Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Front lines



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Adam McKenzie

Clearing Sariwon

Adam McKenzie describes clearing the town of Sariwon, North Korea. Although they received no tank support from American aid, his battalion mounted their miniature tanks to make an advance. He recounts capturing roughly three thousand North Korean soldiers as a result of the advance.



Back to the 38th Parallel

Adam McKenzie discusses having to turn around and go back to the 38th Parallel after reaching Pyongyang. He explains that the command to retreat came before Chinese soldiers entered the Korean War, and it was given at the direction of United States military leadership. He expresses frustration at having to retreat, and feels that Korea would be unified today if soldiers could have kept moving northward.



Chinese Troops and a Rare Medal

Adam McKenzie describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers during the Korean War. He goes on to describe and show a rare Presidential Citation Medal that his regiment qualified to earn, yet he cannot wear along side awarded British medals. The rare medal was awarded to him by Syngman Rhee, President of the Republic of Korea (South Korea).



Ahmet Tan

Destruction and Poverty

Ahmet Tan describes the conditions of the Koreans during the Korean War. He describes the people as "good," but impoverished. He also described how the Turkish troops looked after some orphaned children, feeding them and providing them shelter in the military tents.



Returning Home

Ahmet Tan describes the enemy and fighting conditions near Cheorwon when he first arrived. The action was very violent, but eased when the Armistice was signed. After the Armistice, Turkish soldiers returned home. Ahmet Tan was happy to be home in Istanbul. He has revisited South Korea once and describes it as beautiful. Also, if war ever breaks out again, Ahmet Tan would go again.



Alan Guy

Arriving in Korea and Placement

Alan Guy recounts his arrival in Korea. He remembers bitter cold and a horrendous smell as Koreans had just fertilized nearby rice patties with human manure. He recollects a band playing rousing music upon arrival and being transported to a transit camp in Busan. He details his placement in a field hygiene section.



Health Education

Alan Guy details the health education he provided to soldiers in the infantry. He shares the means by which soldiers on the front lines were instructed to avoid malaria by taking pills and frostbite by putting their bare feet on their mate's stomach if one thought he was getting frostbite. He describes the various trench latrines used based on the time frame spent in an area.



Albert Cooper

Secret Mission

Albert Cooper talks about a secret counterintelligence mission alongside two British spies to uncover South Koreans working against American interests. He mentions that while this mission itself bore little fruit, he developed a "love affair with the Korean people."



One Last Grenade

Albert Cooper talks about defending a radar station that had come under attack. Alone in a fox hole, he intermittently fired his rifle and threw hand grenades to keep the enemy at bay until he had exhausted his ammunition save one last grenade, which he kept and brought home as a memory of the battle.



Albert Frisina

What Did You Do in Korea?

Albert Frisina speaks about his training in the Army Security Agency and the work he did. He shares he was a radar transmission locator and was stationed in Uijeongbu, South Korea. He and his unit would listen to radar transmissions in an attempt to locate and listen to the North Koreans. He recalls how they were not always sure about what was being said, but they were able to identify the transmission location through a method of triangulation.



Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Albert Harrington

Typical Duties of the Infantryman

Albert Harrington describes the typical duties of a soldier serving in the infantry. He explains these duties consisted of checking ammunition, re-digging trenches after rain, and patrolling. He comments on the dangers of patrolling and details one particular instance where the company nearest his was hit. He also describes the penalties for taking one's boots off as they were required to keep them on during certain services.



Second Battle of the Hook

Albert Harrington describes the Second Battle of the Hook between combined elements of British and 1st Commonwealth Division forces and Chinese forces. He acknowledges that the Chinese forces were effective in battle and appeared well trained. He explains the significance of the battle, emphasizing that a Chinese victory would have allowed the enemy a more efficient route to Seoul.



Albert Kleine

Arriving in Korea

Albert Kleine arrived in Pusan, Korea in 1953. After landing, he went to Seoul and saw fighting along with mass destruction. Many buildings were completely destroyed and he asked himself why he came all this way, but later he realized that it was to liberate South Korea.



Surviving a Chinese and North Korean Attack

Albert Kleine was stationed near the Imjin River during his time in the Korean War. He was very fearful of the flowing river and the sounds it gave off that showed its strength. Later he would realize that the river was nothing compared to the flutes signaling the attack by thousands of Chinese and North Korean troops.



The Cold went Right to Your Soul

Albert Kleine felt that the cold weather was the worst part of fighting in Korea. Even though he was stuck there fighting the Chinese in the terrible weather, he doesn't hate them because they were only told to fight. He wasn't fighting the man, he was fighting the country.



Albert McCarthy

Code Names, Signals, and Spies

Albert McCarthy describes working with a North Korean spy. He details having to use code names and signals. He also elaborates on how this spy helped alleviate a set up from the North Koreans that almost occured in the Chorwon Valley.



Ali Dagbagli

Battle of Kunu-ri

Ali Dagbagli describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle of Junu-ri was the first major military engagement for Turkey since WWI. He describes being surrounded on all sides by the enemy. The battle lasted for three nights and four days. Therefore he lost many friends in the battle and was shot four times.



Destruction and Living Conditions

Ali Dagbagli describes the poor conditions of the Korean people. Kids would beg for food and cigarettes. People lived in houses made of rice stalks. Ali Dagbagli traveled from Incheon to Daegu, before moving north to Kunu-ri, North Korea.



Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan

Recounts From Post-Armistice Korea

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes post-Armistice South, Korea. He describes women with small feet from forced stunting. He also describes the suffering of the people from a war-torn land. People were starving. Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan gave food to the people. However, this was against military rules. He had to spend fifteen days in military prison for giving food. He also discusses the taboos of the suffering of the people.



A Brother's Narrative

Ali Muzaffer Kocabalkan describes the Korean War from his brother's perspective. His brother served in the Turkish Army at the battle of Kunu-ri. The battle was largely a guerrilla war. Turkish military fought the North Koreans in close combat with bayonets affixed. The battle was extremely dangerous and hard fought.



Ali Saglik

"Cold Blooded"

Ali Saglik describes the defense measures he took in order to protect his troops at the Battle of Kunu-ri and Sandbag Castle. He laid mines in the front, had dogs defending their flanks and men stationed in the rear, with machine guns in the front. At the Battle of Kunu-ri there was continuous fire for two days and eventually the Turkish soldiers defeated the Chinese in close combat with bayonets affixed. Ali Saglik lastly describes the loss of two soldiers under his command.



A Civilian War

Ali Saglik describes how the Turkish forces captured a spy. He also describes how enemy forces, hiding in civilian houses, shot and injured a fellow soldier. Not all Korean civilians were enemies, however, as some would provide fresh fish. Ali Saglik also describes the Battle of Kunu-ri and how the "Americans ran away." Turkish soldiers attached bayonets and killed Chinese for two days.



Too Short for Gendarmerie

Ali Saglik was too short for a Gendarmerie, a Turkish National Defender, and sent to Korea. He achieved a rank of Sergeant while in Korea and served at Hill Sandbag Castle (aka Hill 1220), which was a destroyed front. His company had two cannons that "killed a lot of Chinese."



Allan A. Mavin

Night Patrol in No Man's Land

Allan A. Mavin details his responsibilities as a part of the night patrol in "No Man's Land." He describes having to sleep during the day to stay up all night listening for enemy troops sounds. He describes how his responsibilities coordinated with members of the ambush and intelligence patrols.



Allen Affolter

Entering the Marine Corps

Allen Affolter describes how he earned enough money to attend college before joining the Marine Corps Reserves in 1947 while earning his degree in Education. He shares that the Marine Corps offered the program as a means of avoiding the draft, and he recounts spending several weeks training during the summer months of 1948 and 1949. He recalls finishing his degree in 1951, eventually entering the Marine Corps, and being sent to Korea towards the end of the war despite being deaf in one ear.



Ceasefire Memories

Allen Affolter describes an event leading up to the ceasefire in 1953. He shares that Bed Check Charlie dropped leaflets the night before the ceasefire at Panmunjom stating that the North Koreans always knew where the US positions were and that they could have annihilated them at any time. He recalls that he and other soldiers were instructed to turn in all of the leaflets. He recounts that the leaflets had little impact and that he and others were glad when the ceasefire was announced.



Allen Clark

Allen Clark's First Prisoner of War

Allen Clark was establishing observation posts and was maneuvering around Gimpo Airport when he came across a family who had captured a North Korean soldier. He felt the process of handing him to the property authorities went well, but he was concerned that there were many more POWs with the possibility of being outnumbered. He wasn't sure how the Korean people felt about American's arrival during the conflict, but at that time, he felt they were happy and pleased the US soldiers were there.



Highway Through The Danger Zone

Allen Clark described the harrowing scene he experienced coming out of the narrow road while leaving the Chosin Reservoir making them easy targets for the enemy. Allen Clark was sitting in the back seat of a Jeep when the enemy fired a shot that punctured through the gas tank (quickly emptying it), and shooting a hole right through the tire. They jumped out of the jeep and ran behind a small hill that was just beyond some railroad tracks as a parapet while the Jeep driver hooked their vehicle to a truck and pulled it out of Kunwoori.



G.I. Gear at Chosin

Allen Clark explained different GI provisions that were a life saver. He describes his field jacket, and his overcoat manufactured by London Fog that is reinforced with additional material that you slept and lived in. The temperature dropped to 42 degrees below zero and the soldiers covered themselves with the scarf all the way up to his eyes to prevent them from freezing.



Star for the Chosin Few at Koto-ri

As an Assistant Artillery Liaison Officer of the 7th Marine Regiment, Allen Clark told the story of the Frozen Chosin, who survived the 42 degrees below zero temperatures for several days while attempting to secure a place in the mountains that gave them an advantage point that overlooked a bridge. He described the conditions at Koto-ri were so bad, the scarf he described was the only thing that kept him from further hypothermia damage. Anxious and ready to go as the weather began to improve, Colonel "Chester" Pulley on a clear night had pointed to the star that was in the sky and said, "We are going in the morning," and that rallying point for the Marines when they needed it the most.



Participation in the Inchon Landing-September 1950

Allen Clark participated in the Inchon Landing and he could see the ladders and see the fighting along the beaches. As he moved throughout Korea, he saw trucks, troops, and mortars coming into his area. While sleeping on the ground in sleeping bags with little supplies, Allen Clark and his fellow Marines worked in shifts to protect their regiment 24 hours a day.



The Most Difficult Events in the Korean War

Allen Clark had difficulty choosing which event was the most difficult, but he chose the events going into and out of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. General Smith told his fellow leaders that the Marines were now going to blow up their supplies and sneak out of the Chosin. Instead, he said that they would bring their wounded, dead, and supplies first and then head out as Marines, so everyone looked up to General Smith.



Evacuation of Civilians after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

South Korean civilians wanted to escape so bad that they were willing to leave behind everything and jump aboard overcrowded ships to leave the war-stricken area. It was estimated that 99,000 civilians were crammed on two boats with the survivors from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir with aid from a Chaplin who convinced the boat skipper to bring all the civilians to safety.



US Marines Working with Korean Marines Throughout the Korean War

Allen Clark with Korean Marines were tough and they didn't put up with anyone who couldn't keep up. They were great Marines and were ready to fight whenever asked. There were translators to help with cooperation between US troops and the Korean Marines.



Korean Culture and Ceasefire

Allen Clark worked with and became friends with some South Korean civilians during his second tour in Korea. He observed Korean burials and was invited to eat octopus for the first time with the locals. During the ceasefire, Allen Clark used the help of civilians at the DMZ to find the enemy on the final days of the Korean War in July 1953.



Allen E. Torgerson

Duties as First Sergeant

Allen Torgerson describes there being short of officers during his time in South Korea. He shares that the shortage of commanding offers led to the handing down of duties to those below the usual rankings. He recounts that these duties pertained to morning wakeup calls and sorting the sick and injured.



Knowing What You Are Fighting For

Allen Torgerson describes fighting alongside KATUSA (Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers and ROK (Republic of Korea) soldiers. He explains that while there was a language barrier, the KATUSA and ROK soldiers knew enough English among themselves to communicate with Americans. He emphasizes that both groups showed pride in their country and knew what they were fighting for during the war. He adds that South Koreans show appreciation for what America did for them.



Alvin A. Gould

The 10th Special Services Company

Alvin Gould describes the 10th Special Services Company. He talks about the formation, organization, and mission of this unit that was put together to entertain troops. He mentions that they often performed their shows in dangerous areas near the front lines.



Daily Routine on the Road

Alvin Gould talks about the daily routine of the 10th Special Services Company. He describes how the entertainers were selected, the kinds of acts that were part of the show, as well as some of the specific entertainers that he toured with.



Sleeping though the Night

Alvin Gould recalls going to sleep one evening near the front lines. The next morning, he awoke to news that several Chinese soldiers had overrun the line the previous night and were captured. He also talks about playing in shows to many UN troops, including Turkish and British units.



Keeping up Morale

Alvin Gould talks about the important job of the 10th Special Services Company, keeping up troop morale. He also tells the story of refusing to be awarded a Purple Heart after injuring his leg during a show at a MASH unit.



Alvin Jurrens

Withholding the Difficulties of War

Alvin Jurrens details an experience out on the front lines as a forward observer on the 38th Parallel. He recalls feeling safe in the bunker, but shortly after his departure, it was blown up. He shares a second close encounter he endured in a jeep incident as well. He acknowledges that someone was watching over him in both accounts. He also explains that he wrote letters home to his mother but withheld information regarding the difficulties there as he did not want her to worry.



Return to Hardship on the Home Front

Alvin Jurrens describes the ceasefire on July 27th, 1953. He remembers waking up the following morning to, for the first time, a quiet morning. He tears as he shares the hardest part for him upon his return home after the war.



Andrew Cleveland

Dangerous Moments

Andrew Cleveland recalls never being attacked by enemy aircraft, but he does remember being attacked by mines. He remembers constantly looking for submarines, although he could not remember finding any. He shares he was generally out of harm's way from major combat. He remembers going through a typhoon, with waves so big that they split open part of the ship. He recounts not knowing if the ship was going to sink or turnover at the time, but adds they survived the storm and were able to repair the ship.



Life Aboard a Destroyer Ship

Andrew Cleveland recalls what life was like on a destroyer ship. He remembers it being cramped though not as bad as a submarine. He recounts sleeping in a rack with only about eighteen inches between his bed and the next bed above and below him. He shares how everything one owned as a sailor was placed in a small cabinet on the ship deck. He recalls having a toothbrush and hair comb. He comments on how the food was a good mixture of meat and vegetables, sometimes even soup and sandwiches, and recollects being out at sea for six months at a time, with tankers coming regularly to refuel the ship.



Andrew Freeman Dunlap

Wounded in Korea

Andrew Freeman Dunlap describes being wounded in battle while serving in the Pusan Perimeter, 1950. His troop had been fighting North Koreans all night long on September 1st. At about 5:30 AM, he was hit by a machine gun by the North Koreans.



Recovery from the Battlefield

Andrew Freeman Dunlap describes his arduous recovery from the battlefield after being shot five times. After he was shot he was laying on the battlefield bleeding for several hours. He was found in a foxhole.



Convalescence in the United States

Andrew Freeman Dunlap describes recovering from his wounds back home in the United States. He was on bed rest for 13 months. He describes how his daily procedures and being moved from multiple hospitals.



Andrew Greenwell

SCARWAF: Special Category Army with Air Force

Andrew Greenwell describes the special unit, SCARWAF, that he served in during his time in Korea. He shares that his unit was attached to the Air Force because, at that time, the Air Force did not have all of the capabilities to function and still relied on Army Engineers. He explains that his unit had a threefold mission which was to build, maintain, and defend.



Andrew Lanza

Children of War

Andrew Lanza's initial encounter as he landed in Pusan was filled with shock because he never heard of Korea. One image that he'll never forget is hungry children carrying other children on their backs. Some of the children were, as he described, "disfigured."



Armistice Day

Andrew Lanza was upset when the armistice took place in 1953 because he was fighting for every last hill against the enemy. The United States Marines were so sad to see his fellow troops die on the last few days of war. After going home, he was overjoyed to see his girlfriend, family, and friends again.



Andrew M. Eggman

Cold Weather

Andrew M. Eggman describes the bitter cold weather he encountered in Korea. He discusses coming in contact with Chinese soldiers while serving in perimeter security during the Chinese attack at Yudamni. He recalls how the men tried to focus on various conversational topics to keep their minds off the bitter cold.



Getting out of Chosin Reservoir

Andrew M. Eggman describes his experiences during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he went from being on machine-gun outpost, to taking down the tents, and moving stretchers as a part of convoy security. He recalls seeing pallets of supplies raining down over the men.



Tootsie Rolls on the Front Lines

Andrew M. Eggman talks about how code-words were devised by the American soldiers for confusing the Chinese enemy when having to call for supplies. He describes how the use of the term "tootsie roll" was misinterpreted as the actual candy, rather than as the code of a needed supply of weaponry. He explains how nice it is for veterans to receive tootsie rolls in remembrance of when they got them on the front during the Korean War.



Andrew V. “Buddy” Blair

Air Raid Support for the Chosin Reservoir

Andrew V. "Buddy" Blair describes working on airplanes heading out for raids on the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls not knowing what was occurring in the battle as Marines who were brought in were too traumatized to share much information. He adds that airplanes evacuated wounded soldiers from there to either Japan or to hospital ships off the coast of Korea.



Angad Singh

Experience in Korea

Angad Singh speaks about his living arrangements in Panmunjom, along the DMZ. He describes their living quarters, U.S. tents, being well-built and remembers having kerosine heaters in the tents because the temperatures in Korea were very cold. He recalls some of his duties while in Korea and adds that he left Korea and arrived home in India in August of 1954.



Anthony Vaquero

Radio Operator on the Top of a Mountain

Tony Vaquero describes his duties as a radio operator in remote eastern Korea on the top of an isolated mountain. He talks about sitting in a radio truck and monitoring for aircraft in distress.



Antone Jackim

An Aircraft Mechanic's Duty during the Korean War

Antone Jackim describes his duty as an aircraft and engine mechanic during the Korean War. He talks about being a part of the B-29 flight crew, his job to help operate the air vents and electric motors when the pilot needed a break. On one mission, 3 out of 4 engines were hit by gun fire, the bomber barely making it back to Japan.



372nd Bombardment Squadron

Antone Jackim talks about the mission of the 372nd Bombardment Squadron based at Kadena Air base, Japan. He describes the 9-member crew and the typical mission that was carried out on a B-29 Superfortress.



Aragaw Mselu

Ethiopians in Battle

Aragaw Mselu describes fighting conditions. Chinese spies were a constant threat. For example, they would disguise themselves with leaves and move slowly. Also, when attacking a battle the soldiers affixed bayonets for close combat fighting. Enemies were not spared. The Ethiopians were unable to take one hill. However, they were not overrun.



Military Training and a Fight

Aragaw Mselu describes the military training. For example, there were many trainings for the soldiers, attack, defense, hunting spies, and searching for mines. In addition, soldiers were to respect other soldiers. However, Aragaw Mselu describes how he fought with other soldier. Subsequently, this caused him to end up in military prison for ninety days.



Conditions in Korea

Aragaw Mselu describes the conditions he fought in. He remembers the extreme cold the most. Soldiers would have to wear four pairs of socks. In addition, he also describes how soldiers did not sleep at night. The soldiers would be on alert from possible attack. The war comprised not just of the major nations, rather many nations participated.



Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arden Rowley

Remembering a Hero

Arden Rowley shared how difficult the cold was during the war, causing many to freeze to death. He shares an account of an American soldier who came across a frozen soldier. Arden Rowley shares this story as a way to remember and honor the 36,000 soldiers that passed away.



Aristofaris Androulakis

Greek Pride

Aristofaris Androulakis discusses how proud he is of the Greeks who fought in Korea. He explains his memory of a hill battle where he fought. He also shares the loss of comrades during the war.



Photos from the War

Aristofaris Androulakis shares a photo of him and captain. He then shares a photo of a church they created to have services during the war. He shows a photo of a Greek cemetery in Korea. He also shares an image of the grave of a man he knew who asked him to deliver a message to his sister when he returned to Greece.



Arthur Gentry

"Little" Battle at Pusan Perimeter

Arthur Gentry fought in Pusan at the perimeter where the North Koreans had taken control. United States troops were ordered to dig in and begin to dig fox holes as heavy mortars were falling as his commander was injured. They were there for two days to help straighten out the line for the army and provide support for the army. This is an example of how quickly some troops were embroiled in battles as they landed in Korea.



Inchon Landing: 15 Foot Ladders

Arthur Gentry and his comrades created 15-foot ladders to use to "land" in Inchon by scaling a 15-foot sea wall. The tide went out for 6 miles, so this was how the troops had to get ashore.
The marines climbed over the side of the ship and went into the boats. Rockets and bombardments awaited the Marines as they approached Inchon.



"Bonsai" attack

Arthur Gentry lived through the "bonsai" attack near Kimpo Airfield. Japan occupied Korea for 35 years, and the North Koreans learned this "bonsai" tactic from the Japanese. Arthur Gentry remembered how Roosevelt made a decision to divide Korea while working with the Soviet Union. The U.S. Air Force was bringing in supplies to the airfield, so protection of the airfield was of great significance.



War Torn: 1950 Hamheung Evacuation

Arthur Gentry had an emotional experience when he and his fellow Marines were evacuated from Hamheung along with 100,000 North Korean refugees. As the reality of war set in, seeing the ships in the harbor the troops and the countless refugees were relieved to be rescued. Arthur Gentry remembered all the his ships, his company straightening their lines, and the Marine Corps singing hymns as they marched forward.



Legacy of the Korean War

Arthur Gentry believes that if it were not for the Marines, there would not have been victory at the Chosin Reservoir. Casualties were hight with 3600 U.S. soldiers killed in action, and another 6000 suffered from frostbite. Arthur Gentry believes that the Korean War, otherwise known as the "Forgotten War," was the last war the U.S. "won" and accomplished anything. He believes the victory lies within the Marines holding the line and the U.S. nurturing South Korea to flourish economically and democratically.



Arthur H. Hazeldine

Yang-do and Pirates

Arthur H. Hazeldine describes more of the engagement at Yang-do, consequently wounding thirteen New Zealand navy men and killing one. The North Korean soldiers were on sampans, a flat-bottomed boat and close enough to fire on the HMNZS Taupo using rifles. However, the firepower of the frigate was too much. One North Korean was fired upon while trying to surrender and subsequently lost his life. In conclusion, Arthur H. Hazeldine also describes an encounter with pirates off the coast of Taiwan.



Asefa Desta

Korean Battle

Asefa Desta describes his Korean service. He describes being trained upon arrival in Busan. The M1 was the weapon he trained with. He also describes battles and rough terrain. Many people died and these memories stick with him. Asefa Desta also describes fighting conditions on Hill 1073, which is near the Iron Triangle.



Asefa Mengesha

Action in Korea

Asefa Mengesha recounts seeing his friends die and is proud that his unit never surrendered nor left a man or body behind. He shows the camera his wounds suffered from 16 mm mortar rounds. One shell failed to fire from his mortar and exploded in front of him.



Chinese Prisoners

Asefa Mengesha describes capturing two Chinese prisoners by himself. He says Ethiopians captured many Chinese but the Chinese never captured any Ethiopians. He and his unit would lie in wait at night for the enemy to pass in front and then they would attack from behind.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Engaging the Chinese

Asefa Werku Kassa describes an engagement with the Chinese that left a deep scar on his forearm. He was stationed along the frontlines and frequent encounters with Chinese infantry. On one occasion a Chinese soldier gave him a deep gash before another Ethiopian soldier came to his aid. Asefa Werku Kassa eventually shot and killed the Chinese soldier. Also, Ethiopian soldiers never surrendered due to instructions. This was for fear of what the Ethiopian military would do to their families.



Battle Experience

Asefa Werku Kassa describes his service in Korea. He cannot remember the exact locations of service due to moving around. The mountains and terrain stick out more than anything. Also, he shares an image of his scar from the Chinese military encounter. He also describes how he was in charge of a unit. He would constantly move them from danger, much to the chagrin of his commanders.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Danger in Korea

Assefa Demissie Belete describes the danger of Korea. For instance, he describes going on patrol at night and facing against the Chinese. But, he describes how the soldier did not have fear. Ethiopian soldiers were following orders. Assefa Demissie Belete describes one incident of a fellow soldier being hit by a heavy bomb. The other soldiers never found his body.



Bravery through Difficulties

Assefa Demissie Belete describes working with the 7th Division of the US military in the Korean War. Difficulties that the soldiers encountered was the snow and cold. Also, there were many snakes that were always following them. Overall, all of the troops fighting in Korea were very brave. When the troops came home to Ethiopia people received them nicely.



Austin Timmins

Evacuating Wounded Soldiers During the Korean War

Austin Timmins describes his job evacuating wounded soldiers as part of the flight crew of a Canadair North Star (RCAF). He did not have the opportunity to speak with the soldiers or nurses. Many of the soldiers that they transported did suffer from frostbite.



A Dangerous Landing

Austin Timmins (RCAF) describes one of his most memorable missions, a dangerous landing in high speed winds as a part of a Canadair North Star flight crew. The plane ran out of fuel as they were landing in Japan. It was a very stressful land but the pilots had to remain calm.



Avery Creef

Experiences from the Front Lines

Avery Creef speaks about his experiences on the front lines at the Kumhwa Valley, Old Baldy, and the Iron Triangle. He recalls fighting against both the North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. There were a few dangerous situations where he almost lost his life. He remembers constantly firing flares.



Living Conditions, Daily Routine

Avery Creef recalls never being able take a shower. He recounts never being dressed properly for the freezing winter weather. He slept in a bunker and ate C-rations. He shares how he enjoyed eating the pork and beans and adds that everything else tasted terrible. He remembers receiving packages from home periodically which would include better food options. He also remembers writing letters home.



Baldwin F. Myers

Battle of Jinju Begins

Baldwin F. Myers recounts the beginning of conflict on the road from Jinju to Hadong. He discusses coming under fire from North Korean mortars. He also describes his struggles with PTSD related to that day.



Missing in Action

Baldwin F. Myers discusses getting wounded and waking up in Japan. He recounts how he learned that he was officially missing in action. He also shares meeting a fellow soldier that he saved during battle.



Fighting His Way Back to the Lines

Baldwin Myers describes the Battle of Jinju and his time behind enemy lines. As the city was falling, Baldwin Myers had to find a weapon and fight his way back to American lines. He successfully rejoined American forces the day before Jinju fell.



Basil Kvale

The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Basil Kvale fought in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir in weather that reached 40 degrees below zero. The men nicknamed the region the "Frozen Chosin" since the temperature was cold enough to freeze a soldiers' skin. He worked with a lieutenant to create locations to hit the enemy throughout his time in this battle.



Fighting in Ujeongbu and the Taebacek Mountains

Basil Kvale was taken to Ujeongbu (Northern Korea) with an amphibious military group to set up for battle. They moved a lot and were so close that they could see the Chinese right near their location. At a new location in the Taebacek Mountains, Basil Kvale was over 3,000 feel above sea level and it was an important location to give orders of where to bomb.



Chinese POW-Ping

Basil Kvale captured a Chinese POW named Ping who later was sent with other soldiers. As a Marine, Basil Kvale was asked to help give the coordinates for the bombing to aid his commander. He had the cannons and bombs attack from four different sides which led to total disaster for the Chinese.



Basilio MaCalino

First-Hand Account of Japanese Bombing Pearl Harbor, HI

Basilio MaCalino was 6 years old when he saw the Japanese pilots flew low to the ground between two mountains. He could even see the pilot because the planes were so low. He watched with his own eyes as the lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii Pearl Harbor was bombed.



The Dangers of Providing Supplies for Troops

Basilio MaCalino landed at Incheon in March 1953. From there, he went to Sasebo on his way to his station in Ascom City. When arriving there, human waste was everywhere and the smell was something that he'll never forget. When leaving his station in a truck to bring supplies to troops, he was shot at multiple times.



Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros

Battle of Triangle Hill

Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros describes the Battle of Triangle Hill. Ethiopian forces were located on Papasan Hill (Hill 1062) during the battle. Ethiopian forces never went on the offensive and defended the Hill. In addition, Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros also describes how no Ethiopian forces were taken as prisoners of war (POW). Ethiopian forces never surrendered.



Bleak Aspects of Korea

Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros describes the hardships of Korea. One of the hardest things for Ethiopian soldiers was the weather. Amazingly the heat during the summer months was difficult for Ethiopian soldiers. Further, winters were extreme and caused conditions they were not used to. In addition to weather, mortars were a constant threat.



Belay Bekele

So Many Surrenders

Belay Bekele describes fighting conditions in Korea. He explains how the threats were everywhere, because of all of the enemy surrenders. Ethiopian forces took in all people, enemies, and civilians. He also discusses how the winters and mountains were the most difficult things outside of the enemy. Winters were extremely cold and there were so many mountains.



Belisario Flores

My Brother Joe

Belisario Flores talks about his brother Joe. His brother suffered from physical and mental complications as a result of being in the Korean War. Neither had ever heard of Korea before the war started.



"We Had Our Mission, They Had Theirs"

Belisario Flores describes the Chinese as good fighters and he really had nothing against them. He didn't have anything against the North Koreans either. All he knew was that he was fighting against communism. He also describes the Colombian Infantry Battalion of which he was one of the leaders because he spoke Spanish.



Ben Schrader Jr.

Duties to Ensure Safety

The Combat Chemical Engineer Corps developed smoke screens over the rivers which would allow the battalion to lay the bridges without being attacked by the enemy. The worry was that while placing these bridges, the enemy would lay mines in the river bottoms, so the engineers were hoping they had done their job well without risking the lives their fellow soldiers. Ben Schrader hoped that all the bombs had be deactivated prior to coming so close to these rivers.



Language Acquisition was Crucial

Communication was difficult when working with the Korean infantry, so US Army trained Korean soldiers in Arabic numerals & map reading. They could help provide the coordinates to fire on the number of units, battalion or regiments they anticipated coming in. It proved crucial to know which weapons worked with the right fuse and how these weapons would effect the enemy.



Learning Japanese Headed to Korea and the Army Point System

While on the troop ship going over to Korea, the loud speaker system on the ship was only playing conversational language in Japanese, not in Korean. This showed the soldiers that no one had the opportunity to learn Korean before landing in this combat zone. While stationed in a war zone, the Army gave out 4 points for soldiers at the front lines, 3 for troops farther back, 2 for soldiers in Japan providing supplies, and 1 point for troops on the home front. Ben Schrader was earning 4 points a month, so he was able to rotate off the front lines after a year.



10 Days and a Much Needed Shower

Everything was provided for the soldiers, so pay was always sent back to the US. Combat fatigues were provided and showers were only provided every 10-12 days. Charcoal was provided for heat and since you had to carry your water for drinking, water was scarce. Ben recalled the trucks carrying large containers of hot water pulled up and they had installed pipes that sprayed hot water to produce a "shower" effect for the men as they stood under in 20-degree weather.



We Suffered Together

Ben Schrader remembered before going up on the hill, they would stop over at the kitchen and pick up whole raw onions and potatoes. He remembered while cooking the C-Ration that contained some form of meat, they would eat the whole onion raw and potato uncooked to add flavor. Koreans would have double rations so that they could share with the American military and the meals consisted of rice with fish.



Benjamin Allen

First Days in Korea

Benjamin Allen speaks about traveling to Korea and arriving in Busan (Pusan). He also talks about seeing Seoul burn as the North Koreans were retreating. Benjamin Allen gives his take on fear.



Wounded - Sent to a MASH

Benjamin Allen speaks about being wounded and how he narrowly escaped becoming a Prisoner of War. He also talks about the cold weather and the frostbite he suffered



Surviving Winter in Korea

Benjamin Allen recounts what he thought was the most difficult part of the entire war; the winter. He speaks about the gear that he and other soldier had; jokingly recalling the extreme measure he was willing to go to in order to get his hands on a coat. He also describes the severity of the frostbite he ended up with.



Benjamin Arriola (brother of Fernando Arriola)

MIA in the Chosin Reservoir

Benjamin Arriola describes his brother Fernando Arriola's motivation to join the U.S. Army. He recounts his brother's landing in Inchon and journey to the Chosin Reservoir. He shares that his brother, Fernando, went MIA (Missing in Action) during the battle there and is still considered MIA at the time of this interview.



Medals after MIA

Benjamin Arriola describes the medals his brother, Fernando Arriola, received after being declared MIA and Presumed Dead in the Korean War. He shares that his brother received the Purple Heart, Combat Infantry Badge, Korean Service Medal, United Nations Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal. He displays several certificates sent by officials in South Korea as well.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Benjamin Basham

Inchon Landing

Benjamin Basham describes landing unexpectedly at Inchon directly after the Army had landed there for the invasion. He describes it being frightening, and experiencing some sniper fire, although the army had cleared out most of the opposition.



Death by Frostbite

After describing the intense attacks that his company went through, Benjamin Basham explains how many people died from frostbite as well. He says that they didn’t have the right type of equipment, even with the Mickey Mouse boots. Unfortunately, there were not extra supplies or new socks to prevent this from happening. Even with those conditions, he was confident that he was going to survive and come back home.



Bernard Brownstein

Toilet Paper Was The Big Thing

Bernard Brownstein describes being able to visit his cousin Myron who was also serving in Korea for five days. He explains how pulling connections made it possible for them to visit in person. He also describes how the only thing that Myron wanted from him was toilet paper.



Bernard Clark

Patrol Duties

Bernard Clark went on a variety of patrols during his time in Korea. He calls these patrols "recce" (reconnaissance). "Recce" patrols consisted of five men and entailed going out to a point and returning with the intent to keep an eye on things in no man's land. His listening patrol consisted of three men who went out into no man's land and sat in a location all night to listen for enemy movements.



Living Conditions

Bernard Clark had to live in trenches near and on the front lines because there were not any shelters of any kind. The trenches were six feet deep and a fire could be made during the winter to stay warm. C-Rations were eaten most of the war, and they included beans and tea. He recalls taking over for the Greeks at "Kowang San/Little Gibraltar" area near Hill 355, and he remembers finding many dead bodies left in the trenches.



Coping with Loss and Memories of Korea

Bernard Clark is still saddened by the loss of his friends while serving. He dealt with those losses as a young man in a few different ways. He also attended several concerts during his time in Korea, and he remembers a road march while on reserve which entailed a fiery mishap. Napalm drops took place during the Korean War, and he describes the aftermath of this weapon.



Bernard Dykes

Right Place, Right Time, Right Training

Bernard Dykes describes how he became second in command after only seven days in Korea. He was assisting inside of a tank at the lowest rank. With all his training that he had in the U.S., he was able to reset the tank after it became inactive.



Iron Triangle Strategy

Bernard Dykes details the strategy at his placement within the Iron Triangle. He describes why it was named this and being there with French soldiers. He also mentions battles that happened before and after his time there and the devastation endured.



More Artillery Fire Than Raindrops

Bernard Dykes describes the constant and random attacks endured from the Chinese soldiers. He did not know where they were coming from or where they were to land. He mentions how putting his life in God's hands in these moments helped him survive.



Life in the Iron Triangle

Bernard Dykes elaborates on what living conditions were like in the Iron Triangle. He often had to sleep inside a tank with four other soldiers. He also describes the food and the cold weather.



Bernard Hoganson

Telling Stories and the Bronze Star

Bernard Hoganson discusses his grandchildren. He shares why he does not really tell his grandchildren stories from his service in Korea. He describes how he received the Bronze Star.



Emotions on the Battlefield

Bernard Hoganson discusses the emotions he felt after helping point out targets to be attacked. He describes the targets being dropped with napalm and bombs. He recalls feeling sorry for the destruction caused by the napalm and bombs because they landed on enemy trenches.



Fire Direction Center and Night Attack

Bernard Hoganson describes what his job entailed during most of his time in Korea. He details what the Fire Direction Center does and its role in the war. He recalls his actions in helping thwart an enemy attack on a military base.



Bernard Lee Henderson

Carepackages from family members

Bernard Henderson shared that he would write letters to his parents requesting fruitcakes and breads. His mom would send care packages to the front lines. He said he was able to carry the food along with all of his military supplies (almost 88 lbs of ammo) on A-frames that were designed to carry the amount of bullets and supplies.



Fire In The Hole

Bernard Henderson shared his experience of being struck in his chest with shrapnel. Puny Wilson, one of the members of his regiment, was pulling guard-men one night and yelled, "Fire in the hole" 5 times. After throwing the 2nd grenade, Bernard stood up from his fox hole and the grenade hit him right in the chest. Although it didn't penetrate through his clothes, he started tearing his clothes off yelling for a corps men to help him.



Life as a Soldier During the Korean War

Bernard Henderson would sleep in his foxhole with his clothes on in a sleeping bag in shifts with other Marines. As a Marine, they did not shower often since they were stationed up in the mountains. The most difficult time he had was trying to escape from a Chinese attack by running down railroad tracks since it was not even, but he just wanted to stay alive.



Bernard Smith

Bernard Smith- Struggles with Equipment

Bernard Smith described that the equipment that was set up was only good for a 50 mile radius and many times they would need to reach as far as 200 miles to get a signal. Since there wasn't a hill in between their location, they could operate from machines and make compromises to get it to work. They had multiple diesel-fueled generators to ensure they were able to continue to operate if the other ran out and the freezing cords were another concern as Bernard Smith lived through the cold winters in Korea.



Witnessing Seoul

Bernard Smith's encounter with Seoul when they arrived was a devastated and torn apart city. An example is a governmental business that had its windows blown out and walls collapsed, but what parts were still standing and areas safe enough to work, the government continued to work there. The area where Bernard Smith was stationed appeared to be untouched.



Bernhard Paus

First Patient

Lucie Paus Falck reads from her father's diary describing the first patient he treated. The patient was a 13 year old boy named Park who was severely burned in July of 1951. The boy was transferred away to Seoul but would return when Dr. Bernhard Falck engineered his return after hearing about him from a nurse who journeyed to Seoul to see him.



Bezuneh Mengestu

Most Dangerous Moment

Bezuneh Mengestu recounts his most dangerous moment caught behind the lines by the Chinese. His unit was sent to spy on Chinese movements and did not realize they had travelled past their boundaries. The Chinese opened fire on their truck but they refused to surrender.



What Makes Ethiopian Soldiers Different?

Bezuneh Mengestu describes what he believes make an Ethiopian soldier unlike others who fought in Korea. He discusses the respect and reverence they had for their emperor who sent them with the command to "kill or be killed". They were taught to never surrender and never leave any man behind.



Bill G. Hartline

What is my Job?

Bill Hartline describes being assigned to a mortar company. He talks candidly about his participation in some of the early action that his company.



Doing My Duty

Bill Herartline speaks about defending a bridge as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir rages all around him.



Lucky You Got Lost

Bill Hartline speaks about how being tasked to go look for a missing soldier saved his life.



Bill Hall

Training and Pilots

Bill Hall describes the situation of the Korean War as well as the pilot shortage the Marine Corps had aboard his aircraft carrier. He also shares how the first pilot from his carrier was killed.



Aviation Combat

Bill Hall talks about "Getting" a platoon of enemy with a napalm bomb from his aircraft. He also describes the aircraft setup weapons and fuel that the carrier aircraft used against the enemy.



Bill Lynn

We are taking Prisoners of War

Bill Lynn describes his company taking two prisoners of war. Once they had the North Koreans imprisoned, the Koreans told plans the Chinese had to ambush Americans. It was a cold, snowy day and the Chinese were all dressed in white to camouflage themselves. The Americans would have never known they were coming had it not been for the prisoners of war they captured.



The Plight of the Korean People

Bill Lynn describes the destitute conditions the Korean people lived in during the war. He has revisited Korea and compares what he saw during the war with what he witnessed when he returned. Now he describes South Korea as a paradise and is completely astonished with the way the South Koreans have developed their country.



Battle of Naktong Bulge

Bill Lynn tells about the Battle at Naktong River. He survived the battle because the Korean he was fighting was unable to reload his gun. Both of the men accompanying him were killed primarily because they were using malfunctioned equipment left over from World War II.



Bill Scott

We Called Them Hoochies

Bill Scott described what it was like on many of the hills he fought and the sand bags filled with dirt and rock used to protect them from the enemy. He described digging into trenches on the hill, and his mortar squad was placed just on the other side of the hill to fire at the enemy. Bill Scott pointed to a shadow box as he's describing the shrapnel that was collected from the battlefield that was fired at them by the Chinese.



Almost hit by the Chinese

Bill Scott described the fighting and living situations on the top of Pork Chop Hill. He recalled the area they were quartered in during their time on the hill.
Bill Scott was resting in his bed in this living quarters when it was hit and mortar barely escaped his head by inches. He said when he woke, the sound was deafening, and the area was heavily damaged. Bill Scott picked up pieces of the shell and stuck it in his pocket.



Billy J. Scott

The Black Moon of Korea

Billy Scott describes the two types of weather in Korea regarding visibility in the moonlight. He shares that the Chinese possessed the ability to adapt to the moonlight more so than the Americans. He recalls rotating watch and only sleeping a few hours in between and explains the danger of falling asleep during war.



Bjarne Christensen

Korea Then and Now

Bjarne Christensen explains how he was struck during the war at the amount of poverty he saw in Busan, South Korea. He shares how it has changed during his recent visit. He explains how he was impressed and overwhelmed by the differences.



Life on Hospital Ship

Bjarne Christensen explains how he had luxuries onboard the Jutlandia. He describes a small but comfortable space. He explains that in his short time in the war that his life on the ship was pleasant.



Bjorn Lind

Working at NORMASH

Bjorn Lind describes his daily experience at the NORMASH field hospital in 1952. He describes the pace of about 60 patients a day that of course depended on the frequency of fighting. Even with so many wounded, the unit maintained a 1% death rate. He describes one patient with 40 shrapnel wounds. These wounds were the majority of the types of cases they saw. Bjorn worked on organizing the surgical room to increase efficiency by developing a better process for preparing and recovering patients making use of the limited number of operating tables in a better manner.



Better than the Swedes

Bjorn Lind describes how patients moved from the aid stations at the front lines, to his NORMASH unit, and then to evacuation hospitals further south to recover. He discusses death rates at the front lines being at around 4% compared to his unit's 1% rate. Bjorn Lind talks about a group of Swedes who visited from their hospital located in Busan. With pride, he pokes fun at how his unit's accomplishments compared to those of Norway's national rival Sweden.



Bob Couch

Injury and Meeting Jennifer Jones

Bob Couch discusses an injury he incurred while setting out a mine. He recounts the tripflare going off in his hand and suffering a wound from the encounter. He describes being transported back to Pusan and to a medical ship where surgery was performed on his hand and where he met movie star, Jennifer Jones.



Letters Home and Witnessing Death

Bob Couch speaks about the letters he sent home, arriving anywhere from 2 weeks to a month after he sent them, and shares a few words about witnessing death. He mentions one particular day where many suffered severe wounds and recounts ditches filled with American blood. He describes the scene as unimaginable and unlike any movie he had viewed.



Recollections of Korea and the War's Legacy

Bob Couch mentions his wound again and shares he was sent back to the States due to it not healing properly. He recalls arriving home on a Friday and returning to work on Monday. He offers his account of the war's legacy and states that he views all Korean veterans as heroes. He explains that he was fortunate compared to other Korean War soldiers and admits that he still has a hard time believing all he and others went through during the war.



Bob Garcia

A Birthday to Remember

Bob Garcia recalls arriving in Korea at Incheon on January 9, 1952, his birthday. He talks about the "repo depot" and being assigned to the 39th Field Artillery Battalion as a radioman. He describes the mission of this unit that featured 105mm artillery guns.



