he and his fellow soldiers fought to control and defend Hill 1080. He describes the encounter as overwhelming due to the mass number of Chinese soldiers attacking them. He recalls unnerving memories of frozen Chinese soldiers in their bunkers as well as the screams and taunts of the Chinese.



Jack Sherts

Retracing My Steps

Jack Sherts retraced the exact locations they traveled during the war the entire time he was in Korea. His work as a radio operator helped him to know the towns they were in at all times. He recorded these names in a Bible that he carried around the entire time he was in the war.



Close Encounters under Fire

Jack Sherts described his closest encounters under enemy fire during the war. Early in his tour, he had to deliver batteries to the soldiers in the infantry line. On the journey, he slipped down a mountain and lost his helmet as it rolled into the valley. Soon thereafter, he came under enemy fire. He also described relaying fire orders for the 18 guns of his unit as radio operator. He would often take mortar and artillery shells but was never injured by them.



Jack Wolverton

Under Fire and Almost Killed

Jack Wolverton recalls the one time he was under fire and almost lost his life. His unit was ordered to pile a bunker with ammunition, but the mission was aborted. His unit came under small arms fire near no man's land, and a bullet, coming very close to his head, only chipped a rock.The rock hit his wrist and scared him, making him think he was shot. He luckily left the incident unharmed.



Communication with Home

Jack Wolverton remembers writing letters home. He was not married and recalls relationships were tough to keep going while he was at war. He would correspond via letters with his mother, updating her on his day-to-day activities. She would return letters with stories from home. He recalls asking his mother, at times, to send back some of the money he forwarded home.



Jacques Grisolet

War is War

Jacques Grisolet recalls the challenges of the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge (Creve-coeur). He remembers it as one of the most difficult terrains they had to conquer as they fought in the mountains. He notes there was significant amounts of artillery fire, mortars, and bombardments which left hardly a tree to hide behind.



Jake Feaster Jr.

Arriving in Korea

Jake Feaster Jr. describes his arrival in Korea and the role of artillery in providing protective fire for the infantry during the peace negotiations. He shares he joined a unit holding a defensive position along the 38th Parallel. He recalls a session with Outpost Harry and another occasion when his unit provided protective fire all night long as the enemy was attempting to attack U.S. troops who had dug in.



Combat During the Week of the Final Cease Fire

Jake Feaster Jr. describes the movement of his artillery unit during the week leading up to the cease-fire. He recounts how being sent back to his unit's original position to gather supplies left behind possibly saved his life. He notes how the majority of his battalion got out, but they did lose two or three of their guns. He explains how his company pulled back to a new position and began firing upon the Chinese who had overrun them earlier.



Jake O’Rourke

Remembering Death

Jake O'Rourke recounts seeing his first Marine casualty and shares the impact the encounter had on him. He continues by describing his participation in an ambush of three North Korean tanks shortly thereafter. He recalls casualties on both sides and shares that he sees them in his dreams, causing him to take inventory of his life. He also adds his thoughts on why there will always be war.



On the Move to Chosin Reservoir

Jake O'Rourke describes his time spent in the hills fighting guerrilla forces and moving to and from various locations. He details the high casualties caused by frostbite among the Chinese soldiers, adding that it was both an ally and an enemy. He attributes much of the Marines' successes to experienced leadership as many higher ranking soldiers had served during WWII. He also recounts his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, sharing that the Chinese would play their bugles when they attacked and retreated, and he describes the use of napalm against the enemy.



James “Jim” Cawyer

A Dedication of Honor

James "Jim" Cawyer recalls performing with the Air Force Band at a United Nations Cemetery dedication at Busan on Memorial Day, 1951. He describes seeing the large burial trench for approximately three thousand bodies, and how emotional it was to see so many men in body bags. He recalls the terrible stench of the area, which was due to the long period of time it took for the soldiers to have a proper burial during the Korean War.



Close Calls and Rough Rides

James "Jim" Cawyer discusses the large amount of Korean War casualties. He raises the point that many losses of life were not combat-related. He describes three examples of his own close calls he encountered during the war.



James “Jim” Valentine

Death on the Ice at Chosin Reservoir

Jim Valentine discusses crossing the ice in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he was surrounded. He explains how they had to not attract attention due to Chinese soldiers. He discusses the harsh winters he experienced. He explains that he is still unsure as to how/why he survived.



Giving Money to the Children

James "Jim" Valentine discusses how he got disoriented and was in a tank in the 1950's liberation of Seoul. He discusses the destruction. He shares an emotional experience he has with the South Korean children. He explains that due to an accident he lost his few items and that he didn't have/take pictures.



I Was Only 17/18

James Valentine discusses being evacuated. He discusses that he thought he was leaving but was sent back to liberate Seoul the second time from North Korea. He explains how he didn't completely understand since he was just a teen and how it changed him. He shares his struggles post-war. His wife, Beth, adds a story about rations and being able to eat during the cold. She explains how he didn't speak of the war until being involved with the VFW in Washington.



James “Jim” Wetmore

B-29 Crash

Jim Wetmore describes an evening when he witnessed a fiery B-29 crash just past where his unit was camped. He recalls a bright light in the sky and realized as the plane passed overhead that the magnesium aboard the plane had caught fire. He remembers he heard two explosions: the first when the plane crashed and the second when the bombs on the plane exploded.



You Never hear the One That Hit You

Jim Wetmore describes being seriously wounded by a mortar and his evacuation from the battlefield in the Punch Bowl area on April 11, 1952. He explains that the saying is true: you never hear the one that hit you. He describes awaking face down in a fighting hole, helmet full of blood, broken jaw and a deep face wound so badly gaping he could stick his fingers inside the wound. He goes on to describe being evacuated down a mountain on a ski cablecar and being too afraid to look down.



James A. Newman

Sneak Attack on the Yalu River

James Newman was stationed on the frigate HMNZS Hawea up the Yalu River. He participated in a daring attack along the border between China and Korea. Fighting as a gunner, his ship attacked enemy positions along the Yalu River and took the enemy by complete surprise.



Nobody Argues with Padres

James Newman was sent ashore in 1951. Rare for a Navy man, he was able to see a devastated Seoul and fight on the frontlines. He had rare access due to accompanying an Anglican clergyman.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



Return to Korea

James Newman has participated in five trips back to Korea since 2002. He is very impressed with the modern nation. He feels pride in the accomplishments of the Korean people and his part in freeing South Korea from North Korean rule.



James Berry

Diving a Tank

James Berry gives some insight into being a tank driving during the Korean War. This was an extension of a time as a heavy equipment operator in Guam. He explains why they needed 5 people inside of the tank.



James Burroughs

Combat as a Machine Gunner and Friendly Fire

James Burroughs explains how ammo carriers would replace a machine gunner if he was killed. He recalls a Master Sergeant being shot and killed by a sniper while standing next to him. He discusses fellow soldiers in his unit being injured and U.S. Army artillery fire not always landing where intended.



Taking an Enemy Position

James Burroughs describes the fierce battles fought for hills in Korea, highlighting the strategic advantage of holding the high ground. He shares how officers disguised their ranks to avoid being targeted by enemy snipers. He recalls the intense experience of capturing an enemy position, being forced to spend the night sleeping among the dead bodies, and then rolling the corpses down the hill the following morning.



Loss of a Friend

James Burroughs recalls when the machine gunner of his squad was shot and killed. He speaks of how he carried his friend back to receive medical care and how he was reprimanded by an officer for leaving his post. He explains that he later returned to the line and became the squad machine gunner.



Cold Korea and Capturing a Chinese Soldier

James Burroughs reminisces about the bitterly cold weather he experienced during his service in Korea. He recalls wading through snow that was up to his shoulders. He recounts finding a Chinese soldier behind the line and learning that his unit was about to be attacked by the Chinese and North Koreans the next day. He discusses his unit's preparations for the attack and firing until they had to replace his gun barrel.



Korean War Peace Talks

James Burroughs recounts when he was pulled from the line and being ordered to guard the peace talks between the Chinese, North Koreans, South Koreans, and United States. He describes the experience of being surrounded by generals from all sides. He comments on being part of a regimental combat team.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



The Loss of a Close Friend During the Battle of Triangle Hill

James Butcher fought during the battle of Triangle Ridge/Hill. On Oct. 18, 1952, he charged up one specific section of the ridge that included Jane Russell Hill to fight the Chinese. Unfortunately, his friend was killed right next to him as they were taking out Chinese trenches.



A Close Encounter with a Chinese Soldier

James Butcher went face-to-face with a Chinese soldier as he was fighting for Triangle Hill. The Chinese soldier was getting ready to throw a grenade at the US troops and he became scared when he saw James Butcher in the trench with him. After a long pause, James Butcher took down the enemy trench.



James C. Delong

Contact with the Enemy

James C. Delong describes the activities of the 31st Infantry Regiment from Inchon to Suwon including contact with the enemy. He explains that he landed in Inchon the day after the Inchon Landing. He goes on to explain there was little resistance on the way to Suwon because the North Koreans were trying to evade them, abandoning their tanks and everything along the way.



Combat near the Chosin Reservoir

James C. Delong describes a four day period in combat near the Chosin Reservoir before being captured days later by the Chinese. He explains that he manned a machine gun and guarded a ditch that the Chinese used for cover. He describes the nights of guarding the the ditch and easily shooting the Chinese who gathered at a bunker along the side of the hill. He goes on to describe the final night when his friend, who had been in WWII and warned him about the tenacity of the Chinese, was shot and killed.



James C. Siotas

Arriving in Korea

James C. Siotas confesses having scant knowledge about Korea when he arrived in Incheon in September 1951. He recounts the journey to the front through a devastated Seoul, where only a few walls remained amid the absence of buildings. Serving in an artillery unit near Kumsong, he reflects on his experiences during that period.



We Kept Responding to What They Asked Us to Do

James C. Siotas recounts intense fighting experiences during his time in the area around Kumsong. He describes the continuous firing they carried out day and night, only pausing when maintenance on the overheated cannon barrels was necessary. On one occasion, he recalls the heavy fire received by the Greek Battalion stationed in front of his unit. Interestingly, he notes that both the Greek unit and the Greek Orthodox Christians in his unit were permitted to celebrate Easter in the rear position.



James Cochran

Duties in the Fire Direction Center

James Cochran recounts his transfer and arrival at post in the Punch Bowl area and details the living conditions there amid the artillery. He describes his role in the Fire Direction Center (FDC) which entailed providing the battery with information for aiming. He offers a shift rotation example for this particular role as well.



Weather Data Use in Firing Artillery

James Cochran describes using weather data to influence firing artillery. He recalls a separate unit sending up weather balloons to collect data on wind direction, temperature, humidity, and other measures used in making artillery corrections and firing trajectory adjustments. He explains the importance of these variables with regard to successfully hitting targets.



Softer Side of War

James Cochran offers a glimpse of the softer side of war. He recounts his living conditions in bunkers and recalls sleeping without heat from the bunker furnace at night despite the cold temperatures. He remembers being well fed and shares that he often wrote letters home during his service, detailing the weather and requesting items such as socks and camera film.



James Creswell

Typical Day of Service

James Creswell describes how he served as an advisor to three or four South Korean Majors and Colonels. He recounts offering radio signal, leadership, combat, artillery, and tank advice and training to other soldiers. He explains that there was significant guerrilla warfare, and due to the successes of the advisory support he was involved in, he shares that there was a bounty on his head. He expresses the level of danger, adds that no logos or insignias were worn, and recalls having a rifle in his hands at all times.



Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



Supply Train Ambush

James Creswell recounts a supply train ambush where guerrillas had dynamited the track, forcing the train to stop roughly twenty miles from its destination. He shares that the civilians on the train got off, and the guerrillas then gunned down around four hundred of them. He recalls the event being so horrific that it made headlines in the U.S. and believes it to be the largest civilian massacre in 1952.



South Korean Soldiers "Bugging Out"

James Creswell describes how he went up to the front line several times to see how the South Koreans were fighting due to having helped train them. He shares that two other men along with him would communicate via walkie-talkie on the status of the line. He recalls that the South Korean soldiers, when scared, would leave the British and American soldiers in the middle of the night without warning. He refers to this as "bugging out" and adds that it left the British and American soldiers vulnerable to attack by the Chinese.



James E. Carter, Sr.

Capturing Seoul and Wonsan

James Carter describes his first experiences in Korea while traveling to Seoul, which had both recently been taken under American control. He describes the widespread destruction he witnessed. He explains how he then was put on a ship and landed in Wonsan. He explains that he faced no resistance by the time he arrived.



Battle of the Chosin Reservoir/Battle of Jangjin Lake

James Carter describes the attack at Koto-ri. He explains how his platoon was heading to meet up with the Easy Company. He describes being attacked by the Chinese and the subsequent retreat. He recalls the dangers and losses his platoon faced. He shares how he luckily survived some possibly fatal shots.



James E. Fant

Being Drafted and Basic Training

James E. Fant describes being drafted in 1950. He reflects on his fourteen-week basic training with the first Airborne Division at Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky. He recalls receiving orders to go to Korea and having only seven days to prepare before taking a troop train to Chicago. He shares he was eventually shipped to Japan from Seattle. He remembers landing in Incheon, Korea, and taking a troop train to Seoul before making his way eventually to Hill 355. He comments that the war in Korea was primarily about fighting for high ground.



Surviving Combat and Rest and Relaxation

James E. Fant describes war as "something you can't get over." He speaks of witnessing people being killed and his experiences of surviving combat. He reflects on being ordered to take Rest and Relaxation in Japan after four or five months in Korea. He comments that the military would take men off the front line to reduce their tension. He remembers returning to Hill 355, the place where he had previously experienced intense combat and witnessed the loss of several comrades. He expresses gratitude for having been able to return to the United States.



Heavy Weapons Squad and Going on Patrol

James E. Fant reflects on his role as a member of a heavy weapons squad during the Korean War. He recounts the nerve-racking experience of going on patrol at night, never knowing if they would come in contact with the enemy. He remembers the importance of knowing the correct passwords when returning from patrols. Despite the passage of time, he finds it astonishing that the conflict between North and South Korea has remained unresolved.



The Korean War - The "Forgotten War"

James E. Fant discusses the Korean War as a police action as part of the reason it is considered the "Forgotten War." He describes his sense of duty to serve when he was drafted and draws a comparison between his own feelings and those of some individuals during the Vietnam War. He emphasizes how the nature of war has changed considerably since his time serving in Korea.



Guarding Prisoners of War and Living Conditions

James E. Fant discusses guarding prisoners at Yeongdeungpo outside of Seoul as he was pulled out of combat. He describes his living conditions and how sandbags and bunkers protected them from artillery attacks. He recalls eating cold C-Rations and how only the baked beans were good as they could warm them up. He expands on his description of food by recalling that hot food was only available when they were pulled off the front line.



James Elmer Bishop

First Time Under Fire

James Elmer Bishop discusses the first time he came under fire in Korea. He recalls a time when he was on guard duty, and he came face-to-face with a Chinese soldier. He describes shooting the Chinese soldier with a forty-five caliber sub-machine gun and being stabbed with a bayonet when the solider fell on him. He explains that he fought the Chinese solider for a while not knowing the soldier was already dead. He says while he can laugh about it now, at the time, he thought he was going to die.



Being Wounded and Helicopter Evacuation

James Elmer Bishop discusses being injured when a shell hit near him after an ambush. He recalls being thrown over nineteen feet into a river bed by the blast. After returning to camp, he recounts being told he was bleeding and realizing he had shrapnel in his leg. He shares that he realized how much he was bleeding when he removed his boot. He describes being flown on a helicopter to a hospital, losing consciousness, and coming to while lying on the stretcher attached to the side of the helicopter. He admits he passed out again from the loss of blood and woke up next in the hospital when they were pulling shrapnel from his leg.



James Ferris

The Difficult Job as a US Marine

James Ferris shares that his assignment did not allow him to stay in Korea for a long time. He explains that his job had him flying in and out of the entire country. He shares he earned good money for the 1950s as a corporal and recalls how he sent most of it home to his family. He adds that once he arrived back home, he went on his first date with a girl he wrote to for over a year while serving in the war.



James H. Raynor

Only Trained in Mess Halls

James H. Raynor describes his first combat in the Korean War. He was not prepared for the conflict, having only trained in the mess hall during basic training. He describes how scared he was and not knowing what to do during the fight.



Hand Grenade to the Groin

James H. Raynor describes his first wound during the Korean War. He suffered from a hand grenade to his groin. He describes how he endured this wound without treatment, barely managing to walk.



New Year's Eve at T-Bone Hill

James H. Raynor describes his News Year Eve at T-Bone Hill. He elaborates on the poor food rations, the extreme cold, and calling out to his "mommy" for strength. He describes a surprise attack that destroyed everything around him.



James Hillier

Serving Despite Skin Grafts

James Hollier describes his aircraft being hit three times. He details a time when he was burned so badly that he needed skin grafts, recovering over a 15 month period. He describes the importance of getting back on his feet to continue serving his country.



James Houp

Incheon Landing

James Houp reflects on his experience at the Incheon Landing. He shares how he and his unit went in on the third day of the invasion, on September 18, 1950. He explains that his job was to lay telephone wire. He remembers that Seoul had not been recaptured yet when he arrived. He remembers seeing enemy soldiers sticking their heads outside of the foxholes as he was re-laying wire that had been run over by tanks. He shares how, at that point, he recognized they were actually at war.



Time in Korea

James Houp speaks about his time in Pusan and Heungnam, up towards the Yalu River, and recalls meeting Chinese forces. He describes how his unit was pushed back to Heungnam where he worked to set up communication lines with the ships. He recalls how his unit stayed in a warehouse and remembers seeing the Army retreating away from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He comments on the temperature being thirty-two degrees below zero at the time. He recalls his departure via a U.S. ship headed back to Pusan and then to other locations south of Seoul.



James J. Barden

Sunset Missions

James J. Barden describes preparation for the thirty bombing missions his crew executed in 1952. It took much of an entire day for his squadron to prepare the planes and bombs for night missions from Yokota Air Force Base in Japan. Each mission was to bomb various locations on the Korean Peninsula.



Making the Drops

James J. Barden details bombing missions as they were executed over various cities on the Korean Peninsula, including the capital city of Pyongyang, during the Korean War. He describes the measures taken by his crew to assure accuracy of the bomb drops in hitting intended targets. He explains that the bombings conducted by his crew were documented by another squadron that followed behind to take photos after each mission.



Making the Bomb Run

James J. Barden describes the conditions when his crew faced enemy aircraft. Each bomb run lasted about six minutes, and were three minutes apart. With the enemy hard to detect or see at night, the missions were stressful. The directives to his crew were to not fire unless they were being hit, a measure to prevent the enemy from seeing the aircraft at night.



James Jolly

Pure Destruction: Seoul

James Jolly describes the recapturing of Seoul in 1950 and the destruction that was endured. He explains that the majority of the city's buildings were destroyed in order to get rid of the enemy who were inside of them. He goes on to describe his pride for the strength and will of the Korean people to rebuild.



Cold at Chosin

James Jolly describes the extreme cold temperatures his platoon endured while at the Chosin Reservoir. Temperatures were usually twenty degrees Fahrenheit below zero and sometimes as low as forty degrees below zero. He recalls many soldiers suffered from frostbite while some froze to death. He also elaborates on their Christmas miracle known as "the star of Kotari" which gave them the will to persevere.



Tootsie Roll

James Jolly recalls that while at the Chosin Reservoir, his platoon survived on Tootsie Roll candy. He explains that their C-rations were frozen and the only way they could thaw them was by holding them against their bodies, which was very unpleasant. He goes on to explain how the delivery of this candy was originally a mistake; they had ordered mortar shells which happened to be the code name for Tootsie Rolls, thus tons and tons of candy was delivered from Japan.



James L. Owen

Strategy in North Korea

James L. Owen details the strategy commanded by General MacArthur when they pushed past the 38th parallel. He remembers how the Chinese surrounded them for 30 days near the Yalu River, the border Korea shares with China. He recalls destruction along the way and recounts sailing around the peninsula to get to North Korea.



Experience at Incheon

James L. Owen details arriving at Incheon Landing in September 1950. He recalls his platoon spending 60 days pushing back North Korean troops from there. He remembers taking all the equipment back on the ship, going to the other side of the peninsula, and proceeding combat pushing the North Korean forces as far north as the Chinese border.



Most Difficult Thing

James L. Owen explains that the most difficult thing of his service was knowing it had to be done. He shares it was hard to accept the fact that one must "kill or be killed." He describes how so many officers were killed, that job responsibilities constantly changed, and that one had to persevere.



James L. Stone

Refusing to Give Up

James L. Stone recounts a night attack made by roughly eight hundred Chinese. He describes how he was shot in the leg and neck and remembers another soldier placing a small cloth on his neck to stop the bleeding. He recalls being surrounded by Chinese soldiers but shares that he and his men refused to give up despite the circumstance.



Medal of Honor

James L. Stone states that he was unaware he had been awarded the Medal of Honor. He shares that he was recognized for a few things that he did while serving and lists several that may have contributed to him being awarded the Medal of Honor. He specifically recounts keeping his men together as no one surrendered despited the one hundred percent casualty rate.



James Low

Army Gunner with Old WWII Weapons

James Low applied to a school in Texas as a radar repairman, but he was not taken into the program. Instead, he was trained as a 50 caliber machine gunner. Learning to get along with a variety of people, traveling, and training on his gun were the skills he learned. The anti-aircraft weapon that James Low used was from WWII, so soldiers couldn't shoot down planes and ammunition often didn't work.



James M. Cross

Heartbreak Ridge and PTSD (graphic)

James Cross describes the marches he endured and seeing fellow Marines dead in a pile with all clothing removed by the enemy. He shares that he began to resent the Chinese, so much so that if he saw one, he would kill him. His wife, in the interview, adds that he would wake from nightmares during the night, screaming and upset due to having seen his friends killed right beside him.



Scared or Mad (graphic)

James Cross describes how he was either scared or mad at the Chinese, particularly while at Heartbreak Ridge. He recalls having one hot meal a day and recounts an incident which occurred shortly after finishing a meal. He remembers being mad at the Chinese during the majority of his service for what they were doing to American soldiers, and he shares that he tried his best to stop them at whatever cost.



If Given a Chance to Meet the Chinese Today

James Cross states that if he met a Chinese soldier from the war today, he would shake his hand. He shares that he was thinking one thing while the Chinese soldiers were thinking another. He comments on the Chinese having little by way of uniforms and shares how proud he was to be an American soldier. He discusses the last night of his tour where he killed nine Chinese soldiers who had advanced all the way into the American trenches.



James M. Oyadomari

Arriving in Korea

James M. Oyadomari shares the story of his arrival in Korea and the travels to his station at headquarters, about four miles behind the front lines. He recollects traveling from Busan to Incheon and Seoul on a slow train. From Seoul, he recalls traveling via truck through the West Gate to Chuncheon and ultimately to headquarters near the Kunson River. He recalls building bunkers for the first couple of months before transferring to a radio relay station closer to the front lines at a location referred to as Hill 949.



I Just Accepted What I Had to Do

James M. Oyadomari describes how he was assigned as a radio operator at a relay station just behind the front lines during his time in Korea. He recalls that most of the incoming fire flew well over their heads but that one round landed nearby. He confesses to being somewhat afraid but notes that he did not panic. He shares the struggles many of the younger soldiers dealt with while serving in Korea. He recalls the time as difficult but that he simply accepted what he had to do.



James P. Argires

"Fearless" at the Inchon Landing

James Argires describes his experience in the Inchon Landing, explaining that there was some controversy around whether it would be successful. He describes the terrain and the struggles he faced. When asked if he was afraid, he explains how being young made him “fearless.”



James Parker

Friendly Fire Experience

James Parker recalls some of his typical duties while serving. He describes participating in exercises and his experience with "friendly fire". He shares that napalm and artillery were mistakenly dropped and fired on their own troops.



Heartbreak Ridge

James Parker recalls the campaign for Heartbreak Ridge. He remembers many calls for medics as soldiers were continuously wounded advancing up the hill. He chronicles the change in tactics from using manpower to advance to using tanks instead as a means of taking out the enemy bunkers.



Letters Home

James Parker recalls writing letters home to his sister. He produces a folder containing a letter he had written and offers the viewing of a magazine he was sent from the States pertaining to Heartbreak Ridge. He utilizes the map to show the routes he and other soldiers took during the campaign.



James Pigneri

Commanding from a Ditch

James Pigneri describes first getting to Korea and going straight into the war zone. The command post was in a ditch. Here he tells of his first official job transporting deceased soldiers while coming under enemy mortar fire from the Chinese.



Interaction with Korean MP's

James Pigneri talks about his time serving with two young Korean military police officers. Because of the dedication of the MP's, Pigneri goes unharmed but the MP's die tragically in battle.