Daily Life of a Radioman

Bob Garcia talks about his job as a radioman. He describes his specific duties in support of the forward observer, setting up communication lines and gathering intelligence.



Fear on the Front Lines

Bob Garcia talks about his first days on the front lines in January 1952. He describes, at the age of nineteen, being "scared to death" by the strange noises found in an artillery battery.



Bob Mitchell

When an Ambushing Force Gets Ambushed

Bob Mitchell recalls the 5th marines getting ambushed by an over-whelming Chinese force in the Battle of Hill 90. He recalls the sacrifice of a few brave Marines who gave their lives engaging Chinese head on.



Living with the Guilt

Bob Mitchell talks about being sent to the rear on sick call, later learning his entire unit had been overwhelmed in an attack by the Chinese. Eventually Bob Mitchell says he reached the realization that it's just the reality of war - In combat death comes strictly by random.



The Reality of Trench Warfare

Bob Mitchell speaks about the living conditions of trench warfare in the latter stages of the Korean War. He describes dealing with giant rodents, the freezing conditions, and the body lice. Bob Mitchell recalls when they left the trench and got a hot shower.



Bradley J. Strait

Front Lines and Living Conditions

Bradley Strait explains he was stationed mostly in Wonsan Harbor. He remembers the North Koreans had pushed the Americans back to Wonsan and that a battle was taking place there, and he details the role of destroyers during this battle. He also recalls the living conditions on the ship as being very tight and cannot imagine women being stationed on the ship due to the close conditions.



Brian Hamblett

Sleeping with Gun Parts

Brian Hamblett's first memory of Korea was black and dismal. He describes winter in Korea and his battalion. He explains that they were surrounding a crater and that he was positioned with a machine gun. He describes having to cool the guns with glycerin rather than water and having to sleep with the gun parts so that they would not freeze.



An Appalling Situation

Brian Hamblett describes looking into a foxhole and finding a Chinese soldier. He explains that the soldier was just as surprised and pulled his grenade without throwing it. The Chinese soldier was badly injured from his own grenade. He goes on to describe seeing the results of napalm and growing more horrified by the memories of it as he has grown older. He describes the burned bodies and total suffocation of the land.



Bruce Ackerman

Home for Christmas?

Bruce Ackerman feared being surrounded by the Chinese in the Chosin Reservoir and had to endure the cold Korean winters, frost bite, and a near explosion close to his bunker. He thought that the soldiers would be home for Christmas in 1950, but sadly, he was wrong. Bruce Ackerman remembered the evacuation of 100,000 refugees during the winter of 1950 and that included North Korean civilians who were left homeless due to the invasion of the Chinese to support North Korean troops.



The Latent Effects of Korean War: PTSD

Bruce Ackerman experienced Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the Korean War. He found connections between the modern War on Terror and the soldiers who fought in the Korean War because they both are lacking resources to help with their transition back to civilian life. There are psychological and social effects of war on veterans due to their exposure to death, extreme weather, and constant surprise enemy attacks.



The Korean War Homecoming and the Lack of American Pride

As Bruce Ackerman and the Korean War veterans returned home from the war, many US citizens lacked an understanding and scope of the Korean War. Many US civilians stated that the Korean War was nothing more than a police action. Bruce Ackerman recalled the success of the US Marine Corps during the Pusan Perimeter as they defeated the North Koreans and the Chinese. With the help from strong leadership and effective equipment, North Koreans and Chinese were beaten and this was monumental to Bruce Ackerman.



North Korean Infiltration

The North Koreans infiltrated the Marine Corps by scouting out artillery positions. Bruce Ackerman noted that the artillery was a very important tool used during the Korean War. There was more artillery fired in the Korean War than in WWII.



Bruce R. Woodward

Flights to Support UN Forces

Bruce Woodward describes his duties as an Assistant to the Squadron Commander during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He along with the commander received intelligence briefings from headquarters in Japan. This intelligence was used to provide close air support to the troops on the ground.



Wonsan Airbase

Bruce Woodward talks about the missions pilots flew out of Wonsan Air Base in support of the United Nations ground forces. He assisted the work of around 25 pilots and about the same number of aircraft.



Bruce W. Diggle

Hill 355 and the "Apostles"

Bruce Diggle shows the famous Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. The British Commonwealth forces fought for possession of Hill 355 during the series of battles that corresponded to the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge to the east. The North Koreans were positioned on three smaller hills that the Kiwis nicknamed the Apostles - Matthew, Luke, and John. He took pictures of the North Korean positions during a truce.



Bryan J. Johnson

Rescuing Refugees from North Korea

Bryan J. Johnson describes his service in the West Sea off the Island of Cho-do. He was defending this territory from North Korean invasion. At one point his ship was responsible for the rescuing a Christian family from North Korean territory.



Naval Role and Threats

Bryan J. Johnson describes the role of his ship, steering the ship and Captain of the gun. The HMNZS Hawea provided escorts for supplies and patrolled the Han River. He also explains that the main threat was not from land bombardment, rather Russian MIG's flown by North Koreans.



Wrong Shells, Wrong Time

Bryan J. Johnson, Captain of the gun on ship, ordered a shelling of a North Korean supply train. He explains that storage of the shells were switched and he fired "star shells" for illumination, instead of explosive shells. Bryan Johnson later describes two sailors who were swept away by the Han River, but later rescued after being in the water for many hours.



Detaining Smugglers

Bryan Johnson describes life aboard the HMNZS and working 90 hours a week. He describes one incident of detaining a father and son from South Korea who were "smuggling" rice to North Korea. The ship and crew were to hold the father and son until the South Koreans could come and "take them out to sea," assuring death.



Burt Cazden

Korean War Veteran Clarification and Memories

Burt Cazden recounts enlisting in the Navy in 1953. He provides clarification on the labeling of a Korean War veteran, stating that those who served during the war's time frame--despite location--are Korean War veterans. He states that he has the highest respect for those who served in Korea and shares a memory of a Native American friend who served in Korea and suffered wounds.



Calvin Karram

First Night of Combat

Calvin Karram remembers his first night of combat. They were hit by the Chinese when they were on a hill. The Chinese surrounded them and they were cut off. Calvin Karram and a friend grabbed their rifles and ran down the hill, reporting to the commanders what had happened.



The Army taught me about Life

Because his unity constantly on the front lines, Calvin Karram explains that there was often no place to sleep even during the winter. Often they would sleep under trees or in foxholes and only sometimes were able to carry their sleeping bags with them. Despite this, he says he had no regrets about joining the army as it taught him a trade and about life.



Carl B. Witwer

Part II: Destroyer Experience

Carl Witwer returned back to Korea and had to assist with radar technologies on the destroyer U.S.S. Hanson in the West Sea. He compares his duties a part of Task Force 95 compared to his prior assignment. He also elaborates on a time his ship saw action with a submarine and how it was a close call.



Carl M. Jacobsen

Combat Jump

Carl Jacobsen recounts jump training in Daegu, Korea, and recalls making multiple training jumps in order to receive his wings. He offers an account of his first combat jump and details the related mission. He comments on the destruction he saw during his service.



A Dangerous Moment

Carl Jacobsen shares memories of one of the most dangerous moments he experienced in combat. He recalls being given orders to collect ammunition and receiving sniper fire on his return with the ammunition. He recounts stopping the vehicle he was driving to return fire and wondering if he would make it out of the situation alive.



Living Conditions

Carl Jacobsen describes the living conditions he endured while serving. He remembers extremely cold temperatures and not being outfitted with proper winter gear. He recalls the K-Ration meals he ate and recounts a few meals he shared with locals.



Carl Rackley

Aiming Without Seeing the Enemy

Carl Rackley describes his job responsibilities concerning weaponry of the war. His unit prepared the Artillery 155 weapons. He details loading shells and powder for combat. He also describes the inability to see their target and using spotters to help their aim.



Carl W. House

First Night with a North Korean Spy

Carl House described that his unit worked with ROK soldiers and the language barrier made it difficult to understand each other. They relied heavily on sign language as a way to interpret their needs. During the first night, Carl House discovered that the person in his foxhole was a North Korean spy with assistance from the ROK soldier. They questioned the spy and the ROK soldiers took him away. Carl House felt he was lucky and he was amazed that the ROK was able to identify the spy.



I Now Know Why I'm Fighting in the Korean War!

Carl House's attitude of "why am I here fighting this war?" changed from a free education to the protection of civilians. Carl House and his fellow soldiers were sent on a mission to find the enemy that was targeting US planes. While they were searching, they found women who had been tortured and murdered which instantly changed his perception of war. He would much rather fight to help the Korean people, than see this happen to his own family back in the United States.



Surrounded at Jangjin: Last Line of Defense

Carl House arrived at Jangjin with his unit and was told no enemy forces were within a fifteen-mile radius. He recalls many soldiers began building fires, drinking coffee, and preparing sleeping bags. He shares that Chinese forces surrounded the U.S. soldiers in a horseshoe-shaped position around three in the morning, making it nearly impossible for them to escape. He remembers fighting for three days and running low on artillery after a failed airdrop landed in enemy territory. He recounts his captain ordering his unit to stand rear guard while fellow soldiers pulled out and recalls doing what he could to hold off the Chinese.



Carl House's Capture

Carl House and his Squad Leader, Raymond Howard, were the only 2 remaining soldiers holding the line as the Chinese were throwing concussion grenades at both men. As Carl House was covering for Raymond Howard, a gunshot broke Carl House's arm and caused massive blood-loss. The only thing that he had to hold his arm together was a slang he used to keep his arm straight during the healing process. When Carl House made the attempt to cross the valley himself, he fell unconscious from his injury and when he woke up, Chinese had surrounded the area. He made an attempt to play dead, but the 30 degree below zero temperature gave away the heat from his breath, so they stuck a bayonet in his back and took him away.



Life in Camp 3 and 5 as a POW

Carl House marched to Camp 5 from February to May of 1952, but he was moved to Camp 3 where he was later released. Each room the prisoners occupied held ten people (tip to toe) which would be beneficial to them to keep warm. Since many of the US soldiers were well-fed and strong when they arrived, they were able to survive the rest of the winter while slowing losing weight. He said the one thing that mattered the most was food, but many soldiers hated the idea of eating rice that had once been on the floor. Most of the food contained glass, rocks, rat droppings, and many men died.



Emotions of a POW

Carl House and the other POWs lived on hope and they were planning to make an escape by rationing their own food (rice), storing it in a worn shirt to store it safely in the ceiling. Just as Bert, Andy, and Carl House were about to make their attempt to escape, the POWs were moved to another building and the guards found the rations. Carl House left Camp 3 in August 1953 and crossed the DMZ in September. He remembered eating many bowls of ice cream after his rescue.



Cecil K. Walker

Desperate Living Conditions

Cecil Walker describes the living conditions in South Korea during the time of war. People were in desperate conditions during the time of winter. He describes poor housing and lack of general items. Cecil Walker describes how the people of South Korea needed help and he would go to war again to help people in need.



Conditions In and Around Seoul

Cecil Walker describes conditions in and around Seoul. He helped bring supplies from Incheon to Seoul and transport Australian forces from the Second Line of Defense. Cecil Walker also describes how Seoul was deserted, with the exception of "Street Kids." He describes how when people did return to Seoul, they used any scrap to build shelter.



Re-Supplying on the Front Lines

Cecil Walker describes the loss of two men while moving supplies, who were killed by guerrilla fighters. At other times drivers were held up so Allies could perform airstrikes on the hills in front of them. Cecil Walker describes how he was not scared though, because he was with others and doing a job.



Delivering Supplies

Cecil Walker describes re-supplying the front lines. The roads of Korea were trecherous and supplies were delivered in convoy. Cecil Walker describes night driving with only a singular light and even one episode during the winter when a "white out" occurred. Delivering supplies was essential, but very dangerous due to the conditions of the road system.



Cecil Phipps

Captured!

Cecil Phipps talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers, becoming a prisoner of war. He describes his initial three-day evasion and a fateful decision that led to his capture. He and seven fellow soldier were made to march north at night until they reached the Chinese border.



Life as a POW

Cecil Phipps talks about life as a POW. He describes Pak Tong POW camp (#3) and the harsh living conditions that he lived under as prisoner including remarks about cold weather, starvation, lice infestation, and other diseases. He mentions that he went from 190 pounds to 75 pounds during the first six months of his imprisonment.



"Always Trying to Escape"

Cecil Phipps talks about a fellow soldier that attempted and failed several times to escape Pak Tong POW camp (#3). He describes how he tried to aid his friend and what happened when he was captured and returned.



POW Release

Cecil Phipps was released from Chinese captivity on August 28, 1953 at Panmunjeom after 33 months as a POW. He describes the trip from Pak Tong camp (#3), taking several days by truck and train and spending a week in another POW camp, before finally reaching freedom at Panmunjeom.



Cevdet Sidal

Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes intimate details from the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle was the first engagement on foreign soil for Turkish fighters since WWI. Cevdet Sidal provides details about being surrounded and the heavy losses to the enemy. He also describes how there were enemy war planes used in the battle.



Conditions of the Battle of Kunu-ri

Cevdet Sidal describes conditions at various battlefields. At the Battle of Kunu-ri the Turkish soldiers were surrounded. One Master Sergeant had to eat grass for three days. There was constant threat from machine gun fire. Also, the Chinese had aircraft support. Cevdet Sidal turned to praying due to fear of death. The conditions were so cold that water would freeze to your face.



Folly During Wartime: An Important Mission

Cevdet Sidal describes an important mission. The mission was to acquire Sul, a Korean Rice Wine from an Alcohol Factory. The Turkish troops drank at the factory. The troops had trouble returning to base. Taking over the Alcohol Factory meant they always had alcohol. Cedet Sidal also describes fishing by grenade. As a result, this provided fresh fish for the soldiers.



Chaplain Ralph Lindon Smith Jr.

Outpost Harry (April-July 1953)

Ralph Smith talks about his time at Outpost Harry in 1953. He describes the terrain, logistics, and layout of the encampment. Manned only by one company, he talks about how they dealt with being grossly outnumbered by two Chinese battalions.



The Last Days of the War at Outpost Harry

Ralph Smith talks about the last days of the war at Outpost Harry. He describes the heavy shelling that took place up until the armistice was signed and recalls his memories of Operation Rollback. He tells the story of meeting a Chinese officer out on the battlefield the morning after the armistice.



Charles Bissett

North Korean Offense with Tanks

Charles Bissett describes the incoming forces of North Koreans armed with tanks against the, initially, light weapons of the American forces. He recounts no aid given after calling in artillery forces for assistance. He adds that many soldiers were killed.



K-Rations and Where a Soldier Sleeps

Charles Bissett describes eating K-Rations while in Korea as there were no cooks for them. He recounts the K-Rations containing meat products and fruit. He recalls sleeping on the ground during the summer months.



Arrival and Encounter with North Koreans

Charles Bissett recalls his arrival in Korean during the early part of the war. He recounts arriving in Pusan and then transferring north to Daegu where they were met by North Korean soldiers and suffered casualties. He shares that he served as a wireman in communications for a period of time.



Charles Blum

Having Trouble All the Time

Charles Blum describes his experiences with PTSD from the Korean War. He explains sitting on a grenade and the shrapnel that entered his body. He then describes sitting with a fellow soldier until he dies then having to quickly kill a Chinese soldier.



Second Time It Was Knees Down

Charles Blum describes his second wounding in the Korean War. He explains his encounter with a Chinese soldier with a fistful of grenades held together by bamboo. He describes jumping into what he thought was safety only to be blown out again by a grenade.



You Never Really Get Rid of It

Charles Blum explains his view on surviving the Korean War as going through hell. He describes his altering of a Christian Bible verse to explain the horror of war. He explains that he only knew one soldier who served in the Korean War who made it through without earning a Purple Heart. He expresses that he does not regret his service and that he is proud.



Charles Buckley

Mass Grave Site Filled with Civilians

Charles Buckley drove all throughout Korea during his time there and witnessed the narrow roads, trees, and the damage incurred. He recalls a massive grave site that had been unearthed full of slaughtered children. It's predicted that this grave site was from when the North Koreans overran Seoul, South Korea and killed anything is their path.



Non-Combat Related Deaths

Charles Buckley said there were many non-combat related deaths with at least 5 to 7 within his own unit. While in Wonju, a radio relay site, a young man was in a 6 X 6 truck and he was trying to get up a slick mountain with another soldier, and the 6 X 6 truck rolled over killing them both.



Charles Bull

HMS Kenya's Involvement in the Start of the Korean War: June 28, 1950

As one of the first British Naval ships to be docked in Sasebo, Japan, his ship was used as a jump-off ship that took Marines and Army troops into Korea right after the war began on June 28, 1950. Charles Bull was working on pay ledgers for every pay accounts for every sailor in his section for every payday. His job was to document pay and then make sure that the sailors had money in their pocket when they went ashore in Korea. The whole process of getting paid was very formal and Charles Bull gave a detailed description of the process of getting their well-earned money.



Fighting Along Side and Burying Allied Forces During the Korean War

While aboard the HMS Kenya, Charles Bull worked along side multiple naval allies including the Austrians, Canadians, Dutch, and Belgians. Sadly, bodies of soldiers would be found at sea, so his ship would take the deceased aboard until they were ready to provide a proper burial at sea. Charles Bull remembers the moving ceremonies that the British gave for fallen American soldiers during the sea burial.



Charles Carl Smith

A Difficult Journey

Charles Smith talks about his journey by train from Pusan to Chuncheon. He describes having to deboard the train several times because they had come under attack.



Life in the Punch Bowl

Charles Smith talks about the 11 1/2 months that he spent in the Punch Bowl and describes what it was like to be a part of trench warfare along the MLR. He tells the story of his first encounter with enemy troops and how he hoped to not be "yellow."



PTSD

Charles Smith talks about his severe PTSD from his experiences in Korea. On the front line, he describes being treated like an animal and not knowing any fellow soldier's names. He talks about how he dealt with PTSD once he returned home.



Charles Connally

Living Conditions

Charles Connally describes the dangers he faced and living conditions in Korea. He explains that mortar fire, snipers, and shrapnel were a constant concern but luckily many injuries were avoided except for two men: one was shot in the shoulder by a sniper and another was hit in the leg by a shard of shrapnel. He goes on to describe the miserable food options that led to his losing nearly forty pounds during his stay and sleeping in quonset huts.



Psychological Warfare

Charles Connally describes two psychological strategies utilized during the war. He describes connecting large speakers to the bottoms of B-52s and playing recordings of Korean women compelling the North Korean men to go home to their wives. He goes on to explain how the Chinese would fly planes over their camp at night, occasionally dropping hand grenades and bombs, in order to limit the amount of rest soldiers got. This the troops referred to as "Bed Check Charlie."



Charles Crow Flies High

Entering Korea in 1993

Charles Crow Flies High was sent to Korea for his first deployment in November 1993. He flew into Kimpo Air Force Base, and then he was sent to Seoul to get finished setting up to protect South Korea. He recounts that they were "locked and stocked" at all times from that point forward. His job was to watch for Kim Jong Il and his North Korean troops to make sure that they did not take over Seoul.



Charles E. Gebhardt

Joining the 29th Infantry Division

Charles Gebhardt talks about arriving to his unit, the 29th Infantry Division. He talks about the challenges the unit faced at the time of his arrival. Led by a Korean commander and lacking supplies and training, they were recently defeated by enemy forces.



A Day on the Line

Charles Gebhardt describes his duties as a part of the 29th Infantry Regiment. He talks about going on patrols and observing enemy movements as an artillery forward observer.



Before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the placement of his unit before the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He mentions that his unit, the 39th Infantry Regiment, relieved a Marine unit that held the northernmost ground of all US forces.



The Beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Charles Gebhardt describes the scene at the beginning of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about the KATUSA soldiers assigned to his unit and how he thought they had gotten spooked. In reality, the Chinese offensive had already begun.



"It was Very Scary"

Charles Gebhardt describes his encounter with Chinese soldiers on the first night of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about shooting at enemy soldiers that were within arm's reach.



"You Should Not be Afraid of Some Chinese Laundrymen"

Charles Gebhardt recounts the words the General Edward Almond in a meeting of officers and intelligence personnel on the morning after the first fighting of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. Describing the meeting in which he attended, he mentions that several officers present were taken aback by the comment. The comment was "You should not be afraid of some Chinese laundrymen."



Retreat from Chosin

Charles Gebhardt describes his unit's retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He talks about destroying equipment. He also describes loading up the wounded on the slow retreat to Hagalwoori.



Losses, Conditions, and Rescue

Charles Gebhardt talks about the lives that were lost in the retreat from the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difficult conditions on the trek. He also tells the story when he and his comrades borrowed Marine vehicles to rescue wounded soldiers.



Charles Eggenberger

Journey to the Front

Charles Eggenberger recalls his 1950 arrival in Korea. He describes his journey, from basic training in San Diego, California, to being stationed in both Guam and China, before the Korean War broke out. He describes his participation in the amphibious Inchon Landing, and a combat lesson he learned while fighting the enemy in Seoul.



Encountering the Chinese

Charles Eggenberger describes going up a mountain in trucks through Hagalwoori to the Chosin Reservoir area. He recalls how his unit learned that the Chinese had crossed the border near the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the surrounding units of soldiers had taken off out of the area during the initial attack by the Chinese.



Bearing the Extreme Cold

Charles Eggenberger talks about being able to withstand the extreme cold he encountered in Korea. He describes a childhood of not having enough warmth because of poverty and neglect. He recalls seeing the injuries some soldiers suffered from not knowing how to take care of their extremities in the cold.



Charles Elder

Taking Care of Myself

Charles Elder talks about the cycle of taking care of himself during his time as a wounded prisoner during the Korean War. He had moments of extreme highs or lows. He had to remind himself to have hope of survival.



Charles Fowler

Orders to Korea

Charles Fowler describes returning home on a 30 day leave after being in service a year only to find that he had received orders to serve in Korea as the war had broken out. He recounts arriving in Korea and his unit receiving orders to fight its way to Yeongdeungpo to meet the Marines coming from Incheon. He admits that he his knowledge of Korea prior to being sent was limited.



Pusan Perimeter in July

Charles Fowler describes the intense July heat at the Pusan Perimeter when he arrived in Korea. He recounts suffering severe blisters due to taking his shirt off as he attempted to cool down while digging a foxhole. He also recalls helping build the "Al Jolson Bridge" which he later helped blow up during a retreat from enemy forces.



Horrors of War

Charles Fowler describes the devastating effects of the war on women and children. He shares that the North Koreans even used children as decoys. He also recounts images of those afflicted by napalm as being some of the most difficult for him.



South Korean Effort

Charles Fowler briefly describes how the South Koreans were basically fighting for their lives, freedom, and country. He emphasizes that South Korean soldiers fought just as hard as the United Nations soldiers and served on the front lines as well. He recalls verbal communication being a barrier at times due to a difference in languages but adds that soldiers found other means to communicate.



Charles Francis Jacks

Journey to Korea and Main Line of Resistance

Charles Jacks recounts his journey to Korea. He describes the vessel on which he traveled and recalls enduring a typhoon during the twenty-one day voyage. He remembers stopping in Japan for a twelve-hour break before sailing on to Korea. He describes landing at Incheon in 1952 and moving up the Main Line of Resistance (MLR).



Assignment, Living Conditions, and Patrol Dangers

Charles Jacks speaks of his assignment with the Marines and shares how they used a trench line for protection from incoming fire. He explains that Corpsman were sent where they were needed, and he recalls being sent to various locations via jeep transport. He remembers the dangers he and others faced while out on patrol.



Medical Duties

Charles Jacks recounts bandaging the wounded on the battlefield. He recalls jeep ambulances transporting the wounded to field medical stations. He describes serving with Dog Medical Company (D Company) stationed between Seoul and Incheon and remembers assisting two doctors--one Korean and one American--at a hospital. He shares that they treated minor to more serious wounds which occurred on the front lines.



Charles Gaush

Psychological Warfare with Propaganda

Charles Gaush talks about his time in the US Army's physchological warfare unit. He describes creating, designing, photographing, and printing propaganda leaflets during the Korean War. The leaflets were printed in Russian, Korean, and Chinese to promote democratic values.



Charles H. Brown

Attacking a Target

Charles Brown describes the attacking of a North Korean target. He had just began his shift work. He went on deck and noticed how close the ship was to shore. The next thing is the sky went bright. His ship was attacking the North Korean target.



Charles Hoak

Last Push by the Chinese

Charles Hoak tells the story of when the Chinese Army were making a last push. He recalls being in the trenches with weapons loaded and U.S. Army airplanes dropping flares on their location so that they could see what was taking place on the battlefield. He remembers how the Republic of Korea (ROK) troops held the line and thwarted the advance of the Chinese Army.



Charles L. Chipley

The Bombing and Return Fire of Incheon

Charles L. Chipley Jr. describes the USS Rochester bombing of Incheon prior to soldiers landing. He shares that the landing, in his opinion, was very successful. He recounts that return air attacks came from the north while his ship was sitting in Incheon Harbor, and 4 bombs were dropped targeting his ship.



First Assignment

Charles L. Chipley Jr. recounts his first assignment on the USS Rochester CA-124. He recalls the weaponry installed on the heavy cruiser and describes its use as gunfire support for ground troops, adding that some of the weaponry on the ship served the purpose of protecting the ship from enemy aircraft. He explains that the ship's mission was also to rescue flyers at sea and to clear out underwater mines.



Charles L. Hallgren

When Bomb Drops Go Wrong

Charles Hallgren describes the dilemma of dealing with ammunition and explosives that were produced during World War II but sent to be used in Korea during bomb drops. He explains the task of having to diffuse weapons before they actually exploded to prevent deaths. He describes the challenges that accompanied working with B-26 bomber aircraft. He recounts how the enemy would also run wire in between mountains to take down planes which may have been how General Van Fleet's son was killed.



Back to Korea During the Vietnam War

Charles Hallgren describes being deployed to Japan in 1970 for the purpose of inspecting Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) units in Korea. He explains that Korea had tactical nuclear weapons which had to be inspected in various base locations on the peninsula. He describes his impressions of seeing a modernized Korea in 1970.



Charles Rangel

The Destruction at the Battle of Kunu-Ri

Charles Rangel and other American troops were surrounded by the Chinese Army during the Battle of Kunu Ri in November of 1950. During this battle, more than 5,000 American soldiers were either killed, wounded, or taken as a POW. This battle was on the edge of the Chongchon River.



Segregation in the Armed Forces

Although the military was desegregated in 1948, Charles Rangel still experienced segregation during his military career. The only thing that was integrated, were two units. Even when he returned to the United States after the war, Charles Rangel had segregated barracks back on the military base.



Charles Ross

Inchon Landing and Movement Northward

Charles Ross describes his experience during the Inchon Landing. He recounts an order given to his unit to hold its ground at all costs and shares that it was one of the scariest moments he experienced while in South Korea. He describes traveling north, receiving little resistance along the way, and recalls North Korean soldiers surrendering as his unit crossed the 38th Parallel and made its way to Pyongyang.



Initial Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross recounts being under the impression that the situation in Korea was under control and in the process of ending during the fall of 1950. He recalls his unit being sent north to help a unit which had run into some resistance and being attacked by the Chinese on the way. He describes an emotional scene once the attack had ended that left a lasting impression on him.



Chemical Attack at the Battle of Unsan

Charles Ross describes being trapped for three days following the attack at Unsan, near the Nammyon River. He recalls waiting for the 5th Calvary to come to the rescue and overhearing that it had met resistance and would not be able to help. He recounts a strange explosion and shares how a phosphorus chemical attack allowed him and other soldiers to make their escape.



Charles T. Gregg

Protection of the DMZ in the 1960's

Charles Gregg talks about his time in Korea as an Assistant Executive Officer for I Corps Artillery. He describes his job which was to help plot where the rounds would go. A typical day protecting the DMZ included training, cleaning, and patrolling day and night.



Poverty in Korea

Charles Gregg talks about some of his experiences with Korean civilians in the mid-1960's. He describes seeing dead people beside the road, a Korean man killing and eating a dog, and how Koreans fertilized their fields.



Interactions with KATUSA

Charles Gregg talks about KATUSAs. He describes how KATUSA soldiers were organized and used within his unit. He tells the story of dealing with a KATUSA soldier that had killed another soldier in an argument.



Charles Weeks

One Mortar Round

Charles Weeks describes being under attack by North Korean mortar fire and how a foxhole saved his life. This circumstance still haunts him to this very day. He elaborates on how this situation strengthened his relationship with God.



"I Didn't Change My Socks"

Charles Weeks talks about his decision not to change his socks which resulted in him being sent to Japan to recover from frozen toes. He feels like he dishonored his country, by not doing something so simple. He discusses this situation and his regrets.



Chauncey E. Van Hatten

"Outgunned and Outflanked"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the beginning of the Korean War. Stationed in Japan, he describes hearing the news of the North Korean invasion of South Korea and his unit's quick deployment to the war. He talks about being "outgunned and outflanked" by North Korean forces at Masan because of substandard equipment and supplies.



"The Fire Brigade"

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the 25th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Fire Brigade." He describes his regiments makeup and how the unit was used during the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter.



Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about the fighting at Masan, Seoul, and Pyongyang. He describes the enemy forces that his unit faced and being outflanked many times by North Koreans.



Fighting the Chinese at Pyongyang

Chauncey Van Hatten talks about fighting Chinese forces at Pyongyang. He describes eating Thanksgiving dinner before the difficult withdrawal south from Pyongyang. During the withdrawal, he says they often went for days without food and their vehicles ran out of gas.



Chester Coker

Joining the Front Lines at the 38th Parallel

Chester Coker discusses joining the front lines when American troops took Seoul and crossed the 38th parallel. He recalls meeting severe resistance and his company losing twenty-five percent of its men, about fifty total, crossing the Imjingang River. He remembers one of his only thoughts at the time was survival. He recalls jumping into the river instead of crossing the bridge, without knowing how deep it actually was.



Chong Rae Sok

Inchon Landing and Osan

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Inchon Landing. His unit landed at Inchon on September 18, 1950 and fought their way to Suwon. One day later, he describes moving by foot to Osan and losing soldiers along the way, including a fellow KATUSA.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Chong Rae Sok talks about his participation in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the conditions that his unit faced including cold weather, loss of communication, and little food. He talks about the fighting that took place, taking one hill at a time.



Clarence J. Sperbeck

Chinese Were Everywhere

Clarence Sperbeck describes when he arrived on the front lines when the Chinese were all over the place they controlled everything. When he came back to the states, counter intelligence asked him how he knew the Chinese were everywhere dominating the region, and he said, "that was easy to detect." When you entered a traditional Korean home, you were supposed to take off your shoes outside and put rubber slippers on. Clarence Sperbeck said most of the houses he saw had Chinese Army Boots at the door, so that's how he knew they were sleeping in the Korean houses.



P.O.W. Capture: Right Into The Lion's Den

Clarence Sperbeck retails the story of being captured as a prisoner of war north of the Imjin River. He was sitting with a group of experienced "ol' timers", who told him that the Chinese were going to come around this valley, but Clarence Sperbeck told them there was no way it was going to happen. The soldiers heard the bugles blow (as a means of communicating with each other from afar) and mass firing ensues as they are given orders to pull back (which he never understood). General Ridgeway devised a trap within this valley to make the Chinese think that we were pulling back giving them the advantage, but when the Chinese made it to the center, General Ridgeway closed the gap which killed over 50,000 Chinese. However, when the original order was given, Clarence Sperbeck's platoon started to retreat and took the wrong turn. Turns out there were captured vehicles and they walked right into a group of Chinese soldiers.



Frozen In Fear

Clarence Sperbeck recalls while on the move picking up extra men who had been displaced from their unit and abandoned weapons. He found one guy frozen (not literally), just sitting there whether fear or uncertainty, Clarence Sperbeck kicked him in the shin with his combat boot (said it hurt like hell), handed him a weapon, and told him to fall in line with the rest. The other soldier was a new replacement paralyzed again with fear who didn't speak or move even after being kicked by Clarence Sperbeck.



My Capture

Clarence Sperbeck remembered April 25, 1951 because that was the day he was captured by the Chinese. Having been warned not to walk on the ridge line since it made it easy for the Chinese to detect your movement, the US troops walked the ridge line anyway. Clarence Sperbeck made an attempt to shoot in the direction of a sound behind him when a concussion grenade landed near him knocking him to the ground damaging his back. When he came out from under a rock, a Chinese soldier screamed at him to put down his weapon; he jumped behind a pine tree to try to shoot at the enemy, but the Chinese soldier's buddy was pointing his weapon at Clarence and he wouldn't have been able to shoot both. He put his rifle down and spend the rest of his time with the Chinese after walking for 3 months to get to the POW camp.



Treatment By the Enemy

Clarence Sperbeck said when the Chinese capture you, they don't feed you. He started on the march at 165 pounds and ended at 110 pounds. It was said that if you were captured by the NKPA (North Korean People's Army), these marches were the worst in recorded history. If you were sick or injured they put a pistol to your head and blew your brains out, rolled you in a ditch, and kept going. Chinese didn't do that; they wanted information from the prisoners.



Do You Have Any Final Words?

While hiding out in a Japanese school house (near Pyongyang), sick with amoebic dysentery, the Chinese ordered the POWs to move at night to avoid being detected by American Airplanes. The night before, the POWs were supposed to leave from the school, but an American soldier who had made an attempt to escape the prison earlier was brought back to the camp and was put on the platform where the Chinese would usually conduct their daily exercise. They sentenced him to death and asked him if he had any final words and asked if he wished to be blindfolded before being shot by a firing squad. The US POW said, "Yes, go screw yourself you slant-eyed SOB." Clarence thought this soldier had a lot of guts.



Hope This Never Happens to You Too

Clarence Sperbeck commented on how fast the Chinese moved compared to the US troops. It was said that the average number of steps per minute the Chinese took were 140 to Americans' 120. While unable to hear, see, or walk due to his illness (amoebic dysentery), most of the American prisoners bypassed Clarence Sperbeck when he needed help, but a few soldiers helped him up. He was often the last in line (so weak/sick) during the march which would put him at a greater risk of being shot.



White Rice Riot

When the prisoners were marching north, they would give POWs white rice which had no nutritional value.
Fortunately, they got a can of Russian shredded beef and rice that they considered the beef to be the "Nectar of the Gods". With no refrigeration, prisoners were allowed to have seconds which started a riot since they were grabbing handfuls to eat. The Chinese stood back laughing at the prisoners because some of the POWs were wealthy businessmen back in the states acting like pigs trying to get as much as they could.



Camp 1: Sustenance

When Clarence Sperbeck arrived at his first POW Camp (Camp 1-Ch'ang Song), Chinese soldiers gave each man a wash cloth and a bar of soap, but then they were instructed to go to the polluted river at the camp to take a bath. Korean civilians (women and children) stood on the bridge overlooking the river and watched the G.I.'s take a bath. Men were given little food and Clarence Sperbeck describes the pork they ate and how the Chinese would slaughter and drink the blood of the pig.



East Is Red With The Blood of Our Dead

Daily life in prison camp began with a lecture on Chinese politics and required POWs to recite the Chinese National Anthem," The east is red with the blood of our dead.." and Clarence Sperbeck continued to recite the anthem after being released. Clarence Sperbeck would later discover that while the POWs were writing daily reports in the prison camp, Chinese officers had difficulty interpreting slang terms GI (a nickname for US soldiers) would write. When the soldiers discovered this, they taunted the Chinese with slang in their letters all the time just to mess with them. The GIs were allowed to send/receive letters from family with the Chinese overseeing what was written in the letters, but POWs would have to lie to get their letters sent home.



Performing Medical Experiments on the Prisoners

In the 3 month stay in this hospital at Camp 1, the Chinese performed medical experiments on the prisoners by implanting a gland from an animal into POW's bodies. POWs were told that if the gland stayed in their body, they would potentially run a high fever and die from an infection. Clarence Sperbeck said the soldiers wouldn't let the incision heal over and they would attempt to squeeze the gland out to keep it from infecting their body.



Hey! Wait A Minute! That's Us!

On the date of Clarence Sperbeck's release, August 19, 1953, the first thing the US did was give him a physical examination. He said while he was there, he picked up the "Stars and Stripes" Newspaper, and saw the headlines read, "Chinese attempt to keep 400 POW's." Clarence Sperbeck said, "Hey they were talking about us!" He mentioned the Chinese kept over 800 prisoners, took them back to China, and used them for atomic experiments. There were others who refused repatriation and were not well liked by the men when they returned.



Clarence Jerke

Help from South Korean Soldiers and Civilians

Clarence Jerke talks about his experiences with KATUSA soldiers and South Korean civilians. He describes one particular South Korean soldier who was especially adept at laying communication lines. He also talks about civilian boys who washed military uniforms for food or money.



Claude Charland

Helping the Hungry

Claude Charland describes the most vivid memory he has of his time in Korea. He shares the experience of a Korean family while on the front lines. He describes how he and his platoon led a Korean family down a hill to recuperate the food that the family had stored before the war.



The Hardship of Just Living

Claude Charland describes how hard it was to stay clean while serving on the front lines. He describes where they lived. He describes the attack by the bugs. He describes the weather and how it affected his living conditions..



Share the Wealth

Claude Charland describes how the troops would share with everyone any goods/letters that were sent as part of a care package. He describes it as a party. He speaks about the camaraderie this experience created. He says this helped everyone feel less lonely.



Letters from Home

Claude Charland details the different people with whom he would correspond during his time in Korea. He describes how there were certain things that he could only write about with certain companions. He explains how with one penpal he could discuss the war, but would not do that with his letters to his mom or girlfriend back home.



Clayborne Lyles

Jubiliation at Sea

Clayborne Lyles participated in the Navy's ocean search and rescue efforts when there were US pilots that were shot down over the Pacific Ocean. He felt jubilation to be part of 22 pilot rescue missions, but he was sad when none of these missions were discussed in the newspapers. One mission that made him laugh, but it was still serious event was when a pilot was shot down and he was shot in the butt. Clayborne Lyles remembered how the sailors would give each other grief to lighten the mood of war.



The Start of the Korean War

Clayborne Lyles did not know much about Korea when the war broke out and he was located in the Pacific Ocean near the 38th parallel traveling around the Korean peninsula. He didn't have any fear about the war because he said that since he volunteered for the military, he could 't complain or worry. For the fellows who were drafted, he heard all about their complaints about the war while being stationed on the ship with the draftees.



Friend or Foe?

Clayborne Lyles was part of General Quarters, "All arms, man your battle stations." The USS Toledo didn't realize that the incoming planes were US planes, so everyone was told to get ready to fight in the middle of the night. Thankfully, sailors used the Identifying Friend or Foe (IFF) gear before any shots were fired from the USS Toledo.



Cletus S. Pollak

Useless Waste of Men

Cletus S. Pollak describes his feelings towards the Vietnam War after having served in the Korean War. He explains his feelings of ambivalence towards the war itself. He also includes his feelings that the war was a waste of men and resources.



Clifford Allen

The Unarmed Chinese Decoy

Clifford Allen shares his second-hand knowledge of the Korean War. He details a story he heard from another veteran involving the Chinese. He explains that the Chinese would send up unarmed Chinese decoys to make American forces waste their bullets.



Clifford L. Wilcox

A Great Discovery

Clifford Wilcox talks about experiencing cold nights while on duty as a forward observer. He stayed in a cave and froze for about two nights. He quickly discovering the ancient Korean way of heating a home.



Religion on The Front Lines

Clifford Wilcox talks about religion as a soldier on the front lines. He had to rely on prayer to persevere. He also details a priest who didn't want to be there during a monsoon.



A Close Call

Clifford Wilcox describes a time when on duty as a forward observer, an enemy shell exploded in front of his foxhole. He was lucky that the shell fired right over his head, missing him. Thankfully, he was covered with dirt with no shrapnel.



Why Do Veterans Not Talk About Their Experiences?

Clifford Wilcox discusses the reasons he think veterans do not talk about their experiences in war. He mentions the killings, prisoner of war experiences, as well as wounds inflicted. Although he understands this, he feels differently wanting to share his experiences in the Korean War.



Clifford Petrey

Injuries at the Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir

Clifford Petrey describes landing at Inchon. He recounts injuries he received as a soldier both at Inchon Landing and Chosin Reservoir. He details his subsequent capture by the Chinese and camp movements while a POW.



Clifford Townsend

Radar Operator Description

Clifford Townsend details the duties of a radar operator. He comments on the challenges of using old equipment and shares that the radar team sat as close to the front lines as possible. He shares that his full color vision worked to his advantage as a radar operator.



Return Home and Forgotten War

Clifford Townsend recounts his return home following his service in the Korean War. He shares that soldiers were not warmly welcomed back. He vocalizes his opinion on why the Korean War is often referred to as the Forgotten War.



Clyde Fruth

"You Can Take Your Purple Heart..."

Clyde Fruth describes the mission and the dangers of being a forward observer. During one instance, rock shrapnel bounced off and hit his arm. His Lieutenant advised him to seek medical attention and that he could probably have received a purple heart but he refused.



"Up to the Hill"

Clyde Fruth describes the daily routine of an Army forward observer. He spent most of his time on the lookout, observing through binoculars at the enemy. He details the type of technology he used as well. He couldn't look too high because he didn't want to be hit by a sniper. He also describes his living conditions.



Snow and Supplies

Clyde Fruth talks about the most difficult times he had in Korea. He describes deep snows forcing traveling by foot to his mountain forward observer post. In this predicament, they had to carry all their food, supplies, water, and weapons that were heavy to carry in the cold.



Day by Day

Clyde Fruth talks about the dangers he faced as a forward observer from incoming artillery and snipers. He details about an enemy unit that was always prepared to attack them and would sneak up through the trenches. He describes always have to keep his eyes open for the enemy.



Colin C. Carley

Sneaking into the Military

Colin Carley shares how he was so proud and eager to volunteer for the New Zealand Army at the age of seventeen, but he never realized the conditions that he would have to face. Since it was so cold, he remembers that his drinks froze the first night in Korea in 1950. As a soldier who snuck into the military, he shares how he did not mind any challenges because he knew he had to blend with the traditional soldiers who were the required age of twenty-one.



Radio Operators in the Korean War

Colin Carley shares that he worked alongside an Australian brigade when he patrolled near Panmunjeom in late 1950 through early 1951. As a radio operator for his New Zealand Battery Brigade, he recalls being scared of all the tracer bullets that would whiz by him. He remembers how he would feel sick when battles began because he never knew if he would be able to return home again.



I'm Leaving For War without Any Ties to Home

Colin Carley shares how he lied about his age to sneak into the role of a New Zealand soldier during the Korean War. He recounts being so sneaky that not even his parents knew where he was. He recalls that the most difficult part of the war for him was the cold. He describes how living and working with both the Australian and New Zealand troops was difficult but adds that they all were good soldiers.



Colin J. Hallett

Ship Description and a Funny Story

Colin Hallett describes the HMNZS Kaniere. He describes the guns on the ship and overall living conditions. The HMNZS patrolled the West Sea and really did not encounter too many North Korean forces. He also provides a story of a mistake by the US Naval forces that could have ended in disaster.



Engaged During the War

Colin Hallett describes his engaged to Ina Everitt. Both Collin Hallett and Ina Everitt sent letters to stay in contact. Colin Hallett sent letters that spoke of daily and weekly events. Ina Everitt had a busy life at home that kept her busy and not just thinking of her fiancé.



Congressman James Conyers

Combat Engineers

Congressman Conyers describes the front line service of the combat engineers. These duties included, but weren't limited to, establishing fortifications for troop support. What was unique about combat engineers was their ability to serve in a dual capacity, as both combat operators and engineers.



Conrad R. Grimshaw

Joining the National Guard and Duties

Conrad Grimshaw recounts joining the National Guard and the training that followed. He describes being in charge of 12 2.5 ton trucks and chaining the wheels due to mud issues in order to get up to the firing batteries. He recounts a switch out of trucks later on.



Dan McKinney

An Amazing Coincidence

Dan McKinney describes his capture by enemy forces and the way he was able to let his family know that he was still alive. He talks about telling another POW who was scheduled to be released, to tell his girlfriend and family that he was still alive when he returned stateside. In an amazing coincidence, the Marine told him that he had actually double dated Mckinney's girlfriend back in Texas before the war.



Captured!

Dan McKinney describes how he was captured by enemy forces. His entire company was nearly wiped out. He talks about how all the members of the squad he commanded were killed and enduring friendly artillery shelling before he was captured.



The Trek to POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the roughly 60-day march to POW Camp #1 after he was captured by North Korean forces. He talks about carrying a wounded fellow POW on his back for much of the journey. He mentions being forced to give the wounded soldier to Chinese forces so that they could attend to the soldier's wounds.



Food and Living Quarters in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes what he was given to eat during his journey to POW Camp #1. He describes the POW Camp and how it was in a former Korean village. He also details what the prisoners' small living quarters were like.



Day-to-Day Work at POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the day-to-day work of POW's at Camp #1. He describes going to nearby mountains to harvest firewood during the warm months for the upcoming winter. They would hike about four miles to and from, carrying the large logs.



Activities and Religion in Pow Camp #1

Dan McKinney talks about the activities that he and fellow POW's were allowed to do in POW Camp #1. He mentions that they were allowed to play several sports including basketball and track. He mentions that he was allowed to pray and that he kept his New Testament Bible the entire time he was imprisoned.



Food, Clothing, and Propaganda in POW Camp #1

Dan McKinney describes the food he was given as a POW in Camp #1. He talks about the clothing that he wore during his captivity. He also tells the story of a captured photographer whose photographs the North Koreans used to create propaganda materials.



50 Years of Silence

Dan McKinney talks about his reluctance to talk about his POW experience for the first 50 years after the Armistice was signed. He describes how he decided to start talking about the war to graduates of a leadership class at Cannon Air Force Base in 2005. He mentions that he has talked to every graduating class since (over 70 groups).



Daniel Carvalho

Wonsan Landing

Daniel Carvalho discusses his landing at Wonsan and subsequent retreat to Busan after being overrun by North Koreans and Chinese soldiers. He explains how the Chinese had sticks of bamboo. He shares how the LST was the mode of transport. LST stands for Landing ShipTank or tank landing ship.



Dodging Mines

Daniel Carvalho describes the spotlight on the water. He remembers having to use bamboo sticks to poke mines away from the LST. He discusses moving from Wonson to Buson.



Living Conditions

Daniel Carvalho shares details of the living conditions he faced while in Korea. He describes the little food he had. He shares how the cold was new for him. He shares the lack of water for hygiene purposes.



Daniel J. Rickert

Becoming a Demolition Corporal

Daniel Rickert talks about the jobs he performed as a part of the 3rd Combat Engineering Battalion. Trained as an infantry soldier, he describes assuming his job as Demolition Corporal being given a manual. He set up removing explosives in landmines, etc.



Chinese Box Mines

Daniel Rickert talks about Chinese box mines. He describes what these mines looked like and how they operated. He also details how he went about his job to find and disarm them.



Enemy Bunkers and Trenches

Daniel Rickert talks about the many enemy bunkers and trenches. He describes how they were designed and built. They were very hard to find.



Dangerous Times

Daniel Rickert talks about several times he was in danger while serving as a demolition corporal in Korea. He talks about suffering a concussion and a severe leg injury. He also mentions that because of his attached status, though deserving, he was not written up for a Purple Heart.



Operation Nomad

Daniel Rickert talks about his role in Operation Nomad. This was the last major UN offensive of the war. He describes in detail the demolition of a railroad tunnel near Kunsan.



Life in the Winter of '51-'52

Daniel Rickert describes life during the winter of 1951-1952. He talks about his duties, frozen food, and "hot bunking." He also details other aspects of bunker life on the front lines.



Regimental Combat Team

Daniel Rickert gives a description of a regimental combat team. He talks specifically about the 5th RCT. This was his battalion he was attached to.



Daniel M. Lopez

A Strange Sound in the Night

Daniel M. Lopez recounts a dangerous experience on guard duty. He remembers hearing a sound and waking his fellow soldiers and sergeant. He recalls that North Koreans attacked them shortly after. He shares the aftermath of the battle, putting the dead on stretchers and trucks, was the worst moment of his touring career in the Korean War.



Strung to a Barbed Wire Fence

Daniel M. Lopez shares a memory of an American sergeant being captured by North Koreans. He recalls the sergeant being hit and strung to barbed wire. He remembers a captain calling in a Marine plane to destroy the body and remembers watching the scene unfold. He adds that memories like that stay with a person, but he expresses that he is not sorry he joined and is proud to have served.



Bridge Over Barbed Wire

Daniel M. Lopez details capturing an enemy soldier. He explains that the North Koreans would make a man-bridge over the barbed wire separating American and enemy troops in an effort to attack. He recounts capturing an enemy soldier scratched up from the barbed wire and requesting an interpreter to translate. He shares that the enemy soldier escaped and ran towards the South. He also adds that the interpreter ended up joining the U.S. Marine Corps.



Darold Galloway

Fighting on the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about the mission of the USS Fletcher. He describes the destroyer's mission as an escort of other ships to Korea and it's mission once it arrived in Wonsan, as a decoy and recovery vessel.



Mission of the USS Fletcher

Darold Galloway talks about the ongoing mission of the USS Fletcher during the ship's involvement in the Korean War. He describes drawing fire from enemy artillery and heading out to sea to rendezvous with naval ships that had greater artillery range.



Daryl J. Cole

"People needed us."

Daryl J. Cole describes his motivations while in battle. He explains that his position was only two or three miles away from the front lines and all the while he was continuously thinking the war needed to end. He explains feelings of great sympathy for the South Korean people whose entire lives had been reduced to rubble.



Living Conditions

Daryl J. Cole describes the living conditions he experienced while in Korea. He describes living in a basic canvas tent with a cot and sleeping bag and a small stove in the middle of the tent. He recalls always having a good, hot meal, being able to take a shower about once a week and the foot fungus he brought home after the war. He goes on to recount his correspondence back home with his father.



Dave Lehtonen

Taking Flight in Korea

Dave Lehtonen recalls flying in B-26s as a radio operator, participating in fifty missions. He describes the missions he took part in and the crews he worked with. He shares a map of his flights along the DMZ as well as over Pyungyang and the Yalu River.



David Carpenter

Korean War Reinforcements

David Carpenter was a reinforcement for different Marines groups that had fought in Korea for over two years. His regiment replaced the wounded or killed. At least twenty-five percent of the casualties in Korea were from frostbite.



Modo Island

David Carpenter lost four Marines who were taken as POW's off the coast of Wonsan. He stayed on Korea's islands until peace talks began in 1953. He recalls going on leave to Japan to get some rest and relaxation (R & R) before he returned to England.



David Carsten Randby

Electrician for NORMASH

David Randby served as an electrician for NORMASH. Electricity was important for a field hospital. The electrical equipment was very rudimentary and required skill to keep running. He kept the generators running in times of great need.



Military Life

David Randby describes conditions in Dongducheon. He provides details about helping with surgery at one point due to the many actions at the front. He describes going on a trip from Dongducheon to Seoul and having to watch a video over how to act when out on leave.



David Clark

Travel to Korea

David Clark discusses the route that he took to get to Korea via the U.S.S McCloud. He describes going through Pearl Harbor, Midway, and into Sasebo, Japan. He shares how he was immediately introduced into the war zone when they arrived in the East Asia Sea.



U.S.S McCloud and Military Occupation

David Clark shares details of the U.S.S McCord (DD-534). He describes the weapons available on the ship. He describes his job as a Quartermaster.



Ship Life

David Clark discusses the living conditions aboard the U.S.S. McCord while serving in the Navy. He explains the sleeping area. He explains the food and the cooks. He describes showering, entertainment, and letters on the ship.



David Espinoza

Traveling to Korea

David Espinoza describes his journey to Korea and his arrival on the front lines. He explains having to board a ship in California, and his arrival at Inchon in late 1950. He recalls having to replace other men who were much younger, and had been fighting for some time.



Koje-do Prison Camp Riots-1951

David Espinoza talks about his participation in the combat operations within Koje-do Prison Camp. He recalls having to use flame throwers to help stop the riots incited by North Korean and Chinese prisoners. He remembers that he and the men he served with had to use hand grenades and bayonets to restore order in the camp.



On the Front Lines

David Espinoza talks about being under attack by North Korean and Chinese forces. He recalls carrying five gallon cans of water on his back while digging trenches. He describes sustaining mortar and sniper fire by night during patrols. He recalls hearing the loud bugles sounded by Chinese soldiers during an enemy attack.



David H. Epstein

Meeting a Friend from Home

David H. Epstein shares an endearing story about being reconnected with a childhood friend who was his military superior. He recalls that both of their mothers arranged the meeting between he and the other soldier prior to both of them being shipped overseas to Korea. He explains that after the Korean War was over, they both continued to reconnect as friends while they were both still serving in South Korea.



Drafted, Training, and Starting a Family

David H. Epstein recalls being drafted, going through basic training, and starting a family around the same time. He explains how he came to be in the United States Marine Corps, rather than the United States Army, although he was drafted. He describes his arrival in Korea, and the duties involved in being assigned to Command Post Security for Headquarters Company of the 1st Marine Division.



David Heine

Dangers at the DMZ

David Heine faced many dangers while stationed near the DMZ, including one night when he worked to restore communication lines that had been cut every 20-30 feet. He describes the anxiety he faced not knowing what he might encounter.



David J. Smith

The 47th MASH Unit

David J. Smith talks about his job as a medical technician attached to the 47th MASH Unit. He describes his job working with doctors during surgery, interviewing patients who came in off the field, and taking care of sick soldiers during sick call. He also describes the layout of the unit, comprised of seven quonset huts.



David Lopez

Camping in Korea

David Lopez felt that being in Korea was like camping because of the daily living conditions, meals, and terrain. There were still many dangers while being stationed in Korea, but David Lopez tried to not let them get to him. Some soldiers hated the conditions so bad that they injured themselves to be taken off duty because the atrocities they experienced became too severe to handle.



The Korean War Draft, Training, and Landing

David Lewis was a longshoreman just like his father, but he was drafted in 1951. He took infantry training and left for Korea from California, but it took 18 days to get to Korea while sailing on the USS Black. There was a storm during his travel and many of the men threw up due to the pitching of the ship, but David Lewis didn't let that stop him from winning $1,800 from playing cards. At the end of June 1951, he arrived in Pusan and he thought the peace talks would end the war, but there was still more fighting to take place.



Prior Knowledge About Korea and David Lopez's First Battle in the Korean War

David Lopez did not know anything about Korea before he was drafted. When he arrived at Pusan, he was living in tents and was given food rations to eat while waiting to be sent to the Kansas Line which was a few miles from the 38th parallel. After the Chinese pulled out of peace talks, he took trucks from Pusan to the Kansas Line while worrying about incoming artillery. He loved receiving help from young Korean boys who would help him carry supplies, wash clothes, and help when he was short on soldiers. David Lopez was injured in his right arm when he fought with the 2nd Platoon against the Chinese and North Korean troops.



David Valley

Arrival in Korea

David Valley talks about arriving in Korea. He was sent to Jinju and attached to an intelligence reconnaissance platoon. He describes bring separated from his unit on his first night of fighting and having to make his way back while behind enemy lines. He also talks about a friend that never made it back home.



Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles

David Valley talks about his participation the Pusan Perimeter, Invasion of Inchon, and Pyongyang Battles. He describes what happened to enemy soldiers that were captured and tells a story of opening a vault in Pyongyang.



Retreating from Pyongyang

David Valley talks about what happened as his unit retreated from the north into Seoul. He describes burning villages as they moved south and talks about the condition of Seoul upon their return.



David White

Life as a Platoon Leader

David White talks about his duties as Platoon Leader. His responsibilities included setting up ambushes and relieving his men and the conditions under which they operated. Most of these operations were against the North Koreans and took place at night.



Stacking Up Bodies

David White describes one of the jobs he and his men were assigned, clearing the battlefield of fallen soldiers from both sides. He had to get a body count of both sides. They also had to put out more barbed wire and traps as well.



Danger from Mortar Fire

David White talks about the frequent danger of enemy mortar fire. A lot of soldiers would get scared and try to run. However, they would get hit and it was better to lie low to the ground to avoid it.



A Close Call from an Enemy Mortar

David White tells a story about an incident when he and his sergeant's position was hit by a partially exploded enemy mortar shell. Both he and the his sergeant were not injured. In surprise, they laughed after the situation.



Kill or Be Killed

David White describes in detail a battle that began when the patrol he was leading came across a North Korean soldier. During the ensuing battle, both sides sustained heavy losses. He was wounded by an enemy mortar.



Wounded in Battle, Recovery, and Returning Home

David White describes how he was recovered from the battlefield after being wounded by an enemy mortar. He talks about his month-long recovery. He also discusses returning to service before going home.



Delbert Ray Houlette

Massacre in a Korean Village

Delbert Ray Houlette recollects here on some of his toughest moments while serving in Korea. He describes the disconnect between the Marine Corps with the Army and ROK soldiers. He also details having to build a causeway over a river in the middle of fighting. Lastly, he remembers witnessing a village after it had experienced a massacre.



Seasoned for the Incheon Landing

Delbert Ray Houlette recalls being sent to serve at the Incheon Landing. He and his outfit were sent due to being "seasoned" in combat compared to other troops with their experience in the Pusan Perimeter. He describes the tides of the area where he was on Red Beach.



Collecting the Dead

Delbert Ray Houlette describes how one of his duties during combat was to collect the dead bodies of fellow soldiers and put their bodies in the beds of trucks. He remembers one incident where a soldier's eyes had opened unexpectedly while in the truck. Believing the body might be alive, he told the personnel he was getting ammunition and would try to come back to see if he was okay later. However, he was never able to return and check.



Delmer Davis

Special Forces: The Raiders

Delmer Davis talks about a special forces unit called the raiders which he was chosen to be a part of. He describes the selection process, training, and mission of this close combat unit of 100 men.



Gunsan Landing: Sept. 12, 1950

Delmer Davis talks about the Gunsan Landing, an operation that he and the special operations company participated in on Sept. 12, 1950 while the Inchon Landing was taking place. Delmer Davis describes the operation in detail and remarks that he feels his unit was used as a decoy for the Inchon Landing.



Missions on Gimpo Peninsula

Delmer Davis talks about several missions that his unit participated in on the Gimpo Peninsula. He describes working with other military units and capturing enemy soldiers.



Searching for the Chinese

Delmer Davis talks about the raiders' mission near Wonsan. He describes moving far forward of the front lines in search of enemy forces, eventually locating 10,000 Chinese troops.



Dennis Grogan

The Auster Aircraft

Dennis Grogan describes the mechanics and construction of the Auster aircraft. He explains that it was a very practical plane with no armored plating, and a metal frame that was covered with canvas. He shares how he was proficient in helping to start the aircraft, which involved switch off, throttle closed, brakes hard on. He explains the details of checking aircraft maintenance in the winter compared to what needed to be done in the summer.



Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Dennis Kinney

One Hundred Percent Disabled

Dennis Kinney describes the list of disabilities he accrued while serving in the military. He explains that his first disabilities came from malaria and jungle rot in Guam. He then explains his accidents in cars and planes crashing while on missions.



Desmond M. W. Vinten

Dispatch Rider

Desmond Vinten initially lied on military documents to enlist in the military at nineteen. He arrived at Busan in June of 1951 and remained until the Armistice. He served as a dispatch rider based in the headquarters of the Forward Maintenance Area. He left July 27, 1953, as the cease fire came into effect. He has returned to Korea four times since his service.



War Zone and Road Conditions

Desmond Vinten describes the fighting in and around Seoul and how the line shifted three times causing great destruction. Buildings were uninhabitable and citizens evacuated. As the center of the country, Seoul suffered war zone traffic. Road conditions on the routes to Seoul, Incheon, Daegu, and Yeongdeungpo were horrible with a speed limit of fifteen miles per hour. The First British Commonwealth lay four or five miles behind the front lines.



Never Wanted to Return

Desmond Vinten left Korea with the intention of never returning. Upon arrival in 1951, he could smell Busan from thirty miles out at sea. The total war zone was so intense that he did not think South Korea could recover to become what it is today. After all, the main goal of the United Nations was to keep the Communist Chinese out, not to rebuild South Korea.



War is Hell, Winter is Worse

Desmond Vinten describes spending twenty-seven days in an English military prison. His charge was "firing on the Queen's enemy without the Queen's permission." His sentence reflected the reality that sometimes shooting at the Chinese created more danger due to the Chinese soldiers' skill at firing mortars in retaliation. Besides the challenges of engaging the enemy, the heat, cold, and dust left him with the understanding that "war is hell, but winter is even worse."



Dick Lien

Combat Remembrances

Dick Lien recounts moving often while out in the field with his artillery unit. He describes defensive firing that his unit conducted while in the Marine Corps and explains that white phosphorus would be thrown into caves. He describes feeling guilty about it afterwards.



A Turk on a Mission and Losing Friends

Dick Lien describes meeting a Turkish soldier and shares that the soldier was dedicated to collecting an enemy's head every night. He recounts that the Turkish soldier would come back with the decapitated head and place it on a stake in front of his pup tent. He adds his thoughts on losing comrades while serving and states that the losses increased his anger.



Dimitrios Matsoukas

A Brother's Sacrifice

Dimitrios Matsoukas describes the two engagements in which his brother, George Matsoukas, fought.



"I Die For Greece"

When asked how he knows of his brothers' Korean War experience, Dimitrios Matsoukas reads from "I Die For Greece." Dimitrios Matsoukas reads the story of the battle in which his brother gave his life.



Photos from the Front

Dimitrios Matsoukas shares photos of George Matsoukas during the Korean War.



Battle Map

Dimitrios Matsoukas shares a battle map of the hill on which his brother, George Matsoukas, gave his life.



Dirk J. Louw

South African Servicemen

Dirk J. Louw describes how the South African government sent a squadron to Korea based on a deal with the Americans where the United States equipment was used against payment to the South African government. 826 South African volunteers served in Korea during the war.



Doddy Green (Widow of Ray Green)

Letters from Korea and Digging the DMZ

Doddy Green, widow of veteran Ray Green, recalls a particular letter from her husband at the developing DMZ. She shares that her husband spoke of the quietened guns after the ceasefire. She explains that her husband described the digging of lines at the present-day DMZ and living on C-Rations.



Domingo Pelliceer Febre

Danger on the Frontlines

Domingo Pellicer Febre describes his experiences on the front lines. He shares that they would often be on patrol watching for the Chinese troops. During the attacks on the hills, there would often be mortar flying around. He also recounts a mishap he had with a hand grenade that almost cost him his life.



Lack of Water for Hygiene

Domingo Pellicer Febre explains how scarce water was on the frontlines. They were only able to shower once per month and brushing one's teeth was a luxury. While some of the hills had a water pipe, using it often meant making yourself a target for the Chinese who were watching.



Don McCarty

The Nevada Campaign: Bloody Nevada

Don McCarty fought North Korean and Chinese soldiers during the Nevada Campaign. He experienced battle fatigue and fear while fighting at the front lines. Don McCarty still thinks about the death of his assistant gunner and ammo carrier.



Big Muscles were Needed for Machine Gunners

Don McCarty's specialty during the Korean War was a heavy machine gun operator. The tripod was 54 pounds and the gun with water was 40 pounds. He left for Korea in March 1953 and landed in Inchoeon. Once he arrived in Seoul, it was devastated and there were children begging for candy and cigarettes.



Fear on the Front Lines That Led to PTSD

Don McCarty was afraid every minute that he was in Korea. Even after the Korean War ended, North Koreans continued to surrender to the Marines by crossing the 38th parallel. Don McCarty feels that he has a better understanding of life once he fought in the Korean War because there were so many Marines that lost their lives. Every night at 2 am, he wakes up with nightmares from his time at war. PTSD is a disease that Don McCarty is still living with 60 years after the Korean War ended.



Donald C. Hay

Engaging North Korea

Donald C. Hay describes engaging the North Korean military. The Royal Marines would land ashore and engage the North Koreans. The New Zealand Navy would provide cover to Royal Marines. On one occasion the Royal Marines took two North Koreans prisoner. However, on another engagement, the marines lost a man. The HMNZS Rotoiti would get fairly close to the shore to provide support. On one occasion Donald Hay felt uncomfortably close to the enemy.



Action on the Han

Donald C. Hay describes his service aboard the HMNZS Rotoiti. The ship completed three missions up the Han River attacking enemy positions. He describes one occasion when an Australian ship patrolled further up the Han River. This ship was attacked and received substantial damage. On many occasions, Donald Hay would see dead bodies floating down river.



Donald Campbell

From Hitchhiker to Prisoner

Donald Campbell describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese on November 2, 1950. He describes being attacked by a hand grenade. He shares how they fought back against the Chinese. He explains how he ended up in that area in the first place.



Interrogation Process

Donald Campbell explains how he was interrogated as a Prisoner of War (POW). He explains how the Chinese handled the questioning. He shares how he coped with relentless questions.



Donald Clayton

Dump Truck Driver

Donald Clayton shares about the time he was supposed to drive a dump truck of gravel. He explains how he was set to head to the DMZ. He shared his Company's location during this time as being between Liberty Bridge and Freedom Gate Bridge.



Demilitarized Zone

Donald Clayton discussed the Armistice. He discusses how the DMZ was still the site of skirmishes even after the Armistice was signed. He shares how the infantry was on an island between two bridges on the Imjingang River where there was continued action. He shares his concern about leaving gravel in the middle of the road.



Donald D. Johnson

No Idea What I'm Doing

Donald D. Johnson elaborates on his job responsibilities in Korea. He had no idea initially how to handle the artillery. He describes having to organize all the vehicles inside the LST, learning as the war continued. Donald D. Johnson describes becoming First Lieutenant Parrot's personal Jeep driver.



Miscommunication With The Air Force

Donald D. Johnson describes landing at Inchon in 1950 at night. He found that it was hard to drive through the warfare. He elaborates on how miscommunication with the Air Force caused this incident to occur.



Donald Duquette

Typical Day as a Combat Photographer

Donald Duquette talks about what life was like as a combat photographer in the Korean War. He explains that most photographers were looking for action shots, but they took pictures of everything that was going on. He remembers that some shots were dangerous.



A Famous Photograph

Donald Duquette discusses taking a photograph of John Allen (35th Infantry Division) going up a hill. This photograph, Donald Duquette's most famous, was published nationwide back in the United States. He shares the photo with the interviewer.



Donald H. Jones

UN Forces

Jones describes his impressions of the English, Scottish and Turkish forces.



Donald Haller

War Speciality

Donald Haller recalls never attending boot camp due to the short time between his signing up for the Reserves and his being drafted. He explains he was a great shooter, so he was assigned to the Navy ordinance as a gunner. He shares how he flew as a gunner in a bow turret located in the front of a seaplane. He remembers never feeling unsafe. He adds that before flying in Korea, he was stationed in the Philippines.



Donald J. Zoeller

Edge of MLR

Donald Zoeller describes the battalion which was located close to the MLR. One time they were even in the 'no man's land' zone. They had to build bunkers on their own by cutting down trees designed to hold up under artillery.



Defending Seoul

Part of Donald Zoeller's platoon was sent to Seoul when the Chinese tried to retake the city. He describes how his colleague "fell apart" and he was asked to take over leadership. He describes living in a foxhole constantly hearing shrapnel and was called upon at times to open fire.



Donald Jones

"To Hell with the Wire, Let's Move!"

Donald Jones tells the story of his group's reaction to being strafed by enemy planes when laying communications wire and subsequent encounter with a new Lieutenant during their escape.



Both Heels Shot Off

Donald Jones describes a specific night battle when the heels of both of his boots were shot off yet he was uninjured.



Bunker Description

Donald Jones describes the interior of a US Army bunker.



Donald Lynch

Serving in Korea

Donald Lynch recalls how he landed in Incheon, South Korea, and recalls taking trains through Seoul and seeing many starving children. He shares how he and his unit gave their c-rations to the children. He describes being sent from Seoul to Chuncheon and then on to the frontlines where he served as a unit supply sergeant and was a part of the K Company, 197th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. He comments on how he was wounded, bayonetted in the abdomen by a Chinese soldier and shares how he later served in a medical unit.



Injuries and Difficult Experiences

Donald Lynch talks about being injured twice. He recalls going on a patrol one day on Hill 812 and the lead man stepping on a "Bouncing Betty" release-type booby trap. He recounts how all eight to ten men were hit by pellets. He shares how a pellet hit his thigh and came out about 50 years later when he was messing with it. He notes another injury which entailed a bayonet. He recalls of his war experience occurring in the Punchbowl region, close to the 38th parallel. He references witnessing all of the wounded men leaving the frontlines when he first arrived as his most difficult experience in Korea. He also recalls assisting the sewing of wounds.



Duties and Living Conditions

Donald Lynch recalls the patrols he went on along the Kansas Line, a line back from the frontlines. He details how he would help refill supplies and bring back any North Korean defectors they came across. He recalls there being a kitchen at the medical outfit and eating hot meals every day. He remembers showering opportunities varying based on his location and shares how, at one point, shampoo saved his life.



Donald Michael Walsh

Daily Life in a Tank Battalion

Donald Walsh talks about a typical day as part of the 64th Tank Battalion.



Donald Schneider (Part 1/2)

Memories of time in a MASH hospital

Donald Schneider received a leg wound when he was hit by a mortar round, and in this clip he explains his experiences in a MASH hospital. He recalls the stretchers of men that were waiting out in the open for the operating table. He states that it was "terrible" and that he felt "foolish" because his wound was nothing compared to others.



The Challenges of Letter Writing

Donald Schneider colorfully describes not only the challenges of writing letters from the front lines, but also the dangers faced by the soldiers whose job it was to deliver the incoming mail. He remembers having to use his helmet to write on while having to use pencils because the pens were frozen. He said that while it was difficult to write, everyone looked forward to the mail that they received.



The Moon during Patrols

Donald Schneider explains the effect that a full moon can have on foot patrols, and how memories of those patrols still influence him today. He associates that moon with the night patrols that became very dangerous since the enemy could see them. He said that always meant "someone was not coming back."



Donald Schneider (Part 2/2)

Medical Care in the Field

Donald Schneider describes how important the “Whirlybird” helicopters were during the war. Because the mountains were so steep, often it was difficult to get the wounded down to receive treatment. The Whirlybirds and their talented pilots were able to maneuver the mountains and rescue the wounded, making them a “lifesaver.”



Experiences at Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge

Donald Schneider was a participant in several battles while stationed in Korea, including Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge. He provides a firsthand account of what it was like in these two areas, including how hard it was to take them. He explains why they gave Heartbreak Ridge back to the Chinese.



Sleeping Conditions on the Front Lines

Donald Schneider describes the limited opportunities that soldiers on the front lines had to get any sleep, which often resulted in what he called a "zombie-like" state. While they had sleep bags sometimes that wasn’t a guarantee- they often would cover themselves with snow as an insulator on their ponchos. On a typical day, they would only get 2-3 hours of sleep.



Weather in Korea

Like many other soldiers in Korea, Donald Schneider talks about how cold it was during the war. He states that the weather was like that in Wisconsin- really hot in the summer and freezing in the winter. He said that the difference was the monsoon season, which would include massive amounts of rain in short periods of time.



Donald Schwoch

Red Cross Nurses and Generator Repair

Donald H. Schwoch arrived in Korea on January 6, 1955, wading ashore to the welcome of Red Cross nurses offering donuts. He changed his wet clothes aboard a railway car and traveled by train to a tent encampment where a Lieutenant McNair assigned him to generator repair. In one case, an officer from his unit needed a generator for the cook house so badly that he cannibalized a new ambulance for parts.



A Close Call

Donald H. Schwoch stayed busy maintaining generators. In one instance, an I Corps general took him with the First Marines to the front lines. During a stop, he left his truck during a smoke break. Fortunately, he remembered his M2, for as he rounded the front of the truck he encountered a young Korean wearing a vest with hand grenades.



Donald St. Louis

Mortar Shrapnel Wounds

Donald St. Louis elaborates on his wound from mortar shrapnel while stationed in Korea. He was in Korea for a majority of the war while healing in the military hospital. He mentions how he is unaware of how prosperous Korea has become.



Donald Stemper

Importance of Topography:Life or Death

Don Stemper pulls out a map a map and uses it to explain the importance of topography. These skills proved that the tiny details could mean the difference between life and death, winning, or losing the war effort. He says accuracy is so importance during war.



Mobile Topography Units

During the Korean War, the US military had mobile TOPO (an acronym like M.A.S.H) units in trucks that were like a caravan vehicle. They included cameras, printing presses, plate making, survey & drafting equipment, as well as ink and paper just behind the lines because that's where the information was coming from. All these tools were needed to create the maps at any time and diligence was crucial. Don Stemper was very proud of the work he did and in his mapping instruction.



Process of Making the Maps for the Soldiers

Don Stemper explained in detail the process of how the US military photograph images from both sides of the plane. Then using stereo-projectors and drafting tables with special magnifying eye wear, mappers drew the contour of hills so troops knew the exact height of each hill directly from a flat photograph. The details were then added to the map and copied onto plastic with specific colors to identify certain landmarks.



Doug Mitchell

Captured North Korean Soldier

Doug Mitchell and some men in his unit that were in their foxholes spotted a North Korean solider who was coming down the road towards them. Rather than shooting him, the soldier held up his hands in the air. The North Korean soldier surrendered to the US Army, and the men behind the lines took him back.



First experience with death

Doug Mitchell recalls a night where it was difficult to see, especially since there wasn't any light and the sites had glass installed in them which made it very hard to see through. While on duty as a machine gunner, he noticed a tank that was coming around a turn and they halted to tell them who it was or they'd shoot. It turned out that it was a lieutenant that walked up to present himself before they moved the tank any further. As they were standing on the deck, Doug Mitchell heard a mortar going off and he was able to get to safety, but the lieutenant was blown apart.



3 Dreadful Components of the Korean War

Doug Mitchell described 3 things that he hated about war: Patrol at night, crawling on the front line to knock out machine guns, and dreaming about the stress soldiers felt. He said it was scary when the guys behind you were firing at a machine gun while you were told to crawl close enough to throw a grenade at the machine gun while hoping a riflemen wasn't there to shoot you. Bayonets were another dreadful memory from the Korean War and Doug Mitchell said that no one needs to go through fighting against bayonets.



Douglas C. Fargo

Heartbreak Ridge

Douglas C. Fargo talks about his assignment as a Platoon Leader on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about serving with South Korean soldiers and the soldiers he lost under his command. He also describes capturing North Korean soldiers during an attack and on patrol.



A Leaders View of Leadership

Douglas C. Fargo shares his happiest moment while serving. He also decribes his personal view of leadership.



Douglas Koch

Leading the Charge

Douglas Koch describes the 5th Marines' role in the Inchon Landing. He explains that the Inchon Landing was imperative in the cutting off of the rail lines that led to Seoul and fed the North Koreans the supplies they needed to fight in South Korea. He recalls that upon hearing the Marines were headed to Seoul to recapture the city, the civilians fled for the hills.



Rice Paddy Ambush

Douglas Koch describes being shot after the recapture of Seoul. He explains that he was ordered to establish an outpost on the other side of a rice paddy with his squad. As he led his men across the paddy, a North Korean machine gunner shot him multiple times in the leg and hip. He recalls ordering his squad to leave him in the field until help arrived.



Doyle W. Dykes

Working with the KATUSA

Doyle W. Dykes describes having to work with the KATUSA (South Korean soldiers) because there were not enough American soldiers to prepare and fire the ammunition. He led training with them due to his knowledge of the Korean language. He describes his relationship with them, enduring the experience of the Nakdong River Battle, as well as preparing and carrying ammunition along the Manchurian border.



Ruined Gloves

Doyle W. Dykes reminisces on a time he wrote his family asking for a new pair of gloves to endure the extreme cold. Upon receiving them that day, he had to bury over two hundred and seventy Chinese soldiers who died after a napalm attack. He shares that his gloves were immediately ruined and that he buried them with the soldiers.



Duane Trowbridge

Landing at Inchon and Fighting to Seoul

Duane Trowbridge describes nearly non-stop activity after arriving at Inchon. He explains in detail coming under mortar attack on the way Seoul and receiving shrapnel in his knee. He explains how his injury sidelined him for a little while, but he was soon back in the line of fire. He explains the struggle of a fellow soldier who got trapped in a foxhole and how a friend, Bill, lost his eyesight due to a mortar attack. He shares how he received his Purple Heart.



General MacArthur Gives Korea to Syngman Rhee

Duane Trowbridge discusses the handoff of the key to the city. He discusses the devastation he saw as he went back to Icheon. He explains his trek back to Wonsan and then to a town between Wonson and Seoul where his regiment captured North Koreans. He discusses how he captured 1600 North Korean (NPKA) soldiers in October and November of 1950.



Grenade Game

Duane Trowbridge discusses how when he was stationed in Hamheung, he would play a trick on his fellow soldiers. He describes how he would remove the powder from grenades and then pretend to ignite them by pulling the pin. His explains how fellow soldiers would run but it wouldn't detonate. He describes how he found it humorous but others didn't.



Dwight Owen

Landing in Korea

Dwight Owen describes landing on the beaches of Wolmido, near Inchon. He mentions the artillery used and his mission once he landed on the beach. He states that it was the worst night of his life and remembers questioning what he had gotten himself into.



Earl A. House

Stopping Communism and the Most Difficult Moment in the War

Earl House describes why he felt the U.S. intervened in Korea and believes it was to stop the spread of Communism. He recalls one of the most difficult times was when there was an accidental discharge of an allied weapon in the trenches. He remembers being physically and mentally distraught and being moved to a jeep patrol to drive officials up to the front lines.



Living Conditions on a Troop Ship and at the Front Lines

Earl House recalls how he was excited to join the Korean War and shares he was even more excited to leave Korea. He remembers enjoying ice cream, milkshakes, pie, and sweets on the ship home after the war. He comments on how these conditions were much better than the living conditions in Korea which included sleeping in a tent.



Bravery and the Forgotten War

Earl House believes that the Korean War made him into a man. He remembers wanting to get away from everyone in his family to prove that he was not afraid and to seem brave. He shares his thoughts on why the Korean War was called the Forgotten War, noting that people did not want the U.S. fighting in a foreign war.



Ed Donahue

The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



On the Frontlines at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls being woken up by the sound of bugles early in the morning on November 28, 1950. He describes how the Chinese soldiers were attempting to take over the area, and he remembers being told by his officers to just keep shooting. He shares how this lasted until dawn for multiple nights. He recalls how once the sun went down, the enemy fire started again. He remembers the troops kept coming and coming, at a ratio of at least ten Chinese to every one American. He remembers losing many of his comrades. He comments on how cold it was and adds that they were forced to urinate on their guns to keep the firing mechanisms from freezing.



Ed M. Dozier

Operation Mousetrap (Part 1)

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951.



Operation Mousetrap (Part 2)

Ed M. Dozier describes his participation in Operation Mousetrap, near Chuncheon in May 1951.



Death of a Friend, Finding Closure

Ed M. Dozier talks about the loss of a close friend during Operation Mousetrap and finding closure 50 years later.



Wounded by a Mortar Shell

Ed M. Dozier talks about his experience being wounded by a mortar shell while on patrol on April 10, 1951.



Protecting Yourself

Ed M. Dozier describes "protecting yourself" from the carnage of war.



PTSD and Soldiers of Today

Ed M. Dozier talks about his struggles with PTSD after the war and discusses his thoughts about today's soldiers.



Edgar Green

Shipped to Korea

Edgar Green describes the feeling of nervousness he and fellow soldiers experienced boarding the HMS Unicorn in Hong Kong destined for Korea. He shares that having World War II veterans among the crew was helpful as they offered advice. He recounts having to line up with other fellow soldiers along the flight deck and endure a round of injections prior to arriving in Korea.



Edgar Tufts

The Best Thanksgiving Ever

Edgar Tufts describes rotating to reserve after being on the front lines in eastern Korea after three months without a shower or change of clothes and solely eating c-rations, . He talks about getting cleaned up and enjoying a wonderful Thanksgiving meal that "rivaled his grandmother's."



Most Fearful Time in Korea

Edgar Tufts describes his most fearful memories in Korea when the advanced party he was in was heavily shelled by the Chinese Army,



Edith Pavlischek

44th Mash Unit Korea

Edith Pavlischek discusses her role as an Army nurse. She talks about the MASH triage unit that was created to perform neurosurgical procedures on the front lines of the war. Edith Pavlischeck worked diligently every day to help the wounded soldiers and witnessed some devastating events during the War.



Edmund Reel

Marching Wounded

Edmund Reel recalls the cold conditions at the time of his capture and being fed sweet potatoes. He describes the discovery of a wound on his leg while having to carry a friend on a stretcher. He recounts marching and being turned over to the North Koreans.



Captured by Chinese

Edmund Reel explains the circumstances that led to his capture and imprisonment for thirty-four months. He recalls there being roughly five thousand enemy soldiers advancing towards him. He shares that he had no choice but to surrender.



Edmund W. Parkinson

Wounded on the Battlefield

Edmund Parkinson describes his role as a forward observer in the 161st Battery Regiment. He details providing targets and fire orders and acknowledges that he was often in dangerous positions on the front lines. He recounts the incident where a mortar landed near him which wounded both of his legs and being transported to Japan where his left leg was amputated below the knee.



Eduardo Sanchez, Jr.

Flashbacks and Nightmares

Eduardo Sanchez is describing the loss of men when they were seeking for mines. The mine seekers actually hit a mine and members of the navy who were on the three boats lost their lives. For years after the explosion, he continued to have flashbacks and nightmares of the event. This event is forever in his memory and has impacted his life overall.



Edward A. Gallant

First Weapons Monitory System

Edward Gallant was assigned as a weapons monitoring repairman on a MSQ 28 System (Fort Bliss, TX). This 40 foot computer could provide 6000 miles of microwave radar which was 2 times the distance of the United States. Edward Gallant said they could see all the way to Russia. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Edward Gallant said that the Russians who had pulled their weapons out of Cuba, gave the WMD to China, and the Chinese sold it to North Korea which is why they have access to the materials they claim they have. They gave 3 of these Weapons Systems to Germany, 2 Korea, and Edward Gallant operated one that sent over 256 missiles towards their target (mission led by Howard Hughes).



Camp Howard (near Osan) during the Cold War

Edward Gallant is a Korean War defense veteran because he protected South Korea starting in 1966. During his time in Korea, he was stationed at Camp Howard near Osan to work on the monitoring system for missiles that could reach across many countries. This 40 foot computer was watched over constantly just in case it needed to be used during the Cold War against communists.



Edward A. Walker

Shipwrecks and Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced a rushed basic training so that his regiment could quickly join troops fighting in Korea in 1951. His transport ship struck a reef on the way to Korea which required rescuing seven hundred soldiers by an oil tanker. Upon arrival in Korea, his duties involved transporting troops to a variety of military stations. He also used parts from an abandoned US Jeep to create a generator for their unit.



Rolls of Film and a Girlfriend

Edward Walker took photos of the Korean boy he hired to cut his hair and of Korean women carrying their babies on their backs. He sent rolls of film home to his girlfriend, Shirley. Shirley joined the interview and said she missed her boyfriend so much and she cried while he was away. Shirley also noticed that textbooks in New Zealand did not feature much content on Asia, so many people did not know where the men were fighting.



Truckin': The Relative Freedom of Army Truck Drivers

Edward Walker experienced relative freedom as an Army transport truck driver. On one trip, his truck separated from the convoy to take a shortcut recently built by the Americans. Another memory involves the excitement of transporting rowdy Welsh soldiers to the front lines at night.



Edward B. Heimann

Marine Rotation

Edward Heimann describes the Marine rotation on the front lines in Korea before the draft. He explains that when the Marine sector in North Korea was hard hit, they were asked to volunteer to fill in on the front lines. He recalls how the North Koreans seemed to know when new Marines were being rotated in and describes how the North Koreans would hit them the hardest when the new Marines arrived.



Edward Brooks

Night Patrol to Apprehend Migun Wianbu

Edward Brooks patrolled at night to catch American soldiers looking for US military comfort women & their pimps. They apprehended them on many occasions.
The comfort women and their pimps were turned into the Korean authorities and then the soldiers were disciplined for their illegal actions.



Was the Korean War a Police Action?

Dr. Han, the interviewer, made the statement that, "some say the Forgotten War was a police action. Do you agree with that?" Edward Brooks replied by saying that, "when someone is shooting at you and you have to shoot back, that's not police action." Edward Brooks continued by saying, "And with what's going on over there today we need to be there in case situations begin to flare up."



Edward C. Sheffield

Surrounded by the North Koreans

Edward Sheffield describes the events leading to his capture by the North Koreans. He recalls receiving incoming fire and being surrounded roughly fifty miles outside of Seoul. He comments on the poor treatment he endured as a POW.



Bayonets and Belts

Edward Sheffield describes the physical treatment he endured from his North Korean captors. He shares that he was stabbed with a bayonet as well as kicked when he was first taken prisoner. He recalls thinking they might kill him due to possessing a belt he had taken as a souvenir.



Edward Hoth

Thanksgiving in Hungnam

Edward Hoth met Felix DelGiudice and Myron "Jack" Leissler at the mess hall on Thanksgiving. Their regiments joined together and Edward Hoth's rifle platoon supported the regiment by using machine gun support at Heungnam.



Battle of the Chosin Reservior

Edward Hoth fought in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the winter of 1950. The weather was 42 below zero and it was so cold that guns became sluggish while oil froze on the guns.



Christmas in Korean War and Iron Triangle

Edward Hoth was excited to receive two Christmas dinners, one from the Marines and the Navy including turkey, candy, and beer. After Christmas he fought in the Iron Triangle at Cheorwon and then he went to Wonsan, North Korea where he found many dead soldiers along the road.



Edward L. Kafka

Inchon Landing and Radioman Training

Edward Kafka landed at Inchon in April 1952 and the military switched his MOS (military operational specialty) from surveyor to radioman while being stationed two miles from the front lines. While dealing with severe battles every day, he deciphered messages that were send through Morris Code from the outposts.



Life as a Soldier in Korea War

Edward Kafka worked near a mess hall and the headquarter's battery since he ran radios. Therefore, he had access to a shower once a week and he was able to get clean clothes too.



Korean Terraign and Fighting in Major Battles in Korean War

Edward Kafka described the mountains and farm land that reached all over that land. He fought at Heartbreak Ridge, the Iron Triangle, and Porkchop Hill.



Edward Langevin

Hawk Missile

Edward Langevin learned how to repair Hawk (Homing All the Way to Killer) missiles which are semi-active radar surface to air missiles. He spent 40 weeks in Huntsville, Alabama for basic training. While in Korea, he did repairs on the missiles near the DMZ.



DMZ and Seoul during 1969

Edward Langevin describes his time in Korea in 1969. He remembers that it was “kinda scary” at the DMZ where they were repairing missiles because everyone was always on alert. However, he also got to enjoy good times that included sightseeing around Seoul. His two cousins also served in Korea and he found one of their names in a recreation book during his time there.