Awards and Air Drops

James Pigneri discusses the awards that he received during the Korean War. He also gives details about how he and other soldiers received their rations and supplies via air drops. The receiving of supplies was a dangerous mission where many soldiers were killed trying to supply the combat soldiers with their daily necessities.



James R. Kaleohano

Replacement Company

James Kaleohano arrives in Korea and his company is replacing the company that was just ambushed. They are transported in cattle cars to the front lines in North Korea. James's company goes straight to the front line and he is given the job of a machine gunner.



James Rominger

Korean House Boys

James Rominger talks about the duties of the Korean house boys who took care of all the general housekeeping needs of the soldiers. The house boys washed clothes, cleaned shoes and kept the general area clean in the foxholes and the bunkers in exchange for food and clothing. James Rominger shares why the teenage boy was unable to even return home.



We were very unprepared for WAR.

James Rominger believes the North Koreans were winning the war because the American soldiers were very unprepared. There was little food and their boots were rotten. He shares how soldiers were in the North Korean territory of Kumhwa Valley working hard to gain stabilization in an area that had been completely destroyed.



A typical day in the Kumhwa Valley

James Rominger discusses what a typical day looked like as a radio sergeant. He shares what food they ate and where they slept, but also what his job included. He remembers the procedures for fixing the radios and having to bring them to the forward observers.



James Ronald Twentey

Plotting Minefields

James "Ron" Twentey talks about his job as an Infantry Combat Operations Specialist plotting minefields and safety lanes. He explains that his educational background resulted in his being assigned to creating the safety lanes in minefields. He describes the choices made and layout details that are involved with minefield planning. He goes on to describe what a safety lane is and its specifications.



James Sharp

Integration in the Marine Corps

James Sharp describes the official integration of African American soldiers in the Marine Corps prior to the Korean War. He adds that the Korean War was the first war where African Americans could participate in combat both as a unit and as an individual assigned to units. He also offers an account of African American contributions in previous wars.



Average Day Defending an Outpost

James Sharp describes an average day while defending a trench for an 83 day period as a machine gunner. He recounts receiving mortar fire often during the day and night as well as sniper fire if soldiers emerged from the trenches. He explains the necessity of being alert and aware of movement near one's position and details the need for a machine gunner to accompany patrol units.



Machine Gunner Expertise

James Sharp details an ambush scenario a unit found itself amid one night while out on patrol. He recalls Chinese machine gunners furtively stationed on a dike in the rice patties, waiting on half of the patrol to cross before attacking. He describes his own firing expertise and his ability to take out the gunners on the dike to secure the location.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Waves of Chinese Forces

James Shimabuku describes the situation in Pusan upon his arrival and recounts making his way up to Suwon. He remembers encountering the Chinese and recalls wave after wave of them. He shares that when the Chinese soldiers in the front died, the Chinese soldiers behind them would pick up their weapons and continue pushing forward.



Sleep Deprivation and Thoughts on Fear

James Shimabuku recounts the difficulties of trying to sleep with shrapnel falling around the troops. He offers an account of a fellow soldier moving dead bodies and shooting an enemy soldier who was still alive amid the bodies. He shares his philosophy on fear and states that one either lives or dies.



James Shuman

Arriving in Korea

James Shuman remembers what it was like arriving at the beaches in Incheon. He explains having to board landing craft due the ships not being able to make it to the beach. He discusses spending the night on a nearby army base before being sent directly to the front lines the next day.



Shooting from the Caves

James Shuman explains how the guns were kept in bunkers while serving with his unit. He remembers having little protection when they were on the front lines. He recalls how the enemy would tunnel through mountains and create a cave-like shelter from which they would shoot at his crew.



Life in Korea

James Shuman describes the living conditions on the front lines. He remembers being unable to shower often and how he would use his helmet as a makeshift sink for bathing. He recalls living in bunkers with a mess hall not too far from where he slept. He explains the types of food that were available to the men serving there.



James T. Gill

Weapons Usage in the Navy

James Gill shares that he experienced a fairly lengthy training as he partook in the usual basic but also an extended weapons training. He describes the need to be experienced with many firearms and weapons, despite the misconception that the Navy never has to fire a gun. He refers to the amphibious force to support his claim as its members are sometimes forced ashore due to boat damage.



Landing Troops on the Shores of Korea

James Gill describes assisting with the transfer of Army and Marine Corps troops from Japan to Korea and vise versa as well as up and down the coast of Korea throughout the war. He recalls one particular morning where their mission was to land 1200 military troops under fire on the shores of Korea. He shares that he later spoke with a soldier from that landing and learned that roughly 600 of those troops had died almost immediately.



James Vance Scott

Air Support and Bunker Life

James Vance Scott describes being a squad leader and furnishing air and ground support for the infantry. He explains that they moved around many times while on the front lines and were stationed mainly in the bunkers they built to sleep in during the war. He describes the mindset of the home-front concerning the Korean War draft. He says the conditions in Korea were very unpleasant.



The Big Grenade and Surrender of North Korean Soldiers

James Vance Scott describes the grenade attached to his anti-aircraft machinery that he was instructed to activate if the troops were ever overrun. He recounts how they were also to be back-up support with machine guns. He describes the Battle of Old Baldy, including the surrender of two North Korean soldiers who voluntarily walked into the American camp starving and cold. He describes his first encounter with Chinese soldiers, as well as seeing a dead enemy civilian.



Janice Feagin Britton

Duties as a Wartime Flight Nurse

Janice Briton explains her role as a flight nurse during the Korean War. She describes how they used information about the patients to place them in the plane where they would receive the best care. She details how, because there were not good places to land, they took the smaller C-46 and C-47 planes that could only hold twenty to twenty-five patients. She adds that when they were able to access better landing strips, they flew in the C-54 which could carry twenty-eight soldiers. She recalls almost being surrounded by the Chinese at the Jangin (Chosin) Reservoir and how they loaded planes as full as possible to help evacuate as many people as possible.



First Nurse to Fly Over the 38th Parallel

Janice Briton recalls being featured in a newspaper article as the first nurse to fly over the 38th parallel. She admits she did nothing different than other nurses, and it was just by chance she was assigned to be on this particular flight. She did not regard her job as dangerous and reflects on knowing the U.S. Marines had secured the area before her flight. She shows pride in knowing she played a role in taking injured soldiers from a bad situation to a better one. She shares she knew her job was to go as close to the front lines as safely possible to evacuate wounded soldiers.



Making Sure Hungry Patients Had Food

Janice Briton remembers learning wounded soldiers had not eaten for a log time while waiting to evacuate wounded soldiers to Japan. She recalls going to the mess hall and telling them she needed food for her hungry patients. She remembers the mess hall did not have mess kits and how wounded soldiers used celery, with one soldier even using his toothbrush holder to eat. She recalls telling a soldier she was glad the meal was not a steak dinner since there were no knives. She recalls the soldier responding the meal was better than a steak dinner since he was so hungry.



Jean Clement

Dangerous Moment

Jean Clements recalls a dangerous moment he experienced while serving in Korea. He shares that the night patrols were especially dangerous and recounts one in particular where he and fellow soldiers were assigned to check a particular post near the Imgingang River in no man's land due to an issue with the communication lines. He recounts having to maneuver through rice fields and securing one side with his machine gun as they made their way to the post.



Imjingang River Attack

Jean Clement shares an account of soldiers on patrol being attacked by the Chinese. He describes the camp where he was assigned, sandwiched between the Imjingang River and a mountain, and recalls that it was not located in the best position for defense against an attack. He shares that Luxembourg soldiers were conducting a patrol across a nearby floating bridge on the Imjingang River, and they were attacked by the Chinese. He recalls helping a soldier out of the river after he had jumped in to protect himself from the Chinese fire. He recounts destroying the equipment they could not carry with them prior to leaving so that it would not fall in Chinese hands and describes how the Belgium soldiers carved a path through the mountain to safety.



Reflecting on the Good

Jean Clement reflects on the good he experienced while serving in Korea. He speaks of camaraderie and being there for each other when it mattered most. He adds that he enjoyed time in the rest camps away from the front lines where they could wash their clothes and engage with American soldiers.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

Minefields and Cold Temperatures

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his duty laying minefields. He recounts carrying out sweeps after opposing forces dropped shells on the fields and on their trenches. He also mentions that Canadian forces used dugouts to keep warm, utilizing gasoline and ammunition cases to create their own sources of heat.



Difficulties of War

Jean Paul St. Aubin details a difficult experience while out on patrol. He recounts orders to capture a small hill and the plan being to send 20 soldiers up the hill, leaving 20 in reserve at the base of the hill. He shares that those sent up the hill were attacked with grenades and suffered wounds, were killed, were taken prisoner, or went missing.



Letters During War

Jean Paul St. Aubin recalls writing letters home and receiving letters often. He remembers that he, collectively, received 3-4 letters from his family members and girlfriend each week despite being on the front lines and mentions that the mail service was good. He describes the topics of conversation on which most of the letters centered.



Jean Paul White

The Marine Corps Joins the War

Jean Paul White talks about where he was when he first heard about fighting in the Korean War. He describes learning about the war in newspaper headlines. He explains how he was unsure as to where Korea was located. He describes the diminished state of the USMC at the start of the war.



We Trained for It

Jean Paul White describes being a tactical soldier. He explained how he slept in the ground. He describes carrying only a one-day food, ammunition, and gear. He explains that conditions were hard for him and his fellow Marines endured after landing at Inchon, but that he had trained for it.



Chinese Intervention

Jean Paul White describes war activity with the Chinese. He explains the living conditions and injuries that resulted. He describes the movements of the Marine Corps leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes events that happen during and after the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains learning about General MacArthur asking them to retreat with orders from his Commanding General, General Smith.



Fighting the Cold

Jean Paul White describes how difficult it was to maintain weapons in the cold in Korea in the winter of 1950. He explains the effects on food. He explains the extents to what people had to do to keep items in use. He shares an interesting story about the medical professionals struggle difficult conditions.



Shot But Not Wounded

Jean Paul White describes an incident while he and his squad were taking a hill. He describes a Chinese soldier with an automatic rifle. He mentions a fellow officer, PFC Walter Talbot, who was hit. He explains that after dispatching the enemy soldier, he was surprised to find that PFC Talbot had been shot but not wounded. He explains how he was miraculously saved.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

We were there during the Cold War

Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner received word that the North Koreans wanted to participate in the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, so they were heavily guarding the 38th parallel. They were doing this to ensure that the Olympics would remain safe. The 38th parallel is the dividing line between North and South Korea that we created during the signing of the armistice on July 29, 1953.



Jeff Liebregts

We Finally Took Hill 325

Jeff Liebregts does not recall knowing if they were fighting Chinese or North Korean soldiers at Hill 325. He explains that before the third attempt to take the hill it didn't matter what job you had. You were given a gun and sent up the hill. He shares details about being afraid and if someone says they were not, they are joking. After taking the hill, he remembers feeling tired and lying down near body bags. He recalls waking up to someone kicking him to check if he was alive.



You Saved My Life Baby

Jeff Liebregts elaborates on his experience protecting the bridge in Hoengsong and saving the life of a colonel. While monitoring the replacement bridge, he remembers hearing something approaching. He describes seeing a weapons carrier with mortars crossing the bridge and readying his weapon. As he assessed the situation, he recalls seeing a colonel exit the car looking completely out of sorts. After providing protection for the colonel, he describes opening the vehicle and finding four deceased soldiers.



Waking Up in Tokyo

Jeff Liebregts recounts being injured at Imjin River while tending the radio. He explains how all of a sudden someone started shooting at his vehicle. As a result of this, he shares his driver was killed, and the vehicle crashed into the valley. He remembers waking up with multiple broken bones and no memory of how he ended up in Tokyo. While in Tokyo, he shares he was given a Purple Heart but returned the medal because only Americans can earn Purple Hearts.



Jeremiah Johnson

Counterfire Platoon

Jeremiah Johnson describes his job in Korea. He recounts how he would record the sounds of enemy artillery. He explains his role and how he was independent from the trench soldier. He describes the technology he would use as part of his counterfire platoon work.



Finding North Korean Shooters

Jeremiah Johnson describes the poor attitude of many soldiers who did not want to be there and comments on how they would complain. He remembers how he was bored calling artillery locations, so he asked his Lieutenant if he could figure out his own shots. He describes how he came up with a system to refine the process of locating North Korean guns.



Hiring Orphans to Help

Jeremiah Johnson remembers two orphaned South Korean boys who worked for the unit. He describes the jobs they were given. He shares how they paid them and comments on how they learned from the soldiers.



Jerry Bowen

Dangerous Moments

When asked about dangerous moments, Jerry Bowen describes exchanging mortar fire with the Chinese in formation in front of his camp. He got some mortar bombs and went up to the top of the hill, but feared the Chinese would ambush them. He describes using hand grenades and the other events of that night in detail.



"A Wartime Place"

When asked what Korea is to him now, Jerry Bowen describes Korea as "the place he fought." He vaguely remembers living in trenches, tents and dugouts when not on the front lines. It says it was a "war time place."



Jerry Kaspen

Live Bomb evacuated by Helicopter

In this clip, Jerry Kaspen describes the tense moment when he was left alone with in a field of live bombs. During this time the military removed a live bomb that was too close to a local village. Jerry Kaspen historically photographed the first live bomb ever evacuated by helicopter.



Jesse Englehart

Kill or Be Killed

Jesse Englehart discusses landing in Busan. He discusses the personal hardship of being on a ship for such a long time. He explains how they quickly he was thrust into combat. He explains how he adapted.



The Luxury of Food

Jesse Englehart describes a resourceful Master Sergeant. Unlike other units, this Master Sergeant would get food using a boat. He explains how they were even able to get a freezer allowing the Master Sergeant to supply his unit with good food on the front lines.



You Get Used to It

Jesse Englehart describes how a South Korean man was communicating with North Korea. He remembers an incident and seeing this man beaten with a bat. He explains how in war soldiers become desensitized to violence.



Taking a Hill

Jesse Englehart describes his part in taking a hill. He explains how he prepared for battle with his helmet. He described weapons used against him and others during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He also explains that he was lucky to survive and how they made sure they left nothing the enemy could use.



The Hazards of War

Jesse Englehart describes what he forgets and remembers from the war. He explains the weapons used. He explains incidents of death in what he calls the "hazards of war."



Jesse Sanchez Berain

Re-Enlisting in the U.S. Army at the Onset of the Korean War

Jesse Sanchez Berain reflects on his decision to join the United States Air Force immediately after graduating from high school in 1946. He explains how his experience with the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) in high school allowed him to skip basic training and become a drill and physical training instructor at Lackland Air Force Base. He describes how he re-enlisted in the military with the U.S. Army in 1950 when the Korean War began.



War on the Korean Peninsula

Jesse Sanchez Berain remembers being stationed close to Seoul during the war. He uses a map to demonstrate how North Korean and Chinese forces attacked and pushed the United States military forces south of the 38th Parallel. He mentions that he spent eighteen months in Korea and Japan.



Rifle Platoon Leader

Jesse Sanchez Berain discusses his role as a Rifle Platoon Leader and the tasks he handled. He mentions that he organized his men to scout both sides of the mountain for enemy activity by scheduling point men. He remembers that his platoon consisted of around forty soldiers, including a heavy weapons unit.



Jesus L. Balaoro

Jesus Balaoro Defied Orders, Won Award

In the Battle of Christmas Hill, Jesus Balaoro's friend was wounded. he carried his friend to the top of the hill to be taken to a hospital by a helicopter. Along the way, his commander ordered him to stop but he defied orders and continued up the hill. His friend was able to survive the battle wound, but later died from disease.



Jesús María Cabra Vargas

The Armistice / El Armisticio

Jesús María Cabra Vargas shares the joy and relief troops felt when they heard about the signing of the Armistice. He explains that troops were required to conduct skirmishes at night. He reminisces how there are no words to explain the joy they felt knowing that their lives were no longer on the line.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas comparte la alegría y el alivio que sintieron al enterarse de la firma del Armisticio. Explica que se requerían tropas para realizar escaramuzas por la noche. Recuerda que no hay palabras para explicar la alegría que sintieron al saber que no iban a perder sus vidas.



Jesus Perez

A Special Memory From Korea

Jesus Perez shares one of his happiest memories from Korea that took place on his birthday, which was also Christmas Day. He tells how his commander arranged for him to take a special leave to celebrate his birthday and how sneaky the crew had to be to pull off a surprise party. He also describes memories that were sad, such as having to repair aircraft stained with the blood of fellow soldiers who did not make it.



Jim Duncan

Experiences as an Army Armor Officer

Jim Duncan describes the difficulty of fighting at night. He describes an incident when his tank was hit. He describes the damage by enemy fire on Hill 854 in Eastern Korea.



Tanks in Charge

Jim Ducan discusses being a helpful hand to men in trenches. He discusses when he was sent to the front lines. He explains tank battalions and their set up in the war. He explains that he stood on hill 854 to the end.



I Was Thinking About My Men

Jim Duncan discusses how lucky he feels to not lose any men. He shares a difficult decision he had to make for his men. He explains how difficult his duty as a Platoon Leader could be.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Farmers vs City Boys in a POW Camp

The soldiers who had once been farmers and ranchers back at home knew which vegetation to eat on that ground while many of the city boys lacked any of this knowledge. Georgia and Linda Montoya said that before the war, Jimmie Montoya would ride out to the ranch, shine shoes, work on the farm, or do whatever it takes to help make ends meet. Whatever amount he was paid during the war, he sent home to his mother and the kids.



Jimmy A. Garcia

Leaving California for the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia reflects on his desire to join the United States Marine Corps when the Korean War broke out in 1950. He shares that in 1952, he was drafted into the U.S. Army after his family insisted he not enlist. He recalls how, after completing sixteen weeks of basic training in Camp Roberts, California, he was sent to Korea by ship. He describes his journey to the front lines, which involved disembarking in Incheon and taking trucks to reach their designated destination. He explains how he was assigned to the Third Division, Fifteenth Regiment, Second Battalion, George Company, and was entrusted with the responsibility of holding the line at Outpost Harry.



Conditions on the Front Lines

Jimmy A. Garcia recounts his experience of serving in Korea and the food he ate during his time there. He notes that while South Korean civilians occasionally brought hot meals to his unit, he mostly relied on C-Rations--canned wet foods that were already prepared. He discusses the challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while serving on the front lines, including taking weekly showers and sponge baths using their t-shirts. He provides an overview of the North Korean military campaign against South Korea and the role played by the United Nations and the United States during the war.



An Outpost Harry Survivor

Jimmy A. Garcia shares his experience of patrolling for Chinese activity at night. He recalls a time when he was ordered to patrol alone, which was a perilous and nerve-racking task. He provides an overview of the sieges of Outpost Harry that took place in June 1953. He speaks of the casualties his company suffered as they defended the hill and expresses pride in being called a survivor of Outpost Harry.



The Last Days of Service

Jimmy A. Garcia pays tribute to two of his closest comrades who lost their lives during the Korean War. He acknowledges they all experienced moments of fear but did their best to conceal their emotions. He narrates two incidents where some soldiers he knew had trouble coping with the uncertainty and horror of war. He shares how he found solace and happiness by joining the regimental choir during his last days of service in Korea which brought joy to those who heard the performances.



Joan Taylor

The Importance of Care Packages

Joan Taylor describes what it was like to be a young bride of a Korean War soldier. She recalls living with her parents while her first husband was away at war. She describes the care packages she made for her husband that included warm clothes because winter military clothes had yet been provided.



Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor shares her first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. She explains his father passed away, and his mother was left to run a business and needed help. She communicates that her first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting; however, he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe C. Tarver

Keeping the Aircraft Going

Joe C. Tarver details the responsibilities he was given after receiving basic training in San Diego, California. As an aircraft captain assigned to a squadron aboard the USS Boxer, he was to conduct maintenance inspections on incoming aircraft. He explains how important proper coordination efforts were on deck, so that the incoming aircraft could land safely aboard the aircraft carrier.



Danger Aboard the Aircraft Carrier

Joe C. Tarver describes the danger involved in maneuvering the large "Sky Raider" planes on the cramped flight deck, often in unstable weather conditions. The aircraft had large bomb loads, which was a consistent reminder of how meticulous airplane maneuvers had to be. He explains how one of the men he was stationed with accidentally got blown into a running aircraft propeller. Additionally, regular practices aboard the aircraft carrier were conducted to prepare to shoot at enemy fire if necessary.



Life at Sea

Joe C. Tarver explains that most of the men he was stationed with aboard the USS Boxer were part of a reserve squadron. The ship was almost nine hundred feet long, and had places to do laundry and take regular showers; it also had a post office and gas tanks. He explains that enemy fire never came while he was aboard the aircraft carrier because other ships were in the same area for protection.



Joe D. Slatton

Inchon in 1953 and Driving Colonels Crazy

Joe D. Slatton landed in Inchon, Korea in April 1953. He recalls hearing guns shooting all around him. First, Joe D. Slatton became a driver with the 703 Ordnance for officers (captains and colonels) until he drove a colonel down a goat path, and into a ditch, to avoid incoming fire in the Kumhawa Valley.



The Most Difficult Time Above the 38th Parallel

Joe D. Slatton recalls three difficult events while he was in Korea. He reflects on the passing of his father, how Howitzers ruined his hearing, and getting lost in no-man's-land.



Slatton and the Time of the Armistice July 27, 1953

After the armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, Joe D. Slatton's was assigned the job of collecting all military items that were above and around the 38th parallel. He recalls being scared because North Koreans continued to walk around armed.



Joe H. Ager

A Cruise to Wonsan

Joe Ager describes his experience landing in Korea. While on their way, he explains it felt like a cruise and they were not even aware of the upcoming invasion. As they made their way to land, he remembers the sudden end of gunfire and the shock of charging through water up to their knees. Making their way to the airfield, he shares that they were the only African American troops in Wonsan.



We Did Not Expect an Attack

Joe Ager shares details about the slow drive along the narrow roads to the east of the Chosin Reservoir. After reaching where the 5th Marines had been, he explains how they chose to stop and dig in. He notes the harsh living conditions they experienced. He describes the surprise of being attacked and surrounded by the Chinese.



Glad I Survived

Joe Ager offers an overview of the withdrawal. Under the orders of Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith, they began abandoning resources so that the Chinese would not know they were retreating. He reflects on Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith’s treatment of African American soldiers. During the withdrawal, he remembers encounters with the Chinese and the heavy loses they suffered. He shares that three hundred eighty-five out of the two thousand men reached Heungnam. He reflects on feelings of guilt for surviving but emphasizes not wasting time and energy on regret.



Joe Larkin

Harsh Winters and Ways to Detect the Enemy

Joe Larkin described the conditions on the mountains at Punchbowl were terrible including 10-20 degrees below zero weather which made it very difficult for guns to work properly. He said the oil and grease would freeze, so the soldiers weren't able to shoot their guns. They also developed searchlights that would beam off of low lying clouds so they could detect movement and see both the enemy and their own soldiers during the Korean War.



"Battle of the Hook" at Panmunjeom

An outcrop of land between two main lines resembled a hook.
Joe Larkin's Marine Division was sent to Panmunjom to hold the line of resistance against the Chinese. His unit helped with reinforcements by bringing in timber that they would move at night so the enemy could not detect their movement. The outpost was attacked and both sides suffered casualties, but with the help of his division, the UN troops took over the area.



Girl In The Picture

As his battalion moved from the south to northern Korea, Joe Larkin's battalion passed through several villages coming in contact with the Korean people. The civilians were very thankful for what the US troops were doing. One little girl saw a picture of Joe Larkin's niece in his pocket, and kept pointing at the picture, but Joe Larkin didn't understand. He called over an interpreter and he said the girl couldn't believe that his niece had a flower in her hair.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe Rosato

Bad Ankle Injury

Joe Rosato recalled that while fighting near the Yalu River, he, his sergeant, and a lieutenant were ordered to take out a machine gun nest using the 57-recoilless rifle. Not soon after their assigned task to take out the gunnery, they were ordered to quickly get down the road and regroup in no particular order. They were to just move as quickly as they could. Joe Rosato was carrying the rifle when his foot was wedged between rocks and he fell in a hole while twisting his ankle so bad he couldn't walk on it. He had to abandoned his rifle and limp as fast as he could to meet up with this regiment, but they lost a lot of men that day.



The Most Difficult Conditions Were Being Constantly Cold and Wet

Joe Rosato described that in most places around Korea, it wasn't safe to walk around. During the winter months, the scariest times were when they lived in the fox holes and it rained so much that it would fill the fox holes with water. Sleeping in a foot of water made Joe Rasato fear that he would freeze to death or drowned, so they had to make the choice to stay where they were or sleep outside the fox hole and risk getting shot.



Ox Steps on a Field Mine-We have meat!