Edward Mastronardi

We Were Alone and the Chinese Were Everywhere

Edward Mastronardi described the scene at hill 464 and 467 as two humps on a camel. They lacked communication due to the terrain (mountains), no air support, and overcast caused artillery to shoot without knowing directly what it was going to hit since the visibility was so bad. Edward Mastronardi brought Colonel up to witness several hundred Chinese only yards away, so the Colonel wanted to take out his 9 mm to attack the several hundred Chinese himself! They decided that attempting to attack the Chinese was too much, but they did it anyway and didn't succeed in taking Hill 464.



The Enemy Was Wearing Panchos

Edward Mastronardi described how the Chinese stole ponchos worn by the Americans and they found an American machine gun that they were planning to use in order to fire on the Royal Canadian Regiment. Edward Mastronardi also described a machine gunner named Jack Sergeant who single handedly held off the Chinese. Snipers within in his company took down 5 Chinese in a row trying to take over the enemy who were taking the machine guns and they were awarded for their efforts.



It Was About the Civilians...

Witnessing the conditions of the civilians firsthand, Edward Mastronardi was sympathetically moved by the Korean people. As the Americans advanced with tanks, guns, etc. through the Porchon Valley, they shot up everything. Knowing the Chinese did too, Edward Mastronardi witnessed so much destruction left behind. He told of a story about the Korean people dressed in white due to a funeral, and he noticed a woman lay, dying, and trying to still breast feed a dead baby. Edward Mastronardi was angry about the reckless killing of all people. It showed truly first hand what effect the war had on the Korean people.



"Let's Go You Bastards, You Can't Live Forever!"

Within 100+ yards of their objective to attack the Chinese at Hilltop 187 near Samich'on River, Edward Mastronardi described how close the shells were from the tops of their heads, but it didn't stop their advancements since the shrapnel flew forward not putting them in any immediate danger. Edward Mastronardi held his 9 mm gun in his hand and waived it in the air shouting to his men, "Let's go you bastards, you can't live forever!" Bravely charging ahead, breaking the Chinese hold without losing a single man, Edward Mastronardi fought the Chinese at Hill 187.



"Canada boy, tonight you die!"

Before the Battle of Song-gok Spur, a Chinese Company Commander walked straight up to the front line and leaned over and said, "Canada boy, tonight you die!" To which Edward Mastronardi replied, "Come and get us you SOB!" which was documented in the Canadian documentary 28 Heroes. They located the company Commander in Beijing after the war to interview about this event. The battle resulted in only 6 Canadian deaths.



Edward Redmond

Arriving in Pusan and Protecting the Pusan Perimeter

Edward Redmond sailed into Pusan on the Unicorn and was greeted by an all-African American regiment band playing music. After a dirty, 12 hour train ride, he and his troops had to dig in near the Nakdong River. When help was needed to protect the Pusan perimeter, Edward Redmond traveled into the Pesos To Mountains where he fought the North Koreans.



The Battle at Pyongyang

During the Battle at Pyongyang, Edward Redmond, his battalion had their first casualties. Everyone became very determined to fight. He believed that the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) and the Americans were not well-trained.



Retreat from the Yalu River

Edward Redmond was surrounded by evacuating Korean refugees. They were leaving behind burned houses and their land. After fighting the North Koreans back to the Yalu River, Edward Redmond held their spot until the Americans started to retreat which surprised the British Army.



Standing Up for a Good Cause with Help From Journalists

Edward Redmond lost some close friends while fighting in the Korean War. He was disappointed about the way the bodies of the fallen British soldiers were just quickly buried behind a building in Taegu. A reporter wrote down Edward Redmond's thoughts and published the information in a newspaper, but a top general didn't like information being leaked to the media, so he almost received a court martial.



Edward Rowny

Inchon Landing

Edward Rowny describes the planning of the Inchon landing in detail. He remembers how his team had to convince the Joint Chiefs of Staff to move forward with the plan, and this ultimately saved the Marine Corps. After explaining some of the logistics of the landing, Edward Rowny remembers the reaction of General MacArther when the landing was successful. He also describes how moving the troops forward across the Han River was a controversial decision. .



Why didn't MacArthur do more about the Chinese?

The interviewer gives some background about the Chinese involvement in early October. As a response, Edward Rowny explains that the numbers began slowly, and his staff reported this as a concern to a skeptical General Willoughby in Japan. Edward Rowny invited him to meet two of the Chinese that they had captured; Rowny said he had studied anthropology and know from the folds of their eyes that they were Chinese, but he was not believed. General Willoughby was mistaken, but, unfortunately, MacArthur believed him instead of Rowny and his corps.



Edward T. Smith

Becoming a POW during the Battle of Kunuri

Edward T Smith was taken as a POW during the Battle of Kunuri at the beginning of December in 1950. He remembers being with a few stragglers when they ran into a Command Post of Chinese. He states that they were told that they weren't being killed, but that the Chinese wanted prisoners.



Life in Camps

Edward T. Smith describes life in the camp. He said that most of the day focused on whatever work detail there was, often either wood or burial detail. He recalls how the Chinese tried to indoctrinate the prisoners and some believed it enough to move to China. He also remembers the cramped sleeping quarters and limited uniforms.



Edwin Maunakea, Jr.

Rescue at Nakdonggang River

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes his rescue of a Captain during fighting at the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about carrying the wounded soldier across the Nakdonggang River. He discusses what happened when he found medical help.



Crash and Burn

Edwin Maunakea Jr. describes an incident when a US Navy plane crashed nearby his location. He explains his attempt to rescue the downed pilot. During the rescue attempt, he explains how he was burned by a napalm bomb that exploded on the downed plane.



Edwin R. Hanson

The Incheon Landing on September 15, 1950

Ralph Gastelum explained about the ship circling the water around nightfall before landing on the beach and he recalled his personal experience in the large foxhole they took cover in. Edwin Hanson's boat was supposed to land around 5:00 PM as the 3rd wave, Boat 5, on Blue Beach at high tide, but they lost one of the tracks off of the vehicle which was why the were encircling the area before they could land. There was a jeep that had an electrical short in the horn and continued to honk as they were headed to shore unloaded out of the Amtrack and slogged their way through mud in the last remaining clean pair of Dungarees he had. Once they made it to shore down the road, they climbed a hill and 3 Soviet T-34 tanks coming right towards them. US forces hit the gas tanks located in the back of the tank, watching them blow up right in front of him.



Beyond the Beach During the Incheon Landing

After advancing over the next couple of days at Inchon, they were under attack by North Korean machine gunners that had dug a U-shaped fox hole and were shooting over Edwin Hanson and Ralph Gastelum. A mortar shell dropped onto the fox hole and the firing stopped. When they made it to the fox hole, the bodies of the 2 men were cut in half at the waist. The legs up to the hip and stayed in the fox hole while the rest of their bodies laid in the dirt along side the fox hole.



Edwin Hanson Captures His First POW

As they were advancing throughout Seoul, Edwin Hanson and his regiment came across a street intersection with sand bags filled on each corner that minimized the space from 30-40 ft wide down to 10 ft. A US Tank was hit by a North Korean sniper that was shooting with a 50 caliber automatic weapon, and Edwin Hanson was peaking around the corner to try and find where the sniper was located while the guys were crossing the intersection, but his section leader, Howe, had been shot in the heel. Therefore, he put his M2 Carbine on automatic in an attempt to shoot into a building he thought the sniper was located and he said he, "fell right on his ass." When Edwin Hanson stood up, a North Korean soldier came into view and he stuck the gun up to the North Korean, but instead of killing him, he captured the North Korean soldier.



Experiences During the Wonsan Landing

After the Seoul recapture, the men were now at the Wonsan Landing where they were sent to secure a pass that North Koreans were using to get away. The North Koreans had barricaded the road and began to open fire on US troops. Edwin Hanson described how over 93 North Koreans were killed and 7 US troops were killed including Sergeant Beard from his regiment.



The Chosin Reservoir Being Overrun at Kor-'o-ri

The first Chinese Edwin Hanson encountered at Kor-'o-ri was at night about 5 meters away. The enemy was carrying a Thompson submachine gun and it missed Edwin Hanson after firing 2 rounds at him. Flares were thrown into the sky to detect the location of the enemy and that's when Edwin Hanson (at the time he was on top of a hill looking down at their camp) discovered there were 5 Chinese at their tents. Edwin Hanson threw 4 grenades and 2 went off, so the following morning he went down and picked up the 2 that didn't go off and threw the remaining grenades at their front lines. Edwin Hanson ended up saving Ralph Gastelum's life when he threw those grenades because it gave Ralph Gastelum time to get out of the fox hole and run to the top of the hill.



First Shots at the Chinese at Chosin Reservoir

After the US knocked out tanks that were rolled up near their regiment, one of the Chinese enemy played dead near the campfire they were sitting at. As US troops were heating C-rations by the campfire, Edwin Hanson noticed about 15-20 yards away, the enemy had lifted up off the frozen ground. The Chinese troops had a burp gun to start to shooting at the US troops sitting by the campfire. Luckily, Edwin Hanson shot and killed the Chinese soldier attacking his regiment.



The Dead and Their Affects on PTSD

Ralph Gastelum described the number of bodies on the battlefield. They laid as far as the eye could see; both the enemy and their fallen comrades were frozen the way they had fell. There was a bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up. The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and built bitterness most US soldiers have for warfare. Edwin Hanson leaned over to point at his wife to recall what happens to him both awake and asleep, but they have learned to cope with it.



"Home by Christmas" Was Just a Rumor

After the Hamheung Evacuation, the US soldiers came down from the Chosin Reservoir and traveled to Masan to celebrate Christmas with the famous 'Home by Christmas' Dinner. This was when MacArthur gave a speech promising the men to be home before Christmas. Edwin Hanson said that this rumor was killed shortly after they got to Masan. "Chestee" was what Edwin Hason called MacArthur and he said that it was only a rumor because they wouldn't be going home. Edwin Hason didn't mind though; he was just excited to be aboard a ship and not in the Chosin Reservoir again.



I Jumped In Front of a Torpedo Bomber to Mail My Postcard

A Torpedo Bomber (plane) came through Kor-'o-ri to pick up wounded soldiers and it had the big bay door below it open to drop torpedoes. Edwin Hanson had a postcard that he wanted to deliver to his mother, but the bomber was about to leave without Edwin Hanson's mail. The bomber was sitting at the end of the runway, trying to take off, so Edwin Hanson ran down the middle of the runway blocking his takeoff and waving his letter. When he got up close, Edwin Hanson crawled up on the wing to an open window, so the bombardier took the postcard as Edwin Hanson slid down the wing.



Anxious Over Flamethrowers and Frogs

Edwin Hanson described preparing to launch the attack on Incheon. He also explained the first night ashore and the anxiety it caused the men in their foxholes. He described being extremely nervous about something moving in his foxhole which turned out to be a frog in the morning light.



Edwin Vargas

First Impression of Korea

Edwin Vargas gives his first impressions of Korea. He explains that while the hot summers did not bother him, he really struggled with the Cold Winter. While he didn't have the chance to interact with many people, he recalls that those he met were very friendly.



Fighting for a KATUSA

While he was company commander, Edwin Vargas had to advocate for his KATUSA when the KATUSA accidentally hit a South Korean soldier with a vehicle. The soldier was not hurt, but the KATUSA was about to get arrested until Edwin Vargas spoke to the commanding officer for the South Korean Regiment. After that, he became very good friends with this commanding officer.



Eilif Jorgen Ness

MASH Got it Right!

Eilif Jorgen Ness explains how the TV show, MASH, accurately displayed life in a MASH unit. He was amazed at how if faithfully depicted the camp set-up and living conditions. His one complaint is that the show overstated the use of helicopters which only became a major part of delivering the wounded toward the end of the war.



Elbert H. Collins

Living Conditions

Elbert Collins explains that they had to eat C-rations and smoke cigarettes from World War II. He describes the foxholes in which they slept, including the one in which he dug that flooded out. He admits that he was scared to death during this time and questioned why he was there.



Incheon Landing

In preparation for the Inchon Landing, Elbert Collins had to stay in a warehouse during a typhoon that came through the area. He remembers all of the preparation that they were given. He describes the instructions that they were given for the landing, but explains that he was so scared that he did not follow the directions.



Eleftherios Tsikandilakis

Preparation for Joining the Greek Army

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis didn't know anything about the Korean War when it began. He was a a civil servant that took care of the military horses. His specialty was to transfer food and ammunition on mules during the Korean War.



Entering the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis entered the Korean War in December 1950 and he entered through Pusan. After spending time there, he was sent through Seoul and then went onto the 38th parallel. During this whole time, he didn't have to fight any enemy.



Scars From the Korean War

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis suffered many injures during the Korean War. A grenade went off right by his face and he experienced pain and scaring to his right cheek. A military artillery shell blew up right by him and he almost lost his right leg and arm.



Destruction in Seoul

Eleftherios Tsikandilakis saw extreme hunger and destruction when he entered Seoul. It was so bad that he considered Korea to be 100 years before Greece in 1950. Korean children begged for food from UN troops as they exited restaurants and food tents.



Ellis Ezra Allen

Landing in the Pusan Perimeter

Ellis Ezra Allen shares his first impressions of Korea upon arriving. He recalls landing in the Pusan Perimeter in August of 1950 and remembers enemy fire beginning shortly after arrival. He describes being in charge of all wheeled vehicles and supplying men with ammunition.



Ellsworth Peterson

72 Days on the Front Line

Ellsworth Peterson talks about the difficulties of being on the front line without rest for 72 straight days. He describes the fear and experience of falling under the attack of heavy shelling. He elaborates on his unit suffering many casualties during these attacks.



Alone on a Chinese Outpost Raid

Ellsworth Peterson talks about a mission in which he and others in his unit raided a Chinese Outpost. In the skirmish, he describes finding himself separated from the other members of his party. Surrounded by Chinese soldiers, he laid down and pretended to be dead before making his way back behind friendly lines.



Ernest Benson

How to Earn a Promotion

Ernest Benson describes how he pursued opportunities for new training and promotion to get away from the mostly manual labor that he was initially assigned to do when he arrived in Korea. He thought that there must be a better way to be promoted. He explains that he got interested in being a forward observer and he went up the ranks quickly.



The Culture of Alcohol

Ernest Benson very frankly discusses the culture of alcohol that permeated base camp during the War.



Ernest J. Berry

Skating Over Dead People

Ernest J. Berry describes traveling by truck from Busan to the Han River. He recalls the unsettling realization that people were paid and encouraged to kill him. Upon arrival, he and his unit found Canadians skating on the frozen river, so the new arrivals joined them. Beneath the ice, he saw the faces of dead soldiers and people peering up at him.



"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



"Luxuries, which we dreamed of"

Ernest J. Berry describes being ordered to move out quickly at one point. His unit encountered an abandoned American M.A.S.H. outpost. He describes his amazement at encountering the luxurious conditions and resources the Americans had abandoned. Ernest J. Berry describes American abundance. When Americans left a camp, they buried their supplies. In contrast, New Zealand soldiers would have to pay for lost socks.



Service in Korea

Ernest J. Berry describes helping in delivering a baby during war. He also describes becaming ill during an attack and was rescued from a foxhole by an American M.A.S.H. unit. He was treated in the M.A.S.H. hospital and flown to Japan, where he watched many soldiers die from what he later learned was a hantavirus known as Korean hemorrhagic fever. Overall, he felt he had to go to help the people of Korea.



Ernesto Sanchez

Trench warfare like WWI

Ernesto Sanchez describes how serving in the Korean War was probably similar to World War 1, digging trenches, putting up fences and placing mines. As a result of creating a No Man's Land the forces were probably able to hold off the Chinese. Most noteworthy, Ernesto Sanchez also describes taking the Chinese soldiers as prisoners and how civilians would aid in this effort.



Attacked by 135,000 Soldiers

Ernesto Sanchez describes the night 135,000 Chinese soldiers attacked in an effort to push back UN Forces . The Chinese pushed the United Nations forces back, but with the help of the American Soldiers they were able to hold off the Chinese and no land was ultimately lost. This location was a strategic position because it was a gateway to Seoul.



Being Drafted and Making a Living

Ernesto Sanchez describes his mother's reaction to his being drafted. As a result, his mother said she would go with him, which clearly she could not. When first arriving in Korea, the US Army provided winter clothing due to the cold, but expected to Ernesto Sanchez and his platoon to walk from Incheon to Seoul. While walking he was able to hitchhike aboard some American tanks the distance to Seoul.



Eugene Buckley

Dog Tags Saved Eugene Buckley

Refusing to surrender while trapped in a ravine, Eugene Buckley and another soldier (O'Donnell) were climbing out of the ravine when they noticed a soldier who had been shot in the neck. Trying to save his life, Eugene Buckley was shot once in the shoulder and another shot went through his dog tags under his arm. He was lying on the ground trying to help another soldier who wouldn't make it out alive.



Hunger

Eugene Buckley was trying to make it back to the front line after escaping from the ravine when he and O'Donnell got on the back of a family ox cart and spent most of the day traveling. Not having eaten in 4 or 5 days, Eugene Buckley broke into a large container of applesauce and ate the whole thing. He said it wasn't long after that when they were back in the same situation of extreme hungry again.



Returning to the Front Line: Casualties and Hunger

The interviewer asked what happened to the rest of the platoon that was left behind, and Eugene Buckley replied that everyone had been massacred except for himself, O'Donnell, and another soldier. Eugene Buckley had dysentery at the time and he got back so the infirmary gave him a lollipop shaped pill that he consumed to help with the problem. He said when he went into the war, he was 165 pounds, but when he was taken for his wounds, he was only 95 pounds, practically a skeleton.



Eugene Dixon

Taking Terrritory in the Busan Perimeter

Eugene Dixon talks about the role of the United States Marines in securing the Busan Perimeter. He describes the sounds and smells he took in upon arrival in South Korea. He recalls the casualties he encountered during his first months in combat.



Incheon Landing

Eugene Dixon recalls landing at Incheon. He describes how this landing was a gamble on General McArthur's part as it relied heavily on high tide in the evening. He describes the reality of ships being stuck in mud during low tide.



Surrounded by the Enemy at Thanksgiving

Eugene Dixon gives a detailed explanation of encountering the Chinese soldiers just after Thanksgiving in 1950. He recalls being prohibited from crossing the 38th Parallel, and recounts his experiences during the landing at Wonsan. He describes having a hot Thanksgiving meal just before providing relief for other soldiers at the Chosin Reservoir, where the Chinese had cut the supply lines.



Home, Food, and Weather

Eugene Dixon describes how he communicated with his family through letter writing during the Korean War. He details experiences in eating combat rations, and recalls the difficulty in accessing food in extreme cold weather conditions. He recounts the impact of low temperatures on the functioning of weapons and communications devices. He describes the precautions he took to prevent having frost-bite during the war.



Eugene Evers

Shot Down in a RB-29 Over North Korea

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes being shot down. He explains flying over North Korea during his reconnaissance mission. He describes the Russian MiG that ultimately took him out of the sky.



Captured by The Chinese

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about his capture by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he was shot down on a reconnaissance mission over northern Korea. He describes the Chinese soldiers finding him and his experience with captivity.



Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the living conditions as a Prisoner of War. He explains the circumstances of his first seven months in North Korea. He elaborates on how he was treated by the Chinese and North Koreans.



Isolation in Chinese POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about being isolated in a Chinese POW camp. He describes his knowledge of Marine Colonel Frank Schwable. Schwable was a fellow POW in the Chinese prisoner camp.



Details of Living Conditions as a POW

Eugene "Gene" Evers describes the difficult daily living conditions of being a prisoner of war. He explains what it was like during a seven month period (July 1952-January 1953) as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp in North Korea.



Cold Nights in POW Camp

Eugene "Gene" Evers talks about the frigid nights he endured and conditions he was placed in as a prisoner in a Chinese POW camp.



Eugene Gregory

The Purpose of the Password

Eugene Gregory describes serving in artillery which placed him in an artillery fire support position off of the front lines where the combat was occurring. He recounts his duty of traveling between artillery bases to provide communication and to pass along the daily changing password. He shares that the purpose of the password was to ensure that those on guard duty knew who was a friendly and who may not be.



The Biggest Threat Support Faced

Eugene Gregory describes the dangers faced by artillery support and how they differ from the front lines of the battlefield. He shares that the biggest threats were not from rifle fire but from martyrs and artillery and recounts having to jump into foxholes often to take cover. He recalls the North Koreans and Chinese being very skillful in artillery weaponry and attributes their skill to their recognition of possessing limited ammunition resources.



Experiencing Fear

Eugene Gregory shares that he experienced fear while serving in Korea. He recounts his amphibious landing as the time he was most fearful due to having never been in combat and being unsure of whether the enemy would be there to counter the landing. He shares that as he became more experienced and more combat aware, the fear diminished but never went away.



Eugene Johnson

Chinese Treatment of Prisoners

In this clip, Eugene Johnson details his treatment by the Chinese Army after he became a Prisoner of War (POW).



Indoctrination

Eugene Johnson discusses the indoctrination and interrogation that he faced by the Chinese Army while he was a Prisoner of War (POW).



Eusebio Santiago

Night patrols

Eusebio Santiago describes bunkers and night patrols. The bunkers were about 4 feet high and 8 feet wide square. Men would live in bunkers due to the Chinese threat. While in the bunkers, soldiers did not have access to a shower for up to a month.



Loss in the Defense of Democracy

Eusebio Santiago describes the loss of a couple of fellow soldiers. The men were never found in their defense of South Korea. The soldiers of Puerto Rico were defending democracy, defending an attacked country. Eusebio Santiago describes defending against communism.



Everett G. Dewitt

Scary Moments

Everett G. Dewitt describes being in combat. He explains a particular incident when his unit was caught up in a fire-fight. The Air force cleared the way for them but they suffered many losses. He goes on to describe another incident that occurred several months later that involved being shelled by mortars.



Ezra Franklin Williams

The Battle of Bunker Hill

Ezra Frank Williams worked as an 81mm Mortar Forward Observer in the Battle of Bunker Hill. While conducting a patrol, he was wounded in his left knee. This event was the most memorable of his time in Korea.



Felix Byrd

Ist Marine Division.

In July 1950, Felix Byrd was called from the Reserves to go to Korea, where he participated in the Invasion of Incheon in Sept 1950. He describes himself as lucky because was in communications, behind the infantry, which was not as dangerous. He landed in Incheon and proceeded to Seoul, where he helped run the telephone lines to each military outfit.



A Week as an Infantryman

Felix Byrd describes a week where his outfit moved north, and he served with the infantry until they reached Hamhung, where they were evacuated. He recalls being shot at. He says they had to sleep without sleeping bags in 30-below temperatures.



Felix DelGiudice

Tootsie Rolls

Felix DelGiudice and his peers recall how important Tootsie Rolls were to them during the war. They explained how they were able to warm them up inside the soldiers' coat since they would often freeze in the weather. The Tootsie Rolls were not only a treat, but they were used for other purposes as well.



Freezing Cold Weather

Felix DelGiudice explains how cold it really got to be in Korea, with one night being 42 degrees below zero. This impacted their guns, the machinery, and even their bodily functions. While he says that its not something people like to talk about, it was the reality of their living conditions.



Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Felix DelGiudice participated in the Inchon Landing on September 15th and then fought the North Koreans during the Seoul recapture along with his 1st Marines Battalion. He remembers getting injured shortly after arriving in Korea. He also explains that Seoul was covered with sandbags, blown railroad tracks, and exploded glass domes from the railroad station.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Felix DelGiudice and his battalion describes how their battalion was ambushed and fourteen people were killed. He explains how the units were divided and argues that the General was in too much of a hurry. He remembers how much of a struggle the units had during that time.



Fidel Diaz

A Scary Place

Fidel Diaz describes how scary it was his first few nights in Korea after the Inchon Landing. He said that seeing the other soldiers that had been captured as an effective form of psychological warfare. He explains how close the North Koreans got to his foxhole.



Land Mine Injury

Fidel Diaz was traveling on foot with his South Korean partner through a field when they went under attack by the North Koreans. Both his South Korean partner and Field Diaz were injured from a land mine. He recalls getting treatment and the people and Bible that saved his life.



Only Seventeen

As a seventeen year old boy, Fidel Diaz says that he really didn’t have any other experiences to draw upon and was really unsure of what he was doing. He describes what happened as the unit headed down to Taegu. He shares a story of what happened to a woman that was pushing a wagon.



Forrest D. Claussen

Sleeping Near Artillery Fire Zones

Forrest Claussen describes arriving in Korea and not having sleeping quarters established yet. He explains how his group was sent to sleep inside a makeshift tent with artillery rounds and recalls artillery fire throughout the night. He adds that his group was later moved to other sleeping quarters.



Francis John Ezzo

Just Doing My Job

Francis Ezzo explains that he does not remember specific hills or battles because he was just doing his job. He describes being outnumbered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the Chinese were not well equipped as some did not have rifles or shoes.



Francisco Caicedo Montua

The Front and the Tyranny of the North - El Frente Militar y la Tiranía del Norte

Francisco Caicedo Montua discusses his first impressions of the front and the enemy. He spent seven months on the front lines of combat and over a year in the country. While most of his countrymen knew nothing of Korea prior to arriving, they were awestruck at the devastation in the nation and the lack of basic needs for the people. While he was aware that the Colombians would be fighting a communist and tyrannical regime, backed by China, they could not believe what the North was doing to the South. In seeing the hunger and tragedy in the nation, he further understood his role in the war.

Francisco Caicedo Montua comenta sobre las primeras impresiones del frente de la guerra y el enemigo. El pasó siete meses en el frente de combate y más de un año en el país. Aunque la mayoría de sus compatriotas no sabían nada sobre Corea antes de llegar, estaban asombrados por la devastación en la nación y la falta de necesidades básicas para la gente. Él sabía que los colombianos estarían luchando contra un régimen comunista y tiránico, respaldado por China, pero no podían creer lo que el Norte le estaba haciendo al Sur. Al ver el hambre y la tragedia en la nación, comprendió aún más porque Colombia se involucró en la guerra.



Difficult Moments during War - Momentos difíciles durante la guerra

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the first battle he encountered and the trench warfare in which his battalion supported American troops. He remembers patrolling the hills and thinking about how little experience he and his fellow Colombian soldiers had prior to arriving in the north. In order to engage the enemy into battle, they had to cross a narrow ridge as there were landmines surrounding the area and dead Chinese soldiers on the barbed wire. He describes the mortar attacks which were near his platoon they endured and the heroism of his fellow soldiers as they endured a day long battle. He recalls one of his soldiers, while bleeding heavily, asking the rest of his company to leave, but they refused.

Francisco Caicedo Montua describe la primera batalla que enfrentó y la guerra de trincheras en la que su batallón apoyó a las tropas estadounidenses. Recuerda que tenían que patrullar los cerros y en esos momentos Francisco pensaba en la poca experiencia que él y sus compañeros colombianos tenían antes de llegar al norte. Para enfrentar al enemigo en la batalla, tuvieron que cruzar una cresta en la cual habían minas por toda la área y soldados chinos muertos en el alambre de púas. Describe los ataques de mortero que cayeron cerca de su pelotón y el heroísmo de sus compañeros mientras pelearon una batalla que duró un día. Uno de sus soldados, mientras sangraba mucho, le pidió al resto de su compañía que se fueran, pero ellos no estaban dispuestos a dejarlo solo.



Recognition of the Importance of the Colombian Troops - Reconocimiento de la importancia de las tropas Colombianas

Francisco Caicedo Montua recalls many important targets were captured by the Colombian troops while advancing to Kumsong. He describes the fighting which took place alongside the platoon led by Lieutenant Agustin Angarita Niño, and he discusses the important targets captured on the way to the Trans-Siberian railway. Resulting from this mission, the Commander of the 8th Army, General James Van Fleet, made a public recognition which was published in the newspapers. As Commander of the United Nations in Korea he stated: “I congratulate the Battalion Colombia for its outstanding action during the battle. It is interesting to underline that it was the first and sole allied from South America in Korea. It was also the first element of the United Nations in reaching the vital target of Kumsong. This fact is itself enough to put the Battalion Colombia as a unit of the highest importance to restrain the communist aggression in Korea. General James Van Fleet.”

Mientras avanzaba el Batallón Colombia hacia Kumsong, las tropas colombianas capturaron muchos objetivos importantes. Francisco Caicedo Montua describe los combates junto al pelotón liderado por el teniente Agustín Angarita Niño y comenta sobre los objetivos importantes que capturaron en el camino hacia el ferrocarril Transiberiano. Como resultado de esta misión, el Comandante del 8º Ejército, general James Van Fleet, hizo un reconocimiento público, que fue publicado en muchos periódicos. Como Comandante de las Naciones Unidas en Corea el dijo : “felicito al Batallón Colombia por su sobresaliente actuación en combate, es interesante en subrayar que fue el primero y único aliado de Sudamérica en Corea y fue también el primer elemento de las Naciones Unidas en alcanzar el objetivo vital de Kumsong, este hecho basta por sí solo para colocar al Batallón Colombia como unidad de la más alta importancia de nuestro esfuerzo para contener la agresión comunista en Corea. General James Van Fleet."



Trench Warfare and Faith - Guerra de trincheras y la Fe de los Soldados

Francisco Caicedo Montua describes the stories that war writes for each individual soldier. He describes how he survived machine gun fire and mortar attacks by Chinese troops during a fierce battle. He offers a first hand account of a battle in which a Chinese bunker was taken over after intense fighting in which his platoon advanced into enemy lines. He credits this victory, and the fact that none of his men died in the conflict, to the Virgin Mary. The portrait that he carried to battle hangs over his bed to this day.

Francisco Caicedo Montua habla de las historias que la guerra escribe para cada soldado. Durante una feroz batalla, describe cómo sobrevivió al fuego de una ametralladora y a los ataques de mortero de las tropas chinas. Él ofrece un relato de primera mano de una batalla en la que un búnker chino fue tomado después de intensos combates en los que su pelotón avanzó hacia la posición de los enemigos. Él atribuye esta victoria y el hecho de que ninguno de sus hombres murieron en la batalla a la Virgen María. El retrato que él llevó a la guerra todavía cuelga sobre su cama hasta el día de hoy.



Frank Abasciano

Landing at Incheon

Veteran Frank Abasciano describes landing at Incheon. He explains that there was a lot of small arms fire when he was there. He remembers how they dropped the LSTs and the landing was not ideal.



The Chosin Reservoir

Veteran Frank Abasciano describes how it felt to be in the Chosin Reservoir alongside a WWII Battle of the Bulge veteran. He remembers being trapped there for several nights and that the WWII veteran said that their situation in Korea was worse. Frank Abasciano explains how they "didn't even have a chance to be afraid."



Escaping the Chosin Reservoir with Frostbite

Frank Abasciano was a radioman and had communication between the companies. He describes how cold the Chosin Reservoir felt and his frostbite. He explains that they only had a pair of combat boots. He still suffers the effects of the frostbite today.



Frank Churchward

Arriving in Korea Busan to Incheon

Frank Churchward describes his arrival in Korea. He explains how he landed in Busan to Icheon. He shares about a project that was finishing up when he arrived. He also shares how the area has since changed.



Frank E. Butler

Enlisted at Age Fifteen

Frank E. Butler enlisted in the New Zealand Navy in 1951. He completed basic training in Auckland before sailing to Korea aboard the HMNZS Kaniere. At fifteen, he was the youngest New Zealand soldier to go to Korea. He traveled to Pusan, Seoul, and North Korea. He describes being under constant attack by North Koreans.



Frank E. Cohee Jr.

"War Just like Any War”

Frank Cohee served in both the Korean and Vietnam Wars and was asked about the difference. In Korea he says that they always knew where the front line was, but in Vietnam there didn’t seem to be a front line. He recalls that they both were “war just like any war.”



Frank Torres

Experiences at the Inchon Landing

Frank Torres describes being part of Inchon landing. He discusses how the group made ladders for the terrain. He shares a story about witnessing the death of his commanding officer. He describes the dangerous situation.



The Reality of the Front Lines

Frank Torres describes defending a pass at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes situations he experienced on the frontlines. He shares the outcomes of his experience and provides insight into the reality of decisions that are made under those conditions.



Frank Zielinski

Surrounded on "The Frozen Chosin"

Frank Zielinski trained as a machine gunner and landed at Incheon with General MacArthur. One of his friends drowned clambering over the side of the ship to go ashore. Another died in Incheon when North Koreans attacked their encampment as they slept. The soldiers lived in trenches on the front lines, sometimes without proper equipment. At times, his division was surrounded by North Koreans and Chinese.



The Hell of Living in Trenches

Frank Zielinski was stationed at Old Baldy when the Armistice went into effect. He remembers the danger of living in cold trenches filled with water. The enemy would attack at night, so soldiers stayed awake to guard their positions. With no hot food available, C-rations included pork and beans, cookies, cigarettes, and instant coffee. Soldiers would leave part of their rations for the children living in nearby villages.



Returning Home

Frank Zielinski describes the use of Korean "house boys" by various officers, though he himself did not take on a house boy. KATUSAS brought food up the paths to the front lines to feed soldiers. At Thanksgiving, the KSCs delivered much-appreciated turkey. Korea taught Frank Zielinski to respect and protect others.



Franklin M. Sarver, Jr.

Calculation of Combat Pay

Franklin Sarver, Jr. describes the responsibility he was assigned to calculating enlisted men's pay. He shares how he and a small group of men handled the payment of soldiers. He explains the criteria necessary to receive combat pay.



Losing One's Lunch

Franklin M. Sarver, Jr. describes being on the ship heading to Asia. He describes the seasickness him and others experiences. He shares memories of that time on the ship.



The Armistice

Franklin M. Sarver, Jr. explains how he was in the middle of fighting when the Armistice was signed. He shared the struggle of getting a count of all the men within 48 hours. He shares how the job got done.



Franklin O. Gillreath

Barbed Wire Fence along the Yalu River

Franklin Gillreath describes the march north as a prisoner of war (POW) deep into North Korea. He explains that villages would be emptied so that the prisoners could be stowed in the huts of North Korean civilians where there was only enough room to sit up. He describes the camp along the Yalu River where barbed wire used to keep in cattle was the only border between him and escape.



Lice Popping Contests

Franklin Gillreath describes the grass mats they were given to sleep on in the POW camps. He explains that the mats were infested with lice as well as the clothes they were forced to remain in for two years. He describes contests between the captured men to see who could kill the most lice between their fingers.



Fred Barnett

Life in the Camp

Fred Barnett describes life at the camps. He describes the food, showers, etc, generally saying that life wasn't too bad and that the food was actually better than what he was getting at home. He says he had a good time in the camp, as he was away from the front lines.



Fred J. Ito

Thanksgiving at Usan

Fred Ito describes Thanksgiving in Usan. The 25th Division came to relieve the 2nd Battalion while they enjoyed their turkey, but the Chinese unit, which had been hiding behind the mountains, made a big offensive against the 25th Division, including Fred Ito's friend. Fred Ito and some of the 2nd Battalion went back to help, but found themselves having to escape through the deep river.



Fred Liberman

Fearing For One's Life

Fred Liberman experienced many situations of death while he was in Korea, but in this clip, he describes a moment when he thought he was going to be killed. As his group was being attacked on a hill, he found himself in a hole in the line of fire of a Chinese soldier with a burp gun. Fortunately, he was able to escape and began shooting back at the enemy.



Fred Liddell

The capture of Fred Liddell: POW

Fred Liddell was captured by the Chinese in May 1951 at Hill 151 (Jirisan Mountain). His regiment was supposed to hold this hill until the US artillery saturated the hill. As Fred Liddell went down a slope around rocks, he met up with the Marines that were milling around near multiple vehicles on fire. The Chinese surrounded the US soldiers even as Fred Liddell was killing some of them in the bushes. Injured US soldiers were burned to death in a hut while over 300 POWs were forced to march to a cave and then onto Camp Suan.



Valuable Historical Context: 1949

Fred LIddell knew a lot about the conflicts that occurred in East Asia including Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and China. Most American soldiers knew very little of this geographic area, let alone the differing political ideologies present. Fred Liddell and his fellow soldiers who had served and traveled in East Asia became more aware of the reasons for the turmoil in East Asia as the war continued.



Comparing POW Camps

Fred Liddell had to survive in multiple POW camps from 1951 through 1953 when he was released. At Camp Suan (the mining camp), there was a "hospital," but it was really a death house. Fred Liddell tried to feed a friend of his that was in the death house, but he didn't survive the next day. The surviving POWs were allowed to bury their follow soldiers, but only in a 2 foot grave. Fred Liddell is surprised that some of the bodies of POWs have been identified and sent back to the US.



Korean War POW PTSD

Fred Liddell suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the experiences that he had to endure as a POW during the Korean War. Nightmares would come every night where Fred Liddell was running from the North Koreans because they performed terrible torturous acts on POWs such as stabbing and shooting soldiers for no reason. Many people would think that the Chinese would be worse, but Fred Liddell saw first-hand the terror created by the North Koreans.



POW Release and Chinese Propaganda

Fred Liddell was released from Panmunjom on September 5, 1953 and then sent to Incheon by helicopter with other inured POWs. He remembered that one horse patrol North Korean soldier led the POWs toward their release at Tent City near Panmunjom. The first meal he received from the US when he was released was roast beaf, baked potatoes, and peas, but it tore up his stomach. Listening to the Chinese lectures was the worst part of being a POW because they spoke about a variety of topics, but Fred Liddell believed that anyone who attended school knew that it was all lies.



Letters From Home as a POW

Fred Liddell received letters from his wife who delivered their baby right after he was released from the hospital, but before he became a POW. He received a picture from his wife and the baby and it was supposed to contain a religious medal, but the medal was taken. Fred Liddell was so upset that he screamed at the leaders of the POW camp and was punished by standing overnight with his arms outreached. He was thankful that another man, who had been thrown through the door, was there to lean on during those long hours.



Fred Ragusa

"I'll Tell You What You Can Do with Those Poles"

Fred Ragusa recalls an incident when his troop was under intensive fire, coming from both sides. When they lost communication, one of his peers grabbed a spool of wire and ran up a hill to reconnect communication, risking his life. While this sergeant survived, he was reprimanded for disrespect until the superiors realized how important his act was.



"We Were Glad to be Alive"

Fred Ragusa recalls one of his scariest experiences in Korea. In a mission to try to bring jets into the area, the smoke round burst into two because the density of it was not correct. As he was running toward that unit, the smoke rose as the jets were coming in with napalm. Fortunately, the jets did not fully come in and the troops were just glad to be alive.



Fredrick Still

Running a Road Grader

Fredrick Still describes his job in Korea, maintaining roads as a part of the 116th Combat Engineer Battalion. Because of his experience on the farm, he was familiar working with heavy equipment, but his first hand road grader was too dangerous due to the rocky terrain. He explains that he then got a motorized road grader that was much easier to operate after a few days.



Galip Fethi Okay

Korean War Experience

Galip Fethi Okay describes his Korean War experience. He was stationed at three different fronts during the war (Vegas, Elco and Berlin). He was also at Sand Bag Castle. Galip Fethi Okay also describes his injury from shrapnel that hospitalized him for two months. For his service, he earned many medals.



In Korea, Now

Galip Fethi Okay describes his arrival into a war zone. His brigade was relieving the previous brigade. He describes the reaction of the previous brigade's men. The previous brigade was so happy to be leaving Korea. He also describes the conditions of the Korean people.



Gene C. Richards

Avoiding the Final Mission

Gene C. Richards earned 4 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters in addition to his Air Medal. He was one mission away from earning his fifth. He was determined to make one last mission, however, last minute was convinced not to make the attempt. Gene C. Richards describes how he is grateful to not have taken that mission due to that plane being shot down.



Gene Jordan

A Pile of Rubble

Gene Jordan describes what it was like when he landed in Incheon. He describes the horrific scene and the utter despair of Korean children. He describes the shock he experienced from the damage and civilians begging for food.



Night Patrolling

Gene Jordan describes being on the trench line at night for thirty days straight during the Korean War. He describes how the enemy was on one side and they were on the other. He explains that it was a stationary war at this point, and how they lived in the trench lines and bunkers in extremely cold weather.



Gene Peeples

The 7th Med Battalion

Gene Peeples describes his role as a combat medic in the 7th Med Battalion. He describes combat medics rotating between different units every two weeks. He explains that he would spend time with engineering troops, then switch to another unit such as infantry.



Mostly Gunshot Wounds

Gene Peeples describes his treatment of the most common wounds he encountered as a medic during the Korean War. He explains his quick treatment of gunshot wounds before sending injured soldiers off to evacuation. He also describes another of the most common conditions they saw in the hospital, venereal disease.



Gene Spicer

Empathy for the Dead

Gene Spicer recounts his most difficult memories from Korea. The image of a dead Chinese soldier stuck in his mind. It reminds him of the reality of war and its consequences for families and the young.



Geoffrey Grimley

Recollections of Korea

Geoff Grimley remembers seeing Korea for the first time and observing telegraph lines down and burning T-34 tanks. He speaks about having to sleep in a field and waking up with frost on his things, but he says it was better than school because he would get a beating every day. He briefly recalls the Battle of Kapyong.



George A. Edwards

Typical Day as A Reconnaissance Pilot

George Edwards describes the reconnaissance missions on which he would fly. While every day was different, they often had to go out and take pictures of the area. His trips included photographing the Yalu River and much further north in Korea.



The Process of Taking Reconnaissance Pictures

George Edwards explains that he would fly solo missions to take photos. He states that the quality of the photos were rather good. He remembers that they would process the film upon returning back to base and would them disseminate it to whoever needed it.



George Brown

Family Hears News Of Their Son's Death

After hearing the news that their son had been captured and identified as Missing In Action on July 7, 1950, the family was identified by the US military. Soldiers who had returned to the states told the family that Arthur Leroy Brown was being held at the Prisoner of War at Camp 5 in Pyoktong, North Korea. It was later discovered that Arthur Leroy Brown died on his 21st birthday in January of 1951. Some of the returning soldiers told his family that Arthur Leroy Brown had suffered from complications due to Beriberi.



Regrets Of Hearing About Their Son's Death

Arthur Leroy Brown's parents were hit very hard by the news that their son had died. His mom was pregnant with their first daughter and Arthur Leroy Brown was so excited to tell his regiment the news. Before Arthur Leroy Brown left for bootcamp, he got into a scuffle with his dad because his dad didn't want him quitting school to go into the Army.



The Burial of a POW

George Brown was only 6 years old at the time when he heard his brother had died. Arthur Leroy Brown's family was too poor to afford a burial closer to home, so he was buried in Hawaii after his body was found. At his temporary burial in North Korea, the ground was frozen solid, so they could only dig a shallow grave. It was devastating to George Brown and his brothers since they were older and they could really understand the devastation of the death of a family member.



George Dixon

Death Soon After Arrival

George Dixon was sent two miles into North Korea after landing in Incheon in February 1952. His squad leader kept a close watch on him since he did not have infantry training; George Dixon was shot in the helmet during this time, but his protective squad leader was killed right next time. Shortly after this, George Dixon explains how he captured the first POW for his regiment



George Drake

A Life Abroad Before Korea

Dr. George Drake explains how growing up in poverty affected his life decisions. He describes his travels to South America and Europe before enlisting into the United States Army. He recounts wanting to be a part of the Army Corps of Engineers to study topography, but he was placed with Intelligence instead.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



Radio Transmitters, Ghost Towns, and Orphanages in Seoul

George Enice Lawhon Jr.'s job in the US military was to fix a BC 610 (a Collins radio Transmitter). When he arrived in Seoul, there was not anyone there and it was a ghost town. Sadly, some old and young people found in a rice field shot and bayonetted. He had a Chaplin in his group that started an orphanage for Korean children because there were so many that were left alone.



PTSD on Korean War and War on Terror Veterans

George Enice Lawhon Jr. was assigned to the Korean War for one year because the US government knew that men couldn't handle the mental stress of warfare. He recognizes the strain on present-day veterans when they are sent back to war zones over and over again because they'll need mental help. George Enice Lawhon Jr. and his wife knew that the veterans' hospital is going to need to take in a lot more veterans to make sure that they can handle the transition back to civilian life.



Korean Reunification

George Enice Lawhon Jr. felt the impact of the Korean War on his life with a lot of tears. He felt that he did his job well as a communications officer during the war, but there are still problems with the relationship between North and South Korea. George Enice Lawhon Jr. identified the need for the North Korean government to speak to its people to find out what would be best for them and then there might be a chance for reunification of the Korean nation.



George J. Bruzgis

Befriending The KATUSA

Short on men within his own division, the KATUSA pictured with George Bruzgis is Corporal Yu daek yoo. He described him as a great man and he was considered a part of the division. George Bruzgis mentioned how little the KATUSA was paid, so the men in his division pitched in 5 dollars each, so that they could paying him over 20 dollars a month. This was a lot of money in 1953.



Signed To Cease Fire; Look What We Hit!

George Bruzgis vividly recalled on July 26, 1953, a Major approached them with a document they (both US and ROK) had to sign agreeing that at 10 p.m. on July 27, 1953, they had to stop firing their weapons. Shortly afterwards, a two-ton truck arrived taking most of their ammunition away, so they wouldn't shoot. However, at 6 a.m on July 27, 1953, they got a phone call that they were given coordinates to fire 5 rounds on what they thought maybe a cave or a bunker. He later learned in 2000 when he received a battalion pamphlet, his story of that morning was located within it saying his division destroyed a Chinese Observation Post.



Being hit; In-Going Mail, and Out-Going Mail

George Bruzgis shared some of the most difficult and horrible experiences during the war. He recalled knowing the sound of artillery shells coming and going (nicknamed it In-going mail and Out-going mail). Before he closed the tank, he could see the enemy close. After firing, they found the men in bloody pieces, and he still can't get that scene out of his head.



R&R, Hitchhiking, and Trench Injuries, Oh My!

After reenlisting in the military in March 7, 1954, George Bruzgis was given a 30 day leave and 7 day R&R in Japan, but he had difficulty getting back to Korea since the French were fighting in Indochina.
After finally being shipped to Pusan, he had to hitchhike for 3 days to get back to his unit. George Bruzgis would rest/sleep along his hike by signing paper work that would allow him to eat and sleep before moving to the next Army unit and so forth. After he met up with his division, he fell into a trench and injured his knees for 2 weeks.



George P. Wolf

Flying in the Berlin Airlift

George Wolf was a pilot in the Air Force during the Berlin Airlift after WWII. He provided food, but mostly coal to the people living in West Berlin during the Russian blockade. He flew the same path that the famous, Gail Halvorsen, flew during the 11-month blockade.



Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf was a "Mosquito" pilot who flew reconnaissance missions in support of Army infantry. These missions took him very low to the ground. Tanks would hide under foliage and shoot at his plane from the ground.



Scouting Troop Movement During the Battle of Jipyeongri

George Wolf was a Mosquito pilot during the Korean War who located enemy troops and directed fighters during the Battle of Jipyeongri. During the February 1951, he helped provide information from the air to help lead the UN troops to victory. This was a tough battle against the Chinese troops near the village of Chipyong-ni, present time Jipyeong-ri.



The Role of a Mosquito Pilot

George Wolf's role during the Korean War was that he was a Mosquito pilot that provided reconnaissance for UN nations. The Chinese wore dark green uniforms and he only flew 100 feet off the ground. Both the North Koreans and Chinese would hid really well with their camouflage uniforms.



Nobody Believed Us

George Wolf encountered Chinese troops early in the war while performing reconnaissance as a Mosquito pilot in February 1951. He reported many times about Chinese presence, but he felt they were ignored. In late October through early November 1951, George Wolf saw thousands of Chinese cross the Cheonggyecheon River, so he reported this information to the US intelligence officers, but they did not believe that the Chinese were fighting in the Korean War.



Air Force's Job in the Korean War

George Wolf remembered how many of the US troops would say, "Thank goodness for the Air Force!" US pilots worked with Australian, South African, New Zealanders, and British pilots during the war. George Wolf easily recognized the British by their accent and he loved the Australians' sayings during combat.



George Staples

Service in Korea

George Staples describes is role in the Korean War. He piloted a Huey B-35 and transported wounded soldiers from the front lines to MASH. The enemy shot through the helicopter, hit George Staples in the abdomen and leg and the helicopter could not make it back to base. However, George Staples was able to return to US controlled land north of Incheon and was taken to MASH.



Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. Because of his service George Staples is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. Above all the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



Nightmares of War

George Staples describes the horrors of combat. He describes how these events have haunted him, seeing the wounded men. The events of flying into the frontline and saving men show up in his dreams and he cannot forget. George Staples describes these events as PTSD.



George Sullivan

Impressions of Korea

George Sullivan talks about his experiences in Korea during the 1950s. He remembers how cold the weather was and how destitute the South Koreans were. He recalls many of them living in tents or broken down cars and shares that Seoul was totally destroyed. He is amazed at the transformation South Korea has made over the last half century and adds that he really enjoys kimchi.



Pushed Back by China

George Sullivan recalls experiencing the push back to Busan by Chinese forces. He remembers hearing that General MacArthur said they were going to push back. During the push back, his tank broke, and he ended up in hand-to-hand combat with a Chinese soldier. He recounts that his arm was cut by a bayonet and had to be treated.



On the Front Lines

George Sullivan recounts his experiences in tanks along the front lines. He shares his tank unit had a direct confrontation with the enemy and recalls being wounded in the leg by gunfire. He comments on his fortune that it did not break any of his bones. He shares he continued to fight after he was mended.



The Most Severe Battle

George Sullivan shares he lost a cousin at the Battle at Heartbreak Ridge. He remembers digging a trench and crawling into it. He recalls not being able to move the next morning and shares he ended up with malaria. He recounts how he healed after a short hospital stay and returned to the front lines.



George Warfield

Military Reconnaissance

George Warfield was in the reserves when he was called into active duty. He was sent to Fort Campbell for two to three weeks to retrain for war. After training, he was shipped to Japan to set up for the Korean War with the 25th Reconnaissance Company, 25th Division. As a radio operator in a reconnaissance company, he had to find the enemy, go to fill-in the front line if the enemy broke the line, and he was the last unit to retreat.



Destruction on Christmas Eve

George Warfield landed in Korea on December 24, 1950 and had Christmas Eve dinner on the ship before he was dropped off at Inchon harbor. He counted 17 tanks that went out to battle from Inchon, but only 1 came back the next morning after fighting. George Warfield passed through Euijeongbu one night and saw the terrible conditions for civilians, but he did not stay in any location longer than a day.



Experiences Working With the Turkish Troops

George Warfield worked with the Turkish Army and they were tough. The Turkish Army even practiced hand-to-hand combat with their own troops to stay battle-ready. George Warfield said that he would fight with them against an enemy at any time.



George Zimmerman

Working as a welder for transportation company

George Zimmerman worked at the Transportation Headquarters at Camp Casey. Because of his experience welding in FFA in high school, he volunteered to serve as the company's welder. Occasionally he would 'go to the field,' using his welding skills to repair damaged vehicles. During these forays, KATUSA soldiers accompanied him for training. They traveled to areas near the DMZ and to Seoul, wherever troops needed their services.



Well Worth It

George Zimmerman describes the landscape of Korea as "something else." Winters were especially cold near the DMZ and the Chosin Reservoir. He is still amazed at the soldiers trying to get from one hill to the next in battle. At one point, he had permission to take R and R in Japan, but he felt too committed to his work in Korea and turned it down. George Zimmerman reminds students of today that Korea was important, with terrible loss of life for an important cause.



Georgios Hahlioutis

Tears in My Eyes

George Hahlioutis describes how it felt to see Korea for the first time. He explains how he could see the destruction. He also shares the pain and suffering he saw of the locals as well as the hungry children.



Thoughts of a Soldier

George Hahlioutis describes being instructed to shoot at two figures with the help of an interpreter. He explains that there could have been North Korean but he believes in his heart he didn't kill anyone. He shares how he feels regret about his actions but is glad he helped the Korean people.



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Battle of the Hook 1953

Gerry Farmer describes the Battle of the Hook and how he was wounded. He says the Hook was action from the start compared to Hill 159. He recalls there being four or five solders in the bunker which connected to trenches and other bunkers. He adds there were different types of patrols.



Wounded

Gerry Farmer describes being wounded at the Hook after he volunteered to drive a jeep to Area 3. He remembers he was blown forty yards from the jeep, and adds he still has injuries and shrapnel in his back. He recalls being transported to a Norwegian MASH and then to Seoul where he underwent three operations.



Gerald Edward Ballow

Jubilation after Inchon Landing

Gerald Ballow remembered the jubilation that took place after the successful Inchon Landing took place. He also felt that General MacArthur was doing a fantastic job during the Korean War and that it was Generals George Marshal and Omar Bradley's jealousy that flushed General MacArthur out of the Korean War.



Crossing the Yalu River

Gerald Ballow expresses his opinions about what he considers an “intelligence disaster” at the Yalu River. He believes that the officers knew that the Chinese were amassing across the river before they got there. He explains how the US was completely outnumbered by the Chinese and there were not any additional troops to send up there to help fight the Chinese.



GHQ 1st Raider Company

Gerald Ballow describes the book he wrote about the GHQ 1st Raider Company that was made up of the soldiers in General MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. He explains that soldiers fought through the Chosin Reservoir and they helped with the Inchon landing too. He describes their roles and what they achieved during the Korean War.



Gerald Land

Bayonet Checks "Across His Neck"

Gerald Land admitted he had never heard of Korea before he was sent and he described his Marine friend, Bill Carroll, of Fox Company, who Gerald Land thought had been wiped out at the "Frozen Chosin." Bill Carroll managed to survive after being shot by laying on the ground pretending to be dead during "bayonet checks". His friend recalled the bayonet sliding across his neck, but he survived and woke up on the hospital ship even though he wanted to go back with his Company. A soldiers' best advice was, "don't get captured!"



Government Issued (G.I.) Gear

When they arrived at Inchon, Gerald Land had to wear khakis and a short sleeve shirt in the middle of the winter while traveling to Chuncheon. Once the soldiers arrived at Chuncheon, they were given two pairs of long underwear, a towel, soap, brush, pants, fatigues, field jacket, and pile lined jacket (no overcoat). The men were also given a M-1 Rifle w/ bandolier, cartridges, and a helmet.



Homesick Soldiers

Gerald Land described how he felt in December 1952 on Heartbreak Ridge in the middle of the winter. An Army loudspeakers would play Christmas carols and a woman would be telling stories back home of your girlfriend cheating on you with your best friend. He also recalled a time shortly after New Years when one of the guys started firing his weapon by making a series of shots that sounded funny and the Patton tank at the base of that mountain fired a round which it lifted their spirits. He said he felt very homesick.
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Gerald Land's First Encounter with North Koreans

Gerald Land described how his Company Commander and his Sergeant were at an Outpost at Kumwha Valley for 3 days for 3 nights with no sleep. They barricaded themselves with barbed wire and hung C-ration containers so if anything hit the wire, it would make a sound, and the men knew where to shoot. Gerald Land spoke often of rats crawling around touching the C-rations, but it did alert him when the North Koreans were near.



War Is Hell: My First Kill

Gerald Land recalled when he was shot by North Koreans for the first time, and how terrible he felt knowing that he was tearing the enemy to pieces with his gun. As a Methodist, he carried a prayer book around and prayed for guidance/forgiveness for his time in the war. He also hoped and prayed that he would make it home safe to his family.



Released POWs Had a Blank Stare In Their Eyes

Panmunjom was the site of disembarkation at the time when Gerald Land left in September of 1953. He came across American soldiers who had been held as Prisoners of War. Gerald Land was overcome by sadness when he saw how sick the POWs looked. They just stared into space and this made Gerald Land reflect how lucky he was to come out alive. He couldn't imagine the type of torture those men had been put through.



Germaye Beyene Tesfaye

Shooting Chinese from Hidden Vantage Points

Germaye Tesfaye was a heavy machine gunner for the Third Battalion. While manning the front lines, he and his battalion hid under heavy cover to avoid being discovered and killed. Using heavy weaponry to shoot the enemy from a distance, he and his fellow Ethiopians killed numerous Chinese. At one point he was shot in heavy fighting.



Stopped by the Armistice

Germaye Tesfaye left Korea in 1953. So many people had died by that time. He still wishes the Armistice had not prevented him and his fellow Ethiopians from continuing their fight. They really wanted to take over North Korea. Germaye Tesfaye praises Korea's surprising progress since the 1950s. He is happy that the nation he fought to protect has achieved such economic success.



Gilbert Hauffels

Death of a Hero on White Horse Hill

Gilbert Hauffels and the Luxembourg Platoon fought at White Horse Hill. They took position six hundred meters in front of the trenches, merely 400 meters from North Korean artillery. During the barrage, Luxembourgian Sergeant Robert Mores rushed in to save soldiers whose bunkers had collapsed on them. Sergeant Mores was one of two soldiers from Luxembourg killed in the Korean War.



Christmas Joy on the Front Lines

After R and R in Japan, Gilbert Hauffels’ platoon ended up back at the front near Cheorwon toward the end of December. Christmas Day, helicopters delivered turkey dinners to soldiers on the front lines. For the Luxembourg troops, Christmas in Korea was filled with joy, as they were on the verge of going home. Turkey and anticipation of returning to Luxembourg brought a lovely ambience to Gilbert Hauffels’ Christmas experience.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Medical Assistant

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes being a Medical Assistant. The Ethiopian soldiers did not have a doctor assigned to them. Instead, there were six medical assistants assigned per shamble (two hundred fifty men). He does have nightmares about the wounds he witnessed. Someone with their stomach "out" is terrifying.



"Not the Worst"

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes his Korean War experience. Men lived in bunkers. There was no hot food. Men did not sleep, due to constant attacks. Mortar shells would shake the ground at all hours. Soldiers showered every ten days because the Americans made them. Girma Mola Endeshaw still describes his Korean experience as "not the worst."



Glen Collins

The Ongoing Effects of PTSD

Glen Collins shares his struggles with memories of his assignment in Korea as a gunner. He describes waking up at night in tears because he has recalled his role in the loss of human life, even though his exposure to their deaths was at a distance. Although it has been over 60 years, he still struggles.



Shelter and Rations

Glen Collins recalls the hardships of war. He describes living in a pup tent. He recalls his favorite rations and the occasional hot meal.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Arrival in Busan and Seoul

When Gordon McIntrye first arrived in Busan, the New Zealand troops were met by an American Dixie band. He describes seeing Seoul's utter destruction, claiming it must have been one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Fronts of buildings were blown out on either side of the wide streets, but he encountered a relatively untouched brick cathedral.



Life Near the Front

Gordon McIntyre transferred to an English unit due to the extensive loss of life in the English outfit. Near headquarters he noted a Canadian field hospital and rows of drums filled with napalm. Throughout his first night he was not afraid despite the explosions from incessant artillery fire. The next morning he left the truck to find an unexploded mortar shell that would have killed everyone at the post had it exploded.



Battle of Maryang-san

Gordon McIntyre describes five to six days of continuous fighting at the Battle of Maryang-san. He camped around eight hundred meters from the front lines. The second and third nights all soldiers stood ready to leave in the middle of the night if overrun. The Battle of Maryang-san featured combat between the Australian Army and the Chinese as the North Korean army had been decimated by that point. The danger did not scare him because he was too busy to think about it at the time.



Grace Ackerman

PTSD: Iraq and Afghan War Veterans

Grace Ackerman goes to the veterans' hospital in Syracuse, New York with the Auxillery group to help in the healing process. Her group is not officially there to help veterans from the Iraq and Afghan War overcome their Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), but they are there to listen when the veterans need it. Older war veterans have had time to heal and process their experiences, whereas the young veterans are still finding their way. Grace Ackerman believes that veterans' hospitals should be doing more to address PTSD in our young veterans.



Releasing Memories About the Korean War: Terrifying

Grace Ackerman was glad that she was able to be there for her husband, Bruce Ackerman, when he started to talk about his experiences during the Korean War, but it was terrifying to know the conditions that the veterans had to endure. Bruce Ackerman didn't start speaking about it until he was retired and able to have more time to ponder his time in Korea. Grace Ackerman recalled how most of the US didn't know about Korea when the war began in 1950 until the media started to cover the Korean War.



Returning to Korea and Supporting the US Veterans

Grace Ackerman was told by her husband, Bruce Ackerman, about the poor conditions in Korea during the war with mud paths, dirt roads, and huts. While visiting Korea during a church trip, she was able to see their new beautiful churches and the teenagers who were so courteous. As part of the Auxiliary, Grace Ackerman helps the veteran community by adopting a floor at the local veterans' hospital to make food, send gifts, and play bingo.



Graham L. Hughes

Stress and Relief for the Radio Operators

Graham Hughes was a radio operator and worked in four-hour, two-man shifts. Radio operators had to find time to sleep, wash, and rest in four hours. This exhaustion caused him to get shingles. There was a constant, intense pressure for his military specialty throughout the Korean War. He even went fishing with hand grenades in the East Sea during the few hours that he had off.



Loss of Sailors and Shingles

Graham Hughes lost three sailors while he was stationed in the East Sea. None of the sailors died in combat, but all their lives clearly had an impact on him. He discovered one of the sailors who hanged himself. After getting shingles, he was sent to an island in Japan for Rest and Relaxation (R and R).



The HMNZS Pukaki During the Korean War

Graham Hughes experienced an intensive nine-month basic training as a radio operator. The training included typing and touch typing. The HMNZS Pukaki, his ship, was armed with a variety of weapons to aid in the Korean War.



Inferiority of the North Korean Navy

Graham Hughes believed that the North Korean Navy was inferior to those in the United Nations (UN). An example of this occurred when his ship fired on a specific target at the 38th Parallel. North Koreans fired in retaliation, but they missed. The great thing about being part of the UN was the cooperation of lots of countries patrolling the West Sea, including Argentina.



Gregory Garcia

Change in Plans

Gregory Garcia remembers that he left for Korea around August or September 1950. He recalls how they put the battalion together and they were going to land in Seoul to help the Marines, but the Marines had retaken Seoul. Therefore, he explains that his job at Gimpo was to clean up dead and injured in addition to on guerrilla missions to clear out the mountains around the area.



Jumping into Combat

Gregoy Garcia spent time in Pyongyang trying to stop the infiltration of Chinese and North Koreans in the fall/winter of 1950. He remembers his most dangerous moment was jumping into combat and landing while shooting. He explains that his griswold bag with his knives fell off due to their weight.



Gustavo Mendez

"I Don't Need Bullets"

Gustavo Mendez arrived in Inchon and then went to the Battle at Old Baldy. After getting to Korea, he had to deal with prejudice against Puerto Ricans because he didn't speak fluent English. A South Korean soldier that was embedded with Gustavo Mendez warned the US troops that many Chinese were headed their way. As he engaged the enemy, Gustavo Mendez's rifle jammed. He though that he it was a sign from God.



"...The Next Day, I'm a General"

Gustavo Mendez recalled a first sergeant who wanted him to stay in Korea for three additional months and become a sergeant. He cleverly replied, "If I go home to my house, the next day, I'm a general." Dr. Han, the interviewer, found a connection between the treatment of Puerto Ricans and Koreans.



Haralambos Theodorakis

Korea at the Beginning of the War

Haralambos Theodorakis left for Korea in 1950 and came back in 1951. Everything was destroyed when he arrived and the people were very sweet people. Korean civilians didn't have a lot of clothes to wear or food to eat. If Haralambos Theodorakis had extra food, he gave it to the civilians and he saw a lot of Korean children running the streets during his 8 months there.



Modern Korea

Haralambos Theodorakis knew that he was fighting communists during the war. Now, Korea is the 10th strongest nation in the world and he feels that it was a destroyed country in 1950. Now, he's excited to see the progress that has been made in Korea.



Near-Death Experiences

Haralambos Theodorakis has a weakness for the Korean people because he loves all the Korean people. As he recalled the war, there were many times that he almost died. He went and fought a war without knowing what he would face, but luckily, he was never wounded.



Harlan Nielsen

Living Conditions and the Front Lines

Harlan Nielsen explains the living conditions on the front lines and not wanting to talk about Korean War battles he witnessed from the front lines. He recalls that many soldiers were killed. He continues to say that he feels war is close again with the activity of North Korea.



End of the War and Its Effects

Harlan Nielsen offers an account of his duties while in Korea following the signing of the armistice and his return home. His wife chimes in and explains his reaction of dropping to the floor anytime there was a loud noise after his return. She describes a story in which she hid and jumped out to scare him. He dropped to the floor and told her afterwards never to do it again.



Harold Barber

Thanksgiving Day at War

Harold Barber describes a Thanksgiving Day that he spent during the Korean War. The soldiers were given a bowl of soup to eat, but they had to leave and return to patrolling their area and became completed surrounded by the enemy. Those who did return after the ambush, only returned to soup that was frozen solid.



Snowballs and Tootsie Rolls

Harold Barber is describing being shot in the leg and being transported to the hospital by a corpsman. The corpsman fed them snowballs and tootsie rolls as they journeyed 16 miles. It took them 8 days to traverse the dangerous terrain, but the injured soldiers ultimately reached the hospital.



Harold Beck

Bed Check Charlie

Harold Beck describes “Bed Check Charlie.” Each night a small biplane would come and drop bombs or grenades just around bed time. Their crew moved the lights toward the mountain, and one night Bed Check Charlie flew right into the cliff.



Harold Bill Christenson

The Loss of Friends

Harold Christenson describes moving towards the fronts lines, escorted by ROK soldiers, and the fear he felt hearing small arms fire and artillery and seeing the flashes associated with the weapon fire as his company pressed inland near the mountains. He shares that within the first two months of arrival, the friends he went to Korea with were gone. With sorrow, he recounts the loss of one friend when his company was overrun by the Chinese at Gibraltar and remembers the injuries another friend sustained from a landmine.



A Bad Part of War

Harold Christenson describes being promoted to Platoon Sergeant and having to assign men every other week to go on patrol. He shares of his attempt to be fair with the men by rotating their assignment to the duty. He describes one particular assignment where a soldier, despite nearing his rotation home, insisted that he take his turn patrolling, and he was killed while on duty.



Stealthy Chinese

Harold Christenson describes the location of bunkers near the front lines and communicating with them each night. He explains guard duty rotation and his role in making sure someone was awake and alert throughout the night at each bunker to avoid being overrun. He details the stealth of the Chinese and recounts instances where men out on patrol who had fallen asleep were found dead in their sleeping bags.



Harold Heckman

Terrified and misguided from the very first night

Harold Heckman remembers his first night on the front lines of Korea - a night that resulted in seven American causalities. Due to the ineptitude of a senior commanding officer, American soldiers on night patrol) ended up walking through a minefield which resulted in many unnecessary causalities. Harold Heckman never saw the commanding officer again.



Earning his Bronze Star

Harold Heckman talks about the mission that ended up earning him a Bronze Star. The assignment was to seek-and-capture a North Korean soldier for intelligence. He recalls how he led a mission team through the dark to captured and bring back a North Korean soldier from the North Korean front line - an effort that almost rewarded him with a Russian war-time trophy.



Decisions made, prices paid

Not every decision that Harold Heckman made during the war is one that he's proud of. He mournfully recalls how he was made to deal with an American soldier who defected during the onset of battle. A tough decision he can still remember clearly, and ultimately, effects him to this day.



Harrison Lee

When war makes you leave a friend behind

Harrison Lee recalls a story that he never told anyone for a very long time - a story that follows him to this day. During the Battle of Taejon Harrison Lee and his best friend engaged a North Korean machine gun nest setting up along a dirt road. Upon realizing that the machine-gun nest had them outgunned he begs his friend to retreat with him... only to realize his friend was KIA.



"Baptism by Fire"

Every front line soldier has a "baptism by fire" story (i.e. first enemy contact story) and here Harrison Lee shares his. He remembers how a peaceful dining experience in Korea turned into his first moment of military combat. He can still remember the intense feeling of fear during those drawn-out moments many years ago.



Seeing the face of war

Within the first two nights in Korea, Harrison Lee witnessed the effect of war in a way that made what him and his comrades were getting into real danger. After retrieving a KIA soldier from the front lines the commanding officer at Harrison Lee's post made each soldier look at the body. It was then that Harrison Lee felt the full gravity of his situation in Korea.



Harry Burke

Incheon Landing

Harry Burke is describing his first days in the orient. He was surprised with the odor and stench in Japan and Korea. The initial landing on Incheon happened on the 18th, but he arrived on the 21st to see the devastation that had taken place three days before he arrived.



My Most Difficult Days

Harry Burke is describing how eight men were killed and 12 were wounded is his company. After experiencing this, he was sent back to Incheon and went around from the west side of Korea to the east side to Wonsan. Here he is describing their days in the war.



Entrapment by the Chinese

Harry Burke describes how the Chinese knew where they were on the morning of November 3rd. Their entire division was attacked and suffered tremendous losses. He did have some injuries as well.



Harry C. Graham Jr.

Frostbitten and Wounded

Harry C. Graham talks about his experience during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes suffering frostbite and being shot through the shoulder while performing his duties as a Radio Operator. He was evacuated on a truck convoy, narrowly escaping the heavy fighting against the Chinese.



Escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Harry C. Graham talks about his escape from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes having to wait until dark to traverse a mountain by foot because of being stranded in trucks on the mountainside. He recounts how after hours of walking, he and seven fellow soldiers found themselves in a minefield before being rescued by United States Marines.



Training and the Inchon Landing

Harry C. Graham describes his arrival in Korea. He details the circumstances of training Republic of Korea (ROK) soldiers at Mt. Fuji, in Japan, before moving on to take part at the Inchon Landing in September of 1950. He describes his first impressions of Korea.



Harry Castro

Experiences at Incheon in 1945

Harry Castro described experiencing snow for the first time. He shares that he spent Thanksgiving there. He describes the visuals of the area. He shares that they had no weapons and were there due to a typhoon. He shares the destruction he saw in other places as well.



Harry Hawksworth

Pusan Landing and Retreating to the Imjin River

Harry Hawksworth recalls arriving in Korea and docking in Pusan. He describes how African American US troops were playing instruments as they arrived and creating a grand entrance. He shares how he, along with the Gloucestershire Regiment, traveled by foot up to the Yalu River in December of 1950 without spotting a Chinese soldier. He remembers being told he would be back home by Christmas and shares how he knew that would not happen after the US and British troops were forced to withdraw to the Imjin River.



The Battle of the Imjin River on Hill 144

Harry Hawksworth and the rest of his company were forced to retreat back to a village near Choksong along the Imjin River in late 1950 due to the Chinese entering the war. After digging into trenches, performing reconnaissance trips, and guarding Allied trenches, he was startled by a possible Chinese invasion of Hill 144.



The Battle of the Imjin River and Being Taken as a POW

Harry Hawksworth's B Company, Gloucestershire Regiment fought the Chinese from Hill 144 until he was told to retreat to Hill 235 (Gloster Hill) in order to join with A Company and Captain Anthony Farrar-Hockley's troops. Due to the quick retreat, most of the troops had to leave their extra ammunition in the valleys below. Harry Hawksworth used six crates of two inch mortars to fend off Chinese troops. Once all ammunition was used, Captain Farrar-Hockley gave the order "every man to fight for themselves," but everyone became prisoners of war (POWs).



Life as a POW in Camp Changsong From April 1951 to July 1953

Harry Hawksworth walked at night for six weeks until he reached prisoner of war (POW) Camp Changsong in May 1951. Many of the British POWs escaped, but all were caught and punished by being placed in solitary confinement depending on the distance they escaped. After getting down to seven stones (ninety-eight pounds) due to eating only one bowl of rice with one cup of water a day, Harry Hawksworth became very sick. As the Chinese brainwashing continued, US and British POWs fought to survive every single day.



The Release of British POWs After Armistice

Harry Hawksworth knew that peace talks must have been starting while he was trying to survive in a Chinese POW camp called Camp Changsong because the Chinese began to feed the POWs larger rations of food each day. This would help to fatten up the ninety-five pound Harry Hawksworth who had been held there since May 1951. Once the armistice was signed in July 1953, Harry Hawksworth and the other POWs were brought to Panmunjom at the 38th parallel. This is where they crossed over the famous Freedom Bridge back into Allied hands.



Harry Heath

40 Degrees Below

Harry Heath describes the harsh cold that faced the soldiers in Korea. He shares the injuries that caused him to spend two months in a hospital. He describes the failure of equipment given to the soldiers. He explains things that were limited due to the harsh temperatures for soldiers and their hygiene.



The Chosin Few

Harry Heath describes the organization he belongs to which includes American soldiers who found in the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War. He shares the struggles that both he and his fellow Chosin Few members faced such as frostbite wounds and PTSD. He shares how he feels fighting in Korea made him a better person.



Harry McNeilly

The Power of a Map

Harry McNeilly's speciality during the war was Motor Transport. For the majority of the war, his job was to escort correspondent's from various countries to the front-lines. Harry McNeilly jokes about his ability to take people where they needed to go without ever studying Korean geography.



Henri Socquet

Not Time to Think

Henri Socquet describes how the fighting went on for months, mostly at night. He served as a sergeant with the medical aid troops during that time, but also contributed to combat. He explains that during moments like that, you don’t really have time to think about what is going on, but can only focus on the objective of saving people.



Hard to Forget

When asked if he was still bothered by the scenes of death, Henri Socquet responds with “absolutely.” However, he recently was at meeting of Korean War veterans and met a man who had been injured by a grenade while in combat and Henri Socquet had helped save. He remembers the night that this happened as well as many other times since they are hard to forget.



Henry Martinez

Unable to Deliver to the Chosin Few

Henry Martinez remembers what it was like delivering supplies during the war. He describes one particular event when he was going to deliver supplies and a Thanksgiving meal to the Chosin Few. However, he and the men had to turn around because not only were the mountains frozen, but the Chinese were quickly approaching.



Henry River, Jr.

Living Conditions

Henry River, Jr., talks about his wife and how much he was paid. He recounts what his living conditions were like. He recalls his division having a tent compound which included the officer's tent, mess tents, and squat tents for the soldiers.



Henry T. Pooley

Shelling

Henry T Pooley describes when he was shelled in his bunk near Hill 355. The Chinese artillery attack left him dazed and two comrades wounded. Henry miraculously wasn't wounded.



First Patrol and the Chinese

Henry T Pooley describes his first patrol near Hill 355 on the front lines. He describes the geography of the area including a nearby minefield. He discusses the respect shown between the Chinese and the Australian soldiers on the battlefield.



Henry Winter

Replacement Duty

Henry Winter speaks about his arrival in Korea at Inchon. He was a replacement for injured soldiers and joined a new unit assigned to duty at Heartbreak Ridge.



Heartbreak Ridge

Henry Winter describes his first time in combat. He vividly recalls the shelling and the sound of a horn blaring as the enemy charged up the hill. They repelled the charge suffering 60 casualties during the course of the battle. Henry Winter recalls another instance of shelling when one brother found another dead.



Living Conditions

Henry Winter describes what it was like to live on the front line on Heartbreak Ridge. He speaks about sleeping in trenches and army rations. He recounts taking showers once a week in the rear. Henry Winter also remembers the cold and the many cases of frostbite suffered by soldiers.



Herbert Currier

Survival

Herbert Currier shares how although he didn't go to Korea he knew things. He shares how he has pictures from the 38th parallel. He describes the pictures and how they show the only way to save men out of the foxholes in the cold temperatures of Korea. He shares how he felt it was a good thing that America went to help the Koreans.



Herbert Neale

Close Call on the Front Lines

Herbert Neale recounts a close call with incoming artillery fire on the front lines. He remembers waking up, lying over the artillery, from a concussion and hearing a friend call out that he had been hit. He details his friend's wound and the effort made to transport him safely to an evacuation site. He reflects on his friend's healing process after losing a lung and on how one never really recovers from the wounds of war.



How to Deal with the Memories

Herbert Neale discusses how he deals with the memories of war. He shares that he closes his mind to the visuals as dwelling on them, he insists, would drive one crazy. He admits that even after several decades since the war though, visuals of dead Chinese soldiers enter his dreams and, every now and then, wake him up in the middle of the night.



Called to Serve and Sent to Korea

Herbert Neale explains how he ended up serving in Korea after being fully discharged from the Marine Corps following World War II. He recounts his arrival in Korea and recalls being sent to the front lines as there was a need at the time to fill holes in the lines left by casualties. He also describes the weaponry, the 155mm howitzer, he used while there.



Herbert Schreiner

Loss of a Brother in Korea

Herbert Schreiner details his brother's death while serving in the infantry in Korea. He recounts that his brother was killed by a landmine and recalls his body being delivered back to America in a bag. He shares that the news of his brother's fate was hard to deal with at the time and that it still weighs on him to this day as he and his brother were very close.



Herbert Taylor

Chingu (Friend)

Herbert Taylor describes witnessing the destruction of Incheon following his arrival in 1954. He shares how he saw just walls and shells of buildings there. He describes the trees and how they had been shot off and the land was barren in the countryside. He describes the straw huts people were living in. He shares his experiences with local children.



Herbert Werner

Refugees During War

Herbert Werner became very emotional as he described being an 18 year old seeing war first hand. He said witnessing the wounded, being under fire, civilians fleeing, and children affected by war made him overcome with emotion. He never saw as much fear as he did while there and it still gets to him even today. Herbert Werner made an instant personal connection with the refugees during the Hamheung Evacuation since he was an orphaned child himself.



What Serving in Korea Meant to Herbert Werner

When Herbert Werner was still in an orphanage during WWII, the boys that left to fight during that war had such a lasting impression on him, so he joined the Marine Corps. Originally, he wanted to go to China as a Marine, but after the war broke out in Korea, he was so caught up in the moment and excited that he wanted to go to be a part of this war. Much of what Herbert Werner saw was terrible including the treatment of refugees during the Korean War.



The Chosin Reservoir Brotherhood

Herbert Werner states that conditions at the Chosin Reservoir were terrible due to confusion, miscommunication, and constant attacks by the enemy. He recalls U.S. soldiers were given insufficient clothing, and they avoided taking them off to relieve themselves. He shares that he never knew if or when their next warm meal would come. He speaks of the bond of brotherhood at Chosin and recounts never knew what was going to happen next.



Herbert Yuttal

On The Frontlines

Herbert Yuttal talks about being on the front lines as a Forward Observer at an outpost near Kaesong. He explains that they fired a lot of artillery rounds, destroying a lot of the landscape at Old Baldy and Pork Chop Hill. He remembers seeing his friends dying during these battles.



Enemy Infiltrating the Lines

Herbert Yuttal shares how the North Koreans would cross through the front lines and attack by pretending to be refugees fleeing the South. They would come through as a family group to sneak through the lines. After they were able to get through the front lines, they would throw hand grenades and kill as many people as they could before they were killed themselves.



Herman F. Naville

Captured by the North Koreans

Herman Naville remembers that only 16 of the 180 men in his company made it out alive. He explains how he and others found a place on a hillside to hide. There was an explosion that hit Herman Naville in the head causing him to bleed heavily, develop blindness in his one eyes, and shattering his collarbone- he thought he was going to die. While continuing to hide, he was found by North Koreans who took him as a prisoner.



Herman H. Holtkamp

Losing a Friend on Your Shoulder

Herman Holtkamp explains how difficult life on the front lines could be as you could be shot at very quickly by the Chinese who were “much quicker than the Koreans.” He says that they lost a lot of lives, including two medics. He recalls how he carried on of his comrades on his shoulders, but he didn’t survive and passed away as Herman Holtkamp was carrying him.



Capturing a Chinese Soldier

Herman Holtkamp tells how he captured a Chinese soldier. He had to throw a hand grenade into the trench and then carry the prisoner out to officers that were waiting. He received an award for capturing this prisoner.



Tough as Nails

Herman Holtkamp explains how being a tough farm boy helped him do well in Korea. He tells a story of when they were on the front lines and tried to capture a Russian tank. According to Herman Holtkamp, experiences like this weren’t things that you thought about- they were just things that you did. He states that his crew was “tough as nails.”



Homer Garrett

Working With KATUSA and Turkish Armed Forces

Homer Garrett protected South Korea along with the Turkish armed forces and local KATUSA. KATUSA soldiers are the South Korean soldiers that worked directly with the US forces. Homer Garrett was assigned the task of guarding the crossroads between North Korean agents and the ROK (the Republic of Korea) Military Police with his M14 and bullet proof vest in the middle of the night.



Captured Submarine & Firing at the UN Troops

Homer Garrett described encounters with North Korean agents during his service in Korea. His unit captured a 2-man operating submarine that was trapped on a sand bar which carried 4 North Korean agents. That same submarine is now located in the 2nd Infantry Division Museum. The other close call incident involved their Military Police Jeep and a lady who was standing in the road. She ran from the intersection when suddenly shots were fired piercing the radio in their jeep.



Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Homer M. Garza

Arriving in Korea

Homer M. Garza talks about his first combat experience in Korea, seeing the results of the massacre at Nogeun-ri. He also describes their retreat south to set up the Pusan Perimeter.



Account of Noguen-ri Massacre

Homer M. Garza shares his thoughts of the Noguen-ri massacre (about 100 miles Southeast of Seoul). He speaks about his units’ encounter with the North Koreans during their time near the site of the massacre.



Crossing the Han River

Homer M. Garza speaks about his unit crossing of the Han River in their push to force the enemy back north. He also speaks about losing men from his unit.



North Korean Brutality

Homer M. Garza describes the treatment of U.S. causalities and prisoners of war by the North Koreans.



Homer W. Mundy

Wounded in Combat

Homer Mundy describes being wounded in Korea only 13 days after arriving in Korea. He also talks about the withdrawal of his unit from the Yalu River area when the Chinese crossed into Korea.



Cold Weather

Homer Mundy talks about the cold weather and the lack of proper cold-weather equipment. He discusses the injuries he and other men sustained as a result.



Enemy Attacks

Homer Mundy talks about what it was like being under enemy attack. He also talks about fighting the enemy during withdrawal and encirclement near Gotori. He also recounts his second major injury.



Hong Berm Hur

Korean War POW and the Simple Ways to Show Appreciation

Hong Berm Hur met Mr. English Model who was a POW (prisoner of war) during the Korean War. English Model was captured by the Chinese and was put into a camp for over a year. Thankfully, he escaped and made his way to Hawaii. This is where he shared his story with Hong Berm Hur. Hong Berm Hur not only likes to hear the stories of Korean War veterans, he also takes care of these veterans when he's not working so that he can properly show the veterans gratitude that they deserve for their service during the Korean War.



Horace Sappington

Half Dead or Captured

Horace Sappington describes his encounter with North Koreans and Russians a few miles outside of Osan. Ill-equipped and undermanned, he details the scene of a Major driving out in a jeep to meet and talk with the oncoming mass of North Korean and Russian troops. He shares that the enemy fired a cannon, blowing up the jeep and killing the major, continuing to advance upon their position. He adds that he was wounded during the fighting and was tended to by a medic who was killed shortly after during their retreat. He explains that over half of US soldiers there that day were either killed or captured.



Soldiers Pouring In Everywhere

Horace Sappington recounts his experience at the Pusan Perimeter. He shares that the North Korean soldiers were pouring in on them and they received assistance from the Air Force and the USS Missouri roughly 1 mile off of the coast. He explains he was in charge of providing the ship with coordinates for firing. He recounts an injury to his head and shoulder received from enemy fire.



Nothing Worse Than The Cold

Horace Sappington describes being cold as the most difficult thing during his service. He recounts low temperatures near the 38th Parallel and during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. As part of a task force, he shares that he was sent in to help bail out Marines before the Chinese took it all.



Howard Ballard

Pusan Perimeter

Howard Ballard discusses being trained to serve in Korea from 1947 to 1948 with the 57th Field Artillery Battalion, 7th Division. He recalls leaving Korea but returning later after re-enlisting. He remembers landed at Pusan at night to fight the North Koreans at the Pusan Perimeter on August 2, 1950. He recalls how he saw North Korean soldiers slaughter entire South Korean villages which made it difficult for him to speak about the war.



Fighting at the Battle of Pyongyang in October and November 1950

Howard Ballard recalls leaving Pusan after fighting there in August of 1950 to fight the North Koreans all the way through Pyongyang, North Korea, and up to the Yalu River along the Chinese border. He describes fighting the North Koreans at the Battle of Pyongyang in October of 1950, noting there was little resistance. He remembers seeing Chinese captured in November 1950 at the Yalu River despite General MacArthur telling President Truman that the Chinese were not fighting in the war.



Fighting at the Yalu River and Surviving a Land Mine Explosion

Howard Ballard discusses soldiers sustaining injuries while fighting in the Battle of Pyongyang on Thanksgiving Eve 1950. He recounts how U.S. troops headed for the Yalu River down very narrow roads and fought the Chinese until the U.S. troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. He recalls how a land mine exploded near him and how he experienced temporary paralysis. He shares that he was sent to a MASH unit following the explosion but was soon returned to his unit.



Howard Faley

An Unlucky Mortar Round

Howard Faley describes being hit by a mortar round at Little Gibraltar. He recalls being later told that there was only one mortar fired that whole day, the one that badly injured him. He explains that he was taken on a stretcher to Forward H station where the doctor put a cigarette in his mouth and then four sticks of gum before setting his leg and ankle back into place.



"You Go to Hell, Sir"

Howard Faley describes being relocated to Seoul before leaving for the hospital in Japan; he and other patients were told they had to wait for a General to come and thank them. After reluctantly waiting for five days, though the General had not arrived, they were flown to Japan. He recalls the severity of his injury, how the nerve in his leg was slashed and how every movement was excruciating. When a Capitan told him to get on a table he refused and told him to go to Hell.



Howard Lee

Landing at Incheon

Howard Lee recalls his first impressions of South Korea upon landing at Incheon. He remembers the early morning journey on a Landing Ship Tank (LST) and walking in waist-deep water towards the shore where he saw a city on fire. He recounts dead bodies floating in the water and the fear he felt as he and his company made land and rallied at the assigned checkpoint.



Water Velocity Readings

Howard Lee details his duties as a member of the 55th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company. He recounts having to take readings of the water velocity six times a day and make records for the related reports. He recalls that the readings had to be taken every four hours and describes the process.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Howard Bradshaw's Love for Orphaned Koreans

Howard Bradshaw encountered many orphans during his time in Korea. He offered them candy and expressed his love for these kids.
Howard Bradshaw took pictures of these children while he was there during the Korean War.



a Soldier's Wife Remembers Life Without Her Loved One

Laverne Bradshaw, just like Howard Bradshaw, spent every night writing letters to each other. She described how she grew a vegetable garden to save money while her neighbors would shoot a deer to help feed Laverne Bradshaw's family. Howard Bradshaw wrote about how he would help to feed orphans while he was away in Korea.



Ian J. Nathan

Platoons within Ten Company

Ian Nathan arrived at Pusan in September of 1951. After three weeks organizing the vehicles and men of Ten New Zealand Transport Company, his workshop platoon moved north to merge with other platoons. There was a lot of equipment needed to maintain military vehicles, but the jobs were shared among the skilled company of about fifty men.



Winter Quarters: Engineering a Tent and Shower

Ian Nathan and the Workshop Unit designed warmer quarters with petrol tanks for the troops. They pieced together a building for relatively warm showers in the frigid Korean winters. Many of their projects involved re-purposed military equipment to make new supplies the soldiers needed.



Small Boys, Heavy Loads, and Weather

Ian Nathan shows pictures of his time in Korea. One photo has a small Korean boy carrying a load supported by an A-frame pack. Other photos represent living conditions such as a tent covered in winter snow and a swollen creek blocking access to the latrines in the rainy season.