Joe Rosato did have C-Rations that he took advantage of for meals. As he was passing through villages, he was aware that the food was grown in human waste, but that didn't stop him from eating the cucumbers, watermelons, peppers, and beans. Joe Rasato saw an ox step on a field mine and blew itself apart, so the soldiers built a fire and made sauce with the chili peppers to go along with this fresh meat.



John Barrett

International Fighting

John Barrett got to hear a lot of the stories of soldiers returning home. He remembers one solder who explained how they felt safe with the Scots on one side and the Turks on the other side. He said that they got to spend a lot of time together once the Armistice occurred.



John Beasley

Typhoon, Napalm, and a Big Breakfast

John Beasley describes the arduous trip to Inchon from Japan on a Japanese Navy Landing Ship Tank (LST). The voyage took place after a ten-day hold-up in Japan due to a typhoon. He recalls that the continuous large waves caused napalm containers aboard the ship to break loose on the deck. He describes the mood and morale of his fellow Marines as they ate a big breakfast of steak and eggs, and the concern about who would make it back alive from their mission.



Sights and Sounds of the Incheon Landing

John Beasley recalls the sights and sounds of 5:00 in the evening on September 15, 1950, the first day of the Inchon Landing. He describes only having rifles and mortars to use against Russian tanks that were coming in the next day after the landing. He recalls that other soldiers who had come off a carrier came in to assist with use of napalm. He gives a first-hand account of the heroic efforts of fellow Marine, Walter C. Monegan Jr., during the Inchon Landing. Monegan posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his valor.



Taking Back Seoul and the Wonsan Landing

John Beasley describes being in combat and his near death experience in the recapturing of Seoul. He describes his unit's voyage from Incheon to Wonsan after leaving Seoul. His description highlights the contributions of the U.S. Coast Guard and naval support in the Korean War.



A Picture of the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

John Beasley describes his own experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. His descriptions include seeing the U.S. Army suffer heavy casualties, as well as hearing a testimony from a wounded soldier about the atrocities done to the wounded by the Chinese. He recalls serving under his highly decorated commander, Colonel "Chesty" Puller. He also describes suffering a shrapnel wound during the Seoul Recapture.



John Bierman

Smoke During Amphibious Assaults

John Bierman was assigned to a smoke boat and amphibious assaults. The smoke boat is typically one of the first boats in and last boats out during amphibious training. Diesel fuel was mixed with water to make a heavy white cloud of smoke to protect landing craft boats during the Korean War.



Deceptive Amphibious Assaults

The ship that John Bierman was stationed on made deceptive amphibious assaults 3 different times on the coast of Korea during the war. This was a way to draw opposing troops away from the front line. North Korean troops were tricked, so John Bierman received incoming fire and was awarded the Combat Action Ribbon in 1951.



John Blankenship

Targets of Opportunity

John Blankenship participated in night time bombing raids to go after "targets of opportunity." There are differences in capability between the A26 which was piloted by John Blankenship, and the Soviet-built MIGS that were being used by the North Korean pilots. John Blankenship's A26 flew only at night because the Korean MIGS didn't fly at night, so it kept his A26 safe.



Night Missions with Napalm

John Blankenship knew that he was always in danger and a few of his friends were shot down. He flew every night and ended up flying 87 missions in about 1 year. The A26 held 14 gun, 4-6 bombs, and napalm. When enemy convoys stopped and were trapped, John Blankenship dropped napalm on North Korean troops.



Typical Day as a Pilot

John Blankenship remembers spending lots of time sleeping when he wasn't flying missions. He was provided food from Japan that was made my cooks in the Air Force and he was given one hot meal a day. The pilots often ate WWII C-Rations to supplement meals. An important mission that John Blankenship was part of included the bombing of Pyungyang and a town near the Yalu River.



John Boyd

John Boyd's Life and Duty as a Signal Officer

John Boyd shares details of his various duties as a Signal Officer. He explains the living conditions including some of the sleeping arrangements. He reminisces about an occasion where he was left alone and was not sure what to do.



Fire! Another Korean War Enemy

John Boyd remembers having to deal with several fires during his year in Korea. He recalls one such occasion when a space heater caused a fire in the signal office and the subsequent chaos that followed.



Korea 1953 - The Last Few Months of the War

John Boyd recalls the last few months of the war were full of anticipation as the talks were taking place at Panmunjom between the Chinese, North Koreans, and the United Nations. He recalls seeing a barrage balloon hovering over the site of the talks. As the weather began to heat up while they were waiting for the conclusion of the peace talks, valley fires increased in numbers and things became quite dangerous.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd recalls the devastating Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. He notes that they were always getting messages in regarding how had been wounded or killed. He remembers that artillery fire often went over their location. John Boyd details his duties during his final days in Korea.



John Burton Forse

First Experience in a Tank

John Burton Forse describes his first experience being in a M26 Pershing tank after being assigned as an assistant driver upon his arrival in Korea. He had to readjust to operating the machine gun in the tank. He also describes the sounds and feelings inside the tank.



First Time Driving an M46 Patton tank

John Burton Forse tells the story when a Colonel asked him to drive an M46 Patton tank up and down a hill. He did not have prior experience driving this kind of tank. It was difficult to get the tank up the hill and to make turns.



Traveling to Inchon by Ship

John Burton Forse describes the journey from the east coast of Korea to Inchon on a tank landing ship (LST). It was much better than the conditions he had prior. They had access to better food, showers, etc. While at sea on the ship, he experienced a bad storm and one of the tanks became loose on the ship.



First Time on Patrol

John Burton Forse describes the way he felt the first time he went on patrol in a tank. He describes feeling confident but reluctant at the same time. This is the moment soldiers are trained for. He describes the feeling as "this is it." He also details all the Chinese he saw dead everywhere.



John C. Delagrange

Identifying Targets During Korean War

John Delagrange shares he was trained as a photo interpreter and had difficulty identifying targets in North Korea. Using reconnaissance photos of battles throughout the mountains and hills, the United States Army Aerial Photo Interpretation Company (API) Air Intelligence Section pieced together maps in order to create a massive map of Korea. Every ravine, elevation, mountain, and hill was labeled by this photo analysis company.



Enemy River Crossing

John Delagrange recalls spending most of his time at Kimpo Air Base, analyzing aerial photos for intelligence. He remembers sending a reconnaissance flight to investigate an area of concern on the Imjingang River. He highlights that was the location where many of the Chinese troops hid and invaded during the Korean War.



North Korean Defector - Kenneth Rowe

John Delagrange remembers the day No Kum Sok landed his MiG 15 fighter at Kimpo Air Base defecting to South Korea in 1953. No Kum Sok (Kenneth Rowe) wrote a book, and he heard about the incident first-hand during their phone conversations later in life. No Kum Sok was a North Korean pilot during the Korean War, but he stole a MiG-15 and flew over the DMZ to Kimpo Air Base to earn his freedom.



John Cole

Attack in the Fox Hole

John Cole used his great hearing as one of his fighting tools. He shares when he was about to fall asleep in his fox hole, he could hear the enemy gathering across the rice field. He recalls the Chinese soon began their attack and notes that when one thought the enemy combatants were dead, they usually were not. He recalls finding out the hard way as the enemy crept into his fox hole through the rice field.



Battling for Hill 1520

John Cole fought for Hill 1520 during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts how many men were lost defending that hill. He remembers three Chinese soldiers climbing into his fox hole and how he had to fight using hand-to-hand combat. He notes this was when he was shot through his right arm.



John E. Gragg

Segregation in Korean War Units

John Gragg was in a segregated unit even though the 1948 desegregation law were supposed to be enforced. The only white person in his group was the commander who often mistreated the African American men. John Gragg mentions his experiences with white officers as well as how life in the South prepared him for the experience.



Invasion of Inchon and Life as an amphibious vehicle soldier

John Gragg's amphibious (duck) company was in charge of unloading supplies, food, and ammunition during the Inchon Landing using his ducks. His unit would follow troops to Seoul with all the supplies until the trucks were brought to Korea. John Gragg's unit also supported the troops by bringing soldier across the Han and Nak Dong Rivers.



John Farritor

Their Bodies Froze (Graphic)

John Farritor describes the gruesome but necessary job of retrieving the casualties of war. He shares one particular account of retrieving the body of a fallen Marine who was found in a cave, frozen due to the extreme cold. He recalls how sometimes, the task seemed insurmountably difficult, but their goal was to get the job done and bring them home.



John Fischetti

Brother's Experience in Korea

John Fischetti describes his brother's (Peter Fischetti) service experience in Korea. He recounts his brother being badly wounded after stepping on a mine. He details visiting his brother, recalling how his leg was amputated and his body filled with shrapnel metal. He shares how immensely proud of his brother's service he is.



John Fry

"A Vicious Time"

John Fry shares that he served in the Royal Australian Regiment as a rifleman. He recalls being sent to Korea in 1953 after having joined the military due to unemployment increasing in the textile field. He remembers Korea being in terrible condition as many people were living in cardboard boxes. He shares his memories of arriving in Pusan before heading North. He comments on his involvement in the Battle of the Hook, an experience he calls a “vicious time.” He shares his amazement of the unbelievable progress Korea has made since the war.



John Funk

Painful Memories

John Funk shares how he saw more devastation and pain than the average soldier because he was with the medical unit. He recounts the stories of three patients which have remained with him through the many years since his service. He recalls one centering on a Korean solider he transported in the middle of the night, another regarding an American soldier that had attempted suicide and was airlifted to his team, and finally, the image of a Korean child who lost both parents.



John G. Sinnicki

Impressions of the Chinese

John Sinnicki describes his experiences with the Chinese. He recalls feeling sorry for many of them, as they were very hungry and cold and would take clothing and shoes from dead Marines in the field for their own use. He explains that the Chinese POWs were sometimes executed rather than being allowed to leave and possibly rejoin the Chinese military.



John H. Jackson

Fighting During the Pusan Perimeter

John H. Jackson shares he fought from the second he arrived in Korea and participated in the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls how the the most difficult part about the battle was that he did not know who was the enemy since the North Koreans dressed up as civilians and then attacked the US soldiers.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson shares he fought in the Battle at the Chosin Reservoir through Christmas Eve of 1950. He recalls how the weather was very cold, reaching down to fifty degrees below zero. He remembers how some of the soldiers were freezing to death as the Chinese continued to fight.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson explains he was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He shares he fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He recounts how he continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John Halliday

Close to the Enemy

John Halliday describes working in a three-man team calling in airstrikes. In their forward observation positions, he notes their position was so close they could visually observe the enemy without the use of a telescope. He emphasizes how he was very lucky to have not been wounded during any of his missions.



Calculus by Candlelight

John Halliday describes completing mathematics courses through the University of California at Berkeley while in Korea. While other soldiers were sleeping or participating in other activities during their downtime, he explains being driven to solve calculus by candlelight. He shares how he used benefits from the GI Bill and California to pursue his passion. He emphasizes he was interested in the knowledge and not necessarily the degree.



John Hilgert

Captured

John Hilgert describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese Army. He explains that after the Spring Offensive, he and two other men were cut off and alone. He recalls how they were found by the Chinese and taken prisoner. He shares that of the seven thousand men taken prisoner, only a little over three thousand survived to be released, partially due to the poor quality of food the Chinese provided.



John I. Reidy

Point System Explanation

John Reidy chronicles his enlistment in the Army and basic training prior to being sent to Korea in the winter of 1952. He explains the point system utilized to send troops back home after a certain number was accrued. He comments on it being a complicated system when it came to computing the points and discusses the correlation between payment and point zone in which a soldier served. He shares how the point system, unfortunately, did not apply to him since he had enlisted.



Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

Vivid Memories of Murdered Civilians

John J. Baker details movement from east of Taegu to a place called Ulsan. He recollects moving through the region with his company commander when they encountered the National Police and the Korean Army on both sides of the road. He recounts how the commander explained that these people were South Korean Communists. He notes that much of his unit had been wiped out in Taejan leaving only one hundred seventy-nine left in the unit and how they returned to Taegu and onto Kumchon with the 19th and 21st Infantry. He describes how when they arrived, they encountered a gory scene along the roadside.



Helping Injured Comrades

John Baker details the stark reality of war. He shares how they dug into foxholes and experienced enemy fire. He includes specific details of the helplessness he felt when others in his unit were severely wounded in battle.



John J. Considine

Typical Day in Kumwha Valley as a Soldier

John J. Considine was embedded with the Korean Civilian Corps who built trenches and bunkers for the troops. Considine's job in the army was to look and listen for the enemy when out on patrol. He didn't get injured on any of these missions, but he knows of a unit of US troops that were all killed.



2 Purple Hearts

John J. Considine earned two Purple Hearts of his time at the front line when his bunker was hit by a barrage of artillery. He was the only one that survived the attack in his bunker on March 24, 1953. He was sent back to the front line after three weeks of recovery from his head and neck wounds. After only 3 days back on the line, he was shot in the back of his shoulder while on a patrol and he was ejected over a 60-foot cliff.



John Juby

Expertise as a Pioneer

John Juby had a variety of jobs while serving in the Pioneer detachment, including purifying water for the troops and fulfilling patrol duties. He recalls having to take a course on how to test and treat water. He explains that living in dugouts and trenches during warfare calls for the need for expertise on clean drinking water.



Losing a Friend on the Front Line

John Juby shares his experience of losing a close friend who died on the front line after being hit by an incoming mortar. He explains having to wrap up the body and take it the American Graves Registration Service. He describes the scene of the location of where the deceased bodies of soldiers were dropped off.



Dangerous Conditions in Korea

John Juby explains how he was wounded from being scratched by barbed wire. He describes his duties as a part of the detachment of Pioneers, and explains why soldiers have differing experiences. He recalls being fired upon by American soldiers who did not detect the presence of the British troops who were nearby.



John K. Barton

A Dangerous Moment

Reflecting upon the most dangerous elements of war, John Barton describes his experience with life threatening elements. He replies that there were a few moments during the war where he might have lost his life, but ultimately doesn't want to discuss it. He notes that that "the powers that be took care of us, we were all in it together."



John Koontz

The 38th Parallel

John Koontz describes his time in the Infantry at the 38th Parallel, where many North Koreans were trying to get through. He talks about the need to "fight our way out" which at times took hours, other times took days. He says "I'd rather not talk about it", clearly he is very emotional. and reflects on the horrors of war.



John L. Johnsrud

The US Draft and Arriving in Pusan

John L. Johnsrud was drafted when we was 22 years old in 1950. It took 19 days to get from Seattle to Yokahama Japan by boat before heading to Pusan. He arrived in Pusan on a troopship with 5,000 other soldiers.



Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



John Levi

The Frozen at Chosin

John Levi shares his experience from the winter of 1950 when the United States Marines endured the harsh conditions at the Chosin Reservoir. The brutal winter still stands out clearly as one of the most memorable parts of his entire experience in the war. He recounts how the winter required an unexpected shift in his corpsman duties - from blood freezing to morphine freezing, the Marines had to alter their craft fast to survive.



Dealing with Guerrillas

John Levi recalls his experience with guerrilla warfare pushing north of Pusan. He recounts how, one night, they ran into the guerrillas. He calls it one of the scariest moments in his war experience - not knowing if the next mortar was going to land on him or not.



John Martin

Didn't Join to be a Koala, Wanted to See Some Action

John Martin joined the Australian Air Force around the time the Korean War broke out. His wife Shirley recalls a story he used to tell of explaining to his superior that he "didn't join up to be a koala, he joined to see some action". He explains there was always a chance of danger. He details the nightly leaflet drops by Bedcheck Charlie.



John McBroom

Several Incidents on Board

John McBroom recalls several incidents on board the U.S.S. Symbol while in the Hamhueng area. He remembers North Koreans firing at the ship from the beach. He recalls gunfire from both the North Koreans and another the USS Wiltsie (DD-716) that was posted nearby for protection.



John McWaters

While in the Combat Engineer Battalion

John McWaters shares that while near Heungnam, he provided jackhammers and an air compressor truck to some Marines who needed help breaking up large rocks. He reported to General Oliver Prince Smith and assisted him with running the equipment. He recalls the general looking up and thanking God for his help.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



Can I Please Join the Australian Navy?

John Moller recalls joining the Australian Navy when he was seventeen with his parents' permission. He describes working in the supply branch aboard the HMS Sydney, which was an aircraft carrier with three flight squadrons. He shares that he on the aircraft carrier along with multiple Spitfire planes.



Life on an Aircraft Carrier

John Moller describes being shipped out for two weeks while stationed aboard the HMS Sydney during the Korean War. He recalls how he would provide supplies for the sailors on the ship while Spitfires bombed the Korean mainland. He adds that he was able to enjoy a hot shower daily and clean hammocks every two weeks.



John Munro

Guarding the 38th Parallel

John Munro recalls that his mission was to patrol the DMZ at Panmunjeom to make sure the border was safe. He recounts serving in a variety of battalions depending on where he was stationed in Korea. He shares that while serving on the DMZ, he also added mines along the line to keep away North Koreans who might have snuck over the 38th parallel.



Watching Over the Enemy

John Munro recounts how he tried to go home and work at his parents' cafe and service station. He shares that he decided to go back into the military as an Australian Army Reservist. He recalls being stationed with the 38th Battalion, F Unit, and being sent to the DMZ to patrol right across from the North Koreans. He shares that it was rough protecting South Korea through the freezing winters and steamy summers.



John Naastad

Hiring locals to get out of KP duty

John Naastad describes what KP duty is and why this work was often done by Korean locals. He discusses military pay and how soldiers had the resources to hire locals for daily kitchen service.



DMZ

John Naastad describes what it was like to be stationed near the DMZ in 1956. He discusses reports of troop movements and tensions along the line. He also recounts a trip he took to see the Bridge of No Return.



John O. Every

The Terrible Cold and Frostbite

John O. Every talks about being in combat near the Chosin Reservoir, and being evacuated due to extreme frostbite. He recalls seeing airplanes drop supplies, and recounts the tough losses of fighting. He explains being evacuated and taken to various hospitals for recovery.



Close Encounters Under Enemy Fire

John O. Every speaks about being under enemy fire and encountering Chinese soldiers. He was awarded a Marine Corps Commendation Medal for enduring the enemy fire. He explains having to repair ammunition that was not properly operating.



John P. Baker

Artillery War

John P. Baker describes how the war seemed to have shifted to an artillery war with America having fired more artillery shells in a three-year span in Korea than in all of World War II. Due to the position of the artillery in the rear, he shares he never felt in danger of incoming fire, yet he witnessed the immense barrage of outgoing fire. He adds he did suffer hearing loss as a result.



John P. Downing

Dangers as an Infantrymen

John P. Downing spent 13 months fighting in the Korean War north of Seoul. During night patrols, he fought the Chinese and participated in ambush patrols. During his patrols, he suffered a wound to his right arm, but it didn't take him away from Korea.



Life as a Soldier on Hill 355

John P. Downing explained that life as a soldier was cold, wet, and hungry. He had limited rations and many of his friends died during his time participating in the Korean War for 13 months. Hill 355 was a hill that overlooked the 38th parallel and it was constantly under attack by the enemy. Artillery and mortars were incoming while John was protecting the hill.



John Parker

Life of a Pilot

John Parker explains what it was like as a pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force. He remembers that they were briefed and told where to fly, including areas like Hamheung and Pyungyang, where they often covered for the Sabre planes. He remembers a time when the RAAF shot down three Russian MiGs.



Lucky to be Alive

John Parker recalls completing one hundred and seventy sorties as a fighter pilot during his time in Korea. He shares one of his most memorable missions above Pyungyang which involved a lot of aircraft damage. He shares how he is thankful to be alive after he had severe damage to his plane’s fuselage.



John Pound

Sending and Receiving "Projjies"

John Pound's ship the HMS Charity would fire shells, or "projjies" short for projectiles, towards trains that traveled near the North Korean coastline. He remembers one Easter when North Korean gunners fired back from positions hidden in caves. He also describes assisting in spotting pilots who missed their landings on aircraft carriers.



John Pritchard

The Various Jobs of a REME Engineer

John Pritchard helped a group of English entertainers by fixing the ambulance they were transported in after breaking down in transit. They kept a very unique souvenir hanging from their flagpole. This humorous episode was balanced by the realities of war, including one episode where John was sent off base to tow a mortared tank and came face to face with human loss.



Christmas in Korea

John Pritchard spent Christmas off for 24 hours due to his commander speaking up for his men. To show that he cared for the commander, John Pritchard and a few lads went to Seoul to buy a Christmas present for him, 400 cigarettes, and this made him cry.



John R. Stevens

Experience at Incheon

John R. Stevens recalls various experiences while at Incheon. He describes an incident when his friend, Lt. Lopez, attempted to throw a grenade into a pill box that was holding up the rest of the unit. He explains that Lt. Lopez was hit by machine gun fire and dropped his grenade, upon which he smothered with his own body to protect the other men around him. He goes on to explain the capture of fifteen North Koreans and the success of Lt. Lopez' sacrifice.



The recapture of Seoul

John R. Stevens describes his experiences during the recapture of Seoul. He explains how his platoon captured many North Koreans along the river they followed into the city. He also describes the task of having to destroy the North Korean's weapons along the way. He recalls a particular incident when, in an attempt to break the stock of a gun, one of his lieutenants accidentally killed somebody.



John Rolston

Moments of Danger

John Rolston shares how he had to land on pierced steel planking instead of cement. He shares concerns he had about flying in certain weather conditions. He explains how the snow and rain were terrifying conditions that made his plane spin around. He shares the fears he had that he might not survive some landings or take-offs.



Close Encounter with a North Korean Pilot

John Rolston describes being a flight leader and bringing people to Japan and they were returning. He shares how he was very close to shooting down a North Korean pilot who went below the 38th parallel. He shares how he could have shot the pilot, but he didn't want to murder someone who was lost.



Life at Osan Airbase in 1954-55

John Rolston shares his fourteen-month experience at the Osan Airbase. He shares information about the F-86 planes there and the number of pilots that would be there. He states the weather was so cold that the fuel would freeze in the planes. He shares information about food during this time and missing his family. He explains the stability at the DMZ during this time since both the North and South didn't want to restart the war.



John Singhose

The Pass is Open

John Singhose describes working with his men to use bulldozers for building a pass that shortened travel from the "Punchbowl," through the hills of Yanggu County. He recalls hiking overland to construct a tram road, which helped the U.S. Army supply ammunition to the Republic of Korea infantry. He describes supervising the paving of an airstrip.



John Snodell

The Coldest Winter

John Snodell describes being with the 1st Marine Division and working as a combat engineer, and recalls seeing Cuban, Greek and Turkish soldiers during his time in Korea. He describes the weather as being very cold and remembers having to sleep on the ground. He recalls seeing Korean soldiers sleeping in trenches.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



Experiences in Battle

John Tobia discusses his recollections of being in battle. He recalls most of the fighting he witnessed occurred at night, and the next day, he and others would often go to the front lines and see how many troops were killed. He recalls how severely cold the winters were. His company used heaters and stoves to stay warm and often saw rats in their bunker also wanting to warm up. He also mentions how important it was to keep toilet paper in one's helmet.



War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Turner

What was Korea like when you were there?

John Turner discusses what Korea looked like on his journey north towards the 38th parallel. He recalls the destruction he witnessed in Incheon, Seoul, and Panmunjeom. He recalls starving people begging for food. He would give them some of his rations, as would other soldiers. His unit went on patrol near the 38th parallel, walking along deep trenches, and spying on North Koreans at Outpost Kate, about five hundred feet beyond the front lines .



Were you afraid? Did you ever think you would die?

John Turner talks about his experiences on the front lines of the war. Once his leg was grazed by a bullet, which ended up sending him to a M.A.S.H. (mobile army surgical hospital) in Seoul for a ten-day recovery. After feeling better, he returned to the front lines and was injured again shortly after, this time with a concussion from North Korean fire and explosions in a cave. He recalls trouble sleeping at night due to constant loud and bright explosions.



Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



John V. Larson

The Leftovers of War

John V. Larson recalls that when compared to other bombed-out areas of Europe, it seemed that there was not much destruction in Paris, France. He describes seeing places that were demolished, and other nearby places such as cathedrals, historical areas, and key cities that were never touched by bombing. He recalls feeling fortunate to be stationed where he was because he knew the combat equipment in Korea was not very good.



John Wallar

Mending Communication Lines

John Wallar talks about being under Chinese mortar fire while working on a line gang. He describes his team's job and how they went about mending broken communication lines.



John Y. Lee

The War Breaks Out

John Y. Lee, a resident of Seoul in 1950, speaks about the day the Korean War began. He describes what he saw and his subsequent flight from the city. He recalls swimming across the Han River to safety.



Headquarters Description

John Y. Lee, an interpreter assigned to UN Headquarters unit, explains the organization of the unit during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difference between his headquarters unit and a normal infantry regiment. He recalls the way Headquarters was set up at Hagalwoori, defended by only two Marine companies.



Johny Bineham

Growing Up Fast

Johny Bineham remembers what it was like serving at the age of eighteen and having to grow up fast. He recalls that in his first week on the front lines, his best friend was killed in action and he took the lives of three enemy soldiers. He describes the necessity of being unemotional and developing the mentality that war is business and nothing more in order to survive.



Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina provides an account of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that their unit had incurred heavy losses after two weeks of bombing and was attacked by the enemy who seized on their weakness. He recalls that this battle was particularly brutal because Chinese troops outnumbered them ten-to-one. He adds that the following day, he and a handful of others volunteered to climb back up Old Baldy to recover the dead and wounded.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina brinda un relato de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Explica que su unidad sufrió grandes pérdidas porque los chinos los bombardearon por dos semanas antes de la batalla y aprovecharon de su debilidad cuando los atacaron. Él se acuerda que esta batalla fue brutal porque las tropas chinas los superaban en número diez a uno. El agrega que al día siguiente, él y una docena de soldados más se ofrecieron como voluntarios para volver a subir a Old Baldy para recuperar a los muertos y heridos que quedaron en la colina.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina speaks about the difficulty he faced any time he was in combat. He recalls the mental toll seeing fellow soldiers blown up minutes after having a conversation with them took on his psyche. Begging god to let him live and see his family again, he remembers that it was in Korea that he really learned how to pray.

Jorge Eliécer Cortez Medina habla de las dificultades que enfrentaba cada vez que estaba en combate. Recuerda el costo mental que tuvo en su psique ver a compañeros volar en pedazos por el aire minutos después de haber tenido una conversación con ellos. Rogando a Dios que lo dejara vivir y volver a ver a su familia, recuerda que fue en Corea donde realmente aprendió a rezar.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina provides a description of the contents of the C-Rations provided by the United States Army. He recalls being satisfied with the food and the living conditions as they were supplied with everything they needed. He adds that he was happy when they were allowed to shower and given clean clothes.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina provee una descripción de los contenidos de las C-Rations proporcionadas por el Ejército de los Estados Unidos. Recuerda que estaba satisfecho con la comida y las condiciones de vida, ya que les proporcionaron todo lo que necesitaban. Agrega que le daba alegro cuando los permitieron ducharse y les daban ropa limpia.



Basic Training / Basic Training / Entrenamiento

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina offers an overview of his training prior to combat. He states that he attended communications school in Colombia and then received further training when he arrived in Korea. He provides details about the training in Korea which included nighttime navigation practice which required them to walk for miles.

Jorge Eliecer Cortez Medina ofrece su perspectiva de del entrenamiento que recibió. Cuenta que asistió a la escuela de comunicaciones en Colombia y luego recibió más entrenamiento cuando llegó a Corea. Provee detalles sobre el entrenamiento en Corea que incluía la práctica de navegación nocturna y las caminatas en la oscuridad.



Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro

Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro shares the most difficult moments of the war which almost resulted in his death. He details the first battle in which he participated in as an advance guard member in the Kumhwa Valley and remembers how close their position brought them to enemy lines. He explains that he almost blew his entire team because he prematurely unpinned a grenade.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra en los cuales casi muere el y mata a sus compañeros. Provee detalles sobre la primera batalla en la que participó como miembro de la vanguardia en el valle de Kumhwa y recuerda lo cerca que llegaron a las líneas enemigas. Explica que casi murieron todos porque le saco el pin a una granada y no sabia que hacer con ella.



Letters / Cartas

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro remembers the letters he exchanged with his family. He shares the fact that it was his mother that was most worried about his safety in Korea and therefore sent him numerous holy cards with saints and Jesus Christ to protect him. Furthermore, he mentions the details of what his letters to his family included.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro recuerda las cartas que intercambió con su familia. Él comparte el hecho de que era su madre la que estaba más preocupada por él y fue por eso por lo que le envió estampas con santos y Jesucristo para protegerlo. También menciona los detalles de lo que les escribía en sus cartas a su familia.



First Days in Korea / Primeros Días en Corea

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro provides an account of the devastation and poverty he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He explains that he will never forget the way in which civilians begged for food and clothing at every train station. Additionally, he describes the living conditions the Colombian army faced in Korea.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro describe la devastación y pobreza que vio cuando llego a Corea. Explica que nunca olvidará la forma en que los civiles pedían comida y ropa en cada estación de tren. Además, relata las condiciones de vida que enfrentó el ejército colombiano en Corea.



Moments of Peace and Danger / Momentos de Paz y Peligro

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro juxtaposes the best and worst moments of his time in Korea. He discusses the worst battles he experienced and those experienced by the Batallón Colombia. He then describes the happiest day he had which occurred when he was promoted and became the youngest sergeant within the Colombian troops.

Jorge Hernando Uricoechea Castro habla sobre los mejores y peores momentos de su tiempo en Corea. Habla de las peores batallas que vivió el y aquellas que el Batallón Colombia sufrió las más bajas. Luego describe el mejor día que tuvo que fue el día que lo ascendieron y lo nombraron el sargento más joven de las tropas colombianas.



Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera

Dangerous Missions / Misiones Peligrosas

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera discusses the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls being frightened whenever he was sent on reconnaissance missions as they had to explore neighboring hills and could see the enemy’s movement and numbers. He remembers that whenever the enemy retreated, they would be able to use their foxholes. Being that they were outnumbered three-to-one, he marvels at the fact that he survived.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera analiza los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda que se asustaba cada vez que lo enviaban en misiones de reconocimiento, ya que tenían que explorar las colinas vecinas para poder ver el movimiento del enemigo. Recuerda que cada vez que el enemigo se retiraba, utilizaban sus trincheras. Dado que los superaban en número tres a uno, se maravilla por el hecho de haber sobrevivido.



Difficult Goodbyes / Despedidas Difíciles

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera reminisces about the emotional farewell he bid his mother as he left for Korea. He explains that it was particularly difficult for her as he was her only child. The emotional stress was compounded, as he details, by the seasickness he experienced on the month-long boat ride to Korea.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recuerda la emoción de la despedida de su madre cuando él partió hacia Corea. Explica que fue especialmente difícil para ella porque era su único hijo. El estrés emocional se vio agravado, como detalla él, por el mareo que tuvo durante el viaje en barco de un mes a Corea.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera recalls the living conditions he faced while he was in Korea. He remembers the cold temperature and how bundled up they were to cope with the freezing temperatures. He adds that he never saw snow, but instead he recollects ice pellets falling from the sky.

Jorge Luis Rodríguez Rivera describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentó mientras estuvo en Corea. Él recuerda la fría temperatura y lo abrigados que tenían que estar porque no estaban acostumbrados al frio. Añade que nunca vio nieve, sino hielo que caía del cielo.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Helping Civilians / Ayudando a los Civiles

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna details the heartbreaking conditions that civilians endured during the war. He remembers entering living dwellings and encountering weak elderly people and malnourished children. While it was frowned upon by American troops, he explains that Puerto Ricans gave rations to those civilians.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna detalla las condiciones de los civiles durante la guerra. Recuerda entrar en viviendas y encontrarse con ancianos débiles y niños desnutridos. Él explica que los puertorriqueños les daban raciones a esos civiles aunque las tropas estadounidenses no lo hacían por miedo de darle comida al enemigo.



Worst Battle / La Peor Batalla

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna explains that he fought in many terrible battles. He details one in which they captured about five hundred prisoners. He remembers every detail of that battle because his friend died from an ambush by North Koreans while he was charging up a hill.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna explica que luchó en muchas batallas terribles. Detalla una en la que capturaron a unos quinientos prisioneros. Recuerda cada detalle de esa batalla porque su amigo murió cuando los norcoreanos lo emboscaron mientras subía una colina.



Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane

First Days / Primeros Días

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane describes his duties as a scout for the reconnaissance patrol. He recalls that he was immediately asked to go on patrol the first day he arrived. Additionally, he describes an incident in which he almost died protecting a Jeep for his captain and it was luck that saved his life.

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane describe sus funciones como explorador de la patrulla de reconocimiento. Recuerda que le pidieron que fuera a patrullar el primer día que llegó a Corea. Describe un incidente en el que casi muere protegiendo un Jeep para su capitán y fue la suerte lo que le salvó la vida.



Sacrifice / Sacrificio

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane explains the toll the war had on him. He recounts the story of a humble shoe shiner from his village that he bumped into while in Korea. He recalls that the individual was sent as one of the replacement troops for the 65th Infantry and was killed on his first night in battle. He details seeing the young man’s army belongings being sold in his hometown by his brother because that is what poor families were forced to do.

Jose Antonio Diaz Villafane explica el precio que le causó la guerra. Cuenta la historia de un humilde limpiabotas de su pueblo con el que se encontró en Corea. Él recuerda que el individuo fue enviado como una de las tropas de reemplazo y murió su primera noche en batalla. Él detalla haber visto las pertenencias del joven siendo vendidas en su pueblo por su hermano porque eso es lo que las familias pobres se vieron obligadas a hacer.



Jose E. Colon

Recruiting Efforts

Jose E. Colon reflects on his three years of service in the United States Army Reserves. He shares his main duty was to reenlist WWII veterans who had recently returned home. He notes that when the Korean War broke out in 1950, he called fourteen hundred U.S. Army Reservists to report to duty in the 65th Infantry Regiment 43rd Battalion. He adds he continued his recruiting efforts in Puerto Rico while the 65th Regiment was in Korea. He discusses the lack of replacements for the 65th Regiment and his reassignment to the 7th Regiment upon his arrival in Korea.



The 65th Regiment’s Efforts and Consequences

Jose E. Colon provides an account of the 65th Infantry Regiment's movement to the 38th Parallel during the Korean War. He praises the regiment's tenacity in pushing back the Chinese, allowing United States Marines to evacuate the area. He notes, however, the poor living conditions endured by the 65th Regiment and the court-martials that followed their refusal to push forward.



Poor and Dangerous Living Conditions

Jose E. Colon presents an overview of their living conditions in Korea. He describes the South Koreans’ primitive farming and sanitation methods, which led to an infestation of snakes and rats in the unit's living quarters. He explains how the rats carried insects, causing some soldiers to develop a fever by penetrating their veins. He discusses the low quality and limited supply of food and shares his unit had only C-rations to eat while on the front lines.



José Guillermo Posada Ortiz

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz remembers the most difficult moments of the war. He explains that any time they were on the move it was incredibly dangerous as they were always met with mortar attacks. He remembers how they were ambushed one night, and his friend was killed. He wonders if he killed anyone as they shot in all directions as they could not see the enemy. Forever etched in his memory are the hardships of civilians and what they had to resort to in order to survive.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz recuerda los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Él explica que cada vez que se movía del sur hasta el frente era increíblemente peligroso porque siempre lo atacaban con morteros. Recuerda que una noche los emboscaron y mataron a su amigo, y ellos disparaban en todas direcciones porque no podían ver donde estaba al enemigo entonces él no sabe si mato a nadie. Las miserias de los civiles y lo que tenían que hacer para sobrevivir le han quedado grabadas en su memoria.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz describes the living conditions they faced in Korea. He marvels at the organization of the American army in its ability to coordinate all aspects of their lives, including the use of bulldozers to build showers with hot water. He recalls that one Colombian soldier commented that besides the fact that they could be killed, they loved everything about being in Korea.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz describe las condiciones de vida del Batallón Colombia. Él recuerda la organización maravillosa del ejército estadounidense en su capacidad de coordinar todos los aspectos de sus vidas, incluido el uso de excavadoras para construir duchas con agua caliente cada vez que el frente se movía. Él cuenta que un soldado colombiano comentó que además del hecho de que los podían matar, amaba estar en Corea porque todo era mejor.



Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his encounters with troops from other allied nations. He shares a story about a Korean man they called Oscar whom they spoke Spanish with and shared stories about Colombia. He remembers that many soldiers, including Americans, inquired about the ongoing political violence in Colombia.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz habla de sus discusiones con tropas extranjeras. Comparte una historia sobre un hombre coreano que lo llamaban Oscar con quien hablaban español y compartían historias sobre Colombia. Recuerda que muchos soldados, incluidos estadounidenses, querían saber más sobre la violencia política que sucedía en Colombia.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz discusses his first impressions of Korea. As soon as they landed in Busan, they were transported by truck to the north, and he recalls the terrible condition the country faced. He was especially taken aback by the misery of civilians. Within hours of arriving to the front, he witnessed an American airplane shot down.

José Guillermo Posada Ortiz explica sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Tan pronto como aterrizaron en Busan, fueron transportados en camiones hacia el norte, y él recuerda las terribles condiciones en las que se encontraba el país. Mas que la destrucción, se acuerda de la miseria de los civiles. A las pocas horas de llegar al frente, el enemigo derribo un avión estadounidense.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Most Dangerous Conflicts / Conflictos Más Peligrosos

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez shares his memories of the most dangerous battles that Colombian troops faced. He discusses the perils during Operation Barbula and the bloody nature of the Battle of Old Baldy. Because of the heavy fighting Colombian troops encountered in March of 1953, they nicknamed it the “gory month of March.”

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez comparte sus recuerdos de las batallas más peligrosas que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas. Habla de los peligros durante la Operación Barbula y lo sangriento que fue la Batalla de Old Baldy. Debido a los intensos combates que enfrentaron las tropas colombianas en marzo de 1953, lo apodaron "el cruento mes de Marzo".



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recalls the most difficult moments he faced while fighting in Korea. He details the fighting during operation Barbula and the fighting at Old Baldy. He explains that it was the longest night of his life and remembers having to take the place of a downed machine gunner.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentó durante la guerra en Corea. Detalla los combates durante la operación Barbula y los combates en Old Baldy. Explica que fue la noche más larga de su vida y recuerda haber tenido que tomar el lugar de un ametrallador que habían matado.



Memories and Lessons Learned / Recuerdos y Lecciones Aprendidas

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflects on his feelings about leaving Korea at the end of his tour. He explains that he learned what it meant to be a soldier and could have only done so through his experience during the war. Additionally, he laments what the people of Korea experienced during the century of conquests which culminated in the war.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez reflexiona sobre sus sentimientos cuando se fue de Corea. Explica que aprendió lo que significa ser un soldado y solo pudo haberlo hecho a través de su experiencia en la guerra. Además, lamenta lo que vivió el pueblo de Corea durante un siglo de conquistas que termino con la guerra entre el Norte y el Sur.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez describes the living conditions they experienced. He remembers that they did not have any wants as the American Military provided them with everything they needed. He adds that the logistical support provided by the United States was excellent.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez describe las condiciones de las tropas colombianas. Recuerda que no les faltaba nada ya que el ejército estadounidense les proporcionó todo lo que necesitaban. Agrega que el apoyo logístico brindado por Estados Unidos fue excelente.



Jose Leon Camacho

Give Them to My Wife

Jose Camacho describes seeing a fellow soldier who was hit with a direct hit on their bunker. Three soldiers were killed from the attack, but one survived long enough to ask a request. He describes how the hit soldier took his metal identification tags off and asked if they could be delivered to his wife.



José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez

Dangerous Arrival / Llegada Peligrosa

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez recounts the story of his voyage to Korea. He explains that his platoon were replacements for all those lost at Pork Chop Hill and Kelly Hill. His company was divided into two and he was part of the second wave of soldiers that would be sent to Korea. He provides an account on how fifty soldiers from the first wave were killed the day they arrived, as the train transporting them to Seoul was bombed by Russians.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez cuenta la historia de su viaje a Corea. Explica que su pelotón reemplazó a todas las bajas en Pork Chop Hill y Kelly Hill. Su compañía se dividió en dos y él formó parte de la segunda ola de soldados que serían enviados a Corea. Brinda un relato de cómo cincuenta soldados de la primera ola murieron el día que llegaron, cuando los aviones rusos bombardearon el tren que los transportaba a Seúl.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez shares the moment in which he feared that his patrol unit would restart the Korean War. He explains that after hours of patrolling near the DMZ, they were lost and decided to split up. His group stumbled on a group of Koreans which luckily were South Koreans that helped them return to their base.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez comparte el momento en el que temió que su patrulla reiniciara la Guerra de Corea. Explica que después de horas de patrullaje cerca de la DMZ, se perdieron y decidieron separarse. Su grupo se topó con un grupo de coreanos que afortunadamente eran surcoreanos y los ayudaron a regresar a su base.



The Cold / El Frío

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez explains the difficulty soldiers faced when serving during the winter. He notes that the trenches were minus ten degrees Celsius and that many soldiers lost their feet due to frostbite. He describes the way in which fires were used to warm up.

José Luis Irizarry Rodríguez explica la dificultad que enfrentaban los soldados al servir durante el invierno. Cuenta que hacían diez centígrados bajo cero en las trincheras y por eso muchos soldados perdieron los pies y se los tuvieron que amputar. Describe la forma en que se usaban los fuegos para calentarse.



Jose Maria Gomez Parra

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José María Gómez Parra shares his first impressions of Korea upon his arrival. He recalls how he was immediately struck by the weather. Arriving in winter, he shares he was astonished at the barren landscape in which everything was frozen. He comments on the terrible state that civilians were in at the time.

José María Gómez Parra comparte sus primeras impresiones de Corea al llegar al país. Inmediatamente fue impresionado por el clima. Al llegar en invierno, se asombró que no había nada en el paisaje porque todo estaba congelado. Además, comenta el pésimo estado en que se encontraban los civiles en ese momento.



Sudden Attack / Sudden Attack / Ataque

José María Gómez Parra provides a detailed account of the start of the Battle of Old Baldy. He describes the intense fighting that occurred and the manner in which Chinese troops advanced into their territory. He adds that the Chinese would try to dissuade Colombians from fighting through speakerphones by telling them they were going to die or have an amputated limb to diminish troop morale. He shares that during the battle he was an assistant machine gunner along with two other individuals, one of whom was killed and the other that ran away. He recalls how he kept his position and fought until he realized the hill was lost.

José María Gómez Parra ofrece un relato del inicio de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Describe el combate intenso que ocurrió y la forma en la cual las tropas chinas entraron a su territorio. Además, cuenta que los chinos trataban de disuadir a los colombianos de pelear a través de los altavoces diciéndoles que iban a morir o que les amputarían una extremidad para romper la linea de combate. Durante la batalla, fue asistente de ametralladora junto con otros dos individuos, uno de los cuales murió y el otro se escapó. El mantuvo su posición y luchó hasta que se dio cuenta de que la colina estaba perdida.



Wounded at Old Baldy / Herido en Old Baldy

José María Gómez Parra explains how he was wounded during the Battle of Old Baldy. Blinded and wounded from a grenade, he shares how he managed to crawl into a latrine for safety. As day broke, he recalls hearing Americans enter the battlefield. Although planes heavily bombed the area in an attempt to retake the hill from the Chinese, he surmises that some allied forces were killed during the bombing as there were between thirty and forty Colombians missing in action.

José María Gómez Parra explica cómo fue herido durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Cegado y herido en la pierna, se arrastró hasta una letrina para esconderse. Al amanecer, escuchó a los estadounidenses entrar al campo de batalla. Los aviones bombardearon intensamente el área en un intento de recuperar la colina que estaba a manos de los chinos. El supone que algunos soldados aliados murieron durante el bombardeo ya que hubo entre treinta y cuarenta colombianos desaparecidos en esa batalla.



José Pascagaza León

Combat Baptism / El Bautismo

José Pascagaza León details the training he received both in Colombia and Korea. After completing infantry school, he explains that they were sent by boat to Korea and upon landing they completed more intense training to understand how to utilize weapons and heavy artillery. Furthermore, he describes the training, which was dubbed the baptism, in which they were shot at with real ammunition to train them to stay down while crawling through a field.

José Pascagaza León detalla el entrenamiento que recibió tanto en Colombia como en Corea. Después de completar la escuela de infantería, él explica que fueron enviados en barco a Corea y al desembarcar completaron un entrenamiento más intenso para aprender cómo utilizar las armas y artillería pesada. Además, describe el entrenamiento, que se denominó el bautismo, en el que se les disparaba con munición real para entrenarlos a permanecer agachados mientras se arrastraban por el campo.



Difficult Moments / Momentos Difíciles

José Pascagaza León remembers the most difficult moments he faced in Korea. As a member of the rearguard, he states that he did not have the difficulties of those in the front but felt in danger when the enemy returned fire after they launched mortars. He recalls the fighting at the Battle of Hill 180 and the use of heavy artillery to support those in the front.

José Pascagaza León recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentó en Corea. Como él era miembro de la retaguardia, afirma que no tuvo las dificultades de los del frente, pero se sintió en peligro cuando el enemigo respondió con fuego después de que lanzaron morteros. Recuerda los combates en la Batalla de la Colina 180 y como tuvo que usar artillería pesada para apoyar a los que estaban en el frente.



José Vidal Beltrán Molano

First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

José Vidal Beltrán Molano describes his first impressions of Korea and the living conditions they faced. He shares the awe he felt upon witnessing the complete destruction that resulted from the first offensive wave. Moreover, he describes the living conditions they faced and the supplies they were given.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea y sus condiciones de vida en el frente. Comparte el asombro que sintió al ver la destrucción completa de la primera ola ofensiva. Además, describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron y los suministros que recibieron.



Most Dangerous and Peaceful Moments / Momentos Más Peligrosos y de Paz

José Vidal Beltrán Molano recalls the fear he experienced during night patrols and how different periods of rest and relaxation felt. He explains how night patrol was especially dangerous as they were unaware if they would be ambushed at any minute. On the other hand, he states that periods of R and R in Japan instilled in him a sense of incredible peace and happiness.

José Vidal Beltrán Molano recuerda el miedo que tenía durante los patrullajes nocturnos y cómo se sentía tan diferente durante el periodo de descanso y relajación. Explica que la patrulla nocturna era muy peligrosa ya que no sabían si serían emboscados en cualquier momento. Por el otro lado, afirma que los períodos de R&R en Japón le inculcaron una sensación de paz y felicidad increíble.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Typical Day for a Combat Engineer

Joseph Giordano describes a typical day a combat engineer in the US Army while in Korea. He speaks of waking up, eating breakfast, and then being assigned that day's duties. He recalls that they could range from clearing out trenches at the front lines to building an outhouse for a general several miles back behind the front lines. He includes that he dreamt of three things during his 18-month deployment to Korea and claims that hot and cold running water always reminds him of Korea.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Joseph De Palma

Creating The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)

Joseph De Palma describes his experiences during the creation of the Demilitarized Zone and his interaction with the local Koreans who lived in the area along the 38th parallel. He describes the day a woman with two toddlers needed to be moved south to safety. He recalls that along the way she wanted to stop and build a fire and prepare a meal for her children but since that was not feasible, he gave her cans of food and she and the children sat on a rock and had a picnic.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge/part of Battle of Pusan Perimeter

Joseph Dunford, Sr. shares that his first battle in the Korean War was the 2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge. He explains how the North Koreans broke the lines and he fought to push them back. He shares how responded using his training. He knew his role was critical.



Inchon Landing

Joseph Dunford, Sr. participated in the Inchon Landing. He describes his objective was to take Observatory Hill (also known as Cemetery Hill). He explains how he and his regiment did this at 5:30 PM and took the hill once it became dark. He explains how the North Koreans were fighting lightly. He shares all he could see was the dead and fires around him.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Dunford shares how he participated in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which is known in Korea as the Jangjin Battle. He explains that there were so many Chinese there that he couldn't even count. He explains how he had to sleep on the ground without a sleeping bag since they were told to burn everything except a few C-Rations and weapons. He shares how the lack of food, proper shelter, and other necessities made survival difficult.



Joseph F. Gibson

First Battle Came Soon

Joseph F. Gibson describes going straight from a ship to a train after landing at the Pusan Perimeter. He explains how he was trained to jump into a ditch when he heard shooting. He shares how shortly after arriving in the Pusan Perimeter he was under fire by the North Koreans. He shares how he had to run alongside the Nak dong River while dodging bullets.



Working with Korean Civilians

Joseph F. Gibson shares how he worked daily with Korean civilians who helped take care of the wounded soldiers. He shares how he was often invited into the village to eat within the homes of civilians. He explains that he built a relationship with South Koreans. He shares how he learned some bad words in Korean.



"All Hell Broke Loose"

Joseph F. Gibson describes having to protect seventeen injured patients who were under his care in the medic tent as the Chinese broke the line. He explains how his unit was only fourteen miles from the Chinese border. He explains how he was told that the war would be over soon since they had pushed all the way through North Korea. He describes how the Chinese joined the North Koreans and how he took a lot of incoming fire in order to hold his tent safe from invasion. He shares how many Chinese were captured by the US and the loss of a Catholic priest.