Letters to Mom

Ian Nathan did not have a girlfriend at the time of his service in Korea, but he wrote to his mother and brother. His brother helped him identify Venus from his observations of the dark night sky from his tent. He visited Seoul once during his time in the Army, but the city was in shambles due to the fighting that occurred there. Markets were set up, but most of the goods had been created from scavenged items. He contrasts his experience with pictures of modern Seoul.



Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Gulek

Desperation of the South Koreans

Ibrahim Gulek describes the people of South Korea. South Korea was war-torn. The people were desperate. He describes South Koreans as having no clothes and constantly begging for food. The conditions were heartbreaking. Ibrahim Gulek and his fellow soldiers would give food and supplies to the people in need.



Sandbag Castle

Ibrahim Gulek describes the conditions at Sandbag Castle. War had stopped briefly due to a ceasefire, while negotiations were occurring. However, the Chinese attacked without warning. There was about two months of constant warfare in close combat. Ibrahim Gulek was a sniper and told to fire at a certain location where the enemy was located. At one point soldiers were told to consume alcohol in order to not feel death.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Vegas Front

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes the horrific conditions of fighting along the Vegas Front. The Turkish fighters were under fire for two days and nights. Most of the men that fought did not survive the fighting. Roughly sixty three out of the one hundred and ninety seven men survived. Many of the men who perished are unaccounted for.



Iluminado Santiago

Nightmares

Iluminado Santiago remembers places but not always their names. Memories of injured men plague him. Other memories cause him to value the good fortune of people in the United States.



Rice and Beans

Iluminado Santiago explains that the U.S. Army provided rice and beans for the 65th Regiment. The food reminded him of traditional Puerto Rican food. His platoon slept in sleeping bags in tents wherever they went, despite the extreme cold. He clarifies that he served his country and that he felt lucky to be able to fight for democracy in Korea.



Inga-Britt Jagland

Agony of the Wounded

Inga-Britt Jagland describes the anguish of the wounded soldiers. Men who were injured and lost limbs agonized over the future. Inga-Britt Jagland broke protocol and would comfort these men, reassuring them. Above all, Inga-Britt Jagland describes a nurse's role was not just care, but comfort.



Nurse Work

Inga-Britt Jagland describes her work as a nurse. Originally, she worked in the tuberculosis ward. However, the Red Cross started to take UN soldiers fighting in the North. These men were only there for two or three days before evacuated to Japan. A nurse would work from 6am to 10pm, caring for men that had serious injuries. Some men would panic and need restraint from other marines.



Irwin Saltzman

Experiences with Counter Mortar Radar

Irwin Saltzman describes Initially trained as a radio operator. He explains that he then was told he would receive additional training on equipment built for counter mortar operations. He describes rotating between headquarters at Yeongdeungpo and traveling to the front line to check on equipment. He explains how the Signal Corp maintained twenty-six positions in front of the artillery at the front lines and regularly sent harassing fire into enemy positions.



Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez

Battle at Bloody Ridge

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez fought during the month-long battle at Bloody Ridge. He recalls fighting and pushing the Chinese off of the hill multiple times. After pushing the Chinese back, they would return and the fighting would begin again.



Life in Korea During the War

Isabelino Vasquez-Rodriguez was constantly traveling during the war and had to sleep wherever he could find a spot to rest his head. Eating canned food rations was the norm. He recalls the extreme cold in Korea.



Ismail Pasoglu

Valiant Turkish Soldiers

Ismail Pasoglu describes the Turkish soldier. He describes the opinion that the United States wanted to pull out of the war. However, the Turkish soldiers arrived and changed this attitude. The Turkish soldiers advanced after the Chinese counter-offensive. Therefore, this advancement help the US stay in the war. Koreans are proud of Turkish support in the Korean War.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Manning the Observation Post

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez speaks of being put on alert every night at midnight. He shares memories of the tactics used by the Chinese to lure the Puerto Rican soldiers out of their bunkers with Puerto Rican music and beer. He recounts losing two members of a patrol.



Observation Post Attacked

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares memories of the fear he experienced while being in Korea during the war. He recounts being in a foxhole and an attack on his Observation Post (OP) occurring. He elaborates on how he defended his position with hand grenades.



J. Robert Lunney

Army Requests Help

J. Robert Lunney speaks about the decision, by SS Meredith Victory Captain LaRue, to "Volunteer" his ship to help with the Hungnam evacuation.



Jack Allen

Concussion Grenades and the Aggressive Chinese Army

At the end of November 1950, Jack Allen was wounded by the Chinese who overran the US troops. The Chinese had so many troops that they easily came over the hills. A concussion grenade took the nerve out of Jack Allen's right arm, so he couldn't use it and his knee was shot too. He was laid on straw and a tarp until a helicopter basket took him back off the line and onto Japan to recover. There were hundreds of wounded that accompanied Jack Allen, but he knew that he wouldn't be left behind because that's a Marines' motto.



The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir

Jack Allen worked hard to stay warm while fighting in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He was lucky that he didn't get frostbite on his feet or hands, but he knows Marines that lost their limbs after they turned black while in the trenches. After the Chinese came into the Chosin Reservoir, they fought to take the high ground and blew up bridges to slow the Marines' escape. Once they made it to Wonson, the Marines were able to escape to the boats along with the US Army, but Jack Allen was grateful that he didn't have to endure all of that pain for the whole 2 months of the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Participating in the Incheon Landing in September 1950

Jack Allen went to the Mediterranean in April 1950 and he was ready to fight when the war began in June 1950. He set up a telephone system in Japan and stayed there until the Incheon landing took place. Jack Allen participated in the Inchoeon Landing on day 2 while hearing and feeling the boom of guns for the first time in warfare. One of his friends landed in a hole after dodging a mortar that had been a toilet, so he couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. After that, Jack Allen went to retake the Kimpo Air Field in Seoul during the Incheon Landing in September 1950.



The Job of a Field Telephone Wireman

Jack Allen's job during the Korean War was to provide telephone connections using a wire line to prevent an enemy from listening conversations from the US headquarters to the front lines. After making their way up to a new location each day, Jack Allen would set up a telephone line for his commanders and then he would have to go backwards where they had just fought to line telephone line all the way back to battalion headquarters. If the wires were tapped, then he would cut it up, hide it, and set up a new line in the dark, but he never went out looking for who cut or tapped the wire. He did this from Incheon to Seoul.



A Near Death Experience By Friendly Fire

Jack Allen went on a ship from Incheon to Wonson in order to invade North Korea in November 1950. He was the farthest North company in Korea going over hills and feeling the temperature drop each day. The North Koreans were hiding in caves and holes in mountains to do surprise attacks on the US troops, so Jack Allen volunteered to bring a case of hand grenades to the front line US troops because they ran out of supplies. After all of the warfare, one US soldier almost killed Jack Allen because he didn't recognize him, but Jack Allen knew that that soldier had been killing so long that he was mentally lost.



Frozen Bodies and Paralyzed Limbs

Jack Allen was sent to an Army hospital in Japan and he stayed there for 7-10 days until he was shipped to a Naval hospital where Marines were supposed to be sent. When he walked in there, there were over 100 frozen bodies that lost arms, legs, and/or toes. Thankfully, a neurosurgeon performed surgery to help get feeling back in his arm while at the Naval base. Jack Allen was sent back to the US in February 1951.



Jack Cooper

Journey to Korea

Jack Cooper details his journey to Korea. He describes his train ride down to New Orleans, boarding the US William Weigel, and sailing through the Panama Canal enroute to Asia. He shares that the trip took 30 days from the time he boarded the ship in New Orleans to the time he arrived in Hokkaido, Japan. He recalls roughly 6 months of combat training in Japan before being sent to Korea where he was first assigned to test weapons.



A Picture of the Chorwon Valley

Jack Cooper paints a grim picture of the Chorwon Valley as he shares his memories. He recalls the gloom of winter, the cold temperatures, and the landscape destruction as the vegetation was reduced to mere stumps. He recounts the setting as dangerous due to close proximity to the Main Line of Resistance (MLR) and the excessive amount of North Korean, Chinese, and American mines hidden about. He recalls most fighting taking place with the Chinese rather than the North Koreans and elaborates on his living conditions in a foxhole.



Duties and Thoughts on Battle

Jack Cooper details the duties of soldiers assigned to a howitzer weapon and shares that there never was really any downtime. He recalls men rotating on and off shifts and most of the action taking place in the afternoon and evening. He shares that the intensity of battle made one nervous at times but that one grew accustomed to the reality over time. He adds that one did what he had to do.



Jack Goodwin

First Engagement: Task Force Smith

Jack Goodwin recounts his experience in Task Force Smith, the first group to engage with North Korean soldiers during the Korean War. He shares that they were severely outnumbered and ill-equipped with only four hundred or so men against roughly twenty thousand North Korean soldiers, having severely limited ammunition. He recalls remaining U.S. soldiers being forced to leave their position and walk during the night to a village where they were captured the following morning.



Jack Howell

Screams from Hill 1080

Jack Howell shares his memories of combat against Chinese troops as he and his fellow soldiers fought to control and defend Hill 1080. He describes the encounter as overwhelming due to the mass number of Chinese soldiers attacking them. He recalls unnerving memories of frozen Chinese soldiers in their bunkers as well as the screams and taunts of the Chinese.



Jack Sherts

Retracing my Steps

Jack Sherts is telling the exact locations that they traveled during the war the entire time he was in Korea. His work as a radio operator helped him to know the towns they were in at all times. He recorded these names in a Bible that he carried around the entire time he was in the war.



Radio Operation in Battle

Jack Sherts describes his job as a radio operator during the Korean War. In one episode, he had to take batteries to the soldiers in the infantry line. On the journey, he slipped and went down a mountain while trying to deliver the batteries under enemy fire. Jack Sherts also describes relaying fire orders for the 18 guns of his unit.



Jack Wolverton

Under Fire and Almost Killed

Jack Wolverton recalls the one time he was under fire and almost lost his life. His unit was ordered to pile a bunker with ammunition, but the mission was aborted. His unit came under small arms fire near no man's land, and a bullet, coming very close to his head, only chipped a rock.The rock hit his wrist and scared him, making him think he was shot. He luckily left the incident unharmed.



Communication with Home

Jack Wolverton remembers writing letters home. He was not married and recalls relationships were tough to keep going while he was at war. He would correspond via letters with his mother, updating her on his day-to-day activities. She would return letters with stories from home. He recalls asking his mother, at times, to send back some of the money he forwarded home.



Jake Feaster Jr.

Trench Warfare

Jake Feaster Jr. describes his arrival in Korea and the role of Artillery in providing Protective Fire for the Infantry during the Peace negations.



Combat During the Week of the Final Cease Fire

Jake Feaster Jr. describes the movement of his artillery unit during the week leading up to the cease-fire.



Jake O’Rourke

Remembering Death

Jake O'Rourke recounts seeing his first Marine casualty and shares the impact the encounter had on him. He continues by describing his participation in an ambush of three North Korean tanks shortly thereafter. He recalls casualties on both sides and shares that he sees them in his dreams, causing him to take inventory of his life. He also adds his thoughts on why there will always be war.



On the Move to Chosin Reservoir

Jake O'Rourke describes his time spent in the hills fighting guerrilla forces and moving to and from various locations. He details the high casualties caused by frostbite among the Chinese soldiers, adding that it was both an ally and an enemy. He attributes much of the Marines' successes to experienced leadership as many higher ranking soldiers had served during WWII. He also recounts his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, sharing that the Chinese would play their bugles when they attacked and retreated, and he describes the use of napalm against the enemy.



James “Jim” Cawyer

A Dedication of Honor

James "Jim" Cawyer recalls performing with the Air Force Band at a United Nations Cemetery dedication at Busan on Memorial Day, 1951. He describes seeing the large burial trench for approximately three thousand bodies, and how emotional it was to see so many men in body bags. He recalls the terrible stench of the area, which was due to the long period of time it took for the soldiers to have a proper burial during the Korean War.



Close Calls and Rough Rides

James "Jim" Cawyer discusses the large amount of Korean War casualties. He raises the point that many losses of life were not combat-related. He describes three examples of his own close calls he encountered during the war.



James “Jim” Valentine

Death on the Ice at Chosin Reservoir

Jim Valentine discusses crossing the ice in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains how he was surrounded. He explains how they had to not attract attention due to Chinese soldiers. He discusses the harsh winters he experienced. He explains that he is still unsure as to how/why he survived.



Giving Money to the Children

James "Jim" Valentine discusses how he got disoriented and was in a tank in the 1950's liberation of Seoul. He discusses the destruction. He shares an emotional experience he has with the South Korean children. He explains that due to an accident he lost his few items and that he didn't have/take pictures.



I Was Only 17/18

James Valentine discusses being evacuated. He discusses that he thought he was leaving but was sent back to liberate Seoul the second time from North Korea. He explains how he didn't completely understand since he was just a teen and how it changed him. He shares his struggles post-war. His wife, Beth, adds a story about rations and being able to eat during the cold. She explains how he didn't speak of the war until being involved with the VFW in Washington.



James “Jim” Wetmore

B-29 Crash

Jim Wetmore describes an evening when he witnessed a fiery B-29 crash just past where his unit was camped. He recalls a bright light in the sky and realized as the plane passed overhead that the magnesium aboard the plane had caught fire. He remembers he heard two explosions: the first when the plane crashed and the second when the bombs on the plane exploded.



You Never hear the One That Hit You

Jim Wetmore describes being seriously wounded by a mortar and his evacuation from the battlefield in the Punch Bowl area on April 11, 1952. He explains that the saying is true: you never hear the one that hit you. He describes awaking face down in a fighting hole, helmet full of blood, broken jaw and a deep face wound so badly gaping he could stick his fingers inside the wound. He goes on to describe being evacuated down a mountain on a ski cablecar and being too afraid to look down.



James A. Newman

Sneak Attack on the Yalu River

James Newman was stationed on the frigate HMNZS Hawea up the Yalu River. He participated in a daring attack along the border between China and Korea. Fighting as a gunner, his ship attacked enemy positions along the Yalu River and took the enemy by complete surprise.



Nobody Argues with Padres

James Newman was sent ashore in 1951. Rare for a Navy man, he was able to see a devastated Seoul and fight on the frontlines. He had rare access due to accompanying an Anglican clergyman.



"Pushing" to Hill 355

James Newman fought in the Battle for Hill 355 or Kowang-san. This battle was part of the larger Battle of Mayang-San, a joint British, Australian, and New Zealand engagement along the Imjin River. He describes his experiences on the frontline where he shared a foxhole with a Korean kid while mortars from the Chinese exploded near them.



Return to Korea

James Newman has participated in five trips back to Korea since 2002. He is very impressed with the modern nation. He feels pride in the accomplishments of the Korean people and his part in freeing South Korea from North Korean rule.



James Berry

Diving a Tank

James Berry gives some insight into being a tank driving during the Korean War. This was an extension of a time as a heavy equipment operator in Guam. He explains why they needed 5 people inside of the tank.



James Butcher

Entering Korea in 1952

James Butcher was sent Korea with the 17 Infantry Regiment 7th Division in 1952. After arriving in Inchon, he took a train to Army headquarters and then worked his way to the front lines. As James Butcher traveled through the country, he saw whole towns brought to the ground.



The Loss of a Close Friend During the Battle of Triangle Hill

James Butcher fought during the battle of Triangle Ridge/Hill. On Oct. 18, 1952, he charged up one specific section of the ridge that included Jane Russell Hill to fight the Chinese. Unfortunately, his friend was killed right next to him as they were taking out Chinese trenches.



A Close Encounter with a Chinese Soldier

James Butcher went face-to-face with a Chinese soldier as he was fighting for Triangle Hill. The Chinese soldier was getting ready to throw a grenade at the US troops and he became scared when he saw James Butcher in the trench with him. After a long pause, James Butcher took down the enemy trench.



James C. Delong

Contact with the enemy

James C. Delong describes the activities of the 31st Infantry Regiment from Inchon to Suwon including contact with the enemy. He explains that he landed in Inchon the day after the Inchon Landing. He goes on to explain there was little resistance on the way to Suwon because the North Koreans were trying to evade them, abandoning their tanks and everything along the way.



Combat near the Chosin Reservoir

James C. Delong describes a four day period in combat near the Chosin Reservoir before being captured days later by the Chinese. He explains that he manned a machine gun and guarded a ditch that the Chinese used for cover. He describes the nights of guarding the the ditch and easily shooting the Chinese who gathered at a bunker along the side of the hill. He goes on to describe the final night when his friend, who had been in WWII and warned him about the tenacity of the Chinese, was shot and killed.



James Cochran

Duties in the Fire Direction Center

James Cochran recounts his transfer and arrival at post in the Punch Bowl area and details the living conditions there amid the artillery. He describes his role in the Fire Direction Center (FDC) which entailed providing the battery with information for aiming. He offers a shift rotation example for this particular role as well.



Weather Data Use in Firing Artillery

James Cochran describes using weather data to influence firing artillery. He recalls a separate unit sending up weather balloons to collect data on wind direction, temperature, humidity, and other measures used in making artillery corrections and firing trajectory adjustments. He explains the importance of these variables with regard to successfully hitting targets.



Softer Side of War

James Cochran offers a glimpse of the softer side of war. He recounts his living conditions in bunkers and recalls sleeping without heat from the bunker furnace at night despite the cold temperatures. He remembers being well fed and shares that he often wrote letters home during his service, detailing the weather and requesting items such as socks and camera film.



James Creswell

Typical Day of Service

James Creswell describes how he served as an advisor to three or four South Korean Majors and Colonels. He recounts offering radio signal, leadership, combat, artillery, and tank advice and training to other soldiers. He explains that there was significant guerrilla warfare, and due to the successes of the advisory support he was involved in, he shares that there was a bounty on his head. He expresses the level of danger, adds that no logos or insignias were worn, and recalls having a rifle in his hands at all times.



Guerilla Clearance (graphic)

James Creswell, in somewhat graphic detail, describes the Guerilla Clearance as a dangerous and deadly time in Incheon and around the Pusan Perimeter. He details the banding together of Chinese and North Koreans troops and their plan to attack his location. He offers a visual of witnessing a mass shooting in a rice field, of beheadings, and scare tactics used by the South Korean soldiers to keep opposition at bay.



Supply Train Ambush

James Creswell recounts a supply train ambush where guerrillas had dynamited the track, forcing the train to stop roughly twenty miles from its destination. He shares that the civilians on the train got off, and the guerrillas then gunned down around four hundred of them. He recalls the event being so horrific that it made headlines in the U.S. and believes it to be the largest civilian massacre in 1952.



South Korean Soldiers "Bugging Out"

James Creswell describes how he went up to the front line several times to see how the South Koreans were fighting due to having helped train them. He shares that two other men along with him would communicate via walkie-talkie on the status of the line. He recalls that the South Korean soldiers, when scared, would leave the British and American soldiers in the middle of the night without warning. He refers to this as "bugging out" and adds that it left the British and American soldiers vulnerable to attack by the Chinese.



James E. Carter, Sr.

Capturing Seoul and Wonsan

James Carter describes his first experiences in Korea while traveling to Seoul, which had both recently been taken under American control. He describes the widespread destruction he witnessed. He explains how he then was put on a ship and landed in Wonsan. He explains that he faced no resistance by the time he arrived.



Battle of the Chosin Reservoir/Battle of Jangjin Lake

James Carter describes the attack at Koto-ri. He explains how his platoon was heading to meet up with the Easy Company. He describes being attacked by the Chinese and the subsequent retreat. He shares the dangers and losses his platoon faced. He shares how he luckily survived some possibly fatal shots.



James Ferris

The Difficult Job as a US Marine

James Ferris shares that his assignment did not allow him to stay in Korea for a long time. He explains that his job had him flying in and out of the entire country. He shares he earned good money for the 1950s as a corporal and recalls how he sent most of it home to his family. He adds that once he arrived back home, he went on his first date with a girl he wrote to for over a year while serving in the war.



James H. Raynor

Only Trained in Mess Halls

James H. Raynor describes his first combat in the Korean War. He was not prepared for the conflict, having only trained in the mess hall during basic training. He describes how scared he was and not knowing what to do during the fight.



Hand Grenade to the Groin

James H. Raynor describes his first wound during the Korean War. He suffered from a hand grenade to his groin. He describes how he endured this wound without treatment, barely managing to walk.



New Year's Eve at T-Bone Hill

James H. Raynor describes his News Year Eve at T-Bone Hill. He elaborates on the poor food rations, the extreme cold, and calling out to his "mommy" for strength. He describes a surprise attack that destroyed everything around him.



James Hillier

Serving Despite Skin Grafts

James Hollier describes his aircraft being hit three times. He details a time when he was burned so badly that he needed skin grafts, recovering over a 15 month period. He describes the importance of getting back on his feet to continue serving his country.



James Houp

Incheon Landing

James Houp reflects on his experience at the Incheon Landing. He shares how he and his unit went in on the third day of the invasion, on September 18, 1950. He explains that his job was to lay telephone wire. He remembers that Seoul had not been recaptured yet when he arrived. He remembers seeing enemy soldiers sticking their heads outside of the foxholes as he was re-laying wire that had been run over by tanks. He shares how, at that point, he recognized they were actually at war.



Time in Korea

James Houp speaks about his time in Pusan and Heungnam, up towards the Yalu River, and recalls meeting Chinese forces. He describes how his unit was pushed back to Heungnam where he worked to set up communication lines with the ships. He recalls how his unit stayed in a warehouse and remembers seeing the Army retreating away from the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He comments on the temperature being thirty-two degrees below zero at the time. He recalls his departure via a U.S. ship headed back to Pusan and then to other locations south of Seoul.



James J. Barden

Sunset Missions

James J. Barden describes preparation for the thirty bombing missions his crew executed in 1952. It took much of an entire day for his squadron to prepare the planes and bombs for night missions from Yokota Air Force Base in Japan. Each mission was to bomb various locations on the Korean Peninsula.



Making the Drops

James J. Barden details bombing missions as they were executed over various cities on the Korean Peninsula, including the capital city of Pyongyang, during the Korean War. He describes the measures taken by his crew to assure accuracy of the bomb drops in hitting intended targets. He explains that the bombings conducted by his crew were documented by another squadron that followed behind to take photos after each mission.



Making the Bomb Run

James J. Barden describes the conditions when his crew faced enemy aircraft. Each bomb run lasted about six minutes, and were three minutes apart. With the enemy hard to detect or see at night, the missions were stressful. The directives to his crew were to not fire unless they were being hit, a measure to prevent the enemy from seeing the aircraft at night.



James Jolly

Pure Destruction: Seoul

James Jolly describes the recapturing of Seoul in 1950 and the destruction that was endured. He explains that the majority of the city's buildings were destroyed in order to get rid of the enemy who were inside of them. He goes on to describe his pride for the strength and will of the Korean people to rebuild.



Cold at Chosin

James Jolly describes the extreme cold temperatures his platoon endured while at the Chosin Reservoir. Temperatures were usually twenty degrees Fahrenheit below zero and sometimes as low as forty degrees below zero. He recalls many soldiers suffered from frostbite while some froze to death. He also elaborates on their Christmas miracle known as "the star of Kotari" which gave them the will to persevere.



Tootsie Roll

James Jolly recalls that while at the Chosin Reservoir, his platoon survived on Tootsie Roll candy. He explains that their C-rations were frozen and the only way they could thaw them was by holding them against their bodies, which was very unpleasant. He goes on to explain how the delivery of this candy was originally a mistake; they had ordered mortar shells which happened to be the code name for Tootsie Rolls, thus tons and tons of candy was delivered from Japan.



James L. Owen

Strategy in North Korea

James L. Owen details the strategy commanded by General MacArthur when they pushed past the 38th parallel. He remembers how the Chinese surrounded them for 30 days near the Yalu River, the border Korea shares with China. He recalls destruction along the way and recounts sailing around the peninsula to get to North Korea.



Experience at Incheon

James L. Owen details arriving at Incheon Landing in September 1950. He recalls his platoon spending 60 days pushing back North Korean troops from there. He remembers taking all the equipment back on the ship, going to the other side of the peninsula, and proceeding combat pushing the North Korean forces as far north as the Chinese border.



Most Difficult Thing

James L. Owen explains that the most difficult thing of his service was knowing it had to be done. He shares it was hard to accept the fact that one must "kill or be killed." He describes how so many officers were killed, that job responsibilities constantly changed, and that one had to persevere.



James L. Stone

Refusing to Give Up

James L. Stone recounts a night attack made by roughly eight hundred Chinese. He describes how he was shot in the leg and neck and remembers another soldier placing a small cloth on his neck to stop the bleeding. He recalls being surrounded by Chinese soldiers but shares that he and his men refused to give up despite the circumstance.



Medal of Honor

James L. Stone states that he was unaware he had been awarded the Medal of Honor. He shares that he was recognized for a few things that he did while serving and lists several that may have contributed to him being awarded the Medal of Honor. He specifically recounts keeping his men together as no one surrendered despited the one hundred percent casualty rate.



James Low

Army Gunner with Old WWII Weapons

James Low applied to a school in Texas as a radar repairman, but he was not taken into the program. Instead, he was trained as a 50 caliber machine gunner. Learning to get along with a variety of people, traveling, and training on his gun were the skills he learned. The anti-aircraft weapon that James Low used was from WWII, so soldiers couldn't shoot down planes and ammunition often didn't work.



James M. Cross

Heartbreak Ridge and PTSD (graphic)

James Cross describes the marches he endured and seeing fellow Marines dead in a pile with all clothing removed by the enemy. He shares that he began to resent the Chinese, so much so that if he saw one, he would kill him. His wife, in the interview, adds that he would wake from nightmares during the night, screaming and upset due to having seen his friends killed right beside him.



Scared or Mad (graphic)

James Cross describes how he was either scared or mad at the Chinese, particularly while at Heartbreak Ridge. He recalls having one hot meal a day and recounts an incident which occurred shortly after finishing a meal. He remembers being mad at the Chinese during the majority of his service for what they were doing to American soldiers, and he shares that he tried his best to stop them at whatever cost.



If Given a Chance to Meet the Chinese Today

James Cross states that if he met a Chinese soldier from the war today, he would shake his hand. He shares that he was thinking one thing while the Chinese soldiers were thinking another. He comments on the Chinese having little by way of uniforms and shares how proud he was to be an American soldier. He discusses the last night of his tour where he killed nine Chinese soldiers who had advanced all the way into the American trenches.



James P. Argires

"Fearless" at the Inchon Landing

James Argires describes his experience in the Inchon Landing, explaining that there was some controversy around whether it would be successful. He describes the terrain and the struggles he faced. When asked if he was afraid, he explains how being young made him “fearless.”



James Parker

Friendly Fire Experience

James Parker recalls some of his typical duties while serving. He describes participating in exercises and his experience with "friendly fire". He shares that napalm and artillery were mistakenly dropped and fired on their own troops.



Heartbreak Ridge

James Parker recalls the campaign for Heartbreak Ridge. He remembers many calls for medics as soldiers were continuously wounded advancing up the hill. He chronicles the change in tactics from using manpower to advance to using tanks instead as a means of taking out the enemy bunkers.



Letters Home

James Parker recalls writing letters home to his sister. He produces a folder containing a letter he had written and offers the viewing of a magazine he was sent from the States pertaining to Heartbreak Ridge. He utilizes the map to show the routes he and other soldiers took during the campaign.



James Pigneri

Commanding from a Ditch

James Pigneri describes first getting to Korea and going straight into the war zone. The command post was in a ditch. Here he tells of his first official job transporting deceased soldiers while coming under enemy mortar fire from the Chinese.



Interaction with Korean MP's

James Pigneri talks about his time serving with two young Korean military police officers. Because of the dedication of the MP's, Pigneri goes unharmed but the MP's die tragically in battle.



Awards and Air Drops

James Pigneri discusses the awards that he received during the Korean War. He also gives details about how he and other soldiers received their rations and supplies via air drops. The receiving of supplies was a dangerous mission where many soldiers were killed trying to supply the combat soldiers with their daily necessities.



James R. Kaleohano

Replacement Company

James Kaleohano arrives in Korea and his company is replacing the company that was just ambushed. They are transported in cattle cars to the front lines in North Korea. James's company goes straight to the front line and he is given the job of a machine gunner.



James Rominger

Korean House Boys

James Rominger talks about the duties of the Korean house boys who took care of all the general housekeeping needs of the soldiers. The house boys washed clothes, cleaned shoes and kept the general area clean in the foxholes and the bunkers in exchange for food and clothing. James Rominger shares why the teenage boy was unable to even return home.



We were very unprepared for WAR.

James Rominger believes the North Koreans were winning the war because the American soldiers were very unprepared. There was little food and their boots were rotten. He shares how soldiers were in the North Korean territory of Kumhwa Valley working hard to gain stabilization in an area that had been completely destroyed.



A typical day in the Kumhwa Valley

James Rominger discusses what a typical day looked like as a radio sergeant. He shares what food they ate and where they slept, but also what his job included. He remembers the procedures for fixing the radios and having to bring them to the forward observers.



James Ronald Twentey

Plotting Minefields

James "Ron" Twentey talks about his job as an Infantry Combat Operations Specialist plotting minefields and safety lanes. He explains that his educational background resulted in his being assigned to creating the safety lanes in minefields. He describes the choices made and layout details that are involved with minefield planning. He goes on to describe what a safety lane is and its specifications.



James Sharp

Integration in the Marine Corps

James Sharp describes the official integration of African American soldiers in the Marine Corps prior to the Korean War. He adds that the Korean War was the first war where African Americans could participate in combat both as a unit and as an individual assigned to units. He also offers an account of African American contributions in previous wars.



Average Day Defending an Outpost

James Sharp describes an average day while defending a trench for an 83 day period as a machine gunner. He recounts receiving mortar fire often during the day and night as well as sniper fire if soldiers emerged from the trenches. He explains the necessity of being alert and aware of movement near one's position and details the need for a machine gunner to accompany patrol units.



Machine Gunner Expertise

James Sharp details an ambush scenario a unit found itself amid one night while out on patrol. He recalls Chinese machine gunners furtively stationed on a dike in the rice patties, waiting on half of the patrol to cross before attacking. He describes his own firing expertise and his ability to take out the gunners on the dike to secure the location.



James Shigeo Shimabuku

Waves of Chinese Forces

James Shimabuku describes the situation in Pusan upon his arrival and recounts making his way up to Suwon. He remembers encountering the Chinese and recalls wave after wave of them. He shares that when the Chinese soldiers in the front died, the Chinese soldiers behind them would pick up their weapons and continue pushing forward.



Sleep Deprivation and Thoughts on Fear

James Shimabuku recounts the difficulties of trying to sleep with shrapnel falling around the troops. He offers an account of a fellow soldier moving dead bodies and shooting an enemy soldier who was still alive amid the bodies. He shares his philosophy on fear and states that one either lives or dies.



James Shuman

Shooting from a Cave

James Shuman explains where the guns were kept during his service. He remembers having little protection when they were on the front lines. The enemy would tunnel through mountains, creating a cave-like shelter from which they would shoot at his crew.



Life in Korea

James Shuman describes the living conditions on the front lines. He remembers that they were not able to shower often, and how they had to use their helmets as containers for water for bathing. He shares how they lived in bunkers with a mess hall not too far from where they slept. He recalls the types of food that were available to the men serving there.



James T. Gill

Weapons Usage in the Navy

James Gill shares that he experienced a fairly lengthy training as he partook in the usual basic but also an extended weapons training. He describes the need to be experienced with many firearms and weapons, despite the misconception that the Navy never has to fire a gun. He refers to the amphibious force to support his claim as its members are sometimes forced ashore due to boat damage.



Landing Troops on the Shores of Korea

James Gill describes assisting with the transfer of Army and Marine Corps troops from Japan to Korea and vise versa as well as up and down the coast of Korea throughout the war. He recalls one particular morning where their mission was to land 1200 military troops under fire on the shores of Korea. He shares that he later spoke with a soldier from that landing and learned that roughly 600 of those troops had died almost immediately.



James Vance Scott

Air Support and Bunker Life

James Vance Scott describes being a squad leader and furnishing air and ground support for the infantry. He explains that they moved around many times while on the front lines and were stationed mainly in the bunkers they built to sleep in during the war. He describes the mindset of the home-front concerning Korean War draft. He says the conditions in Korea were very unpleasant.



The Big Grenade and Surrender of North Korean Soldiers

James Vance Scott describes the grenade attached to his anti-aircraft machinery that he was instructed to activate if the troops were ever overrun. They were also to be back-up support with machine guns. He describes the Battle of Old Baldy, including the surrender of two North Korean soldiers who voluntarily walked into the American camp starving and cold. He describes his first encounter with Chinese soldiers, as well as seeing a dead enemy civilian.



Jean Clement

Dangerous Moment

Jean Clements recalls a dangerous moment he experienced while serving in Korea. He shares that the night patrols were especially dangerous and recounts one in particular where he and fellow soldiers were assigned to check a particular post near the Imgingang River in no man's land due to an issue with the communication lines. He recounts having to maneuver through rice fields and securing one side with his machine gun as they made their way to the post.



Imjingang River Attack

Jean Clement shares an account of soldiers on patrol being attacked by the Chinese. He describes the camp where he was assigned, sandwiched between the Imjingang River and a mountain, and recalls that it was not located in the best position for defense against an attack. He shares that Luxembourg soldiers were conducting a patrol across a nearby floating bridge on the Imjingang River, and they were attacked by the Chinese. He recalls helping a soldier out of the river after he had jumped in to protect himself from the Chinese fire. He recounts destroying the equipment they could not carry with them prior to leaving so that it would not fall in Chinese hands and describes how the Belgium soldiers carved a path through the mountain to safety.



Reflecting on the Good

Jean Clement reflects on the good he experienced while serving in Korea. He speaks of camaraderie and being there for each other when it mattered most. He adds that he enjoyed time in the rest camps away from the front lines where they could wash their clothes and engage with American soldiers.



Jean Paul St. Aubin

Minefields and Cold Temperatures

Jean Paul St. Aubin describes his duty laying minefields. He recounts carrying out sweeps after opposing forces dropped shells on the fields and on their trenches. He also mentions that Canadian forces used dugouts to keep warm, utilizing gasoline and ammunition cases to create their own sources of heat.



Difficulties of War

Jean Paul St. Aubin details a difficult experience while out on patrol. He recounts orders to capture a small hill and the plan being to send 20 soldiers up the hill, leaving 20 in reserve at the base of the hill. He shares that those sent up the hill were attacked with grenades and suffered wounds, were killed, were taken prisoner, or went missing.



Letters During War

Jean Paul St. Aubin recalls writing letters home and receiving letters often. He remembers that he, collectively, received 3-4 letters from his family members and girlfriend each week despite being on the front lines and mentions that the mail service was good. He describes the topics of conversation on which most of the letters centered.



Jean Paul White

The Marine Corps Joins the War

Jean Paul White talks about where he was when he first heard about fighting in the Korean War. He describes learning about the war in newspaper headlines. He explains how he was unsure as to where Korea was located. He describes the diminished state of the USMC at the start of the war.



We Trained for It

Jean Paul White describes being a tactical soldier. He explained how he slept in the ground. He describes carrying only a one-day food, ammunition, and gear. He explains that conditions were hard for him and his fellow Marines endured after landing at Inchon, but that he had trained for it.



Chinese Intervention

Jean Paul White describes war activity with the Chinese. He explains the living conditions and injuries that resulted. He describes the movements of the Marine Corps leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes events that happen during and after the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He explains learning about General MacArthur asking them to retreat with orders from his Commanding General, General Smith.



Fighting the Cold

Jean Paul White describes how difficult it was to maintain weapons in the cold in Korea in the winter of 1950. He explains the effects on food. He explains the extents to what people had to do to keep items in use. He shares an interesting story about the medical professionals struggle difficult conditions.



Shot But Not Wounded

Jean Paul White describes an incident while he and his squad were taking a hill. He describes a Chinese soldier with an automatic rifle. He mentions a fellow officer, PFC Walter Talbot, who was hit. He explains that after dispatching the enemy soldier, he was surprised to find that PFC Talbot had been shot but not wounded. He explains how he was miraculously saved.



Jeff Brodeur (with Al Jenner)

We were there during the Cold War

Jeff Brodeur and Al Jenner received word that the North Koreans wanted to participate in the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, so they were heavily guarding the 38th parallel. They were doing this to ensure that the Olympics would remain safe. The 38th parallel is the dividing line between North and South Korea that we created during the signing of the armistice on July 29, 1953.



Jeremiah Johnson

Counterfire Platoon

Jeremiah Johnson describes his job in Korea. He recounts how he would record the sounds of enemy artillery. He explains his role and how he was independent from the trench soldier. He describes the technology he would use as part of his counterfire platoon work.



Finding North Korean Shooters

Jeremiah Johnson describes the poor attitude of many soldiers who did not want to be there and comments on how they would complain. He remembers how he was bored calling artillery locations, so he asked his Lieutenant if he could figure out his own shots. He describes how he came up with a system to refine the process of locating North Korean guns.



Hiring Orphans to Help

Jeremiah Johnson remembers two orphaned South Korean boys who worked for the unit. He describes the jobs they were given. He shares how they paid them and comments on how they learned from the soldiers.



Jerry Bowen

Dangerous Moments

When asked about dangerous moments, Jerry Bowen describes exchanging mortar fire with the Chinese in formation in front of his camp. He got some mortar bombs and went up to the top of the hill, but feared the Chinese would ambush them. He describes using hand grenades and the other events of that night in detail.



"A Wartime Place"

When asked what Korea is to him now, Jerry Bowen describes Korea as "the place he fought." He vaguely remembers living in trenches, tents and dugouts when not on the front lines. It says it was a "war time place."



Jerry Kaspen

Live Bomb evacuated by Helicopter

In this clip, Jerry Kaspen describes the tense moment when he was left alone with in a field of live bombs. During this time the military removed a live bomb that was too close to a local village. Jerry Kaspen historically photographed the first live bomb ever evacuated by helicopter.



Jesse Englehart

Kill or Be Killed

Jesse Englehart discusses landing in Busan. He discusses the personal hardship of being on a ship for such a long time. He explains how they quickly he was thrust into combat. He explains how he adapted.



The Luxury of Food

Jesse Englehart describes a resourceful Master Sergeant. Unlike other units, this Master Sergeant would get food using a boat. He explains how they were even able to get a freezer allowing the Master Sergeant to supply his unit with good food on the front lines.



You Get Used to It

Jesse Englehart describes how a South Korean man was communicating with North Korea. He remembers an incident and seeing this man beaten with a bat. He explains how in war soldiers become desensitized to violence.



Taking a Hill

Jesse Englehart describes his part in taking a hill. He explains how he prepared for battle with his helmet. He described weapons used against him and others during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He also explains that he was lucky to survive and how they made sure they left nothing the enemy could use.



The Hazards of War

Jesse Englehart describes what he forgets and remembers from the war. He explains the weapons used. He explains incidents of death in what he calls the "hazards of war."



Jim Duncan

Experiences as an Army Armor Officer

Jim Duncan describes the difficulty of fighting at night. He describes an incident when his tank was hit. He describes the damage by enemy fire on Hill 854 in Eastern Korea.



Tanks in Charge

Jim Ducan discusses being a helpful hand to men in trenches. He discusses when he was sent to the front lines. He explains tank battalions and their set up in the war. He explains that he stood on hill 854 to the end.



I Was Thinking About My Men

Jim Duncan discusses how lucky he feels to not lose any men. He shares a difficult decision he had to make for his men. He explains how difficult his duty as a Platoon Leader could be.



Jimmie A. Montoya

Farmers vs City Boys in a POW Camp

The soldiers who had once been farmers and ranchers back at home knew which vegetation to eat on that ground while many of the city boys lacked any of this knowledge. Georgia and Linda Montoya said that before the war, Jimmie Montoya would ride out to the ranch, shine shoes, work on the farm, or do whatever it takes to help make ends meet. Whatever amount he was paid during the war, he sent home to his mother and the kids.



Joan Taylor

Care Packages that Warmed Not Just Soldiers' Heart, But Also His Body

Joan Taylor was 21 years old when the Korean War was taking place. She lived with her parents while her first husband was away at war. Joan Taylor provided care packages for her husband that included warm clothes because winter military clothes were not provided yet.



Korean War Soldiers Returning Home

Joan Taylor's first husband came back home early from the war due to a death in the family. His father passed away and his mother was left to run a business, but she needed help. Joan Taylor's first husband was stationed as an Army Security Agent (ASA), so he did not participate in any fighting, but he recalled the bombs dropping and hiding in the bunkers at night.



Joe C. Tarver

Keeping the Aircraft Going

Joe C. Tarver details the responsibilities he was given after receiving basic training in San Diego, California. As an aircraft captain assigned to a squadron aboard the USS Boxer, he was to conduct maintenance inspections on incoming aircraft. He explains how important proper coordination efforts were on deck, so that the incoming aircraft could land safely aboard the aircraft carrier.



Danger Aboard the Aircraft Carrier

Joe C. Tarver describes the danger involved in maneuvering the large "Sky Raider" planes on the cramped flight deck, often in unstable weather conditions. The aircraft had large bomb loads, which was a consistent reminder of how meticulous airplane maneuvers had to be. He explains how one of the men he was stationed with accidentally got blown into a running aircraft propeller. Additionally, regular practices aboard the aircraft carrier were conducted to prepare to shoot at enemy fire if necessary.



Life at Sea

Joe C. Tarver explains that most of the men he was stationed with aboard the USS Boxer were part of a reserve squadron. The ship was almost nine hundred feet long, and had places to do laundry and take regular showers; it also had a post office and gas tanks. He explains that enemy fire never came while he was aboard the aircraft carrier because other ships were in the same area for protection.



Joe D. Slatton

Inchon in 1953 and Driving Colonels Crazy

Joe D. Slatton landed in Inchon, Korea in April 1953. He recalls hearing guns shooting all around him. First, Joe D. Slatton became a driver with the 703 Ordnance for officers (captains and colonels) until he drove a colonel down a goat path, and into a ditch, to avoid incoming fire in the Kumhawa Valley.



The Most Difficult Time Above the 38th Parallel

Joe D. Slatton recalls three difficult events while he was in Korea. He reflects on the passing of his father, how Howitzers ruined his hearing, and getting lost in no-man's-land.



Slatton and the Time of the Armistice July 27, 1953

After the armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, Joe D. Slatton's was assigned the job of collecting all military items that were above and around the 38th parallel. He recalls being scared because North Koreans continued to walk around armed.



Joe Larkin

Harsh Winters and Ways to Detect the Enemy

Joe Larkin described the conditions on the mountains at Punchbowl were terrible including 10-20 degrees below zero weather which made it very difficult for guns to work properly. He said the oil and grease would freeze, so the soldiers weren't able to shoot their guns. They also developed searchlights that would beam off of low lying clouds so they could detect movement and see both the enemy and their own soldiers during the Korean War.



"Battle of the Hook" at Panmunjeom

An outcrop of land between two main lines resembled a hook.
Joe Larkin's Marine Division was sent to Panmunjom to hold the line of resistance against the Chinese. His unit helped with reinforcements by bringing in timber that they would move at night so the enemy could not detect their movement. The outpost was attacked and both sides suffered casualties, but with the help of his division, the UN troops took over the area.



Girl In The Picture

As his battalion moved from the south to northern Korea, Joe Larkin's battalion passed through several villages coming in contact with the Korean people. The civilians were very thankful for what the US troops were doing. One little girl saw a picture of Joe Larkin's niece in his pocket, and kept pointing at the picture, but Joe Larkin didn't understand. He called over an interpreter and he said the girl couldn't believe that his niece had a flower in her hair.