Joseph F. Hanlon

Special Assignment

Joseph F. Hanlon talks about his special assignment as a rifleman in an intelligence/reconnaissance platoon. He describes being assigned by his commander to comb through the dead bodies of enemy soldiers in order to gather information.



I Forgot My Weapon

Joseph F. Harlon tells a humorous story about forgetting his rifle and his ammunition while on the front line.



Joseph Gruber

Most Dangerous Moment

Joseph Gruber's responsibilities during the war included delivering mail from Busan to Incheon. He recounts being shot at by enemy forces one day which resulted in two of their tires being hit. He credits a detachment of GI's following them with running off those who had shot at them and getting them back on the road with repaired tires.



Joseph Hamilton

Keeping Busy in Korea

Joseph Hamilton describes his experience in Korea, including how he kept busy. He first explains what his duties were as his did office work. However, his duties did not just end there as he recounts when they had to build a log cabin among the many mountains in Korea. He remembers how they didn’t have cots at the beginning, but fortunately did have ample food and clothing.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



KCOMZ and Christmas Hill

Joseph Horton details his work as a guard at a Chinese POW camp. He recalls serving there there for seventy-three days until being moved to Christmas Hill. He describes combat at Christmas Hill and shares how he served there on the front lines until the truce was announced.



The Punch Bowl

Joseph Horton describes his experience trying to hold a line against North Korean forces. He recalls his first real combat duty and seeing wounded and killed soldiers. He describes how his job was to extricate the wounded from the battlefield.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Why Waste A Bullet

Joseph Annello describes being hit with a bullet and hand grenade. He describes it being the last thing he remembers before being prodded by a Chinese bayonet. He explains that he became a prisoner of war and was soon left by the side of the road to die.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes heading towards the Chosin Reservoir. He shares how he was meant to advance to Yellow River but stopped. He shares how he didn't hit any resistance since they defeated that North Koreans and the men thought that the Chinese would not get involved. He describes the frozen ground and how it was so cold that the soldiers couldn't dig a fox hole, so they slept on the ground in their sleeping bags. He shares how the Chinese attacked them and there was nowhere to hide.



"It Was the Fourth of July"

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes that they were stuck at the top of the hill because of a roadblock created by the Chinese. He shares how this maneuver blocked the US soldiers in with their trucks, supplies, and ammunition. He shares how he along with other men charged the Chinese blockade but were outnumbered. He shares how he was shot an injured. He describes how once the trucks were filled with injured, Chinese continued to attack the soldiers from all sides. He explains how he was shot again but this time in his soldier. He describes shots by the Chinese that sounded like the 4th of July.



The Taste of Death

Joseph Lewis Grappo discusses grabbing a smoke. He shares how another soldier gave him a pack of cigarettes from someone who had died. He describes the vivid taste.



Joseph Lissberger

I Thought We Were Losing

Joseph Lissberger talks about being a platoon sergeant at the outset of the Korean War, tasked with training new recruits in basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. He mentions that 37 of the first 49 recruits he trained died in the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about the changes that were made in response to what was happening in Korea.



Danger Beyond the Front Lines

Joseph Lissberger talks about the danger of setting up loudspeakers beyond the front lines for psychological warfare. He mentions that five men in his unit were killed while performing this important duty.



It Was a Hard Life, But a Good Life

Joseph Lissberger describes the daily life of a soldier assigned to the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company. He talks about the rigorous schedule and difficult demands of working in a print shop. Though difficult, he mentions that he enjoyed the service.



Life After the Armistice

Joseph Lissberger describes daily life in his unit after the armistice was signed. He talks about being able to train and getting into good physical shape, activities that were difficult before the ceasefire.



Joseph M. Picanzi

Mind Plays Tricks on You

Joseph Picanzi discusses his first night patrol at the Berlin Outpost and the one patrol in which his unit encountered mines. He provides an account of the four-hour night patrol and feeling as if his mind was playing tricks on him. After returning from the patrol, he recounts how the grenades would be counted and collected. He continues to share details about another patrol in which his unit was forced to navigate mines and were evacuated by helicopter.



I Was the Lucky One

Joseph Picanzi discusses the purpose of each type of patrol and different issues while living on the line. He emphasizes how he was a lucky one because he came out of the war without being wounded. Yet, he recalls one night where he came extremely close to being wounded during a mortar attack.



Signing of the Armistice

Joseph Picanzi elaborates on the experience on the front lines the night before the signing of the armistice. Interestingly, he mentions the Chinese forces rapidly firing off artillery in an effort to spend the ammunition so that they would not have to carry it later. Once the armistice was signed, he recalls relocating to Camp Casey to practice maneuvers.



Joseph P. Ferris

Kimpo under Air Attack

In this clip, a Joseph P. Ferris describes what it was like being under enemy air attack. He also recalls one of his experiences taking care of a fellow airman who became a causality.



Joseph Quinn

Memories of a Medic

As a medic, Joseph Quinn saw a lot of injuries. He describes one of the worst injuries he saw, but is thankful that the man survived. It was his treatment that helped the soldier make it to MASH and get the proper care.



Joseph R. Owen

Lack of Preparation

Joseph R. Owen details the lack of experience his outfit had before being sent to Korea. They were trained for only two weeks at Camp Pendleton in California. He taught them the rest of their skills on the ship heading towards Korea. He describes how their lack of preparation showed once they had their first combat in Incheon.



The Chinese: Morale Destoyer and Fear Creator

Joseph R. Owen describes his greatest moment of terror facing the Chinese at the Chosin Reservoir. He had to persevere and be a leader despite the fact that the Chinese were coming in droves attacking. He describes the causalities witnessed on the scene as well.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Surrounded at Taejon

When they woke up in the middle of the night in Taejon, Joseph Monscvitz and his unit saw a large tank that quickly started shooting at them. They jumped in a sewer to seek cover, but soon learned that they would need to escape further. Joseph Monscvitz explains how he made the wrong choice, ended up being surrounded again in a little village, and found himself as a Prisoner of War.



Joseph T. Wagener

Destroyed Russian Tanks Littering the Ground

Joseph Wagener provides an account of his experience along the 38th Parallel with the 29th British Brigade, the strongest brigade of the British army. He elaborates on his experience fighting along the Imjin River and patrolling the Naktong Perimeter where the South Korean and UN soldiers blocked the North Korean advancement. He reflects on seeing the destroyed Russian tanks littering the ground around the area they patrolled, suggesting the intensity of fighting in the region.



Operation Piledriver

Joseph Wagener remembers an incident during the Spring Offensive of April 1951 when UN troops tried to locate Chinese forces across the Imjin River. In order to assist the Belgian B Company, he provides an explanation for his unit's occupation of a key bridgehead. Despite reports from nearby villagers that the Chinese had recently retreated with their equipment, he describes the Chinese positioning themselves a mile away from their location. He elaborates on his experience during the Chinese assault on the Luxembourg battalion as they held the bridgehead.



Josephine Krowinski

Army Pay During Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not recall how much she was paid while working during the Korean War as an Army nurse. She sent all the checks directly to Boston to her mother. Josephine Krowinski could tell that her mother needed the money more than she did, so that's why all her pay was sent back home.



A Nurse's Duty in Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not know anything about Korea before she was assigned to go, but she always trusted that wherever the Army needed nurses, that's where she was to go. She always did what she knew best, how to nurse people back to health ever since she graduated from nursing school in 1942. Josephine Krowinski was never scared and she always felt prepared for anything.



They Took Care of Us

Josephine Krowinski described how well-protected she was by the Military Doctors she worked with. She always had G.I.'s looking after her. As a woman, Josephine Krowinski felt she was treated with respect and dignity.



Josue Orlando Bernal García

The Battle of Old Baldy / La Batalla de Old Baldy

Josue Orlando Bernal García shares his memories of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that Chinese troops waited until replacement troops were sent in to unleash their terrible attack. He describes the chaos that ensued after they were infiltrated by enemy troops and the way in which American troops were mobilized to support them. He details his role during the ordeal and the resulting toll of the battle.

Josue Orlando Bernal García comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla de Old Baldy. Él explica que las tropas chinas esperaron hasta que se enviaran tropas de reemplazo para empezar el ataque. Describe el caos que resultó cuando entro el enemigo, y la forma en que se movilizaron las tropas estadounidenses para apoyarlos. También el relata su experiencia y el precio resultante de la batalla.



A Typical Day / Un Día Típico

Josue Orlando Bernal García describes the tasks that soldiers were required to complete when they were not in the front lines. He explains what night patrols entailed when they were not in Combat. He shares the story of a chance encounter with an enemy patrol group and recalls how the North Koreans said, “Colombia number one,” and allowed them to leave without any fighting.

Josue Orlando Bernal García describe las tareas que los soldados debían realizar cuando no estaban en combate. Explica como eran las patrullas nocturnas cuando estaban de retaguardia. Comparte la historia de una noche de patrulla que se encontraron con un grupo de patrulla del enemigo y recuerda cómo los norcoreanos dijeron: “Colombia número uno” y los dejaron irse sin luchar.



Jovencio P. Dominguez

I Was Scared at First

Jovencio P. Dominguez highlights his role providing artillery support for the infantry units. Since he worked with the artillery, he states he was away from the front line and can not speak on any dangerous moments. Yet, he recalls at first he was scared but eventually he became accustomed to the artillery and was no longer frightened.



Juan Andres Arebalos

Landing in Korea on the Fourth of July

Juan Andres Arebalos recalls playing ping-pong on a Japanese base when an announcement came on the radio about North Korea's invasion of South Korea. He remembers receiving orders to pack his belongings for combat and landing in Korea the next day on the Fourth of July. He recalls seeing bright flashes of lights in the distance that could have been mistaken for fireworks. His shares his duty was to hold the enemy back until reinforcements arrived from the United Nations Forces.



The Battle of Taejon

Juan Andres Arebalos provides an overview of the North Korean's advancements in Taejon. He recounts retreating from the city to reinforce his troops. He remembers observing the city burning after the North Koreans seized it. He provides information about General William Dean, the United States general who was captured during the retreat from Taejon.



Tales of Survival

Juan Andres Arebalos admits he did not feel he would survive the situation in Taejon. He comments on how enemy troops would snatch the food and supplies dropped by United Nations airplanes. He recalls being so hungry he ate fly-infested rice in a South Korean village. He recalls an enemy sniper shooting at them as they filled their canteens with water at a creek. He admits to being unable to sleep at night because of his fear.



Never to Forget

Juan Andres Arebalos provides insight into General MacArthur's plan to contain Chinese forces behind their border. He explains how President Truman opposed General MacArthur's intention to attack Chinese territory, but to the soldiers, it was the best option to prevent further casualties. He expresses his gratitude towards the brave Korean War veterans and his reverence for those who did not make it home.



Juan Figueroa Nazario

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Juan Figueroa Nazario recalls his first impressions of a war-torn Korea. He describes the civilian living conditions and the plethora of refugee he encountered. In his opinion, the poverty of the Korean people was worse than that of Haiti. He shares he could not believe the way in which the infrastructure of the nation had been decimated.

Juan Figueroa Nazario recuerda sus primeras impresiones de Corea devastada por la guerra. Describe las condiciones de vida de los civiles y los refugiados que encontró. En su opinión, la pobreza del pueblo coreano era peor que la de Haití. No podía creer la forma en que había sido diezmada la infraestructura de la nación.



Typical Day for a KP / Día Típico Para un KP

Juan Figueroa Nazario explains his line of work in the kitchen. He recounts that he did not know how to cook before he entered the army but was forced to learn quickly. He remembers how he was assigned to deliver hot food to the front lines which endangered him at times. He recalls the terrible sight of seeing dead soldiers piled up on either side of his trek to deliver food.

Juan Figueroa Nazario explica su línea de trabajo en la cocina. Él cuenta que no sabía cocinar antes de ingresar al ejército, pero se vio obligado a aprender rápidamente. Se le asignó la entrega de comida caliente a las líneas del frente, y ese trabajo era peligroso. Recuerda la terrible escena de ver montañas de soldados muertos en ambos lados de su caminata para entregar alimentos.



Juan Jose Lopez De Victoria

No Soldier Left Behind / Ningún Soldado Olvidado

Juan José López de Victoria shares the story of how the remains of fallen Marines were never left behind. He recalls that six of his friends were killed following a helicopter ration drop as they were spotted by the enemy. While the remains were not immediately sent back to the United States, the Pentagon never gave up hope in returning them to their families. Decades after the war, the Pentagon contacted him to inquire about the incident, and the remains were finally sent to their loved ones.

Juan José López de Victoria comparte la historia de cómo los restos de los soldados caídos nunca se abandonaban. Él recuerda como seis de sus amigos murieron después de que un helicóptero tiro las raciones y fueron vistos por el enemigo. Aunque los cuerpos no fueron devueltos de inmediato a los Estados Unidos, el Pentágono nunca perdió la esperanza de devolverlos a sus familias. Décadas después de la guerra, el Pentágono lo contactó para preguntarle sobre el incidente y los restos finalmente fueron enviados a sus seres queridos.



Diversity in the Armed Forces

Juan José López de Victoria describes his interactions with soldiers from other countries. He explains that because Puerto Rico is a diverse country, he was accepting of all soldiers and got along well with everyone. He admits that some American officers were tough on all of them.

Juan José López de Victoria describe sus interacciones con soldados extranjeros. Explica que debido a que Puerto Rico es un país diverso, el aceptaba a todos los soldados y se llevaba bien con todos. Admite que algunos oficiales estadounidenses fueron duros con todos ellos.



Juan Manibusan

Friendly Fire and Fallen Comrades

Juan Manibusan recounts his efforts to save an injured comrade. Injured himself, he details lifting a badly wounded soldier from a bunker and applying a tourniquet to the soldier's leg before leaving to search for help. He describes descending into a valley and climbing another hill, searching for the safe zone. He shares that a hand grenade was thrown at him as friendly fire and recounts the moment they realized he was one of their own.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

Brutal First Days / Primeros Días Brutales

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez presents an overview of his time in Korea as he was only there three months before being wounded in combat. He recoils at the intensity and brutality of the war as he shares a story of being told to bathe in a river which was full of corpses. He recalls having to trek for days to reach the Yalu River and ruining his kidneys due to a lack of available drinking water. Once they arrived at their destination, He explains that Chinese forces outnumbered them and all his men, but two individuals were killed in action.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez describe sus impresiones de Corea, ya que sólo estuvo allí tres meses antes de ser herido en combate. Se horroriza cuando se acuerda de brutalidad de la guerra y comparte la historia del tercer día en combate que lo mandaron a bañarse en un río que estaba lleno de cadáveres. Recuerda haber tenido que caminar por días para llegar al río Yalu y cuenta que se arruino los riñones debido a la falta de agua potable. Una vez que llegaron a su destino, él explica que las fuerzas chinas los superaban en número a ellos y a todos sus hombres murieron menos dos individuos que fueron heridos.



Wounded in Combat / Herido en Combate

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez recalls the incident which ended his time in Korea. He details how he was saved by Green Berets and received first aid after being injured. He explains that he had to learn the password to enter the base and was subjected to questioning upon arrival. He shares that when he entered the base, he met Colonel Harris and unbeknown to him, it was Thanksgiving, so eating that meal is the last thing he remembers, as after he wound up spending a year in the hospital with a diagnosis of amnesia.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez recuerda el incidente que puso fin a su tiempo como combatiente. Detalla cómo se salvó y como recibió primeros auxilios después de haber sido rescatado por los Green Berets. Explica que tuvo que aprender la contraseña para ingresar a la base y fue interrogado al llegar. Él comparte que cuando ingresó a la base, habló al coronel Harris y, sin saberlo, era el día de Acción de Gracias y recibió una cena que es lo último que recuerda, ya que terminó pasando un año en el hospital.



Prior Knowledge of Korea / Conocimiento Previo de Corea

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains that he did not have any prior knowledge of the war in Korea had never heard anything about the country. He remembers that they boarded the ship without being told where their destination was. He shares that the only thing they were told was “Good luck and Good aim” by the honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín at Fort Buchanan.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica que no tenía ningún conocimiento previo de la guerra de Corea y nunca había oído nada sobre el país. Recuerda que abordaron el barco sin que les dijeran a dónde iban. Comparte que lo único que les dijeron fue “Buena suerte y buena puntería” por parte del honorable Don Luis Muñon Marín en Fort Buchanan.



His Brother's Legacy / El Legado de su Hermano

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares his message to future generations and explains the toll the war had on him and his family. He explains that soldiers must defend liberty, protect poor people, and serve with dignity and valor. Moreover, he speaks about his older brother, Luis Santini, who was a Major in the Army and served thirty years.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y explica el costo que la guerra tuvo para él y su familia. Explica que los soldados deben defender la libertad, proteger a los pobres y servir con dignidad y valor. Además, habla de su hermano mayor, Luis Santini, quien fue Mayor del Ejército y presto su servicio por treinta años en el ejercito.



The Purple Heart / El Corazón Púrpura

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explains the impact that the war had on his life. He shares that he was awarded a Purple Heart and Bronze Star but never received the paperwork for these distinctions due to red tape within the military. He reflects on the most difficult moment which was when a friend died in his arms, as well as his battles with PTSD.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez explica el impacto que la guerra tuvo en su vida. Él comparte que recibió el Corazón Púrpura y la Estrella de Bronce, pero nunca recibió la documentación para estas medallas debido a la burocracia dentro del ejército. Se acuerda del momento más difícil que fue cuando un amigo suyo murió en sus brazos y sus batallas contra el trastorno de estrés postraumático.



Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales

Lost in a Minefield / Perdido en un Campo Minado

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales speaks about his relationship with commanding officers. He shares the story of when an officer sent him as a messenger after he asked to be relieved from the front line. He remembers that the information he was given was inaccurate, and he found himself lost and disoriented in the woods until he was finally found by Greek troops who helped him out of a minefield.

Juan R. González Morales habla de su experiencia con los oficiales americanos. Comparte la historia de cuando un oficial lo envió como mensajero después de que pidió ser relevado del frente. Recuerda que la información que le dieron no era fiable y se encontró perdido y desorientado en el bosque y finalmente fue encontrado por las tropas griegas que lo ayudaron a salir de un campo minado.



Lost Battalion / Batallón Perdido

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales describes his first memories of Korea. He recollects feeling uneasy in Busan and being struck by the smell of the fertilizer used. He remembers that the first few days were difficult as his battalion, Company L, was lost for days during a training mission, and they were forced to drink contaminated water. He recalls that the news of this disappearance made headlines in Puerto Rico.

Juan R. González-Morales describe sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda que se sintió incómodo al llegar en Busan porque el olor del fertilizante que usaban era tan desagradable. Recuerda que los primeros días fueron difíciles ya que su batallón, la Compañía L, estuvo perdido por días durante una misión de entrenamiento y se vieron obligados a beber agua contaminada. Él se acuerda que la noticia de esta desaparición llego hasta Puerto Rico.



Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Juan R. Gonzalez-Morales describes the living conditions that Puerto Rican troops faced in Korea. He remembers that they felt lucky whenever they were assigned a Puerto Rican cook who provided them with meals like those of their homeland. He recalls the bitter cold of winter and one bad storm with two feet of snow; he states that most Puerto Rican soldiers decided not to get breakfast the morning after the snowstorm.

Juan R. González-Morales describe las condiciones de vida que enfrentaron las tropas puertorriqueñas en Corea. Recuerda que se sintieron afortunados cuando les asignaron una cocinera puertorriqueña que les cocinaba comidas como las de su país. Él recuerda el frío y una tormenta con dos pies de nieve; Afirma que la mayoría de los soldados puertorriqueños decidieron no desayunar la mañana después de la nevada.



Julien De Backer

Dangers at the Observation Post

When he arrived, Julien De Backer received his assignment immediately to go to an observation post. He had to warn the allied troops if the enemy was coming. Among his biggest fears during this time was not the Chinese or the North Koreans, but rather the poisonous snakes.



Life on the Front Lines

Julien De Backer describes the living conditions on the front lines. He explains that they would either sleep in bunkers or tents. Showering was a special occasion and done in a line where the troops would receive new clothing. According to Julien De Backer, the food was “rather ok” as long as they were not on alert.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Medical Unit / Unidad Médica

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez describes his job as a medic during the war. He explains that his unit was responsible for gathering all injured soldiers and administering first aid. At times, he was forced to conduct operations on injured soldiers, even though he was not trained on how to perform surgeries. He adds that he was responsible for referring patients to the M.A.S.H. unit, which was better equipped to handle the most severe injuries.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez cuenta como era su trabajo como médico durante la guerra. Explica que su unidad era responsable de sacar a todos los soldados heridos y tratarlos. Se vio obligado a realizar operaciones en soldados heridos, a pesar de que no estaba entrenado. Además de tratar a los heridos, estaba encargado de referir pacientes a la unidad M.A.S.H. porque estaba mejor equipada para manejar las lesiones más graves.



Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez provides an account of the Battle of Kelly Hill. The 65th Infantry suffered many losses during this battle and needed reinforcements multiple times. He explains that Chinese forces set up traps to capture prisoners, but the traps, rigged with explosives, resulted in several casualties. After seeing so much death, he shares that he suffered vivid nightmares upon his return.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez brinda un relato de la Batalla de Kelly Hill. La Infantería 65 sufrió muchas bajas durante esa batalla y mandaron reemplazos varias veces. Explica que las fuerzas chinas tenían trampas para capturar prisioneros, pero las trampas, llenas de explosivos, resultaron en varias bajas. Después de ver tanta muerte, comparte que sufrió pesadillas a su regreso.



Vivid Memories / Recuerdos Vívidos

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez shares his insights on the recruiting tactics of the military police in Puerto Rico. The territory saw a spike in delinquency during that time, and he explains that when the police arrested criminals, they offered them a “get out of jail free card” if they enlisted in the Army. In his opinion, these former criminals diminished troop morale because they refused to take orders and caused many problems during the Battle of Jackson Heights.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez comparte su opinión sobre las tácticas de reclutamiento de la policía militar en Puerto Rico. La delincuencia subió en Puerto Rico durante ese tiempo, y él explica que cuando la policía arrestaba a los delincuentes, les ofrecían un pase libre para salir de la cárcel si se alistaban en el ejército. En su opinión, estos exdelincuentes fueron responsables por la baja de moral de las tropas porque se niegaban a recibir órdenes y causaron problemas durante la batalla de Jackson Heights.



Julius Wesley Becton, Jr.

Combat and Being Tested

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses his first days in Korea after landing in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes how his unit was pulled out of his regiment because some in the United States Army doubted the effectiveness of all-Black units. He shares how his unit was positioned in a valley between North Korean and American troops, and was caught in the crossfire from both sides, which resulted in him receiving his first injury.



Medical Care and Rejoining the Unit

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. explains how he was wounded in September of 1950. He reflects on a situation where his patrol encountered the enemy, but his report was not believed by his officer. Despite his insistence, he was forced to go back to his position where the injury occurred. He admits he was not pleased with the officer who did not believe him. He remembers showing his wound to the officer and asking, "Are you happy now?"



Returning to the Hospital

Julius Wesley Becton, Jr. discusses being wounded right before the Chinese attacked. He shares how he knew that he would not be able to return home for Christmas if the Chinese were involved. He explains how, after returning back to his unit, he was given command of a company since most of the officers in his battalion had been killed during the Chinese advance. He comments that he received two Purple Heart Medals, a Silver Star, and the Combat Infantry Badge for his services.



Jutta I. Andersson

Busan: September 1950

Jutta Andersson describes Busan when she arrived in September of 1950. She describes the despair of the people living around Busan. She also describes life as a nurse and how nurses could not freely move about. However, she did visit the hills surrounding Busan and go to a Buddhist Temple with an escort.



Into the Fire

Jutta Andersson describes first arriving into Busan at the very beginning of the war and treating the first patient within one week of arrival. New medical buildings were being constructed everyday including barracks for patients and new surgical buildings. Jutta Andersson also describes living conditions and having a hard time finding fresh water.



Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Treatment of POW's

Jutta Andersson explains her treatment of North Korean soldiers. The United States military did not want to treat these soldiers. However, the Swedish doctors and nurses had to treat injured North Koreans because of the Geneva Convention. The United States had to accept the Swedish treatment of North Korean soldiers.



Juvenal Sendoya Vargas

Wounded During the Battle of Old Baldy / Herido en la Batalla de Old Baldy

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas presents an overview of the Battle of Old Baldy in which he was severely wounded. He explains that the battle was particularly brutal because the enemy offensive was conducted when replacement troops were entering the front. Furthermore, he states that it was an unwinnable fight because they were outnumbered ten-to-one. He remembers how he and others sought refuge in a bunker and describes the way in which they were wounded.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de la Batalla del Viejo Calvo en la que fue herido gravemente. Explica que la batalla fue brutal porque la ofensiva enemiga empezó cuando las tropas de reemplazo entraban al frente. Además, afirma que fue una pelea imposible de ganar porque los superaban en número diez a uno. Recuerda cómo él y otros buscaron refugio en un búnker y describe la forma en que fueron heridos.



Rescue from Combat / Rescate del Combate

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas shudders at the memories of regaining consciousness in the middle of the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that he was disoriented and could barely see as his face was covered in blood and dirt. He laments the loss of his friend during this battle and explains how he and others were able to reach safety and were eventually rescued.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de como recupero la conciencia en el medio de la Batalla del Old Baldy. Explica que estaba desorientado y apenas podía ver porque tenía la cara cubierta de sangre y tierra. Lamenta que murió su amigo durante esta batalla y explica cómo él y otros pudieron ponerse a salvo y eventualmente fueron rescatados.



Surviving the Attack / Sobrevivir al Ataque

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas shares his memories of being wounded in action. He details the way in which he used trenches to avoid being hit by napalm during the Battle of Old Baldy. He explains that he felt like a dead person as he was convinced that he would never recover.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas comparte sus recuerdos de haber sido herido en combate. Detalla la forma en que utilizó las trincheras para evitar las bombas incendiarias durante la Batalla de Old Baldy. Explica que se sentía como un muerto porque estaba convencido de que nunca se recuperaría.



The Voyage / El Viaje

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas details the voyage to Korea. He describes the way in which they travelled through Colombia to reach the coast and then by ship to Hawaii, Japan, and finally Busan. He remembers the cold they encountered arriving on the peninsula in January.

Juvenal Sendoya Vargas detalla el viaje a Corea. Describe la forma en que viajaron a través de Colombia para llegar a Cartagena y luego en barco a Hawái, Japón y finalmente Busan. Recuerda el frío que sufrieron al llegar a la península en enero.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Arriving in Korea

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his arrival in Korea. He had no previous knowledge or experience with Korea. He was part of the First Kagnew Battalion arriving in 1951. Kebede Teferi Desta describes the situation as bleak for the people. Buildings were destroyed, with lots of destruction overall.



Keith G. Hall

Basic Training to Field Engineering

Keith Hall trained at Papakura and Waiouru military camps in New Zealand before sailing to Korea. He arrived December 31, 1950. His unit was the field and engineering section. He describes building roads and a base camp, digging trenches, and working mine fields.



Becoming an Officer

Keith G. Hall was selected to return to New Zealand for officer training. He describes choosing to return to Korea to avoid the daily routine of work back in New Zealand. In that sense, Korea was a welcome adventure.



Minesweepers near "Little Gibraltar"

Keith G. Hall describes his experiences near Hill 355, nicknamed "Little Gibraltar", in October 1951 as part of the Battle of Maryang-san alongside the more famous Battle of Heartbreak Ridge. His unit helped maintain the roads and sweep for mines behind the hill. He recounts the many wounded brought down from the battle.



Patterns of Minefields

Keith G. Hall explains the process of clearing mines. For fields laid by allies, he had access to the schematics in order to know where mines had been laid. He felt fortunate that he didn't have to detect mines laid by the enemy.



Slippery Slopes and Minefields

Keith G. Hall describes the dangers of defusing anti-personnel mines, as they included both trip wires and three-prong detonation features. In one instance, a sergeant working with him slipped on a slope and exploded a mine. His body was thrown onto another mine, which Keith G. Hall had to deactivate in hopes of saving the sergeant.



Get Out of This Field!

Keith G. Hall describes training reinforcements to clear minefields. Inserting pins into mines in order to deactivate them was of utmost importance. In one instance, a soldier forgot and had clear the field fast.



Keith Nutter

Coping

Keith Nutter recollects on losing a dear friend while in Korea. Although he mourned later at home, in the moment he couldn't shed a tear. He describes what funeral services were like while serving in Korea.



Ken Thamert

Military Duty and Patrols on the DMZ

Ken Thamert describes his duty of rationing the breakdown of food for an entire regminent. He recalls being stationed on the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and seeing the enemy while on patrols. He notes this was despite the fact the Armistice had been signed.



Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro

The Chaplain and the Wounded

Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro describes being instructed by a chaplain to move on. He explains that the chaplain promised to stay with the wounded soldiers and that Kenneth should leave to save himself. He found out later that the chaplain and all the wounded were killed.



Kenneth Borchers

The Enemy Talked To Us

Bodies lay dying on the battlefield not too far from where the troops were stationed on the hill they were defending territory. Kenneth Borchers recalled the sounds bodies were making as the men were dying during the night. There was death all around and soldiers moaning from their pain was a constant sound.



A Breakfast Surprise

The men in Kenneth Borchers's platoon were enjoying a delicatessen of eating pancakes while on the front line one morning. As they got situated on the ground to eat, they saw the enemy running through their camp. The US soldiers never could fire a shot before the enemy passed their camp and were down the hill.



Attack By the Chinese and the Rats

After spending nights as an observer on the hill they were defending, Kenneth Borchers continued to report to Lt. Stone that there were people coming up the road, but no one believed him. The area they were located had been fairly secured with barbed wire, but around 9pm, the rats began to run.
Therefore, Kenneth Borchers knew that his troops were under attack by the Chinese who mounted the barbed wire fences by using acrobatic moves to scale the fence.



Soldiers Insane with Thirst

Kenneth Borchers was at an outpost on a very hot day in August, when one of the younger soldiers had not filled his canteen up with water like he was instructed. Later, he saw the same soldier come running back down the hill to get on his hands and knees so he could drink water from the rice fields. This act would make him very sick, so his leader put a gun to the soldier's shoulder and told him that if he drank it, he'd shoot him right there.



Kenneth Dillard

Two Trips to Korea

Kenneth Dillard describes his experiences at sea during the Korean War. He was on one of many destroyers that were stationed in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. He recalls chipping ice off the ship, and chasing submarines in the East Sea.



Kenneth F. Dawson

War is War

Kenneth F. Dawson trained in Waiouru in New Zealand before sailing to Japan and then Korea. Assigned as a driver in Korea, he carried ammunition to the front lines. The work was dangerous and several men had been blown up before he was assigned to the job. He drove ammunition to Panmunjeom, but he dismisses the danger of being blown up by asserting that "war is war."



The Children Prayed for Him

Kenneth F. Dawson describes an incident in which he heard cries for help on the front lines. A soldier had been hit and needed a stretcher. As he reached the soldiers who had called, a mortar hit them. Upon return to his truck, he discovered bullet holes in the door. Kenneth Dawson attributes his survival to the children of Niue Island.



Always Alone

Kenneth F. Dawson describes his experiences delivering supplies to the front lines. No one wanted to accompany him due to the danger. One cold night in the middle of a battle, he drove with his lights off to the front lines to deliver food and cigarettes to the soldiers. Flares lit his way to the top of the hill.



Hill 355: Death and Danger

Kenneth F. Dawson remembers being in the thick of fighting when the Chinese tried to take Hill 355. Driving up to deliver ammunition, he met an oncoming truck of Canadians. Blood was pouring out of the truck. Another time, on the Imjin River, he pulled the body of a dead American from the water and buried it in a sand bank. In a third instance, he drove a family north to the 38th Parallel so they could rejoin their relatives.



"I Want to Go Back."

Kenneth F. Dawson speaks of wanting to go back to Korea. Friends have told him that the economy is amazing, and he wants to see the shopping malls. He is proud to have served in the Korean War and would love to return for a visit, though he mentions that Korea was too cold for an island boy when he was there during the war.



Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth Gordon

On the Road in Korea

Kenneth Gordon, renowned violinist , served with 8th Army's 10th Company's Special Services Unit in Korea. He shares his experiences of traveling with pianist Seymour Bernstein throughout Korea to perform over two hundred concerts for soldiers and dignitaries. He notes that they frequently played for mortar outfits very near the front lines and recalls receiving applause from the Chinese on the other side of the mountain on one such occasion.



Coming Together to Entertain the Troops

Kenneth Gordon recollects how he and Seymour Bernstein first met at Ft. Dix where each was assigned for basic training. He recalls it as an event that was just meant to be. He recounts how as they were playing a concert at Ft. Dix, a colonel told him he was going to Korea but as part of the Special Services Unit. Gordon and Bernstein played for the wounded in hospitals and frequently for two to three thousand soldiers, many ready for patrol following the concert.



Kenneth J. Winters

Camp Liberty Bell Attack

Kenneth Winters recalled the Camp Liberty Bell Attack. This incident took place on August 10, 1967, when his unit, while on a tree cutting detail in the DMZ, were ambushed by North Korean soldiers. He talked about being shot by enemy fire and being wounded by grenade shrapnel. Four US soldiers were killed and seventeen were wounded in the attack.



Going on Leave, Coming Back to Korea

Kenneth Winters talked about his time in Korea from 1967 to 1968. He described going back to US after he was wounded. However, he returned to Korea and the DMZ, near the site of an ambush he was involved in just a few months prior. While he was writing a letter home a North Korean bullet pierced his desk when North Koreans raided the border to steal weapons from the ammo dump.



Kenneth Newton

Unaware Why We Are Here

Kenneth Newton describes his arrival in Korea during the Inchon Landing. He details being sent to Wolmido first to secure the location before moving into Inchon. He shares his first impressions of Korea and explains that he and other fellow soldiers were unaware of the political reasons for initially being there.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Kenneth Newton recounts the days leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which included seeing Manchuria and partaking in a Thanksgiving meal. He remembers waking up to explosions late one night and realized they were under attack by the Chinese. He explains that chaos ensued, everyone being assigned a weapon and sent to the front lines.



Chinese-American vs. Chinese Soldiers

Kenneth Newton describes Chinese soldiers, sharing memories of them freezing to death due to the harsh weather conditions. He offers a story of an American officer with them who was Chinese and could speak Chinese fluently. He recounts the soldier's bravery and his ability to confuse the enemy by countering orders due to understanding the language.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



Kenneth Warner

The Realities of the Bitter Cold

Kenneth Warner shared his first experience ever with death. Having never seen a dead body, he explained one of his primary tasks was to retrieve the deceased from battle. He described the shock from seeing bodies frozen solid and the struggle in trying to find the most respectable approach in removing them for transport. He recalled hearing the moaning and whimpering of the Chinese Prisoners of War as they stood barefoot in the ice and snow, suffering terribly from frostbite.



Treadway Bridge (graphic)

Kenneth Warner described the obstacles created by the dangerously cold temperatures and the engineering behind bridge drops. Floating box cars were parachuted in with all the necessary items to construct a bridge where existing bridges had been destroyed. He credited such engineering as the reason why they were able to get out of that area. He recalled learning sometime after the war that the Chinese dead were used to fill the holes between the steel and the ground because the ground was so rocky and frozen they were unable to source sufficient dirt.



Serving with Chesty Puller

Kenneth Warner recollected his memories of Chesty Puller, a legendary leader and most decorated member of the Marine Corps. He remembered his experiences serving alongside Puller and how he never backed down, even when facing off with General MacArthur. He explained how Puller turned down the Medal of Honor on more than one occasion despite all of his medals and honors he had received.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Armistice Experience

Kevin Dean elaborates on the lead up and immediate aftermath of the Armistice signing. He recounts the positions of the Kiwis, Americans, and Chinese during the final days leading up to the signing and describes the heavy weapon fire. He recalls how calm it was after the signing, sharing that the killing stopped, and he elaborates on the death toll the Chinese suffered. He shares that he and other soldiers near his position narrowly missed a planned Chinese explosion.



Kirk Wolford

Home by Christmas

Kirk Wolford expresses the frustration he and others felt towards General MacArthur as the Chinese entered the war. He shares how MacArthur's promise of "Home by Christmas" was fading as they enjoyed a hot Thanksgiving meal on the front lines. He explains the actual strength of the Chinese and what they were told to expect were quite different, which led to some feeling MacArthur was holding out on them.



We Knew We Were at War

Kirk Wolford tells of situation he witnessed while serving on the front lines. He recalls his communication chief stepping out into the road in the middle of the night to confront what he thought was friendly noise only to find himself facing a Russian tank, the first they would encounter followed by masses of Chinese soldiers. He remembers coming to the realization that he was indeed fighting in a war.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea participated in the Incheon Landing. He was part of "D+2." Lacy Bethea was a member of the 4th or 5th wave of troops that landed on Incheon. When the Marines landed that day, it was their first combat exposure since WWII.



Food Rations and Ammunition Delivered Daily

Lacy Bethea helped distribute food and ammunition to soldiers who landed at Incheon after the initial landing in 1950. Company trucks came up with their platoon guides and then Lacy Bethea would pass out only enough rations for that day. The suppliers would always be one day ahead, so that each soldier has 2-days worth of food. Ammunition was also rationed out to each regiment of soldiers.



Lakew Asfaw

No Ethiopian Soldiers Were Prisoners of War

Lakew Asfaw explains how Ethiopian soldiers refuse to give themselves over to the enemy. Unlike other nations, none of the Ethiopian soldiers were taken as prisoners of war. One experience he recalls involved a soldier being captured and he started shouting for his comrades to take his life. During this incident, he remembers another Ethiopian soldier firing into the dark and killing the North Korean who was taking the soldier. He clarifies that soldiers would take their own lives before becoming a prisoner of war.



Larry Kinard

Front Lines of the 38th Parallel

Larry Kinard explains how he was embedded in the mountains along the Inchon River fighting to maintain their position against the Chinese. He shares that throughout the day, there was mortar and artillery fire, so he stayed inside his bunker. He explains that at night, the Chinese would perform assaults on his men, so he explains how there wasn't a lot of sleep for two months.



Letters Home

Larry Kinard explains how he wrote letters every day to his wife and once a week to his mom while he was away. He explains how he was unable to write while he was stationed in the mountains at the 38th parallel. He explains how he sometimes sent for a time of rest. He explains how he was able to receive pictures and letters once he returned to a more protected location farther down the mountain. He shares how he kept the conversation light and still has the letters.



Larry Shadler

Captured by the Chinese

Lawrence Shadler describes the night he and 68 other men were captured by the Chinese when his troop ran out of ammunition. The Dutch had pulled out an left a two and half mile gap in the lines. He was on guard when about 50,000 Chinese attacked just after midnight.



Release of the P.O.W.

Lawrence Shadler describes his release just north of the 38th Parallel. For every 100 American solidiers released, 500 enemy POWs were also repatriated. They were taken on trucks to a white stone path and were not officially released until stepping onto those stones.



Lawrence A. Bacon

Barter System

Lawrence Bacon describes his work as a "scrounge" for the Air Force. During the war, brake fluid was in short supply for the Army and Marines, but the Air Force had plenty of it. Lawrence Bacon describes how he would scrounge around to other bases looking for parts his air group needed and bartering for them with extra parts and battery fluid.



Lawrence Cole

Punchbowl Situation

Lawrence Cole offers an account of the situation at Punchbowl upon his arrival. He explains that both sides would engage, every so often, in artillery duals. He describes this time as a tug-of-war match. He recounts patrolling and often filling in holes on the front lines where he was needed.



Remembering the Armistice

Lawrence Cole recounts the day the Armistice was signed. He recalls being on the front line when he found out. He remembers being told to keep out of sight during the day and artillery being fired later that evening by both sides in an attempt to lighten the load in preparation for equipment removal. He shares that he and follow soldiers were delighted by the news as it meant they were probably going to live. He explains how there were casualties even after the firing had ceased as soldiers lost their footing carrying equipment out.



Lawrence Dumpit

Training and Protecting South Korea

Lawrence Dumpit went from bootcamp to Osan Air Force Base and went North to Camp Casey in Korea. This was located near Dongducheon and his duties were to destroy enemy tanks. For this first tour in Korea, he was there from 1997 to May 2000.



Prior Knowledge of the Korean War

From 2004 to 2008, Lawrence Dumpit's second tour, was filled with working with tanks on the ground. This was a change from the first tour in 1997. He didn't know a lot about Korea before he was stationed there, but he did know about the war because he learned about it during school.



First Impressions of Korea in 1997 and Korean Culture

Lawrence Dumpit was not a lot to go off base when he went to Camp Casey until he was given a one-week training about the Korean culture including the food, language, and civilians. The living conditions in Camp Casey were old WWII barracks because they were the oldest on the base and it was a lot better than the Koreans living in one room. He was paid 3,000 dollars a month.



South Korean Soldiers Work With US Troops

Lawrence Dumpit worked with South Korean soldiers, but they were not professional soldiers because they were drafted into the military. Therefore, many of the soldiers were not as professional as the US troops. The Korean soldiers made rank, but the US soldiers felt that they didn't earn it, so this started some problems with the US troops.



Lawrence Elwell

Grateful to Be Alive

Lawrence Elwell describes being wounded in a battle near Hagaru-ri after getting caught in crossfire with the Chinese. He notes that a Navy corpsman tended to his wounded right arm and stopped the bleeding. He shares he was then evacuated to Yokoska, Japan. He explains that his injury prevented him from returning to the front lines and adds he was not eager to go back into the firefight anyway. While hospitalized in Japan, he recalls being awarded, rather unceremoniously, the Purple Heart. He recounts how he was later sent to a U.S. Navy hospital in Pensacola, Florida, to finish his recovery.



Letter Home

Lawrence Elwell recalls a vivid memory of sitting on a hillside in North Korea near Yudamri. He recalls the timing of the event as early December 1950 and shares he was writing his father a letter. He remembers explaining in the letter how they are surrounded by the enemy and that he was not certain he would make it to his upcoming twentieth birthday.



Tonight Marine, You Die!

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamri. Among his revelations, he speaks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that, ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured in the United States which resulted in high casualties among American troops.



Lessons from The Korean War

Lawrence Elwell speaks about lessons he learned from the Korean War. He emphasizes one of those lessons included the human capacity to overcome. He recalls the importance of the close bond he shared with his commander and members of Dog Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Regiment, 1st Marine Division.



Lawrence Hafen

Living Conditions in the Late Stages of the War

Lawrence Hafen describes the living conditions during his time on the front lines from April 1953 until the signing of the Armistice. He talks about daily life, where and when he slept, as well as what he ate during this time.



Airirang and Other Memories

Lawrence Hafen recalls three KATUSA soldiers that were attached to his unit. He mentions their names and talks about his interactions with them. He remembers a song that "Willie," one of the Korean soldiers taught him, "Arirang." In this clip, he sings the song from memory.



The Last Ten Days

Lawrence Hafen talks about his experience during the last ten days before the signing of the Armistice. He mentions continuous shelling by both sides in an effort to expend stocks of ammunition. He describes the front lines after the ceasefire.



Not so Friendly Fire

Lawrence Hafen tells a story of when a fellow soldier accidentally fired a contraband machine gun. The soldier, after assembling the weapon, accidentally fired several rounds in his direction.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Inner Thoughts Once in Korea

Lawrence Paul Murray describes his inner thoughts while on his first assignment in Korea at Incheon Landing. He explains feeling conflicted over having to kill other human beings. He goes on to explain how he overcame this mindset when his defense mechanisms kicked in.



Early Sacrifices

Lawrence Paul Murray describes his first injury on his way to Seoul after the Incheon Landing. He describes a bullet injury to his ribs from a machine gun. He received the Purple Heart for this injury.



Leandro Diaz Miranda

Discrimination / Discriminación

Leandro Díaz Miranda recounts his experiences with American troops. He states that while he did not experience discrimination, he witnessed it the night Lieutenant White, who was known to be racist, sent the darkest skinned individual as a forward observer and that young man was never seen again. He felt that that most of his American superiors were good, even though they were strict.

Leandro Díaz Miranda relata sus experiencias con las tropas estadounidenses. Afirma que, aunque a él no lo discriminaron, el fue testigo a la discriminación la noche en que el teniente White, conocido por ser racista, envió al individuo de piel más oscura como observador avanzado y ese joven nunca lo volvieron a ver. Sintió que la mayoría de sus superiores estadounidenses eran buenos, aunque fueran estrictos.



Battle of Kelly Hill / Batalla de Kelly Hill

Leandro Díaz Miranda explains the difficulty the 65th Regiment encountered at the Battle of Kelly Hill. He details the terrible fighting as they were outnumbered ten-to-one. They suffered many casualties and thus the troops were completely demoralized by the end of the battle.

Leandro Díaz Miranda explica la dificultad que encontró el Regimiento 65 en la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Detalla lo terrible que fue la lucha, ya que fueron superados en número diez a uno. Sufrieron muchas bajas y, por lo tanto, las tropas estaban completamente desmoralizadas al final de la batalla.



Leo C. Jackey

Frozen to Death

Leo C. Jackey shares a moving memory. He remembers seeing lines of Korean civilians, including children, frozen to death with their hands up one morning while in the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir area. He speaks with pride of the small role he played in helping Korea pick itself up and rebuild itself into a leading economic power in the world.



Making Their Way Down the Mountain

Leo C. Jackey recounts the challenges his unit and others faced in making their way down the narrow roads from the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir region. He recalls one truck getting too close to the edge and going over the side of the mountain. He shares his unit was one of the last to leave Heungnam.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Twenty Degrees Below

Leon "Andy" Anderson describes his time in Korea. He describes forming into boat units in freezing temperatures and landing in Korea to live in just a thin tent. He describes giving the order for his men to gather what they could in order to make life better inside the tent. He explains what resources they found. He shares how even when the went to the range to practice the weapons would be frozen.



Armistice Day

Leon "Andy" Anderson shares his experience being there for the Armistice in July 1953. He explains how he was near the front lines in the recon rear area. He shares how the Chinese and North Koreans were shooting at the US troops all the way up to the last minute before the Armistice. He shares how he celebrated the end of the war.



Leona Stern

Access to the War Room

Leona Stern recounts her experience while Charles was in the Jangjin (Chosin) Reservoir. After the Chinese attacks on Thanksgiving, she reveals sharing her fears with an admiral who authorized her to have access to the maps in the war room. She describes seeing the day-by-day movements of the units and the Chinese surrounding them. Since she did not receive a notification informing her he was gone, she assumed Charles was okay but shares it was two weeks before she knew for sure he was alive. She emphasizes how she did not stop crying until she received letters from Charles informing her he was alright.



Leonard Laconia

Just How Close We Were To The Enemy

Leonard Laconia's jeep squadron moved around from Seoul to Pyongyang and up to the North Korean Airports that he noted as K23 and K24 (Pyongyang). He recalled spending most of his time around K23 and he was told originally there were 30,000 Chinese headed their way, but there was actually 380,000 Chinese soldiers. Leonard Laconia's missions, known as a "sorties," would only last about 15 minutes (refuel & amp; rearm) because they would run out of ammunition so quickly due to the number of Chinese they were fighting.



The Chinese Were Smart, But Napalm Was Stronger

When Leonard Laconia's air squadron went on "strafing" missions, the Chinese were smart to just lie down flat on the ground to keep from getting shot which was a great defense tactic. Leonard Laconia's group responded by dropping napalm which wiped out most of the Chinese troops. He described that one canister of napalm would cover the diameter of a football field spreading across consuming the oxygen in the air and heat would rise under the plane. The Chinese wore thick heavy coats during the winter and the napalm would just stick to it aiding in the burning of bodies.



US B-29s Couldn't Stop the Chinese

Leonard Laconia stated that the Chinese would fly MiGs from Manchuria, but they would burn fuel so quickly that they rarely made it to Korea. The US would fly B-29s up and down the Yalu River dropping bombs to destroy bridges, but it didn't stop the Chinese from coming down into Korea. The Chinese still found a way to get across the Yalu River.



Bed Check Charlie

An enemy plane was nicknamed "Bed Check Charlie" by The Stars and Stripes newspaper which was provided for every US soldier. In the newspaper, it threatened that "Bed Check Charlie" would come at night and killed one of the men from his squadron by dropping grenades and mortar shells. Leonard Laconia remembered that many of the enemy planes maneuvered well through the night sky, so soldiers were afraid of them.



Armistice Signed, But Fighting Continued

Leonard Laconia mentioned how bad the fighting was from 1950 through 1951, but when talk of armistice was being discussed in 1951, no one wanted to take a chance of dying. Therefore, none of the soldiers showed interest in the armistice. After the Armistice was signed in 1953, territory along the DMZ had many battles that continued to secure and occupy any land.



Leonard Nicholls

First Impressions of Korea

Leonard Nicholls recounts his first impressions of Korea as he arrived by ship to Pusan in early 1952. His boat was greeted on the pier by an American band playing music. They then climbed aboard a slow train toward the front lines. He remembers flat lands and rice paddies until they reached the north.



Arriving on the Front Lines

Leonard Nicholls arrived at a valley called San Marie near the front lines. The trucks dispatched the men to a valley near the First Blazes battery of artillery. Young Korean boys wandered the camp performing odd jobs.



Daily Activities of a Radio Operator

Leonard Nicholls worked as a signaler in the Royal Army, eventually becoming the battery commander's radio operator. The area supported just a few shacks, and the hills reminded him of his home in Cotswolds in England.



Observation Post Observations

Leonard Nicholls manned the observation posts while on duty as a radio operator. The front lines were traumatic. Traveling to a post on Hill #365 took them through Chinese lines. He describes the process of calling in artillery fire on Chinese positions.



Twenty Six Radio Set Description

Leonard Nicholls talks about the radio set that he carried as a radio operator in the Royal Army. Called a Twenty Six Set, he describes the radio's size and weight, emphasizing that a radio operator carried the heavy piece of equipment on his back.



Enemy Ambush: Dealing with Death in the Field

Leonard Nicholls heard machine gun fire while on patrol one night. The next day he learned that a captain and radio operator had been killed in an ambush. He talks about dealing with their deaths.



"Walk Away Smartly"

Leonard Nicholls recalls an episode when he was injured by a errant dynamite blast. After setting up the charge, the lieutenant told him to "walk away smartly" so as not to trip and fall. Although he panicked and ran, the blast shot earth and debris far enough for a large rock to injure his knee.



Chinese Propaganda

Leonard Nicholls describes the rats in camp and his experiences with Chinese on the front lines. The Chinese also sent Christmas cards to make soldiers homesick.



Leonard R. Stanek

Welcome to Korea

Leonard Stanek describes arriving in Incheon Harbor in 1952. Incheon, secured by the US military, however, Leonard Stanek could still hear artillery being fired 30 miles away. Soon after arrival, he was sent to the front lines, due to his company having many losses, both death and wounded. Leonard Stanek also describes the food on the frontlines, C-Rations, and SPAM and Eggs with a cracker being his favorite meal.



Wounded

Leonard Stanek describes how the Chinese attacked on July 26th, 1953, the day before the Armistice took effect. Leonard Stanek was in a trench and hunkered down, when one of the last artillery shells exploded with a piece of shrapnel piercing his helmet. He medivacked to the Hospital Ship Haven to recover and earned a Purple Heart.



The Armistice

Leonard Stanek describes where and when he learned about the Armistice signing. He suffered a head injury and medivacked to a hospital ship and learned about the Armistice when he woke up from injury or exhaustion. A week later, after his injury, Leonard Stanek rejoined his unit. Upon returning, he learned about the loss of a buddy that was helping retrieve wounded.



Leslie Fuhrman

Anti-aircraft Operations

Leslie Fuhrman describes the operation and headquarters of the anti-aircraft unit that he commanded near Sosa, Korea. He details the role of the operation officer in identifying MiG aircraft and their movements. He does not recall having to shoot down any enemy aircraft but remembers some instances where the unit was alerted to man battle stations. Bedcheck Charlie was a reason for many of the alerts for soldiers to man their battle stations, and he explains the reason for the nickname.



Daily Life in Anti-aircraft Operations Unit

Leslie Fuhrman describes the fairly comfortable living conditions. He shares how his living arrangement had heat, cots to sleep on, a mess hall, and house ladies to clean the floors. During his service, he recalls earning two hundred dollars a month as a Second Lieutenant. While he sent most of his pay to an account back home, he remembers keeping some money to spend at a small px, or military exchange, that was a few miles away.



Leslie John Pye

Gathering Target Information

Leslie Pye outlines the routine and role of a signaler. To ensure accuracy of the weapons, he elaborates on the importance of knowing the meteorological information. He describes the gathering of target information to determine the type of fire pattern and trajectory for the bombardment. He clarifies that after this routine was completed, the battery operations could launch the bombardment.



Covering Little Gibraltar

Leslie Pye provides a description of his experience as a signaler covering Hill 355, known as Little Gibraltar, in the Battle of the Hook. He offers an overview of the amount of artillery activity during the period of March to the end of April 1953. He does not recall receiving incoming fire but did experience a projectile exploding just outside of one of their gun barrels.



Reassignment to the British Royal Tank Unit

Leslie Pye elaborates on his transfer to the 1st British Royal Tank Regiment and the training process for the British Centurion British Tank. He recounts his experience as a gunner sent to Hill 355 as a replacement tank supporting night patrols. He shares how most of the firing was done at night and explains some of the limitations they experienced.



Dangerous Moments Gathering the Wounded

Leslie Pye describes his mission on the 24th of July 1953 to retrieve wounded soldiers on Hill 111. While moving up the hill, he admits he did not warn his driver before test firing the gun on the top rail of the tank. He provides sound advice that one should not go into battle without knowing your machine gun will work. With the battle raging around them, he describes the successful retrieval of Australian and American wounded soldiers.



Haunting Memories

Leslie Pye remembers what it was like going back up HIll 111 to gather reusable material for the new line of resistance. He reflects on the experience of arriving on the 28th of July and seeing the carnage of the previous battle. He shares the memories of what he saw that haunt him.



Leslie Peate

Korean Porters

Leslie Peate elaborates on the work of the Korean porters. He defines them as mostly farmers and/or anyone who would help out during the war. He shares that those men worked harder than any other group of people during the war and stresses that they received no recognition at all and most likely no payments for their efforts.



Lewis Ebert

An Accident at K-2

Lewis Ebert was near a rocket that was accidentally fired and blew up a tractor trailer on base. That trailer was parked near him when it blew up because he was working at the K-2 Air Base. Luckily, Lewis Ebert didn't get injured in the incident.



Preparing For and Entering the Korean War

After the Korean War started in June 1950, Lewis Ebert traveled to San Fransisco to prepare to leave for Japan and arrived there the middle of July. In September 1950, he was put on a train to travel to the south-end of Japan and then flew into Taegu, South Korea (September 16, 1950, the day after the Incheon Landing). The ROK (Republic of Korea) were flying out of Taegu which had a steel mat runway.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lewis Ewing

Arriving in Korea

Lewis Ewing talks about his arrival in Korea, his journey to his unit in Chuncheon, and his first impressions of war. He explains how he felt about his deployment, and describes his rapid journey to the front lines. He recalls the living conditions on the base where he arrived.



Helicopters in Warfare

Lewis Ewing speaks about how helicopters were used for troop support and evacuating the wounded during the Korean War. He describes the Syskorsky helicopter and its uses during warfare. He recalls maintaining the helicopters, hauling ammunition, and how pilots would let him fly on occasion.



A Bird's-Eye View of Destruction

Lewis Ewing speaks about seeing vast areas of destruction across the Korean landscape. He describes seeing devastation of mountain areas, which he viewed from helicopter flyovers. He recalls his impressions upon seeing the war-torn areas of Seoul and Busan from a bird's-eye view.



Lloyd Pitman

Landing In Inchon

Lloyd Pitman describes his first night in Korea. He arrived in Inchon on September 19, 1950. He and his fellow soldiers engaged the enemy and took the airfield at Suwon. He describes the enemy counterattack that overran their headquarters killing many.



North Koreans leaving the war

Lloyd Pitman describes how his platoon walked right into a North Korean position after landing at Iwon, North Korea. Many soldiers ran away to avoid being captured. Some North Korean soldiers began waving the white peace flag and over a period of two days, the American soldiers took in 85 North Korean soldiers who wanted out of the war.



Christmas In Korea

Lloyd Pitman describes a Christmas day in Korea. The army gave him two beers and two cigars. He had spent three Christmases away from home and spent some time thinking about his family. The horrors of war returned as he soon found South Korean civilians executed by the North Koreans and Chinese as they retreated.



Lloyd Thompson

Dropping Bombs and Flares by Hand

Not having bombing racks at the back of his C-47, Lloyd Thompson had to throw bombs and fifteen pound flares (high illumination) by hand out of the plane at over 10,000 feet in the air. He did this to help fighters and bombers see their target. He flew seventy-six missions and accumulated over 390+ hours. He noted when the enemy would shoot at us we would know where to bomb. Trains would try to take cover in mountain tunnels so we would bomb the entrances to seal them off but they would be back in operation by the next day.



Creeping Up Behind Us

Lloyd Thompson did not like wearing his parachute because it was heavy. That proved to be dangerous when enemy aircraft would sometimes approach his plane. On one occasion, the enemy, possibly in a Yakovlev (Yak-9), flew behind his plane close enough that the radar indicated only one plane. When they landed, the Yak started dropping bombs on the runway at Kimpo Air Force Base. The Air Force responded with anti-aircraft weapons and blew the enemy plane apart. On another occasion, severely damaged B-29s were forced to land at Kimpo.



Civilians Digging in the Trash to Survive

Lloyd Thompson had a relatively easy life compared to other soldiers and especially citizens in Korea. He had more comfortable quarters and warm meals. As a naive young man who had never witnessed much beyond a small midwestern town, he saw Korean civilians digging in the US soldiers' trash for scraps. The realization enabled him to understand why the UN was fighting. He recognized the hope to give Korean civilians a normal life again.



Finding Body Bags

As Lloyd Thompson was shoveling sand on a 2 1/2 ton 6X6 truck near a flood plain at Kimpo Air Force Base, he unearthed a wooden box and unveiled an abandoned burial ground filled with body bags. He reported the incident, but nothing ever came of it to his knowledge. The bodies were left there in the flood plain.



Loannis Farazakis

A Piece of Missile to Keep

Loannis Farazakis describes several scenes of fighting with the help of a translator. He explains how his Company was attacked by North Korean artillery. He discusses how his unit, as well as an American jeep, were hit by fire. He explains how he didn't wear his metal helmet and he was hit by shrapnel in his head. He explains how he was not seriously injured.



One Sentence Letter

Loannis Farazakis describes his mother waiting to hear from him. He explains how he wrote her a letter with one sentence. He shares how he sent it home.



Loren Schumacher

Sleeping Soldier in South Korea

Loren Schumacher describes the way soldiers slept in Korea, surrounded by gunfire and at two hour intervals. His tent was in front of a 105 Howitzer which fired interjectory fire every ten minutes. He goes on to describe being sent out to the line on the east end of the 38th parallel to watch and listen for the enemy and alternating two hour watches with his partner.



Surviving an Attack by the Chinese at Outpost Reno

Loren Schumacher describes an attack of Chinese forces on outpost Reno, sometimes called Yoke. He and thirty-six other soldiers were defending the outpost when a battalion of Chinese soldiers attacked them. He describes his Lieutenant calling in on a PRC-6 and reporting they were overrun and how the Captain at the command post ordered VT artillary to be fired on their position which ended the Chinese attack. He was wounded by a Chinese shell that exploded in a pit right in front of him, causing a concussion which is how he earned his Purple Heart.



Louis F. Santangelo

The Sinking of the USS Sarsi

Louis Santangelo describes the details of the sinking of the USS Sarsi, a fleet tug that was part of the US Navy's 7th Fleet. The USS Sarsi struck a mine during a typhoon and sank in 20 minutes on the night of August 27, 1952. Louis Santangelo describes being one of the last men off the ship and eventually saving 37 men from the sea.



Recovery from the USS Sarsi

Louis Santangelo describes the time after the USS Sarsi sank off the coast of Korea. The area where the USS Sarsi sank was controlled by North Korea. He describes that four sailors perished and how he was recovered in the hours after the sinking by other US ships. Louis Santangelo earned accommodation for keeping his men at sea, instead of allowing them to go ashore into enemy hands.



Louis G. Surratt

Two Brothers Serving in Korea

Louis Surratt was selected to spend Christmas with his brother. While he spoke on the phone with his brother to make plans, a deadly plane collision happened on the airport runway. All men aboard the two planes died in the crash. The high number of casualty reports that ensued meant that Louis Surratt could not join Donald for the holiday.



Louis J. Weber

Chorwon and Battle of Triangle Hill

Louis J. Weber explains how he landed. in Inchon. He shares how he was sent to Chorwon, which was part of the Iron Triangle. He explains that he was an infantryman. He shares that his job was to protect his bunker while sending out artillery to fight the Chinese.



Leaving the Rats Behind

Louis J. Weber describes being surrounded by rats while in his bunker eating. He explains how he continued his service with the US military as an Air Force reservist, Navy reservist, and Army soldier after the Korean War. He shares how he doesn't want to Korea due to the memories of friends that were lost.



Louis Joseph Bourgeois

The 426 RCAF Squadron

Louis Bourgeois played an important role in the 426 RCAF Squadron during the Korean War. On return trips to his military base, the aircraft brought back wounded soldiers. Their route to Asia typically started in Washington State before going to Alaska, and then onto Japan.



The Importance of Pilots During the Korean War

Louis Bourgeois also had 6 North Star Aircraft that went into Korea while others went to Japan. After the war, the planes were brought back to Canada to continue their airlift duties. He is so proud to be the president of the 426 Squadron to support fellow veterans who fought during the Korean War.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

First Impressions / Primeras impresiones

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describes his voyage to Korea and his first impressions of the country. He explains the route the boat took from Colombia including the many ports in which they stopped. He then goes on to describe the sadness within Korea and marvels at the intelligence of the Korean people.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez describe su viaje a Corea y sus primeras impresiones del país. Él explica la ruta que tomó el barco desde Colombia, y da detalles sobre los puertos en los que se detuvieron. Luego describe la tristeza dentro de Corea y se maravilla de la inteligencia del pueblo coreano.



Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Luis Arcenio Sánchez shares the most difficult moments of the war. He recalls an incident in which he and his lieutenant were almost killed while they were relaxing and ended up laughing at the fact that they were covered in dirt from the explosions. He additionally describes the fear of going out on patrol for three days as most times forward observers did not return alive.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez comparte los momentos más difíciles de la guerra. Recuerda un incidente en el que él y su teniente casi mueren mientras se relajaban y terminaron riéndose del hecho de que estaban cubiertos de tierra. También describe el miedo que tenía cuando tuvo que salir a patrullar por tres días, ya que la mayoría de las veces los observadores de avanzada no regresaban vivos.



Luis Fernando Silva Fernandez

First Impressions and Religion / Primeras impresiones y religión

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recalls his first impression of a devastated Korea. He expresses the sorrow he felt given the terrible conditions that civilians were forced to endure. Furthermore, he shares a story of how he heard a calling from God when one of his friends needed help on the battlefield.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández recuerda su primera impresión de Corea cuando recién llego. Lamenta las terribles condiciones que los civiles se vieron obligados a soportar como la tristeza y el hambre. Igualmente, comparte una historia de cómo escuchó un llamado de Dios cuando uno de sus amigos necesitaba ayuda en el campo de batalla.



Volunteering for a Dangerous War / Voluntariado Para una Guerra Peligrosa

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández offers his views on why he decided to volunteer for the war even after seeing friends return to Korea with amputations. He explains that they embarked with courage and discussed their futures on the voyage to Korea. The reality of the war instilled fear within him upon arriving and he was unsure he would return as he heard his friends die over the radio.

Luis Fernando Silva Fernández ofrece sus recuerdos de por qué decidió presentarse como voluntario para la guerra incluso después de ver a sus amigos regresar de Corea con amputaciones. Explica que se embarcaron el barco con coraje y discutían su futuro en el viaje a Corea. La realidad de la guerra lo lleno de miedo al llegar y no estaba seguro de si regresaría cuando escuchó a sus amigos morir por la radio.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

Legacy of Batallón Colombia / Legado del Batallón Colombia

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describes the most dangerous battles of the war. He provides an account of his participation in the Battle of Old Baldy and Hill 180 including a moment of heroism in which he charged up a hill to save his friend’s life. He believes that the battle of Old Baldy was a great triumph for Colombia as they the fought with so much valor.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa describe las batallas más peligrosas de la guerra. Brinda un relato de su participación en la Batalla de Old Baldy y la colina 180 y cuenta sobre su momento de heroísmo en el que subió una colina para salvar la vida de su amigo. Él cree que la batalla de Old Baldy fue un gran triunfo para Colombia porque lucharon con mucho valor y el legado del batallón.



The Armistice / El Armisticio

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explains how the news of the armistice was received by Colombian troops. He details the day of the signing of the armistice and the joy he felt at the thought that he would be returning home. He credits South Korea’s peace with the service of all the individuals that fought during the war.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explica cómo fue recibida la noticia del armisticio por las tropas colombianas. Detalla el día de la firma del armisticio y la alegría que sintió al pensar que volvería a su país. Él atribuye la paz de Corea del Sur al servicio de todos los que lucharon durante la guerra.



Luis M. Juarbe

Printing Puerto Rican News in Korea

Luis Juarbe describes the many different roles he fulfilled for his regiment ranging from radioman to newsman. He describes his responsibilities for creating and distributing a daily newspaper, La Cruz de Malta, that lifted the morale of many Puerto Rican troops throughout his unit. He explains how he helped oversee roughly nine months of consecutive news coverage.



Most Rewarding Moment

Luis Juarbe shares how he was given one of the largest honors during Puerto Rico's involvement in the war. He explains how he was tasked with carrying the newly created Commonwealth flag (adopted by Puerto Rico in 1952) to the front line. He shares how it was an honor as a Puerto Rican but also as an American citizen.



Luis Maria Jimenez Jimenez

A Serious Ultimatum / Un Ultimátum Serio

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez shares his memories of Old Baldy in 1953 and 1954. He recalls a very serious incident in which the captain of their Battalion was captured by the Chinese. He explains that there was an ultimatum following the incident and recounts the details of how the incident was handled.

Luis Maria Jiménez Jiménez comparte sus recuerdos de Old Baldy en 1953 y 1954. Recuerda un incidente muy grave en el que el capitán de su batallón fue capturado por los chinos. Explica que hubo un ultimátum después del incidente y relata los detalles de cómo se manejó el incidente.



Luis Perez Alvarez

Living Conditions / Condiciones de Vida

Luis A. Perez Alvarez describes the living conditions in Korea. He remembers the rations they received while on the front lines. Moreover, he tells the story in which he lost his eyesight and was almost discharged early because of his injury.

Luis A. Pérez Alvarez describe las condiciones de vida en Corea. Recuerda las raciones que recibían cuando estaban en las líneas de combate. Además, cuenta la historia en la que perdió la vista y estuvo a punto de ser dado de alta a causa de su herida.



The Front Lines / Las Líneas del Frente

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his memories about the first time he saw the front lines in Korea. He remembers it as being hell on earth. Additionally, he shares his impressions of the impoverished civilians and the Korean country ravaged by war.

Luis A. Pérez Álvarez comparte sus recuerdos sobre la primera vez que vio las líneas del frente en Corea. Lo recuerda como un infierno. Además, comparte sus impresiones sobre el país devastados por la guerra y la pobreza de los civiles coreanos.



Luis Rosado Padua

The Draft / El Reclutamiento

Luis Rosado Padua discusses his feelings on being drafted and joining the war effort. He was immediately struck by the cold weather as he had never experienced freezing temperatures. He describes his feelings about the Korean people.

Luis Rosado Padua habla sobre sus sentimientos al ser reclutado y unirse al esfuerzo de la guerra. Él explica que lo más impactante al llegar fue el clima frío, ya que nunca había salido de Puerto Rico. Describe sus sentimientos sobre el pueblo coreano.



Puerto Rican Pride / Orgullo Puertorriqueño

Luis Rosado Padua shares his pride of being an American citizen and a Puerto Rican. He recalls that Puerto Rican soldiers were given the worst missions because they displayed much valor and were the best soldiers in his opinion. For instance, he explains, it was Puerto Ricans that were sent to capture Kelly Hill.

Luis Rosado Padua comparte su orgullo de ser ciudadano estadounidense y puertorriqueño. Recuerda que a los soldados puertorriqueños les daban las peores misiones porque tenían mucho valor y eran los mejores soldados en su opinión. Explica el, que fueron los puertorriqueños los que fueron enviados a capturar a Kelly Hill.



The Battle of Kelly Hill / La Batalla de Kelly Hill

Luis Rosado Padua recalls his experience during the Battle of Kelly Hill. He was originally in the tank company, but when he was transferred to the medical unit, he was responsible for carrying out the wounded from the battlefield. He describes the carnage of the battle of Kelly Hill which seemed to be unending.

Luis Rosado Padua recuerda su experiencia durante la Batalla de Kelly Hill. Originalmente estaba en la compañía de tanques, pero cuando fue transferido a la unidad médica, estaba a cargo de sacar a los heridos del campo de batalla. Describe los horrores de la batalla de Kelly Hill que parecía interminable porque había tantos chinos que estaban peleando.



Toughest Battles / Las Batallas Más Duras

Luis Rosado Padua remembers the terrible fighting which ensued during the Battle of White Horse and Kelly Hill. He explains how much soldiers suffered during these battles. He adds that the cold weather exasperated the situation.

Luis Rosado Padua recuerda las terrible battallas de White Horse y Kelly Hill. Explica que sufrieron los soldados durante estas batallas porque pasaron hambre. Agrega que el clima frío exasperó la situación.



Luther Dappen

The Eyes and Ears of the Division

Luther Dappen describes the work of Reconnaissance. He explains that many times he was given the task of "going out to see what they're shooting at you with today." He goes on to describe his unit accidentally stumbling upon a unit of Chinese troops who were lying in wait and having to take them in as prisoners.



Manuel Antonio Gaitan Briceño

After the Armistice / Después del Armisticio

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describes the daily operations of the Colombian troops that arrived after the signing of the Armistice. He explains that while combat was over officially, there was a fear that fighting would break out again. Given this fear, he recounts the training that combat troops endured to remain prepared for anything.

Manuel Antonio Gaitán Briceño describe las operaciones diarias de las tropas colombianas que llegaron después de la firma del Armisticio. Explica que, aunque el combate había terminado oficialmente, existía el temor de que la lucha estallaría nuevamente. Por esta razón, él cuenta del entrenamiento que tenían las tropas de combate para estar preparadas por si empezara devuelta la guerra.



Manuel Carnero

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Manuel Carnero describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes arriving and experiencing temperatures 20-30 degrees below 0. He describes the weapons available and how the machine guns they carried utilized belted ammunition though the soldiers were given linked ammunition. He goes on to describe seeing what he thought looked like a German grenade from WWII and being unable to escape the explosion. When he awoke, his tongue half cut-off and mouth full of blood, he looked up the hill and thought he was dead and headed to Valhalla.



Injuries and Casualties

Manuel Carnero describes how the cold and frostbite affected soldiers. He explains that he had frostbite on his hands and feet while many other men froze to death. He says it was not unusual for men to fall asleep and not wake up; that the weather claimed more lives than the Chinese. He goes on to describe how the Navy Corpsmen serving with the Marines were picking up the casualties at the battle site when they found him and helped him to a truck.



Marc Villanueva

Bombed by Your Own Side

Marc Villanueva describes an incident that occurred while he was a platoon leader during a winter attack. He describes hiding in the trees of Korea near an enemy encampment and calling in for support. He radioed in the coordinates and soon the support began firing mortars at his platoon's location. He describes having to wait until nightfall, lying in the snow so that the enemy could not see them.



Fox Holes in the Snow

Marc Villanueva explains that many of his new recruits from the United States were very young, right out of high school. He describes the cold conditions and necessity for having to dig the fox holes deep and wide. Unfortunately, two young soldiers did not follow instructions and instead of digging a fox hole, they slept on top of the snow in their sleeping bags. When the enemy saw them, they used their burp guns to spray them with gunfire and the men were killed.



Marcelino C. Nardo

Dangers of Land Mines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls being among the group of Filipino soldiers sent as an advance unit to Christmas Hill. He recalls arriving about 2:00 in the morning and seeing piles of dead bodies. He explains their main mission was to lay landmines to protect the area from further Chinese encroachment.



Challenges of Serving on the Front Lines

Marcelino C. Nardo recalls many difficulties of serving on the front lines. He remembers it was often hard to see where the enemy was and could only hear the sounds of incoming artillery fire. He shares the story of a friend being killed while trying to deliver water to the front line. He speaks frequently of the cold and the lack of equipment many encountered when facing Korea's cold winters.



Mario Nel Bernal Avella

Most Difficult Moments / Momentos Más Difíciles

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recalls the difficulties troops faced when fighting in trench warfare near the 38th Parallel. He details the proximity between UN and enemy troops and explains that it was unfathomable that so much fighting could occur in such a small distance. He explains the perilous nature of mundane tasks, including going to the bathroom, when one is being constantly hunted.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recuerda los momentos más difíciles que enfrentaron las tropas cuando peleaban en una guerra de trincheras cerca del Paralelo 38. Detalla la proximidad entre las fuerzas de la ONU y las tropas enemigas y explica que le parecía mentira que tanto combate pudiera ocurrir en una distancia tan pequeña. Explica los peligros de las tareas mundanas, incluido ir al baño, cuando a uno lo están cazando constantemente.



First Impressions / Primeras Impresiones

Mario Nel Bernal Avella details his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls arriving in Busan and being received very well by American and Korean dignitaries before being sent to a training camp nearby. The human misery and terrible sadness of Korea at that time is vivid in his memories and exemplified by one incident in which a Colombian soldiers threw a tin of C-Rations over the truck, and they watched a malnourished child, a starving dog, and man running towards the can of discarded food. He also bears witness to the devastation and utter destruction of Seoul and explains that it looked like a ten-magnitude earthquake hit the city.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata sus primeras impresiones de Corea. Recuerda haber llegado a Busan y haber sido muy bien recibido por dignatarios estadounidenses y coreanos antes de ser enviado a un campo de entrenamiento. La miseria humana y la terrible tristeza de Corea en ese momento están vívidas en su memoria y ejemplificadas por un incidente en el que un soldado colombiano arrojo una lata de C3-Ration fuera del camión y vieron a un niño desnutrido, un perro hambriento y un hombre viejo corriendo hacia la lata de comida desechada. También es testigo de la devastación y destrucción total de Seúl y explica que le parecía que un terremoto de magnitud diez arrasó la ciudad.



Foreign Troops / Tropas Extranjeras

Mario Nel Bernal Avella recounts his amicable interactions with troops from other countries. He explains that they all had a sense of adventure in common. He enjoyed meeting individuals with tattoos and pierced noses from Ethiopia, Turks who refused to wear bulletproof jackets, and those from Australia, Canada, and France. He marveled when all these individuals congregated together for mass. He credits this experience with making him a more open-minded individual as he realized that people from different countries have more in common than most realize.

Mario Nel Bernal Avella relata que sus interacciones con tropas de otros países fueron muy cordiales. Explica que todos tenían un sentido de aventura en común. Disfrutó conocer a personas con tatuajes y narices perforadas de Etiopía, turcos que se negaron a usar chalecos antibalas y personas de Australia, Canadá y Francia. Se maravilló cuando todos estos individuos se congregaron para la misa. Él atribuye a esta experiencia el haberlo convertido en una persona de mente más abierta al darse cuenta de que las personas de diferentes países tienen mucho en común.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette feels the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the home front. He recalls how many of the veterans did not speak about the war when they returned back home. He shares how he shot thousands of rounds of artillery while serving in Korea, leading to hearing loss. He recounts how he was stationed in Northern Korea and mentions he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he shares that he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post-War Readjustment

Marion Burdette recounts walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed U.S. Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he recalls being able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. He describes how the impact of war on his life led him to feel that he needed to traveled the U.S. to release his stress. He recounts how he decided to reenlist in the Army for three years. He adds it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Enlisting in the United States Army

Marion Burdette's job in the U.S. Army was a Battle Commander's Traveler. He recalls being sent to Yokohama, Japan, in early June to prepare for the invasion of Korea. He recounts entering Korea from an L3T and then storming the beaches on June 27, 1950. He shares he did not know much about Korea at the time.



Marjorie Elizabeth Cavanaugh

Knowledge, Firing, and Perception of the Korean War

Marjorie Cavanaugh discusses the extent of her knowledge of what was occurring in Korea and reflects on the slow communication during that time. She remembers her reaction to General MacArthur's firing. She comments on the American public's opinion of the role the United States played in the war and the difference in opinion compared to World War II.



Mark C. Sison

U.S.S. Iowa Battleship

Mark C. Sison discusses being stationed on the U.S.S. Iowa battleship during the Korean War. He shares how their mission was to shell enemy locations on command. He explains how the crew operated the rifles and maneuvered the ship during these operations.



Marshall W. Ritchey

Keep Your Head Down

Mitchell W. Ritchey describes the 3 most important things to making it home: stay warm, keep your head down (always wear your helmet), and doing everything you could to stay alive. He recalls the year he was there was marked by one of the coldest winters ('52) and says they had "Hoochies" that they made while on the front lines where they would dig a hole into the side of a mountain and put sands bags into the hill (in case of incoming mail-grenade drop) and 3-4 bunks at one time. Most of the men slept in sleeping bags and Mitchell said he never took his boots off.



C-Rations and a P38

Marshall W. Ritchey describe what he had to eat while on the front lines. He described his C-Rations usually had scrambled (powedered) egg w/meat mixed in it, OD crackers, 4 cigarettes (Lucky Strikes or Chesterfields) and a horrible tasting candy Chuckles. He said you at whatever you had and felt luck to have it. He also recalls making ice cream using the cream provided and some sugar that you mixed with the snow. Stay away from the yellow snow he said (shared story about that too!)



Martin Goge

Attack Plans

Martin Goge describes spending a lot of time at meetings planning attacks to straighten out defensive lines against the Chinese. He helped maintain communication with the soldier's families and assisted in night raids against the Chinese to keep them out of no-man's-land, a constant job. He explains that both sides made efforts to take and prevent the other side from taking no-man's-land.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Watching Napalm

Sam Bas describes what it was like watching napalm being dropped. He explains how the planes flew in. He remembers hearing people screaming from ten miles away.



Captured by the Chinese

Sam Bass was captured in September 1951 around the Punchbowl or Old Baldy area. He describes how he was arrested by the Chinese who had cut them off through the line. He explains the living conditions during that time, including the marching and sleep conditions.



Marvin A. Flood

Serving in Korea While Stationed in Japan

Marvin A. Flood explains how he served in Korea while stationed in Japan. He describes how the military converted old Japanese hangers into bases for repairing air planes that were used during the Korean War because there were no such facilities in Korea. He discusses how he would go back and forth between Korea and Japan working on the F86.



Marvin Denton

Losing Buddies Was The Hardest Experience

Marvin Denton described times when he lost members of his unit. One solider was walking between two companies and he was killed by a mine. Gun shots fired in the middle of the night when soldiers had discovered someone was killed. Another soldier survived a shell that hit his helmet, missing death by inches, and a different soldier, who had lied to his parents, telling them everything was okay, was bombed after an ambush. Marvin Denton were extremely thankful he lived through the experience and he feels we live in the greatest country in the world despite all of our problems.



Seoul: A Sad Sight

Marvin Denton recalled the hardships many Korean people faced during the Korean War. Men and women yoked with long poles carrying heavy buckets filled with sewage (honey pots).
Groups of children ransacked the soldiers for anything they had (pencils, papers, etc.). Marvin Denton felt so sorry for the civilians in South Korea.



Marvin Dunn

Wounded in Battle

Marvin Dunn describes being hit by a mortar while building bunkers. He explains that his unit was collecting small trees to use for the construction of the bunkers when he heard the very distinct sound of a mortar approaching. He yelled for the men to get down and all of them took cover, except for him. The mortar blast was so close to him that the blast destroyed his left leg, eye, and eardrum. He goes on to describe being evacuated to a MASH unit in the floor of the Punchbowl.



Marvin Garaway

Headquarters Overrun

Marvin Garaway elaborates on the enemy taking the headquarters of the United States 5th Marines at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. Due to the extreme cold, they encountered problems with the weapons malfunctioning. Reflecting on his experience, he recalls another soldier providing him protection and a close encounter with the enemy. He describes the impact of an air drop, code name "Tootsie Roll," dropping a load of tootsie rolls and the tootsie rolls helping save their lives. Along with this information, he describes the impact of the cold weather and the lack of cold weather gear. He remembers how, after a short time, they are able to regain control of their headquarters.



Injured During Evacuation

Marvin shares his experience during the evacuation from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. After being hit by shrapnel, he recalls being placed on the last flight to Japan. He recollects that if he was not on that flight, he would have marched the seventy-eight mile evacuation route. While in Japan, he recalls being evaluated for frostbite. He provides an overview of the assessment process for his cold weather injury.



Marvin Ummel

Landing at Incheon, Impressions of Korea

On August 1, 1952, Marvin Ummel's unit made it to Incheon, South Korea. The entry into Incheon was challenging due to bad weather and the fact that the communists had destroyed most of the harbor. The ship captain had to improvise their landing. Shortly after landing, he boarded a railroad car to his first duty station near Seoul. He noticed garbage and destruction all over the landscape of South Korea. He acknowledges not knowing what it looked like prior to the war, but his first impression was a total mess. There was no building that had not been at least damaged by the war. The condition of Seoul was pretty distressing.



Prisoner of War Exchange

Marvin Ummel recalls witnessing the exchange of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the released prisoners changing clothes once released and many Korean locals picking up and taking the clothes back to their homes. Doctors would inspect the released POWs before sending them back home. Often the POWs were in poor condition, some even being sprayed with DDT insecticide to kill off vermin. He recalls that while the soldiers were thrilled to be back, the condition the POWs arrived in was poor and very depressing.



Mary L. Hester

Describing Flight School and Her First Incoming Soldiers

Mary Hester explains that after seeing a posting for volunteers for flight school, she signed up. She describes the month long course, she learned the differences between providing medical care on the ground and in the air. She recalls seeing that volunteers were needed to go to Japan and she quickly volunteered. She becomes emotional when she remembers the first plane of injured soldiers and how her chief nurse told her they came to work, not to cry. She recalls the quick on-the-job training she received that day.



Duties as a Flight Nurse

Mary Hester speaks about her typical flight shift as a flight nurse, flying from Japan to Korea to evacuate injured soldiers, many of which were badly hurt. She explains that the size of the plane they took depended on the number of soldiers that were to be evacuated. She recalls that typically it was one nurse on a plane for eighteen to twenty injured soldiers, but at times they would take a C-54 that could hold thirty to fifty patients and required two nurses. She describes how soldiers were loaded based on their injuries with the worst injured going near the front of the plane and in the middle bunks. She explains that she had to fly 750 hours to rotate home, and she was sure she flew more than that.



Mary Reid

Back to Busan

Mary Reid describes going to Busan by train. She provides an account of what her job entailed at the Army hospital compound in Busan. She recalls patients at the hospital being tended to and then sent back to the line.



Patients at the Hospital

Mary Reid describes the types of patients that she saw in the hospital. She recounts many soldiers having worms and treating them with medications. She elaborates on what happened to those too badly wounded to stay at the Army hospital compound.



Matthew D. Rennie

Battlefield and Memories

Matthew Rennie details suffering a head wound during an encounter with Chinese soldiers. He recalls a bullet grazing the back of his head and spending several days at a MASH unit to receive care. He reflects on the fear he experienced on the battlefield and his feelings of helplessness as he watched fellow soldiers die. He shares that he suffers from PTSD and nightmares despite so many years having past since his service in Korea.



Maurice B. Pears

Protecting the Hills after the Battle of Kapyong

Maurice Pears shares how he was trained as an infantryman in 1950. He recounts his arrival at Kimpo Airbase and how he went to the front lines at Kapyong to dig in. He shares that he participated in some patrols across the river in enemy territory. He adds that as a commander of twenty-six men, they had to prepare for the assault on the Chinese.



Life as a Korean War Soldier and Operation Minden

Maurice Pear recalls living in foxholes during his year in Korea from 1951-1952. He remembers patrolling through small Korean villages that were filled with only women and children. He recounts that during Operation Minden, his troops fought the Chinese for Hill 355, 317, and 227 while enduring many casualties.



Life of a Korean War Soldier

Maurice Pears shares how he was on the front line for one month without a chance to shower or eat a hot meal and recalls dealing with a water shortage. He remembers how each soldier had his own foxhole where he endured snow and heat. He shares that the soldiers were able to travel up and down the Korean hills with the help of Korean civilians.



Maurice L. Adams

Experiences in the Integrated U.S. Army

Maurice L. Adams describes his experience in training and being one of only two Black officers in his battalion. He notes that his unit was decimated after the battle for Hill 421. He remembers how after the war, officers were not being replaced, and this caused issues since there were many more enlisted men than officers.



Maurice Morby

Ghost Man

Maurice Morby shares a story of a ghostly encounter that he had during one evening's guard duty. He describes seeing what he thought was an old man dressed in traditional Korean clothing. He and a fellow soldier chased the man into a long inescapable alley and opened fire. Despite what seemed like an impossible escape, they never saw the man again.



Dangerous Letter Writing

Maurice Morby tells a story about writing letters while sitting on a log in camp. He describes bullets coming in from all around and diving behind the log for cover. In the end, they discovered that a nearby British unit was test firing weapons nearby unaware of his unit's camp location.



Camp Description

Maurice Morby describes his unit's encampment near a factory. He describes the size of the camp, where and how they slept, how they dealt with cold weather, and what not to do with beer.



Chapters and Verses

Maurice Morby describes his job of picking up and delivering supplies. He talks about how they communicated about supplies, how his truck was loaded, and the difficult overland journey.



"We're in a Minefield!"

Maurice Morby describes accidentally walking into a minefield while on patrol during Operation Skunk. He talks about the terrain, how he and a fellow soldier made their error, and how they escaped the potentially dangerous situation.



Mine Clearing Dogs

Maurice Morby talks about dogs that were used to discover enemy mines. He describes the dogs' duties and one particular encounter with several dogs in camp.



Second Hand Mail

Maurice Morby tells a story about what he called "second hand mail." While eating lunch one day, his unit's encampment came under heavy artillery fire. He describes that later it was found out that the artillery fire was from friendly tanks, their shells ricocheting off of a nearby river.



Secret Supply Mission

Maurice Morby describes delivering secret cargo on a supply mission. He talks about his discovery of what the cargo was, a fabricated decoy tank that was switched for a real tank that needed to be serviced.



28 Days for Smoking

Maurice Morby recalls the story of when he and a fellow soldier were caught smoking on guard duty and received a 28-day sentence in a military jail. He talks about the circumstances that surrounded his infraction and describes his experience as a military prisoner.



An Encounter with Danny Kaye

Maurice Morby tells about his encounter with Danny Kaye, an American film actor, while on guard duty one dark evening. He describes a vehicle approaching his position without stopping. Alarmed, he fired warning shots in the vehicle's direction without knowing the identities of it's passengers, Danny Kaye and a famous American singer.



Mauro C. Lino

The Front Line Experience

Mauro C. Lino describes his experience on the front lines of Korea. He recalls being sent to the front at one point with instructions to use only grenades and to withhold firing the automatic rifle until the enemy was upon them. He shares that many were killed, though he does not how many fell from his hand for there were so many in the battle.



Challenges and Comfort in Battle

Mauro C. Lino discusses some of the challenges and comforts of being on the front line. He describes the harshness of the cold weather, the delay in receiving winter clothing, and how the rain only added to the misery. He also recalls the comfort that the Korean children added by having them there to help with cooking and washing, as well as their kind company.



Maximo Young

Under Attack at Miudong

Maximo Young details his unit's movement near Miudong when it came under heavy firing from the surrounding area. He notes that when the firing began all progress forward halted. He recollects looking up through his tank's periscope to see North Korean soldiers dug in all around them. He attempted to turn the tank so his gunner could fire but instead backed it into a ravine which made it impossible for his gunner to fire.He recounts how he got out of his tank with a .50 caliber machine gun and began firing at the North Korean soldiers all around them.



Battle of Yultong

Maximo Young recounts being placed in a defensive position on April 22, 1951, in the area near Yultong. He describes the Filipino forces being aided by forces from Puerto Rico and Turkey when they faced down forty thousand Chinese. Ultimately, he recalls the Turks gave way, and the Chinese attacked the other forces in the area. He figures roughly one hundred twelve BCT soldiers were killed in action, but the forces managed to protect Seoul from the Chinese invaders.



Mayo Kjellsen

C-Rations, Rats, and Radios, Oh, My!

During his time stationed in Korea, Mayo Kjellsen remembers consuming numerous C-Rations. He describes his primary duties which involved carrying a hefty 45-pound battery pack and maintaining radio communication for his regiment. He recalls one night while on radio watch in his bunker, he found himself shooting at sizable rats scurrying through the rafters, inadvertently startling his commander.



Wounded in Korean War

Mayo Kjellsen recalls being injured twice during the Korean War. He was struck by shrapnel in his knee during one incident and was blown out of his bunker by another shot. Following his second injury, he explains he was transferred to a hospital ship in the harbor and then sent to Japan for rehabilitation. After six months of recovery, Kjellsen returned to the US to complete his remaining time in the military.



McKinley Mosley

Life of a private during War

McKinley Mosley remembers leaving home as a 16-year-old to embark on his military journey, starting with basic training. Transitioning from Fort Riley, Kansas, where he learned infantry skills, to Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, for artillery training, Mosley recalls gaining valuable expertise. From there, his journey continued to Fort Custer in Michigan, then California, followed by deployment to Japan, and finally to Korea for the war.



Segregated Units

McKinley Mosley describes his role as a gunner in an artillery unit responsible for protecting airports from potential enemy incursions. He recalls that his segregated unit included about twenty-five Black soldiers but notes that they were eventually integrated following President Truman's desegregation orders.



Life in a Segregated Unit

In McKinley Mosley's artillery unit, initially segregated upon his enlistment in 1950, life revolved around constant readiness. He recollects sleeping on the ground until reaching Seoul, where they finally received cots for more comfort. Notably, their unit never experienced hunger, as they were provided with hot meals every day. Additionally, Mosley fondly remembers a young Korean houseboy, aged around eight or nine, who assisted in the mess hall operations.



Mehmet Aksoy

Service During the Korean War

Mehmet Aksoy describes his service during the Korean War. He identifies the various Fronts he served along. Further, Vegas Front and Cheorwon Front, which are along the 38th Parallel saw heavy fighting. Mehmet Aksoy did not see any fierce fighting. However, he played an important role of ensuring the phone line between headquarters and the men never broke. Breaking would occur due to enemy mortars. This was instrumental in the Turkish military holding off Chinese advancement.



Mehmet Arif Boran

Tape and a Coke

Mehmet Arif Boran describes being injured from artillery shrapnel. The artillery shell hit a tree and exploded overhead instead of on his position. The doctors were able to pull out his shrapnel in about five minutes. They put some numbing tape on his wound and gave him a Coke. He reported back with his unit. However, two fellow soldiers were not so lucky. They had pretty serious injuries and Mehmet Arif Boran could not even go see them.



A State of Misery

Mehmet Arif Boran describes the fighting in the Vegas Complex and the state of the Korean people. He describes how when the Turks surrendered Vegas Hill, injured troops were in the valley. Dead bodies started to stink. The Chinese would not let the Turkish soldiers recover their injured and dead.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Geumyangjangri Front

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recounts the challenging fighting conditions at the Geumyangjangri Front, where the Chinese forces were surrounded and unable to escape. He notes this battle significantly aided the Allies in retaining control over the advancing Chinese Army. Additionally, Yasar describes the widespread devastation caused by the war, with streets littered with numerous casualties. Towns were left bombed out and looted. Interestingly, he remembers that despite the destruction, Pyongyang still had inhabitants, while the South suffered greatly.



Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recounts the Battle of Kunu-ri, a notable engagement for Turkish soldiers. He remembers the battle as intensely fierce, but the Turkish forces managed to repel a larger Chinese force. Yasar describes how the Chinese attacked at night, resulting in significant casualties among the Turkish fighters during the Battle of Kunu-ri.



First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar recalls the desolate scenes he encountered upon arriving in Korea. He describes Busan as a ghost town, with bullet-riddled buildings and a haunting sight of only one person who had frozen to death. The war, he notes, brought widespread hunger, misery, disease, and death. He highlights the constant danger, with numerous traps set by the enemy adding to the perilous conditions.



Chinese Strategy

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the Chinese strategy during the Korean War, which involved drawing the Allied forces further north. He recalls this tactic complicating the Allies' resupply efforts while benefiting the Chinese, who were closer to their supply lines in Manchuria. Yasar also notes the high level of guerrilla-style training among the Chinese forces.



Mehmet Copten

Papasan Hill, aka Hill 1062

Mehmet Çöpten describes Papasan Hill near Cheorwon. This is a battlefront in the Iron Triangle. He describes how deceptive the Chinese fighters were. The Turkish soldiers had to come up with a code to send messages when the Chinese were attacking. The Chinese would even use soldiers surrendering as a cover to launch an attack. The Turkish soldiers had to be constantly aware of a possible attack.



Vegas Front

Mehmet Çöpten describes the Vegas Front. He describes how the Chinese used howitzers on one hill, while simultaneously attacking another. The Turkish fighters lost one hundred and fifty-three men. The fighting took place over thirty-six hours. They eventually won the battle and the front. The Turkish fighters then turned over the front to the American forces.



Mehmet Esen

Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Esen describes the Battle of Kunu-ri, also known as the Battle of Wawon. He describes the Americans retreating, while the Turkish soldiers stayed. He provides details about how there were approximately five hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers that fought in that battle, yet only sixty-nine soldiers survived.



Battle Fronts

Mehmet Esen describes the fighting conditions when he first arrived in Korea. He recalls the Battle of Cheorwon in North Korea, as well as the Battle of Sandbag Castle. He remembers being wounded and being sent to a hospital in Seoul.



Mekonen Derseh

There's a Snake in My Bed

Mekonen Derseh describes the toughest thing that happened to him in Korea. The fighting was over when Mekonen Derseh was in Korea. He describes the cold winter as being the toughest part of his service. One night a snake was cold and made its way into his sleeping bag. He did not know until he was folding his sleeping bag up.



Condition of Busan

Mekonen Derseh describes the condition of Busan. People were starving and Ethiopians gave them leftovers. Ethiopians were supplied by the Americans and needed the supplies also. He tries to make a comparison between Ethiopia and South Korea. The main difference was Ethiopia was not going through war.



Melesse Tesemma

Fear and Commitment in Battle

Melesse Tesemma admits to feeling afraid when he first joined the Korean War, but he insists that soldiers cannot let fear interfere with their mission. Upon arriving in Kumhwa, he fought the Chinese on Hill 358, where he sustained a leg injury from mortar shrapnel. For his bravery and service, he received numerous awards, including the United States Bronze Star, as well as honors from Korea and Ethiopia.



Chinese Artillery Barrage

Melesse Tesemma regards the Battle of Triangle Hill as his most perilous experience. He explains his platoon had just arrived and had not yet dug many trenches. Although the Ethiopian soldiers held the high ground, they faced a large number of Chinese troops struggling to climb the steep terrain. Tesemma recalls the lost several comrades, including his closest friend. He notes while the platoon officers communicated in English, the lower-ranking soldiers did not, creating significant language barriers with often only means of communication was through their own system of sign language.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



A Brutal Attack

Melvin Hill explains a brutal attack at a roadblock on the way back from the Yalu river. He recalls his experience with hand-to-hand combat, saying he never thought he would ever put a knife into someone, stab someone with a bayonet or shoot someone right in front of him. He describes running over people in the middle of the road. He believes that his survival of the attack by the Chinese is only due to luck.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Incheon Destruction

Melvin D. Lubbers talks about the physical destruction he saw in Incheon upon his arrival in Korea. He explains that they didn’t get to a see a lot because it was nighttime, and they had been loaded up to move to another part. He remembers thinking “how could anyone even survive?”



Machine Gun

Melvin D. Lubbers discusses the 50 caliber machine gun that he operated while in Korea. He explains that it is a large, rapid-firing gun that is very lethal. He remembers that it was very heavy.



Melvin J. Behnen

First Days in Korea

Melvin Behnen describes his first few days in Korea in February of 1951. He shares the challenges of staying warm because soldiers were only provided summer gear. He emphasizes how even with all of their clothes on, they still froze. He remembers the soldiers moving in makeshift box cars to their new assignments shortly after arriving. With only eight weeks of training, he explains that many felt certain they would not be put immediately into battle. Yet, he recalls encountering artillery fire shortly after arriving at their assignment.



Merl Smith

Serving as a Merchant Marine

Merl Smith discusses his role as a merchant marine in the Korean War. Merchant Marines were a civilian unit supplying troops with whatever they needed. He recounts his time at the Incheon Landing. He remembers taking on four North Koreans who wanted to surrender. He also recalls seeing the invasion from afar on his boat. He, alongside a friend, rode up to Seoul, following the American troops.



The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

Jincheng Campaign- Battle at Kumsong "All Hell Broke Loose"

Merle Degler always carried in his pocket rolls of film he had taken during his time in Korea. One day, he found an empty ammo box and decided to put the film in the ammo box, and the next thing you knew, "All Hell Broke Loose." He recalls the ROK and his unit were overrun by the Chinese, so they were told to retreat. Merle Degler learned just a few months ago, that the the US artillery regiment left their equipment when they retreated, so the Chinese used the equipment against our own people. They reorganized before the next morning to create a new front line, but with a lot less equipment since they had lost it while retreating.



Enlisting, Training, and Preparing for the Korean War

Merle Degler enlisted in the National Guard as an 18 year old in 1951. After attending Fort Polk for basic training, he was shipped to Yokohama and Tokyo, Japan to get equipment for the war. Soon after that, Merle Degler took a ship to Pusan in Jan. 1953 and he was sent right to Yeongdeungpo, Korea. After being picked up by his regiment, he was brought to his duty station in the Iron Triangle (Kumwa Valley).