The Korean War Armistice

Although the armistice was signed, communication from coast to coast was still limited, and Joe Larkin said the farther east he went, the less people knew about the armistice. He explained that if you wanted to call back to the east coast and you were in San Francisco, you had to pick up a rotary phone, dial 0, the operator took your number, then called you back at some point. Therefore, communication was lacking, which bothered Joe Larkin since he had been in some horrible circumstances and so few knew about the war coming to an end.



Joe Lopez

Crawling Around On The Floor Due to PTSD

Joe Lopez recalled growing up with a brother who suffered greatly from the Korean War. He remembered that after his brother came back from the Korean War, he would crawl around on his hands and knees in the house and hide in the bushes outside due to PTSD. His brother, Antonio Lopez, spoke of being heavily armored and he made attempts to slow down the assault, but the Chinese just kept coming by the thousands and he couldn't get it out of his mind. Antonio Lopez died homeless and an alcoholic to hide the pain from the Korean War.



Joe Rosato

Bad Ankle Injury

Joe Rosato recalled that while fighting near the Yalu River, he, his sergeant, and a lieutenant were ordered to take out a machine gun nest using the 57-recoilless rifle. Not soon after their assigned task to take out the gunnery, they were ordered to quickly get down the road and regroup in no particular order. They were to just move as quickly as they could. Joe Rosato was carrying the rifle when his foot was wedged between rocks and he fell in a hole while twisting his ankle so bad he couldn't walk on it. He had to abandoned his rifle and limp as fast as he could to meet up with this regiment, but they lost a lot of men that day.



The Most Difficult Conditions Were Being Constantly Cold and Wet

Joe Rosato described that in most places around Korea, it wasn't safe to walk around. During the winter months, the scariest times were when they lived in the fox holes and it rained so much that it would fill the fox holes with water. Sleeping in a foot of water made Joe Rasato fear that he would freeze to death or drowned, so they had to make the choice to stay where they were or sleep outside the fox hole and risk getting shot.



Ox Steps on a Field Mine-We have meat!

Joe Rosato did have C-Rations that he took advantage of for meals. As he was passing through villages, he was aware that the food was grown in human waste, but that didn't stop him from eating the cucumbers, watermelons, peppers, and beans. Joe Rasato saw an ox step on a field mine and blew itself apart, so the soldiers built a fire and made sauce with the chili peppers to go along with this fresh meat.



John Barrett

International Fighting

John Barrett got to hear a lot of the stories of soldiers returning home. He remembers one solder who explained how they felt safe with the Scots on one side and the Turks on the other side. He said that they got to spend a lot of time together once the Armistice occurred.



John Beasley

Typhoon, Napalm, and a Big Breakfast

John Beasley describes the arduous trip to Inchon from Japan on a Japanese Navy Landing Ship Tank (LST). The voyage took place after a ten-day hold-up in Japan due to a typhoon. He recalls that the continuous large waves caused napalm containers aboard the ship to break loose on the deck. He describes the mood and morale of his fellow Marines as they ate a big breakfast of steak and eggs, and the concern about who would make it back alive from their mission.



Sights and Sounds of the Incheon Landing

John Beasley recalls the sights and sounds of 5:00 in the evening on September 15, 1950, the first day of the Inchon Landing. He describes only having rifles and mortars to use against Russian tanks that were coming in the next day after the landing. He recalls that other soldiers who had come off a carrier came in to assist with use of napalm. He gives a first-hand account of the heroic efforts of fellow Marine, Walter C. Monegan Jr., during the Inchon Landing. Monegan posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his valor.



Taking Back Seoul and the Wonsan Landing

John Beasley describes being in combat and his near death experience in the recapturing of Seoul. He describes his unit's voyage from Incheon to Wonsan after leaving Seoul. His description highlights the contributions of the U.S. Coast Guard and naval support in the Korean War.



A Picture of the Battle of Chosin Reservoir

John Beasley describes his own experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. His descriptions include seeing the U.S. Army suffer heavy casualties, as well as hearing a testimony from a wounded soldier about the atrocities done to the wounded by the Chinese. He recalls serving under his highly decorated commander, Colonel "Chesty" Puller. He also describes suffering a shrapnel wound during the Seoul Recapture.



John Bierman

Smoke During Amphibious Assaults

John Bierman was assigned to a smoke boat and amphibious assaults. The smoke boat is typically one of the first boats in and last boats out during amphibious training. Diesel fuel was mixed with water to make a heavy white cloud of smoke to protect landing craft boats during the Korean War.



Deceptive Amphibious Assaults

The ship that John Bierman was stationed on made deceptive amphibious assaults 3 different times on the coast of Korea during the war. This was a way to draw opposing troops away from the front line. North Korean troops were tricked, so John Bierman received incoming fire and was awarded the Combat Action Ribbon in 1951.



John Blankenship

Targets of Opportunity

John Blankenship participated in night time bombing raids to go after "targets of opportunity." There are differences in capability between the A26 which was piloted by John Blankenship, and the Soviet-built MIGS that were being used by the North Korean pilots. John Blankenship's A26 flew only at night because the Korean MIGS didn't fly at night, so it kept his A26 safe.



Night Missions with Napalm

John Blankenship knew that he was always in danger and a few of his friends were shot down. He flew every night and ended up flying 87 missions in about 1 year. The A26 held 14 gun, 4-6 bombs, and napalm. When enemy convoys stopped and were trapped, John Blankenship dropped napalm on North Korean troops.



Typical Day as a Pilot

John Blankenship remembers spending lots of time sleeping when he wasn't flying missions. He was provided food from Japan that was made my cooks in the Air Force and he was given one hot meal a day. The pilots often ate WWII C-Rations to supplement meals. An important mission that John Blankenship was part of included the bombing of Pyungyang and a town near the Yalu River.



John Boyd

John Boyd's Life and Duty as a Signal Officer

John Boyd was a Signal Officer with various responsibilities. He explains the conditions and duties that he had during the war, including some of the sleeping arrangements. He remembers one specific time that he was left alone and was not sure what to do.



Fire! Another Korean War Enemy

John Boyd had to deal with many fires during his year in Korea because while working as a signal officer, his equipment started a fire which affected additional trucks at the headquarters. A space heater was the cause of another fire in the signal office. He remembers what it was like witnessing one particular fire.



Korea 1953 - The Last Few Months of the War

John Boyd spent the last few months of the war looking for the Barrows Balloon which signified talks were taking place at Panmunjom between the Chinese, North Koreans, and the United Nations. He describes what he calls the “silliness” that started at Panmunjom. As the weather began to heat up while they were waiting, valley fires increased, and things became dangerous.



3rd Battle of the Hook and the End of the Korean War

John Boyd fought in the 3rd Battle of the Hook against the Chinese during the last push against communism. After the ceasefire was called, an American tank went up north toward the Chinese troops. He recalls Chinese anti-aircraft going after the tank right as two American fighter planes came down onto Chinese positions.



John Burton Forse

First Experience in a Tank

John Burton Forse describes his first experience being in a M26 Pershing tank after being assigned as an assistant driver upon his arrival in Korea. He had to readjust to operating the machine gun in the tank. He also describes the sounds and feelings inside the tank.



First Time Driving an M46 Patton tank

John Burton Forse tells the story when a Colonel asked him to drive an M46 Patton tank up and down a hill. He did not have prior experience driving this kind of tank. It was difficult to get the tank up the hill and to make turns.



Traveling to Inchon by Ship

John Burton Forse describes the journey from the east coast of Korea to Inchon on a tank landing ship (LST). It was much better than the conditions he had prior. They had access to better food, showers, etc. While at sea on the ship, he experienced a bad storm and one of the tanks became loose on the ship.



First Time on Patrol

John Burton Forse describes the way he felt the first time he went on patrol in a tank. He describes feeling confident but reluctant at the same time. This is the moment soldiers are trained for. He describes the feeling as "this is it." He also details all the Chinese he saw dead everywhere.



John C. Delagrange

Identifying Targets During Korean War

John Delagrange shares he was trained as a photo interpreter and had difficulty identifying targets in North Korea. Using reconnaissance photos of battles throughout the mountains and hills, the United States Army Aerial Photo Interpretation Company (API) Air Intelligence Section pieced together maps in order to create a massive map of Korea. Every ravine, elevation, mountain, and hill was labeled by this photo analysis company.



Enemy River Crossing

John Delagrange recalls spending most of his time at Kimpo Air Base, analyzing aerial photos for intelligence. He remembers sending a reconnaissance flight to investigate an area of concern on the Imjingang River. He highlights that was the location where many of the Chinese troops hid and invaded during the Korean War.



North Korean Defector - Kenneth Rowe

John Delagrange remembers the day No Kum Sok landed his MiG 15 fighter at Kimpo Air Base defecting to South Korea in 1953. No Kum Sok (Kenneth Rowe) wrote a book, and he heard about the incident first-hand during their phone conversations later in life. No Kum Sok was a North Korean pilot during the Korean War, but he stole a MiG-15 and flew over the DMZ to Kimpo Air Base to earn his freedom.



John Cole

attack in the fox hole

Cole used his great hearing as one of his fighting tools. When he was about to fall asleep in his fox hole, he could hear the enemy gathering across the rice field. Soon, the Chinese began their attack and even when you thought the enemy was dead, they usually weren't. Cole found out the hard way as the enemy crept into his fox hole through the rice field.



Battling for Hill 1520

Cole fought for Hill 1520 during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He lost a lot of men defending that hill. Three Chinese soldiers climbed into his fox hole and he had to fight using hand-to-hand combat. This was where Cole was shot through his right arm.



John E. Gragg

Segregation in Korean War Units

John Gragg was in a segregated unit even though the 1948 desegregation law were supposed to be enforced. The only white person in his group was the commander who often mistreated the African American men. John Gragg mentions his experiences with white officers as well as how life in the South prepared him for the experience.



Invasion of Inchon and Life as an amphibious vehicle soldier

John Gragg's amphibious (duck) company was in charge of unloading supplies, food, and ammunition during the Inchon Landing using his ducks. His unit would follow troops to Seoul with all the supplies until the trucks were brought to Korea. John Gragg's unit also supported the troops by bringing soldier across the Han and Nak Dong Rivers.



John E. Saxton

Carry Over Racism from WWII

John Saxton recounts how a commander of the X Corps held African American troops in Korea in low regard based on his belief that African American soldiers had performed poorly during a WWII campaign in Italy.



John Fischetti

Brother's Experience in Korea

John Fischetti describes his brother's (Peter Fischetti) service experience in Korea. He recounts his brother being badly wounded after stepping on a mine. He details visiting his brother, recalling how his leg was amputated and his body filled with shrapnel metal. He shares how immensely proud of his brother's service he is.



John Fry

"A Vicious Time"

John Fry shares that he served in the Royal Australian Regiment as a rifleman. He recalls being sent to Korea in 1953 after having joined the military due to unemployment increasing in the textile field. He remembers Korea being in terrible condition as many people were living in cardboard boxes. He shares his memories of arriving in Pusan before heading North. He comments on his involvement in the Battle of the Hook, an experience he calls a “vicious time.” He shares his amazement of the unbelievable progress Korea has made since the war.



John Funk

Painful Memories

John Funk shares how he saw more devastation and pain than the average soldier because he was with the medical unit. He recounts the stories of three patients which have remained with him through the many years since his service. He recalls one centering on a Korean solider he transported in the middle of the night, another regarding an American soldier that had attempted suicide and was airlifted to his team, and finally, the image of a Korean child who lost both parents.



John G. Sinnicki

Impressions of the Chinese

John Sinnicki describes his experiences with the Chinese. He recalls feeling sorry for many of them, as they were very hungry and cold and would take clothing and shoes from dead Marines in the field for their own use. He explains that the Chinese POWs were sometimes executed rather than being allowed to leave and possibly rejoin the Chinese military.



John H. Jackson

Fighting During the Pusan Perimeter

John H. Jackson fought from the second he arrived in Korea and then participated in the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter. The most difficult part about this battle was that he didn't know who was the enemy since the North Koreans dressed up as civilians and then attacked the US soldiers.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson fought in the Battle at the Chosin Reservoir and he fought there until Christmas Eve 1950. The weather was very cold and it even went down to 50 below zero. Some of the soldiers were freezing to death as the Chinese continued to fight.



Returning to the Korean War after being Evacuated from Chosin Reservoir

John H. Jackson was put back into battle after he was evacuated from the Chosin Reservoir. He then fought at the Imjin River and Han River. He continued fighting during the Seoul Recapture, Chorwon Valley, and Ontrang.



John Hilgert

Captured

John Hilgert describes the events that led to his capture by the Chinese Army. He explains that after the Spring Offensive, he and two other men were cut off and alone. He recalls how they were found by the Chinese and taken prisoner. He shares that of the seven thousand men taken prisoner, only a little over three thousand survived to be released, partially due to the poor quality of food the Chinese provided.



John I. Reidy

Point System Explanation

John Reidy chronicles his enlistment in the Army and basic training prior to being sent to Korea in the winter of 1952. He explains the point system utilized to send troops back home after a certain number was accrued. He comments on it being a complicated system when it came to computing the points and discusses the correlation between payment and point zone in which a soldier served. He shares how the point system, unfortunately, did not apply to him since he had enlisted.



Final Days at Pork Chop Hill

John Reidy describes what fighting was like during the final days of the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He recalls showering the Chinese with leaflets stating that in celebration of the United States' Independence, the Americans were going to take the hill. He remembers the fighting continuing and compares the difference between American and Chinese military tactics.



John J. Baker

Preparing for War

John Baker explains how he knew the war was coming. He remembers having a conversation about how the North Koreans were training with the Russians to prepare for war. He also shares about a message that he remember came from General MacArthur.



Injuries

In this clip, John Baker explains why his doctor calls him the “walking junkyard.” He remembers how it was in the tent, but how cold it was outside.



Helping an Injured Comrades

John Bakers shares how they dug into foxholes and experienced enemy fire. The clip includes specific details of what happened to one of his comrades. He became this man's "guardian angel."



John J. Considine

Typical Day in Kumwha Valley as a Soldier

John J. Considine was embedded with the Korean Civilian Corps who built trenches and bunkers for the troops. Considine's job in the army was to look and listen for the enemy when out on patrol. He didn't get injured on any of these missions, but he knows of a unit of US troops that were all killed.



2 Purple Hearts

John J. Considine earned two Purple Hearts of his time at the front line when his bunker was hit by a barrage of artillery. He was the only one that survived the attack in his bunker on March 24, 1953. He was sent back to the front line after three weeks of recovery from his head and neck wounds. After only 3 days back on the line, he was shot in the back of his shoulder while on a patrol and he was ejected over a 60-foot cliff.



John Juby

Expertise as a Pioneer

John Juby had a variety of jobs while serving in the Pioneer detachment, including purifying water for the troops and fulfilling patrol duties. He recalls having to take a course on how to test and treat water. He explains that living in dugouts and trenches during warfare calls for the need for expertise on clean drinking water.



Losing a Friend on the Front Line

John Juby shares his experience of losing a close friend who died on the front line after being hit by an incoming mortar. He explains having to wrap up the body and take it the American Graves Registration Service. He describes the scene of the location of where the deceased bodies of soldiers were dropped off.



Dangerous Conditions in Korea

John Juby explains how he was wounded from being scratched by barbed wire. He describes his duties as a part of the detachment of Pioneers, and explains why soldiers have differing experiences. He recalls being fired upon by American soldiers who did not detect the presence of the British troops who were nearby.



John K. Barton

A Dangerous Moment

Reflecting upon the most dangerous elements of war, John Barton describes his experience with life threatening elements. He replies that there were a few moments during the war where he might have lost his life, but ultimately doesn't want to discuss it. He notes that that "the powers that be took care of us, we were all in it together."



John Koontz

The 38th Parallel

John Koontz describes his time in the Infantry at the 38th Parallel, where many North Koreans were trying to get through. He talks about the need to "fight our way out" which at times took hours, other times took days. He says "I'd rather not talk about it", clearly he is very emotional. and reflects on the horrors of war.



John L. Johnsrud

The US Draft and Arriving in Pusan

John L. Johnsrud was drafted when we was 22 years old in 1950. It took 19 days to get from Seattle to Yokahama Japan by boat before heading to Pusan. He arrived in Pusan on a troopship with 5,000 other soldiers.



Reconnoissance Work, Weather, and Relying on other Warriors

John L. Johnsrud was part of a reconnaissance platoon that would maintain communication for battalions, work with the South Korean Army, and spy on the enemy. Hawaiian soldiers who had been in the war since the beginning were a major asset for John Johnsrud since they taught the new men how to protect their foxhole.



John Levi

The Frozen at Chosin

John Levi shares his experience about the winter the Marines endured in the Chosin Reservoir. The brutal winter still stands out clearly as one of the most memorable parts of his entire experience in the war. John Levi recounts how the winter required an unexpected shift in his corpsman duties - from blood freezing to morphine freezing the marines had to alter their craft fast to survive.



Dealing with Guerrillas

John Levi recalls his experience with guerrilla warfare of in pushing north of Pusan. One night they ran into the guerrillas. He calls it one of the scariest moments in his war experience - not knowing if the next mortar was going to be on you or not.



John McBroom

Several Incidents on Board

John McBroom recalls several incidents on board the U.S.S. Symbol while in the Heungnam area. He remembers North Koreans firing at the ship from the beach and recalls gunfire from both the North Koreans and another U.S. ship that was posted nearby for protection. He describes a minesweeping mission.



John McWaters

While in the Combat Engineer Battalion

John McWaters shares that while near Heungnam, he provided jackhammers and an air compressor truck to some marines who needed help breaking up large rocks. He reported to General Oliver Prince Smith and assisted him with running the equipment. He recalls the general looking up and thanking god for his help.



John Moller

Answering the Call For the Australian Navy

John Moller recalls enlisting in the Australian Navy in 1950. He shares that he was stationed on the HMS Sydney from 1951-1952. He comments on returning to Korean twice after the war and shares how he was able to see, first-hand, the evolution of the buildings, roads, and culture in South Korea.



Can I Please Join the Australian Navy?

John Moller recalls joining the Australian Navy when he was seventeen with his parents' permission. He describes working in the supply branch aboard the HMS Sydney, which was an aircraft carrier with three flight squadrons. He shares that he on the aircraft carrier along with multiple Spitfire planes.



Life on an Aircraft Carrier

John Moller describes being shipped out for two weeks while stationed aboard the HMS Sydney during the Korean War. He recalls how he would provide supplies for the sailors on the ship while Spitfires bombed the Korean mainland. He adds that he was able to enjoy a hot shower daily and clean hammocks every two weeks.



John Munro

Guarding the 38th Parallel

John Munro recalls that his mission was to patrol the DMZ at Panmunjeom to make sure the border was safe. He recounts serving in a variety of battalions depending on where he was stationed in Korea. He shares that while serving on the DMZ, he also added mines along the line to keep away North Koreans who might have snuck over the 38th parallel.



Watching Over the Enemy

John Munro recounts how he tried to go home and work at his parents' cafe and service station. He shares that he decided to go back into the military as an Australian Army Reservist. He recalls being stationed with the 38th Battalion, F Unit, and being sent to the DMZ to patrol right across from the North Koreans. He shares that it was rough protecting South Korea through the freezing winters and steamy summers.



John Naastad

Hiring locals to get out of KP duty

John Naastad describes what KP duty is and why this work was often done by Korean locals. He discusses military pay and how soldiers had the resources to hire locals for daily kitchen service.



DMZ

John Naastad describes what it was like to be stationed near the DMZ in 1956. He discusses reports of troop movements and tensions along the line. He also recounts a trip he took to see the Bridge of No Return.



John O. Every

The Terrible Cold and Frostbite

John O. Every talks about being in combat near the Chosin Reservoir, and being evacuated due to extreme frostbite. He recalls seeing airplanes drop supplies, and recounts the tough losses of fighting. He explains being evacuated and taken to various hospitals for recovery.



Close Encounters Under Enemy Fire

John O. Every talks about being under enemy fire and encountering Chinese soldiers. He was awarded a Marine Corps Commendation Medal for enduring the enemy fire. He explains having to repair ammunition that was not properly operating.



John P. Downing

Dangers as an Infantrymen

John P. Downing spent 13 months fighting in the Korean War north of Seoul. During night patrols, he fought the Chinese and participated in ambush patrols. During his patrols, he suffered a wound to his right arm, but it didn't take him away from Korea.



Life as a Soldier on Hill 355

John P. Downing explained that life as a soldier was cold, wet, and hungry. He had limited rations and many of his friends died during his time participating in the Korean War for 13 months. Hill 355 was a hill that overlooked the 38th parallel and it was constantly under attack by the enemy. Artillery and mortars were incoming while John was protecting the hill.



John Parker

Life of a Pilot

John Parker explains what it was like as a pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force. He remembers that they were briefed and told where to fly, including areas like Hamheung and Pyungyang, where they often covered for the Sabre planes. He remembers a time when the RAAF shot down three Russian MiGs.



Lucky to be Alive

John Parker recalls completing one hundred and seventy sorties as a fighter pilot during his time in Korea. He shares one of his most memorable missions above Pyungyang which involved a lot of aircraft damage. He shares how he is thankful to be alive after he had severe damage to his plane’s fuselage.



John Pound

Sending and Receiving "Projjies"

John Pound's ship the HMS Charity would fire shells, or "projjies" short for projectiles, towards trains that traveled near the North Korean coastline. He remembers one Easter when North Korean gunners fired back from positions hidden in caves. He also describes assisting in spotting pilots who missed their landings on aircraft carriers.



John Pritchard

The Various Jobs of a REME Engineer

John Pritchard helped a group of English entertainers by fixing the ambulance they were transported in after breaking down in transit. They kept a very unique souvenir hanging from their flagpole. This humorous episode was balanced by the realities of war, including one episode where John was sent off base to tow a mortared tank and came face to face with human loss.



Christmas in Korea

John Pritchard spent Christmas off for 24 hours due to his commander speaking up for his men. To show that he cared for the commander, John Pritchard and a few lads went to Seoul to buy a Christmas present for him, 400 cigarettes, and this made him cry.



John R. Stevens

Experience at Incheon

John R. Stevens recalls various experiences while at Incheon. He describes an incident when his friend, Lt. Lopez, attempted to throw a grenade into a pill box that was holding up the rest of the unit. He explains that Lt. Lopez was hit by machine gun fire and dropped his grenade, upon which he smothered with his own body to protect the other men around him. He goes on to explain the capture of fifteen North Koreans and the success of Lt. Lopez' sacrifice.



The recapture of Seoul

John R. Stevens describes his experiences during the recapture of Seoul. He explains how his platoon captured many North Koreans along the river they followed into the city. He also describes the task of having to destroy the North Korean's weapons along the way. He recalls a particular incident when, in an attempt to break the stock of a gun, one of his lieutenants accidentally killed somebody.



John Rolston

Moments of Danger

John Rolston shares how he had to land on pierced steel planking instead of cement. He shares concerns he had about flying in certain weather conditions. He explains how the snow and rain were terrifying conditions that made his plane spin around. He shares the fears he had that he might not survive some landings or take-offs.



Close Encounter with a North Korean Pilot

John Rolston describes being a flight leader and bringing people to Japan and they were returning. He shares how he was very close to shooting down a North Korean pilot who went below the 38th parallel. He shares how he could have shot the pilot, but he didn't want to murder someone who was lost.



Life at Osan Airbase in 1954-55

John Rolston shares his fourteen-month experience at the Osan Airbase. He shares information about the F-86 planes there and the number of pilots that would be there. He states the weather was so cold that the fuel would freeze in the planes. He shares information about food during this time and missing his family. He explains the stability at the DMZ during this time since both the North and South didn't want to restart the war.



John Singhose

The Pass is Open

John Singhose describes working with his men to use bulldozers for building a pass that shortened travel from the "Punchbowl," through the hills of Yanggu County. He recalls hiking overland to construct a tram road, which helped the U.S. Army supply ammunition to the Republic of Korea infantry. He describes supervising the paving of an airstrip.



John Snodell

The Coldest Winter

John Snodell describes being with the 1st Marine Division and working as a combat engineer, and recalls seeing Cuban, Greek and Turkish soldiers during his time in Korea. He describes the weather as being very cold and remembers having to sleep on the ground. He recalls seeing Korean soldiers sleeping in trenches.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



Experiences in Battle

John Tobia discusses his recollections of being in battle. He recalls most of the fighting he witnessed occurred at night, and the next day, he and others would often go to the front lines and see how many troops were killed. He recalls how severely cold the winters were. His company used heaters and stoves to stay warm and often saw rats in their bunker also wanting to warm up. He also mentions how important it was to keep toilet paper in one's helmet.



War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Turner

What was Korea like when you were there?

John Turner discusses what Korea looked like on his journey north towards the 38th parallel. He recalls the destruction he witnessed in Incheon, Seoul, and Panmunjeom. He recalls starving people begging for food. He would give them some of his rations, as would other soldiers. His unit went on patrol near the 38th parallel, walking along deep trenches, and spying on North Koreans at Outpost Kate, about five hundred feet beyond the front lines .



Were you afraid? Did you ever think you would die?

John Turner talks about his experiences on the front lines of the war. Once his leg was grazed by a bullet, which ended up sending him to a M.A.S.H. (mobile army surgical hospital) in Seoul for a ten-day recovery. After feeling better, he returned to the front lines and was injured again shortly after, this time with a concussion from North Korean fire and explosions in a cave. He recalls trouble sleeping at night due to constant loud and bright explosions.



Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



John V. Larson

The Leftovers of War

John V. Larson recalls that when compared to other bombed-out areas of Europe, it seemed that there was not much destruction in Paris, France. He describes seeing places that were demolished, and other nearby places such as cathedrals, historical areas, and key cities that were never touched by bombing. He recalls feeling fortunate to be stationed where he was because he knew the combat equipment in Korea was not very good.



John Wallar

Mending Communication Lines

John Wallar talks about being under Chinese mortar fire while working on a line gang. He describes his team's job and how they went about mending broken communication lines.



John Y. Lee

The War Breaks Out

John Y. Lee, a resident of Seoul in 1950, talks about the day that the Korean War began. He describes what he saw and his subsequent flight from the city, eventually swimming across the Han River to safety.



Headquarters Description

John Y. Lee, an interpreter assigned to UN Headquarters unit, talks about the organization of the unit during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes the difference between his headquarters unit and a normal infantry regiment as well as the way Headquarters was set up at Hagalwoori, defended by only two Marine companies.



Jose Leon Camacho

Give Them to My Wife

Jose Camacho describes seeing a fellow soldier who was hit with a direct hit on their bunker. Three soldiers were killed from the attack but one survived long enough to ask a request. Jose Camacho describes the hit soldier taking his metal identification tags off and asking if they could be delivered to his wife.



Joseph C. Giordano

Arrival and a Dangerous Combat Engineer Duty

Joseph Giordano recounts his arrival in Korea on Christmas Eve, 1951. He describes his fear on the front lines of not knowing if the artillery fire overhead was coming in or going out. He details one of his dangerous duties as a combat engineer. He describes having to advance beyond the front lines to ready trenches for occupation by the infantry and shares that he and fellow engineers had to clear out the dead Chinese soldiers from the trenches.



Typical Day for a Combat Engineer

Joseph Giordano describes a typical day a combat engineer in the US Army while in Korea. He speaks of waking up, eating breakfast, and then being assigned that day's duties. He recalls that they could range from clearing out trenches at the front lines to building an outhouse for a general several miles back behind the front lines. He includes that he dreamt of three things during his 18-month deployment to Korea and claims that hot and cold running water always reminds him of Korea.



Playing Games with the Enemy

Joseph Giordano recollects his duties as a combat engineer, particularly those of clearing the battlefield of dead bodies and setting up mines. He describes performing this duty while under direct enemy observation and "daring" enemy soldiers to launch mortars at him and fellow engineers. He comments on the difficulties of his work and how tiresome it was.



Joseph De Palma

Creating The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)

Joseph De Palma describes his experiences during the creation of the Demilitarized Zone and his interaction with the local Koreans who lived in the area along the 38th parallel. He describes the day a woman with two toddlers needed to be moved south to safety. He recalls that along the way she wanted to stop and build a fire and prepare a meal for her children but since that was not feasible, he gave her cans of food and she and the children sat on a rock and had a picnic.



Joseph Dunford, Sr.

2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge/part of Battle of Pusan Perimeter

Joseph Dunford, Sr. shares that his first battle in the Korean War was the 2nd Battle at Naktong Bulge. He explains how the North Koreans broke the lines and he fought to push them back. He shares how responded using his training. He knew his role was critical.



Inchon Landing

Joseph Dunford, Sr. participated in the Inchon Landing. He describes his objective was to take Observatory Hill (also known as Cemetery Hill). He explains how he and his regiment did this at 5:30 PM and took the hill once it became dark. He explains how the North Koreans were fighting lightly. He shares all he could see was the dead and fires around him.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Dunford shares how he participated in the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which is known in Korea as the Jangjin Battle. He explains that there were so many Chinese there that he couldn't even count. He explains how he had to sleep on the ground without a sleeping bag since they were told to burn everything except a few C-Rations and weapons. He shares how the lack of food, proper shelter, and other necessities made survival difficult.



Joseph F. Gibson

First Battle Came Soon

Joseph F. Gibson describes going straight from a ship to a train after landing at the Pusan Perimeter. He explains how he was trained to jump into a ditch when he heard shooting. He shares how shortly after arriving in the Pusan Perimeter he was under fire by the North Koreans. He shares how he had to run alongside the Nak dong River while dodging bullets.



Working with Korean Civilians

Joseph F. Gibson shares how he worked daily with Korean civilians who helped take care of the wounded soldiers. He shares how he was often invited into the village to eat within the homes of civilians. He explains that he built a relationship with South Koreans. He shares how he learned some bad words in Korean.



"All Hell Broke Loose"

Joseph F. Gibson describes having to protect seventeen injured patients who were under his care in the medic tent as the Chinese broke the line. He explains how his unit was only fourteen miles from the Chinese border. He explains how he was told that the war would be over soon since they had pushed all the way through North Korea. He describes how the Chinese joined the North Koreans and how he took a lot of incoming fire in order to hold his tent safe from invasion. He shares how many Chinese were captured by the US and the loss of a Catholic priest.



Joseph F. Hanlon

Special Assignment

Joseph F. Hanlon talks about his special assignment as a rifleman in an intelligence/reconnaissance platoon. He describes being assigned by his commander to comb through the dead bodies of enemy soldiers in order to gather information.



I Forgot My Weapon

Joseph F. Harlon tells a humorous story about forgetting his rifle and his ammunition while on the front line.



Joseph Hamilton

Keeping Busy in Korea

Joseph Hamilton describes his experience in Korea, including how he kept busy. He first explains what his duties were as his did office work. However, his duties did not just end there as he recounts when they had to build a log cabin among the many mountains in Korea. He remembers how they didn’t have cots at the beginning, but fortunately did have ample food and clothing.



Joseph Horton

Trench Fighting and PTSD

Joseph Horton describes his experience fighting in the trenches. He details the close proximity of the Chinese troops as well as the nervous adrenaline he felt in combat. He speaks candidly about dealing with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after returning from Korea. He highlights his bout with depression, alcoholism, and losing his family on a few occasions.



KCOMZ and Christmas Hill

Joseph Horton details his work as a guard at a Chinese POW camp. He recalls serving there there for seventy-three days until being moved to Christmas Hill. He describes combat at Christmas Hill and shares how he served there on the front lines until the truce was announced.



The Punch Bowl

Joseph Horton describes his experience trying to hold a line against North Korean forces. He recalls his first real combat duty and seeing wounded and killed soldiers. He describes how his job was to extricate the wounded from the battlefield.



Joseph Lawrence Annello

Why Waste A Bullet

Joseph Annello describes being hit with a bullet and hand grenade. He describes it being the last thing he remembers before being prodded by a Chinese bayonet. He explains that he became a prisoner of war and was soon left by the side of the road to die.



Joseph Lewis Grappo

Inchon Landing and Seoul Recapture

Joseph Lewis Grappo explains how he participated in the Inchon Landing as a sixteen-year-old. He shares how he had little fear since he didn't know what to expect. He explains that since he was a part of the heavy mortar company, he created a defensive line behind the US Marines in order to recapture Seoul from the east side. He explains that he then went to Busan awaiting orders for the next invasion but there was a delay. He describes how he then traveled to Hamheung. He shares a memory from Hamheung where he witnessed money coming from a looted North Korean bank so he took some and bought apples from the locals.



Battle at the Chosin Reservoir

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes heading towards the Chosin Reservoir. He shares how he was meant to advance to Yellow River but stopped. He shares how he didn't hit any resistance since they defeated that North Koreans and the men thought that the Chinese would not get involved. He describes the frozen ground and how it was so cold that the soldiers couldn't dig a fox hole, so they slept on the ground in their sleeping bags. He shares how the Chinese attacked them and there was nowhere to hide.



"It Was the Fourth of July"

Joseph Lewis Grappo describes that they were stuck at the top of the hill because of a roadblock created by the Chinese. He shares how this maneuver blocked the US soldiers in with their trucks, supplies, and ammunition. He shares how he along with other men charged the Chinese blockade but were outnumbered. He shares how he was shot an injured. He describes how once the trucks were filled with injured, Chinese continued to attack the soldiers from all sides. He explains how he was shot again but this time in his soldier. He describes shots by the Chinese that sounded like the 4th of July.



The Taste of Death

Joseph Lewis Grappo discusses grabbing a smoke. He shares how another soldier gave him a pack of cigarettes from someone who had died. He describes the vivid taste.



Joseph Lissberger

I Thought We Were Losing

Joseph Lissberger talks about being a platoon sergeant at the outset of the Korean War, tasked with training new recruits in basic training at Fort Knox, Kentucky. He mentions that 37 of the first 49 recruits he trained died in the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. He talks about the changes that were made in response to what was happening in Korea.



Danger Beyond the Front Lines

Joseph Lissberger talks about the danger of setting up loudspeakers beyond the front lines for psychological warfare. He mentions that five men in his unit were killed while performing this important duty.



It Was a Hard Life, But a Good Life

Joseph Lissberger describes the daily life of a soldier assigned to the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company. He talks about the rigorous schedule and difficult demands of working in a print shop. Though difficult, he mentions that he enjoyed the service.



Life After the Armistice

Joseph Lissberger describes daily life in his unit after the armistice was signed. He talks about being able to train and getting into good physical shape, activities that were difficult before the ceasefire.



Joseph M. Picanzi

First Patrol

Joseph Picanzi describes his first patrol while serving in the US Army in Korea in 1953. He talks about when they patrolled, the number of soldiers taking part, as well as the kinds of weapons they carried.



Two Types of Patrols

Joseph Picanzi talks about the two kinds of patrols: reconnaissance and combat. He describes the purpose of each of these patrols.



Food on the Front Lines

Joseph Picanzi describes what soldiers ate on the front lines. He talks about eating two hot meals a day, served from the mess tent. The third meal, usually lunch, consisted of C-rations.



The Evening before the Armistice was Signed

Joseph Picanzi talks about what was happening on the front lines during the time around when the armistice was signed. Interestingly, he mentions that nearby Chinese forces were rapidly firing off artillery in an effort to spend the ammunition so that they would not have to carry it later.



Joseph P. Ferris

Kimpo under Air Attack

In this clip, a Joseph P. Ferris describes what it was like being under enemy air attack. He also recalls one of his experiences taking care of a fellow airman who became a causality.



Joseph Quinn

Memories of a Medic

As a medic, Joseph Quinn saw a lot of injuries. He describes one of the worst injuries he saw, but is thankful that the man survived. It was his treatment that helped the soldier make it to MASH and get the proper care.



Joseph R. Owen

Lack of Preparation

Joseph R. Owen details the lack of experience his outfit had before being sent to Korea. They were trained for only two weeks at Camp Pendleton in California. He taught them the rest of their skills on the ship heading towards Korea. He describes how their lack of preparation showed once they had their first combat in Incheon.



The Chinese: Morale Destoyer and Fear Creator

Joseph R. Owen describes his greatest moment of terror facing the Chinese at the Chosin Reservoir. He had to persevere and be a leader despite the fact that the Chinese were coming in droves attacking. He describes the causalities witnessed on the scene as well.



Joseph T Monscvitz

Surrounded at Taejon

When they woke up in the middle of the night in Taejon, Joseph Monscvitz and his unit saw a large tank that quickly started shooting at them. They jumped in a sewer to seek cover, but soon learned that they would need to escape further. Joseph Monscvitz explains how he made the wrong choice, ended up being surrounded again in a little village, and found himself as a Prisoner of War.



Joseph T. Wagener

Chinese Spring Offensive of 1951

Joseph Wagener describes battles he was involved in as part of the Belgian Battalion in 1951. He was involved in defending against the Chinese during their Spring Offensive. His battalion was attacked and held the rear while others retired. Later, his unit replaced a British brigade at the Battle of the Imjin River that suffered heavy Chinese attacks.



Operation Piledriver

Joseph Wagener describes his participation in a counteroffensive against the Chinese in 1951 named Operation Piledriver. He shares how his unit supported retreating Belgians as they fled a Chinese attack across the Imjin River. He proudly describes the Belgian commander's compliments towards the Luxembourgers who guarded their exit.



Joseph Wagener

Destroyed Russian Tanks Littering the Ground

Joseph Wagener describes fighting along the 38th Parallel with the 29th British Brigade, the strongest brigade of the British army. They fought along the Incheon River and patrolled the Naktong Perimeter where the South Koreans and their UN allies had blocked the North Korean advancement. Destroyed Russian tanks littered the ground around the area they patrolled, suggesting the intensity of fighting in the region.



Holding the Bridgehead; Defending the Belgian Battalion

Joseph Wagener remembers an incident during the Spring Offensive of April 1951 when UN troops tried to locate Chinese forces across the Incheon River. His Luxembourg battalion occupied a bridgehead so the Belgian B Company could cross the river to search for the enemy. Despite reports from nearby villagers that the Chinese had recently retreated with their equipment, the Chinese stopped only a mile away and began firing on the Luxembourg battalion as they held the bridgehead.



Josephine Krowinski

Army Pay During Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not recall how much she was paid while working during the Korean War as an Army nurse. She sent all the checks directly to Boston to her mother. Josephine Krowinski could tell that her mother needed the money more than she did, so that's why all her pay was sent back home.



A Nurse's Duty in Korean War

Josephine Krowinski did not know anything about Korea before she was assigned to go, but she always trusted that wherever the Army needed nurses, that's where she was to go. She always did what she knew best, how to nurse people back to health ever since she graduated from nursing school in 1942. Josephine Krowinski was never scared and she always felt prepared for anything.



They Took Care of Us

Josephine Krowinski described how well-protected she was by the Military Doctors she worked with. She always had G.I.'s looking after her. As a woman, Josephine Krowinski felt she was treated with respect and dignity.



Juan Manibusan

Friendly Fire and Fallen Comrades

Juan Manibusan recounts his efforts to save an injured comrade. Injured himself, he details lifting a badly wounded soldier from a bunker and applying a tourniquet to the soldier's leg before leaving to search for help. He describes descending into a valley and climbing another hill, searching for the safe zone. He shares that a hand grenade was thrown at him as friendly fire and recounts the moment they realized he was one of their own.



Julien De Backer

Dangers at the Observation Post

When he arrived, Julien De Backer received his assignment immediately to go to an observation post. He had to warn the allied troops if the enemy was coming. Among his biggest fears during this time was not the Chinese or the North Koreans, but rather the poisonous snakes.



Life on the Front Lines

Julien De Backer describes the living conditions on the front lines. He explains that they would either sleep in bunkers or tents. Showering was a special occasion and done in a line where the troops would receive new clothing. According to Julien De Backer, the food was “rather ok” as long as they were not on alert.



Jutta I. Andersson

Busan: September 1950

Jutta Andersson describes Busan when she arrived in September of 1950. She describes the despair of the people living around Busan. She also describes life as a nurse and how nurses could not freely move about. However, she did visit the hills surrounding Busan and go to a Buddhist Temple with an escort.



Into the Fire

Jutta Andersson describes first arriving into Busan at the very beginning of the war and treating the first patient within one week of arrival. New medical buildings were being constructed everyday including barracks for patients and new surgical buildings. Jutta Andersson also describes living conditions and having a hard time finding fresh water.



Duty of a Nurse

Jutta Andersson explains her duties as a nurse in the barracks. She mainly treated soldiers with non-life threatening injuries or soldiers who were in stable condition. In her barracks she also treated POW's from North Korea and China. POW's were generally scared of uncertainty, but thankful for the treatment and did not want to go back to the POW camp.



Treatment of POW's

Jutta Andersson explains her treatment of North Korean soldiers. The United States military did not want to treat these soldiers. However, the Swedish doctors and nurses had to treat injured North Koreans because of the Geneva Convention. The United States had to accept the Swedish treatment of North Korean soldiers.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Battle Experience

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his battle experience. He was a young kid. The military leaders hesitated to send him into battle. He had to implore the leaders to send him into battle. Eventually, he was sent into battle, where he did not encounter the enemy. Once safe in the bunker, the enemy started firing.



Arriving in Korea

Kebede Teferi Desta describes his arrival in Korea. He had no previous knowledge or experience with Korea. He was part of the First Kagnew Battalion arriving in 1951. Kebede Teferi Desta describes the situation as bleak for the people. Buildings were destroyed, with lots of destruction overall.



Keith G. Hall

Basic Training to Field Engineering

Keith Hall trained at Papakura and Waiouru military camps in New Zealand before sailing to Korea. He arrived December 31, 1950. His unit was the field and engineering section. He describes building roads and a base camp, digging trenches, and working mine fields.



Becoming an Officer

Keith G. Hall was selected to return to New Zealand for officer training. He describes choosing to return to Korea to avoid the daily routine of work back in New Zealand. In that sense, Korea was a welcome adventure.



Minesweepers near "Little Gibraltar"

Keith G. Hall describes his experiences near Hill 355, nicknamed "Little Gibraltar", in October 1951 as part of the Battle of Maryang-san alongside the more famous Battle of Heartbreak Ridge. His unit helped maintain the roads and sweep for mines behind the hill. He recounts the many wounded brought down from the battle.



Patterns of Minefields

Keith G. Hall explains the process of clearing mines. For fields laid by allies, he had access to the schematics in order to know where mines had been laid. He felt fortunate that he didn't have to detect mines laid by the enemy.



Slippery Slopes and Minefields

Keith G. Hall describes the dangers of defusing anti-personnel mines, as they included both trip wires and three-prong detonation features. In one instance, a sergeant working with him slipped on a slope and exploded a mine. His body was thrown onto another mine, which Keith G. Hall had to deactivate in hopes of saving the sergeant.



Get Out of This Field!

Keith G. Hall describes training reinforcements to clear minefields. Inserting pins into mines in order to deactivate them was of utmost importance. In one instance, a soldier forgot and had clear the field fast.



Keith Nutter

Coping

Keith Nutter recollects on losing a dear friend while in Korea. Although he mourned later at home, in the moment he couldn't shed a tear. He describes what funeral services were like while serving in Korea.



Ken Thamert

Military Duty and Patrols on the DMZ

Ken Thamert was stationed on the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) along with the Chorwon and Kumwha areas. During his patrols, he could easily see the North Korean soldiers guarding the border too. The North Koreans were even patrolling in the areas were also patrolled by American troops.



Prior Knowledge of Korea Before Entering the Korean War

Ken Thamert was given a book about Korea from the United States military once he enlisted since they assumed that's where most of the soldiers would be headed after bootcamp. The book included Korean culture and the games that Korean children played. Ken Thamert still has the book about Korea along with many pictures that he took while stationed in Korea.



Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro

The Chaplain and the Wounded

Kenneth Aijiro Tashiro describes being instructed by a chaplain to move on. He explains that the chaplain promised to stay with the wounded soldiers and that Kenneth should leave to save himself. He found out later that the chaplain and all the wounded were killed.



Kenneth Borchers

The Enemy Talked To Us

Bodies lay dying on the battlefield not too far from where the troops were stationed on the hill they were defending territory. Kenneth Borchers recalled the sounds bodies were making as the men were dying during the night. There was death all around and soldiers moaning from their pain was a constant sound.



A Breakfast Surprise

The men in Kenneth Borchers's platoon were enjoying a delicatessen of eating pancakes while on the front line one morning. As they got situated on the ground to eat, they saw the enemy running through their camp. The US soldiers never could fire a shot before the enemy passed their camp and were down the hill.



Attack By the Chinese and the Rats

After spending nights as an observer on the hill they were defending, Kenneth Borchers continued to report to Lt. Stone that there were people coming up the road, but no one believed him. The area they were located had been fairly secured with barbed wire, but around 9pm, the rats began to run.
Therefore, Kenneth Borchers knew that his troops were under attack by the Chinese who mounted the barbed wire fences by using acrobatic moves to scale the fence.



Soldiers Insane with Thirst

Kenneth Borchers was at an outpost on a very hot day in August, when one of the younger soldiers had not filled his canteen up with water like he was instructed. Later, he saw the same soldier come running back down the hill to get on his hands and knees so he could drink water from the rice fields. This act would make him very sick, so his leader put a gun to the soldier's shoulder and told him that if he drank it, he'd shoot him right there.



Kenneth Dillard

Two Trips to Korea

Kenneth Dillard describes his experiences at sea during the Korean War. He was on one of many destroyers that were stationed in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. He recalls chipping ice off the ship, and chasing submarines in the East Sea.



Kenneth F. Dawson

War is War

Kenneth F. Dawson trained in Waiouru in New Zealand before sailing to Japan and then Korea. Assigned as a driver in Korea, he carried ammunition to the front lines. The work was dangerous and several men had been blown up before he was assigned to the job. He drove ammunition to Panmunjeom, but he dismisses the danger of being blown up by asserting that "war is war."



The Children Prayed for Him

Kenneth F. Dawson describes an incident in which he heard cries for help on the front lines. A soldier had been hit and needed a stretcher. As he reached the soldiers who had called, a mortar hit them. Upon return to his truck, he discovered bullet holes in the door. Kenneth Dawson attributes his survival to the children of Niue Island.



Always Alone

Kenneth F. Dawson describes his experiences delivering supplies to the front lines. No one wanted to accompany him due to the danger. One cold night in the middle of a battle, he drove with his lights off to the front lines to deliver food and cigarettes to the soldiers. Flares lit his way to the top of the hill.



Hill 355: Death and Danger

Kenneth F. Dawson remembers being in the thick of fighting when the Chinese tried to take Hill 355. Driving up to deliver ammunition, he met an oncoming truck of Canadians. Blood was pouring out of the truck. Another time, on the Imjin River, he pulled the body of a dead American from the water and buried it in a sand bank. In a third instance, he drove a family north to the 38th Parallel so they could rejoin their relatives.



"I Want to Go Back."

Kenneth F. Dawson speaks of wanting to go back to Korea. Friends have told him that the economy is amazing, and he wants to see the shopping malls. He is proud to have served in the Korean War and would love to return for a visit, though he mentions that Korea was too cold for an island boy when he was there during the war.



Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth J. Winters

Camp Liberty Bell Attack

Kenneth Winters recalls his memory of the Camp Liberty Bell Attack. This incident took place on August 10, 1967, when his unit, while on a tree cutting detail in the DMZ were ambushed by North Korean soldiers. He talks about being shot by enemy fire and being wounded by grenade shrapnel. Four US soldiers were killed and 17 wounded in the attack.



Going Home, Coming Back to Korea

Kenneth Winters talks about his time in Korea from 1967-1968. He talks about going back to US after he was wounded and returning to Korea and the DMZ, the site of an ambush he was involved in just a few months prior.



Kenneth Newton

Unaware Why We Are Here

Kenneth Newton describes his arrival in Korea during the Inchon Landing. He details being sent to Wolmido first to secure the location before moving into Inchon. He shares his first impressions of Korea and explains that he and other fellow soldiers were unaware of the political reasons for initially being there.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Kenneth Newton recounts the days leading up to the Battle of Chosin Reservoir which included seeing Manchuria and partaking in a Thanksgiving meal. He remembers waking up to explosions late one night and realized they were under attack by the Chinese. He explains that chaos ensued, everyone being assigned a weapon and sent to the front lines.



Chinese-American vs. Chinese Soldiers

Kenneth Newton describes Chinese soldiers, sharing memories of them freezing to death due to the harsh weather conditions. He offers a story of an American officer with them who was Chinese and could speak Chinese fluently. He recounts the soldier's bravery and his ability to confuse the enemy by countering orders due to understanding the language.



Kenneth S. Shankland

Bombardment of North Korean Railways in 1957

Kenneth Shankland describes his ship patrolling the eastern and western coast. He shares how he participated in the bombardment of North Korean coastal railways in order to stop the movement of weapons by Chinese and North Korean Communists from the mountains down to Pusan. He recounts how The HMNZS Royalist served as a significant deterrent so he did not need to worry about attacks from enemy gunboats.



Kevin R. Dean

Introduction to the Front Line

Kevin Dean recalls how he was introduced to the front line in Korea. He recounts a World War II veteran offering him advice, telling him to keep his head down and to get used to the smell of the place. He shares his thoughts on the problematic situation of being young, scared, and sleep deprived during war. He comments on the difficulties of caring for the wounded.



Armistice Experience

Kevin Dean elaborates on the lead up and immediate aftermath of the Armistice signing. He recounts the positions of the Kiwis, Americans, and Chinese during the final days leading up to the signing and describes the heavy weapon fire. He recalls how calm it was after the signing, sharing that the killing stopped, and he elaborates on the death toll the Chinese suffered. He shares that he and other soldiers near his position narrowly missed a planned Chinese explosion.



Lacy Bethea Jr.

Incheon Landing

Lacy Bethea participated in the Incheon Landing. He was part of "D+2." Lacy Bethea was a member of the 4th or 5th wave of troops that landed on Incheon. When the Marines landed that day, it was their first combat exposure since WWII.



Food Rations and Ammunition Delivered Daily

Lacy Bethea helped distribute food and ammunition to soldiers who landed at Incheon after the initial landing in 1950. Company trucks came up with their platoon guides and then Lacy Bethea would pass out only enough rations for that day. The suppliers would always be one day ahead, so that each soldier has 2-days worth of food. Ammunition was also rationed out to each regiment of soldiers.



Larry Kinard

Front Lines of the 38th Parallel

Larry Kinard explains how he was embedded in the mountains along the Inchon River fighting to maintain their position against the Chinese. He shares that throughout the day, there was mortar and artillery fire, so he stayed inside his bunker. He explains that at night, the Chinese would perform assaults on his men, so he explains how there wasn't a lot of sleep for two months.



Letters Home

Larry Kinard explains how he wrote letters every day to his wife and once a week to his mom while he was away. He explains how he was unable to write while he was stationed in the mountains at the 38th parallel. He explains how he sometimes sent for a time of rest. He explains how he was able to receive pictures and letters once he returned to a more protected location farther down the mountain. He shares how he kept the conversation light and still has the letters.



Larry Shadler

Captured by the Chinese

Lawrence Shadler describes the night he and 68 other men were captured by the Chinese when his troop ran out of ammunition. The Dutch had pulled out an left a two and half mile gap in the lines. He was on guard when about 50,000 Chinese attacked just after midnight.



Release of the P.O.W.

Lawrence Shadler describes his release just north of the 38th Parallel. For every 100 American solidiers released, 500 enemy POWs were also repatriated. They were taken on trucks to a white stone path and were not officially released until stepping onto those stones.



Lawrence A. Bacon

Barter System

Lawrence Bacon describes his work as a "scrounge" for the Air Force. During the war, brake fluid was in short supply for the Army and Marines, but the Air Force had plenty of it. Lawrence Bacon describes how he would scrounge around to other bases looking for parts his air group needed and bartering for them with extra parts and battery fluid.



Lawrence Cole

Punchbowl Situation

Lawrence Cole offers an account of the situation at Punchbowl upon his arrival. He explains that both sides would engage, every so often, in artillery duals. He describes this time as a tug-of-war match. He recounts patrolling and often filling in holes on the front lines where he was needed.



Remembering the Armistice

Lawrence Cole recounts the day the Armistice was signed. He recalls being on the front line when he found out. He remembers being told to keep out of sight during the day and artillery being fired later that evening by both sides in an attempt to lighten the load in preparation for equipment removal. He shares that he and follow soldiers were delighted by the news as it meant they were probably going to live. He explains how there were casualties even after the firing had ceased as soldiers lost their footing carrying equipment out.



Lawrence Dumpit

Training and Protecting South Korea

Lawrence Dumpit went from bootcamp to Osan Air Force Base and went North to Camp Casey in Korea. This was located near Dongducheon and his duties were to destroy enemy tanks. For this first tour in Korea, he was there from 1997 to May 2000.



Prior Knowledge of the Korean War

From 2004 to 2008, Lawrence Dumpit's second tour, was filled with working with tanks on the ground. This was a change from the first tour in 1997. He didn't know a lot about Korea before he was stationed there, but he did know about the war because he learned about it during school.



First Impressions of Korea in 1997 and Korean Culture

Lawrence Dumpit was not a lot to go off base when he went to Camp Casey until he was given a one-week training about the Korean culture including the food, language, and civilians. The living conditions in Camp Casey were old WWII barracks because they were the oldest on the base and it was a lot better than the Koreans living in one room. He was paid 3,000 dollars a month.



South Korean Soldiers Work With US Troops

Lawrence Dumpit worked with South Korean soldiers, but they were not professional soldiers because they were drafted into the military. Therefore, many of the soldiers were not as professional as the US troops. The Korean soldiers made rank, but the US soldiers felt that they didn't earn it, so this started some problems with the US troops.



Lawrence Elwell

Wounded at Hagaru-ri

Lawrence Elwell describes being wounded in a battle near Hagaru-ri and his subsequent evacuation to Japan.



A Vivid December Memory from Korea

Lawrence Elwell recalls a vivid memory of sitting on a hillside in North Korea in early December 1950 and writing his father a letter foreshadowing what he thought would be his death in battle before his upcoming birthday.



Captain Milton Arthur Hull

Lawrence Elwell reflects about his commanding officer, Captain Milton Arthur Hull and the honor and respect that he bestowed upon his position.



"Tonight Marine, You die!"

Lawrence Elwell describes fighting the Chinese at Yudamni. Among his revelations, he talks about the esprit de corps of the Marines in this battle and the courage of their Chinese counterparts. He also mentions that ironically, many Chinese soldiers carried Thompson Machine Guns manufactured the United States.



Band of Brothers

Lawrence Elwell talks about the close-knit bond he shared with his commander and members of Dog Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Regiment, 1st Marine Division.



Lawrence Hafen

Living Conditions in the Late Stages of the War

Lawrence Hafen describes the living conditions during his time on the front lines from April 1953 until the signing of the Armistice. He talks about daily life, where and when he slept, as well as what he ate during this time.



Airirang and Other Memories

Lawrence Hafen recalls three KATUSA soldiers that were attached to his unit. He mentions their names and talks about his interactions with them. He remembers a song that "Willie," one of the Korean soldiers taught him, "Arirang." In this clip, he sings the song from memory.



The Last Ten Days

Lawrence Hafen talks about his experience during the last ten days before the signing of the Armistice. He mentions continuous shelling by both sides in an effort to expend stocks of ammunition. He describes the front lines after the ceasefire.



Not so Friendly Fire

Lawrence Hafen tells a story of when a fellow soldier accidentally fired a contraband machine gun. The soldier, after assembling the weapon, accidentally fired several rounds in his direction.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Inner Thoughts Once in Korea

Lawrence Paul Murray describes his inner thoughts while on his first assignment in Korea at Incheon Landing. He explains feeling conflicted over having to kill other human beings. He goes on to explain how he overcame this mindset when his defense mechanisms kicked in.



Early Sacrifices

Lawrence Paul Murray describes his first injury on his way to Seoul after the Incheon Landing. He describes a bullet injury to his ribs from a machine gun. He received the Purple Heart for this injury.



Leon “Andy” Anderson

Twenty Degrees Below

Leon "Andy" Anderson describes his time in Korea. He describes forming into boat units in freezing temperatures and landing in Korea to live in just a thin tent. He describes giving the order for his men to gather what they could in order to make life better inside the tent. He explains what resources they found. He shares how even when the went to the range to practice the weapons would be frozen.



Armistice Day

Leon "Andy" Anderson shares his experience being there for the Armistice in July 1953. He explains how he was near the front lines in the recon rear area. He shares how the Chinese and North Koreans were shooting at the US troops all the way up to the last minute before the Armistice. He shares how he celebrated the end of the war.



Leonard Laconia

Just How Close We Were To The Enemy

Leonard Laconia's jeep squadron moved around from Seoul to Pyongyang and up to the North Korean Airports that he noted as K23 and K24 (Pyongyang). He recalled spending most of his time around K23 and he was told originally there were 30,000 Chinese headed their way, but there was actually 380,000 Chinese soldiers. Leonard Laconia's missions, known as a "sorties," would only last about 15 minutes (refuel & amp; rearm) because they would run out of ammunition so quickly due to the number of Chinese they were fighting.



The Chinese Were Smart, But Napalm Was Stronger

When Leonard Laconia's air squadron went on "strafing" missions, the Chinese were smart to just lie down flat on the ground to keep from getting shot which was a great defense tactic. Leonard Laconia's group responded by dropping napalm which wiped out most of the Chinese troops. He described that one canister of napalm would cover the diameter of a football field spreading across consuming the oxygen in the air and heat would rise under the plane. The Chinese wore thick heavy coats during the winter and the napalm would just stick to it aiding in the burning of bodies.



US B-29s Couldn't Stop the Chinese

Leonard Laconia stated that the Chinese would fly MiGs from Manchuria, but they would burn fuel so quickly that they rarely made it to Korea. The US would fly B-29s up and down the Yalu River dropping bombs to destroy bridges, but it didn't stop the Chinese from coming down into Korea. The Chinese still found a way to get across the Yalu River.



Bed Check Charlie

An enemy plane was nicknamed "Bed Check Charlie" by The Stars and Stripes newspaper which was provided for every US soldier. In the newspaper, it threatened that "Bed Check Charlie" would come at night and killed one of the men from his squadron by dropping grenades and mortar shells. Leonard Laconia remembered that many of the enemy planes maneuvered well through the night sky, so soldiers were afraid of them.



Armistice Signed, But Fighting Continued

Leonard Laconia mentioned how bad the fighting was from 1950 through 1951, but when talk of armistice was being discussed in 1951, no one wanted to take a chance of dying. Therefore, none of the soldiers showed interest in the armistice. After the Armistice was signed in 1953, territory along the DMZ had many battles that continued to secure and occupy any land.



Leonard Nicholls

First Impressions of Korea

Leonard Nicholls recounts his first impressions of Korea as he arrived by ship to Pusan in early 1952. His boat was greeted on the pier by an American band playing music. They then climbed aboard a slow train toward the front lines. He remembers flat lands and rice paddies until they reached the north.



Arriving on the Front Lines

Leonard Nicholls arrived at a valley called San Marie near the front lines. The trucks dispatched the men to a valley near the First Blazes battery of artillery. Young Korean boys wandered the camp performing odd jobs.



Daily Activities of a Radio Operator

Leonard Nicholls worked as a signaler in the Royal Army, eventually becoming the battery commander's radio operator. The area supported just a few shacks, and the hills reminded him of his home in Cotswolds in England.



Observation Post Observations

Leonard Nicholls manned the observation posts while on duty as a radio operator. The front lines were traumatic. Traveling to a post on Hill #365 took them through Chinese lines. He describes the process of calling in artillery fire on Chinese positions.



Twenty Six Radio Set Description

Leonard Nicholls talks about the radio set that he carried as a radio operator in the Royal Army. Called a Twenty Six Set, he describes the radio's size and weight, emphasizing that a radio operator carried the heavy piece of equipment on his back.



Enemy Ambush: Dealing with Death in the Field

Leonard Nicholls heard machine gun fire while on patrol one night. The next day he learned that a captain and radio operator had been killed in an ambush. He talks about dealing with their deaths.



"Walk Away Smartly"

Leonard Nicholls recalls an episode when he was injured by a errant dynamite blast. After setting up the charge, the lieutenant told him to "walk away smartly" so as not to trip and fall. Although he panicked and ran, the blast shot earth and debris far enough for a large rock to injure his knee.



Chinese Propaganda

Leonard Nicholls describes the rats in camp and his experiences with Chinese on the front lines. The Chinese also sent Christmas cards to make soldiers homesick.



Leonard R. Stanek

Welcome to Korea

Leonard Stanek describes arriving in Incheon Harbor in 1952. Incheon, secured by the US military, however, Leonard Stanek could still hear artillery being fired 30 miles away. Soon after arrival, he was sent to the front lines, due to his company having many losses, both death and wounded. Leonard Stanek also describes the food on the frontlines, C-Rations, and SPAM and Eggs with a cracker being his favorite meal.



Wounded

Leonard Stanek describes how the Chinese attacked on July 26th, 1953, the day before the Armistice took effect. Leonard Stanek was in a trench and hunkered down, when one of the last artillery shells exploded with a piece of shrapnel piercing his helmet. He medivacked to the Hospital Ship Haven to recover and earned a Purple Heart.



The Armistice

Leonard Stanek describes where and when he learned about the Armistice signing. He suffered a head injury and medivacked to a hospital ship and learned about the Armistice when he woke up from injury or exhaustion. A week later, after his injury, Leonard Stanek rejoined his unit. Upon returning, he learned about the loss of a buddy that was helping retrieve wounded.



Leslie Fuhrman

Antiaircraft Operations Unit

Leslie Fuhrman describes the operation of the antiaircraft unit that he commanded near Sosa, Korea.



Daily Life in an Antiaircraft Operations Unit

Leslie Fuhrman describes the daily living conditions in the Antiaircraft Operations Unit that he commanded near Sosa, Korea.



Leslie Peate

Korean Porters

Leslie Peate elaborates on the work of the Korean porters. He defines them as mostly farmers and/or anyone who would help out during the war. He shares that those men worked harder than any other group of people during the war and stresses that they received no recognition at all and most likely no payments for their efforts.



Lewis Ebert

An Accident at K-2

Lewis Ebert was near a rocket that was accidentally fired and blew up a tractor trailer on base. That trailer was parked near him when it blew up because he was working at the K-2 Air Base. Luckily, Lewis Ebert didn't get injured in the incident.



Preparing For and Entering the Korean War

After the Korean War started in June 1950, Lewis Ebert traveled to San Fransisco to prepare to leave for Japan and arrived there the middle of July. In September 1950, he was put on a train to travel to the south-end of Japan and then flew into Taegu, South Korea (September 16, 1950, the day after the Incheon Landing). The ROK (Republic of Korea) were flying out of Taegu which had a steel mat runway.



F80 Ammunition Supplying and Documenting History Through Letter Writing

Lewis Ebert came over with 3 squadrons of F80 Jets. He was assigned the ammunition supply section of the base and worked on the ammunition reports each night including replenishing the 50 caliber machine guns bullets. His letters home helped remind him how much ammo that the military went through each day because his mom and sister kept all the letters that he wrote twice a month.



The Fierce Drive From the Chinese in November 1950

During Thanksgiving in November 1950, the Chinese entered the Korean War and pushed their troops down into Seoul. In January 1951, Lewis Ebert's troops were told to evacuate the Air Base in Taegu, but 10 airmen had to remain, so Lewis Ebert stayed. After the United Nations troops retook Seoul, Lewis Ebert was told to be a liaison in Pusan at the large gas depot.



Lewis Ewing

Arriving in Korea

Lewis Ewing talks about his arrival in Korea, his journey to his unit in Chuncheon, and his first impressions of war. He explains how he felt about his deployment, and describes his rapid journey to the front lines. He recalls the living conditions on the base where he arrived.



Helicopters in Warfare

Lewis Ewing speaks about how helicopters were used for troop support and evacuating the wounded during the Korean War. He describes the Syskorsky helicopter and its uses during warfare. He recalls maintaining the helicopters, hauling ammunition, and how pilots would let him fly on occasion.



A Bird's-Eye View of Destruction

Lewis Ewing speaks about seeing vast areas of destruction across the Korean landscape. He describes seeing devastation of mountain areas, which he viewed from helicopter flyovers. He recalls his impressions upon seeing the war-torn areas of Seoul and Busan from a bird's-eye view.



Lloyd Pitman

Landing In Inchon

Lloyd Pitman describes his first night in Korea. He arrived in Inchon on September 19, 1950. He and his fellow soldiers engaged the enemy and took the airfield at Suwon. He describes the enemy counterattack that overran their headquarters killing many.



North Koreans leaving the war

Lloyd Pitman describes how his platoon walked right into a North Korean position after landing at Iwon, North Korea. Many soldiers ran away to avoid being captured. Some North Korean soldiers began waving the white peace flag and over a period of two days, the American soldiers took in 85 North Korean soldiers who wanted out of the war.



Christmas In Korea

Lloyd Pitman describes a Christmas day in Korea. The army gave him two beers and two cigars. He had spent three Christmases away from home and spent some time thinking about his family. The horrors of war returned as he soon found South Korean civilians executed by the North Koreans and Chinese as they retreated.



Lloyd Thompson

Dropping Bombs and Flares by Hand

Not having bombing racks at the back of his C-47, Lloyd Thompson had to throw bombs and 15 pound flares (high illumination) by hand out of the plane at over 10,000 feet in the air. He did this to help fighters and bombers see their target. He also flew 76 missions and accumulated over 390+ hours.



Creeping Up Behind Us

Suspecting it may have been a Yakovlev (Yak-9), the enemy flew behind Lloyd Thompson's plane close enough that the radar indicated only one plane. When they landed, the Yak started dropping bombs on the runway at Gimpo Air Force Base. The Air Force responded with anti-aircraft weapons and blew the enemy plane apart.



Civilians Digging In The Trash to Survive

As a naive young man who had never witnessed much beyond a small Midwestern town, Lloyd Thompson saw Korean civilians digging in the US soldiers' trash for scraps. The realization was knowing what the UN were fighting for. Lloyd Thompson recognized the hope to give Korean civilians a normal life again.



Finding Body Bags

As Lloyd Thompson was shoveling sand on a 2 1/2 ton 6X6 truck near a flood plain at Kimpo Air Force Base, he unearthed a wooden box and unveiled an abandoned burial ground filled with body bags. He reported the incident, but nothing ever came of it. The bodies were left right there in the flood plain.



Loannis Farazakis

A Piece of Missile to Keep

Loannis Farazakis describes several scenes of fighting with the help of a translator. He explains how his Company was attacked by North Korean artillery. He discusses how his unit, as well as an American jeep, were hit by fire. He explains how he didn't wear his metal helmet and he was hit by shrapnel in his head. He explains how he was not seriously injured.



One Sentence Letter

Loannis Farazakis describes his mother waiting to hear from him. He explains how he wrote her a letter with one sentence. He shares how he sent it home.



Loren Schumacher

Sleeping Soldier in South Korea

Loren Schumacher describes the way soldiers slept in Korea, surrounded by gunfire and at two hour intervals. His tent was in front of a 105 Howitzer which fired interjectory fire every ten minutes. He goes on to describe being sent out to the line on the east end of the 38th parallel to watch and listen for the enemy and alternating two hour watches with his partner.



Surviving an Attack by the Chinese at Outpost Reno

Loren Schumacher describes an attack of Chinese forces on outpost Reno, sometimes called Yoke. He and thirty-six other soldiers were defending the outpost when a battalion of Chinese soldiers attacked them. He describes his Lieutenant calling in on a PRC-6 and reporting they were overrun and how the Captain at the command post ordered VT artillary to be fired on their position which ended the Chinese attack. He was wounded by a Chinese shell that exploded in a pit right in front of him, causing a concussion which is how he earned his Purple Heart.



Louis F. Santangelo

The Sinking of the USS Sarsi

Louis Santangelo describes the details of the sinking of the USS Sarsi, a fleet tug that was part of the US Navy's 7th Fleet. The USS Sarsi struck a mine during a typhoon and sank in 20 minutes on the night of August 27, 1952. Louis Santangelo describes being one of the last men off the ship and eventually saving 37 men from the sea.



Recovery from the USS Sarsi

Louis Santangelo describes the time after the USS Sarsi sank off the coast of Korea. The area where the USS Sarsi sank was controlled by North Korea. He describes that four sailors perished and how he was recovered in the hours after the sinking by other US ships. Louis Santangelo earned accommodation for keeping his men at sea, instead of allowing them to go ashore into enemy hands.



Louis G. Surratt

Two Brothers Serving in Korea

Louis Surratt was selected to spend Christmas with his brother. While he spoke on the phone with his brother to make plans, a deadly plane collision happened on the airport runway. All men aboard the two planes died in the crash. The high number of casualty reports that ensued meant that Louis Surratt could not join Donald for the holiday.



Louis J. Weber

Chorwon and Battle of Triangle Hill

Louis J. Weber explains how he landed. in Inchon. He shares how he was sent to Chorwon, which was part of the Iron Triangle. He explains that he was an infantryman. He shares that his job was to protect his bunker while sending out artillery to fight the Chinese.



Leaving the Rats Behind

Louis J. Weber describes being surrounded by rats while in his bunker eating. He explains how he continued his service with the US military as an Air Force reservist, Navy reservist, and Army soldier after the Korean War. He shares how he doesn't want to Korea due to the memories of friends that were lost.



Louis Joseph Bourgeois

The 426 RCAF Squadron

Louis Bourgeois played an important role in the 426 RCAF Squadron during the Korean War. On return trips to his military base, the aircraft brought back wounded soldiers. Their route to Asia typically started in Washington State before going to Alaska, and then onto Japan.



The Importance of Pilots During the Korean War

Louis Bourgeois also had 6 North Star Aircraft that went into Korea while others went to Japan. After the war, the planes were brought back to Canada to continue their airlift duties. He is so proud to be the president of the 426 Squadron to support fellow veterans who fought during the Korean War.



Luis M. Juarbe

Printing Puerto Rican News in Korea

Luis Juarbe describes the many different roles he fulfilled for his regiment ranging from radioman to newsman. He describes his responsibilities for creating and distributing a daily newspaper La Cruz de Malta that lifted the morale of many Puerto Rican troops throughout his unit. He explains how he helped oversee roughly nine months of consecutive news coverage.



Most Rewarding Moment

Luis Juarbe shares how he was given one of the largest honors during Puerto Rico's involvement in the war. He explains how he was tasked with carrying the newly created Commonwealth flag (adopted by Puerto Rico in 1952) to the front-line. He shares how it was an honor as a Puerto Rican, but also as an American citizen.



Luther Dappen

The Eyes and Ears of the Division

Luther Dappen describes the work of Reconnaissance. He explains that many times he was given the task of "going out to see what they're shooting at you with today." He goes on to describe his unit accidentally stumbling upon a unit of Chinese troops who were lying in wait and having to take them in as prisoners.



Manuel Carnero

Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Manuel Carnero describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes arriving and experiencing temperatures 20-30 degrees below 0. He describes the weapons available and how the machine guns they carried utilized belted ammunition though the soldiers were given linked ammunition. He goes on to describe seeing what he thought looked like a German grenade from WWII and being unable to escape the explosion. When he awoke, his tongue half cut-off and mouth full of blood, he looked up the hill and thought he was dead and headed to Valhalla.



Injuries and Casualties

Manuel Carnero describes how the cold and frostbite affected soldiers. He explains that he had frostbite on his hands and feet while many other men froze to death. He says it was not unusual for men to fall asleep and not wake up; that the weather claimed more lives than the Chinese. He goes on to describe how the Navy Corpsmen serving with the Marines were picking up the casualties at the battle site when they found him and helped him to a truck.



Marc Villanueva

Bombed by Your Own Side

Marc Villanueva describes an incident that occurred while he was a platoon leader during a winter attack. He describes hiding in the trees of Korea near an enemy encampment and calling in for support. He radioed in the coordinates and soon the support began firing mortars at his platoon's location. He describes having to wait until nightfall, lying in the snow so that the enemy could not see them.



Fox Holes in the Snow

Marc Villanueva explains that many of his new recruits from the United States were very young, right out of high school. He describes the cold conditions and necessity for having to dig the fox holes deep and wide. Unfortunately, two young soldiers did not follow instructions and instead of digging a fox hole, they slept on top of the snow in their sleeping bags. When the enemy saw them, they used their burp guns to spray them with gunfire and the men were killed.



Marion Burdett

The Forgotten War and Causes of PTSD

Marion Burdette felt that the Korean War is known as the "Forgotten War" because there was not a lot of publicity back on the homefront.
Also, many of the veterans didn't speak about the war when they returned back home. Since Marion Burdette shot thousands of rounds of artillery, he lost most of his hearing. He was also stationed in Northern Korea and he was almost caught as a POW. Due to his experiences on the front line, he has nightmares and PTSD.



Post -War Readjustment

Marion Burdette was walking in front of his vehicle when multiple land mines killed Army soldiers in his regiment. After clearing the land mines in the area, he was able to set up the howitzer guns to engage in warfare. The impact of war on his life was that he felt that he needed to traveled the US to release his stress. He decided to reenlist in the Army for 3 years, but it was hard to readjust to life back in the United States.



Enlisting in the United States Army

Marion Burdette's job in the Army was a Battle Commander's Traveler
He entered Korea from an L3T and then he stormed the beaches on June 27, 1950. Even as he arrived in Korea, he didn't know much about the country. In early June, he was sent to Yokohama, Japan to prepare for the invasion of Korea.



Marshall W. Ritchey

Keep Your Head Down

Mitchell W. Ritchey describes the 3 most important things to making it home: stay warm, keep your head down (always wear your helmet), and doing everything you could to stay alive. He recalls the year he was there was marked by one of the coldest winters ('52) and says they had "Hoochies" that they made while on the front lines where they would dig a hole into the side of a mountain and put sands bags into the hill (in case of incoming mail-grenade drop) and 3-4 bunks at one time. Most of the men slept in sleeping bags and Mitchell said he never took his boots off.



C-Rations and a P38

Marshall W. Ritchey describe what he had to eat while on the front lines. He described his C-Rations usually had scrambled (powedered) egg w/meat mixed in it, OD crackers, 4 cigarettes (Lucky Strikes or Chesterfields) and a horrible tasting candy Chuckles. He said you at whatever you had and felt luck to have it. He also recalls making ice cream using the cream provided and some sugar that you mixed with the snow. Stay away from the yellow snow he said (shared story about that too!)



Martin Goge

Attack Plans

Martin Goge describes spending a lot of time at meetings planning attacks to straighten out defensive lines against the Chinese. He helped maintain communication with the soldier's families and assisted in night raids against the Chinese to keep them out of no-man's-land, a constant job. He explains that both sides made efforts to take and prevent the other side from taking no-man's-land.



Marvin “Sam” Bass

Watching Napalm

Sam Bas describes what it was like watching napalm being dropped. He explains how the planes flew in. He remembers hearing people screaming from ten miles away.



Captured by the Chinese

Sam Bass was captured in September 1951 around the Punchbowl or Old Baldy area. He describes how he was arrested by the Chinese who had cut them off through the line. He explains the living conditions during that time, including the marching and sleep conditions.



Marvin Denton

Losing Buddies Was The Hardest Experience

Marvin Denton described times when he lost members of his unit. One solider was walking between two companies and he was killed by a mine. Gun shots fired in the middle of the night when soldiers had discovered someone was killed. Another soldier survived a shell that hit his helmet, missing death by inches, and a different soldier, who had lied to his parents, telling them everything was okay, was bombed after an ambush. Marvin Denton were extremely thankful he lived through the experience and he feels we live in the greatest country in the world despite all of our problems.



Seoul: A Sad Sight

Marvin Denton recalled the hardships many Korean people faced during the Korean War. Men and women yoked with long poles carrying heavy buckets filled with sewage (honey pots).
Groups of children ransacked the soldiers for anything they had (pencils, papers, etc.). Marvin Denton felt so sorry for the civilians in South Korea.



Marvin Dunn

Wounded in Battle

Marvin Dunn describes being hit by a mortar while building bunkers. He explains that his unit was collecting small trees to use for the construction of the bunkers when he heard the very distinct sound of a mortar approaching. He yelled for the men to get down and all of them took cover, except for him. The mortar blast was so close to him that the blast destroyed his left leg, eye, and eardrum. He goes on to describe being evacuated to a MASH unit in the floor of the Punchbowl.



Marvin Ummel

Landing at Incheon, Impressions of Korea

On August 1, 1952, Marvin Ummel's unit made it to Incheon, South Korea. The entry into Incheon was challenging due to bad weather and the fact that the communists had destroyed most of the harbor. The ship captain had to improvise their landing. Shortly after landing, he boarded a railroad car to his first duty station near Seoul. He noticed garbage and destruction all over the landscape of South Korea. He acknowledges not knowing what it looked like prior to the war, but his first impression was a total mess. There was no building that had not been at least damaged by the war. The condition of Seoul was pretty distressing.



Prisoner of War Exchange

Marvin Ummel recalls witnessing the exchange of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the released prisoners changing clothes once released and many Korean locals picking up and taking the clothes back to their homes. Doctors would inspect the released POWs before sending them back home. Often the POWs were in poor condition, some even being sprayed with DDT insecticide to kill off vermin. He recalls that while the soldiers were thrilled to be back, the condition the POWs arrived in was poor and very depressing.



Mary Reid

Back to Busan

Mary Reid describes going to Busan by train. She provides an account of what her job entailed at the Army hospital compound in Busan. She recalls patients at the hospital being tended to and then sent back to the line.



Patients at the Hospital

Mary Reid describes the types of patients that she saw in the hospital. She recounts many soldiers having worms and treating them with medications. She elaborates on what happened to those too badly wounded to stay at the Army hospital compound.



Matthew D. Rennie

Battlefield and Memories

Matthew Rennie details suffering a head wound during an encounter with Chinese soldiers. He recalls a bullet grazing the back of his head and spending several days at a MASH unit to receive care. He reflects on the fear he experienced on the battlefield and his feelings of helplessness as he watched fellow soldiers die. He shares that he suffers from PTSD and nightmares despite so many years having past since his service in Korea.



Maurice B. Pears

Protecting the Hills after the Battle of Kapyong

Maurice Pears shares how he was trained as an infantryman in 1950. He recounts his arrival at Kimpo Airbase and how he went to the front lines at Kapyong to dig in. He shares that he participated in some patrols across the river in enemy territory. He adds that as a commander of twenty-six men, they had to prepare for the assault on the Chinese.



Life as a Korean War Soldier and Operation Minden

Maurice Pear recalls living in foxholes during his year in Korea from 1951-1952. He remembers patrolling through small Korean villages that were filled with only women and children. He recounts that during Operation Minden, his troops fought the Chinese for Hill 355, 317, and 227 while enduring many casualties.



Life of a Korean War Soldier

Maurice Pears shares how he was on the front line for one month without a chance to shower or eat a hot meal and recalls dealing with a water shortage. He remembers how each soldier had his own foxhole where he endured snow and heat. He shares that the soldiers were able to travel up and down the Korean hills with the help of Korean civilians.



Maurice Morby

Ghost Man

Maurice Morby shares a story of a ghostly encounter that he had during one evening's guard duty. He describes seeing what he thought was an old man dressed in traditional Korean clothing. He and a fellow soldier chased the man into a long inescapable alley and opened fire. Despite what seemed like an impossible escape, they never saw the man again.



Dangerous Letter Writing

Maurice Morby tells a story about writing letters while sitting on a log in camp. He describes bullets coming in from all around and diving behind the log for cover. In the end, they discovered that a nearby British unit was test firing weapons nearby unaware of his unit's camp location.



Camp Description

Maurice Morby describes his unit's encampment near a factory. He describes the size of the camp, where and how they slept, how they dealt with cold weather, and what not to do with beer.



Chapters and Verses

Maurice Morby describes his job of picking up and delivering supplies. He talks about how they communicated about supplies, how his truck was loaded, and the difficult overland journey.



"We're in a Minefield!"

Maurice Morby describes accidentally walking into a minefield while on patrol during Operation Skunk. He talks about the terrain, how he and a fellow soldier made their error, and how they escaped the potentially dangerous situation.



Mine Clearing Dogs

Maurice Morby talks about dogs that were used to discover enemy mines. He describes the dogs' duties and one particular encounter with several dogs in camp.



Second Hand Mail

Maurice Morby tells a story about what he called "second hand mail." While eating lunch one day, his unit's encampment came under heavy artillery fire. He describes that later it was found out that the artillery fire was from friendly tanks, their shells ricocheting off of a nearby river.



Secret Supply Mission

Maurice Morby describes delivering secret cargo on a supply mission. He talks about his discovery of what the cargo was, a fabricated decoy tank that was switched for a real tank that needed to be serviced.



28 Days for Smoking

Maurice Morby recalls the story of when he and a fellow soldier were caught smoking on guard duty and received a 28-day sentence in a military jail. He talks about the circumstances that surrounded his infraction and describes his experience as a military prisoner.



An Encounter with Danny Kaye

Maurice Morby tells about his encounter with Danny Kaye, an American film actor, while on guard duty one dark evening. He describes a vehicle approaching his position without stopping. Alarmed, he fired warning shots in the vehicle's direction without knowing the identities of it's passengers, Danny Kaye and a famous American singer.



Mayo Kjellsen

C-Rations, Rats, and Radios, Oh, My!

Mayo Kjellsen ate lots of C-Rations while stationed in Korea. His job was to carry a 45 pound battery pack and communicate over the radio for his regiment. One night, on radio watch in his bunker, he started shooting at large rats running throughout the rafters and he scared his commander.



Wounded in Korean War

Mayo Kjellsen was wounded twice during the Korean War. He was hit by shrapnel in his knee and the other shot blew him out of his bunker. After his second injury, he was sent to a hospital ship in the harbor and was taken to Japan for rehab. After 6 months of healing, Mayo Kjellsen was sent back to the US to finish his time in the military.



Mehmet Aksoy

Service During the Korean War

Mehmet Aksoy describes his service during the Korean War. He identifies the various Fronts he served along. Further, Vegas Front and Cheorwon Front, which are along the 38th Parallel saw heavy fighting. Mehmet Aksoy did not see any fierce fighting. However, he played an important role of ensuring the phone line between headquarters and the men never broke. Breaking would occur due to enemy mortars. This was instrumental in the Turkish military holding off Chinese advancement.



Mehmet Arif Boran

Tape and a Coke

Mehmet Arif Boran describes being injured from artillery shrapnel. The artillery shell hit a tree and exploded overhead instead of on his position. The doctors were able to pull out his shrapnel in about five minutes. They put some numbing tape on his wound and gave him a Coke. He reported back with his unit. However, two fellow soldiers were not so lucky. They had pretty serious injuries and Mehmet Arif Boran could not even go see them.



A State of Misery

Mehmet Arif Boran describes the fighting in the Vegas Complex and the state of the Korean people. He describes how when the Turks surrendered Vegas Hill, injured troops were in the valley. Dead bodies started to stink. The Chinese would not let the Turkish soldiers recover their injured and dead.



Mehmet Cemil Yasar

Geumyangjangri Front

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the fighting conditions at the Geumyangjangri Front. The Chinese were surrounded and could not escape. Therefore, this battle helped the Allies maintain control of the advancing Chinese Army. Further, he also describes the overall destruction that war brought. Towns were bombed out and looted. However, Pyongyang had people, while the South suffered.



Battle of Kunu-ri

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. The Battle is famous for Turkish soldiers. The engagement was very fierce. However, the Turkish were able to turn back a larger Chinese force. Mehmet Cecil Yasar describes how the Chinese attacked at night. The Turkish fighters lost many troops during the Battle of Kunu-ri.



First Experiences of War

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the people he encountered after arriving in Korea. He describes how Busan was a ghost town. He saw only one person, who had frozen to death. The buildings were all riddled with bullets. Overall the war brought hunger, misery, disease and death. Mehmet Cecil Yasar also describes the constant danger. There were many traps set by the enemy.



Chinese Strategy

Mehmet Cemil Yasar describes the actions of the Chinese during the Korean War. The Chinese engaged in a strategy of pulling the Allies further north. This created problems for re-supplying Allied forces. Also, this helped the Chinese re-supply, because they were closer to Manchuria. Mehmet Cecil Yasar also describes how the Chinese forces were very well trained.



Mehmet Copten

Papasan Hill, aka Hill 1062

Mehmet Çöpten describes Papasan Hill near Cheorwon. This is a battlefront in the Iron Triangle. He describes how deceptive the Chinese fighters were. The Turkish soldiers had to come up with a code to send messages when the Chinese were attacking. The Chinese would even use soldiers surrendering as a cover to launch an attack. The Turkish soldiers had to be constantly aware of a possible attack.



Vegas Front

Mehmet Çöpten describes the Vegas Front. He describes how the Chinese used howitzers on one hill, while simultaneously attacking another. The Turkish fighters lost one hundred and fifty-three men. The fighting took place over thirty-six hours. They eventually won the battle and the front. The Turkish fighters then turned over the front to the American forces.



Mehmet Esen

Battle of Kunu-ri aka Wawon

Mehmet Esen describes the Battle of Kunu-ri. This battle is also known as Wawon. Mehmet Sen describes the American retreating, while the Turkish soldiers stayed. He provides details about how there were approximately five hundred and fifty Turkish soldiers that fought. After the fighting stopped only sixty-nine remained.



Battles in Korea

Mehmet Esen describes the fighting conditions when he first arrived in Korea. The Turkish soldiers fought near the Manchurian line. One famous battle was Cheorwon in North Korea. Another battle he describes is Sandbag Castle, or Kumkale. During one of the battles, he was wounded and sent to a hospital in Seoul.



Mekonen Derseh

There's a Snake in My Bed

Mekonen Derseh describes the toughest thing that happened to him in Korea. The fighting was over when Mekonen Derseh was in Korea. He describes the cold winter as being the toughest part of his service. One night a snake was cold and made its way into his sleeping bag. He did not know until he was folding his sleeping bag up.



Condition of Busan

Mekonen Derseh describes the condition of Busan. People were starving and Ethiopians gave them leftovers. Ethiopians were supplied by the Americans and needed the supplies also. He tries to make a comparison between Ethiopia and South Korea. The main difference was Ethiopia was not going through war.



Melese Tessema

Fear and Commitment in Battle

Melese Tessema acknowledges feeling afraid as he joined the fighting in the Korean War, but he asserts that soldiers cannot allow fear to interfere with a mission. He arrived in Kumhwa and fought the Chinese on Hill 358. Shrapnel from a mortar shell injured his leg during the fighting. Melese Tessema received Korean, Ethiopian, and United States awards, including the United States bronze star.



Chinese Artillery Barrage

Melese Tessema considers the Battle of Triangle Hill Battle his most dangerous experience. His platoon had just arrived at their location and thus had not yet dug many trenches. The Ethiopian soldiers had the high ground, but large numbers of Chinese approached. The Chinese had difficulty climbing in the steep terrain. Still, he lost fellow soldiers, including his dearest friend. Melese Tessema and the other platoon officers spoke English, but soldiers from the lower ranks did not, creating language barriers across groups. At one point his platoon provided machine gun support to Korean forces nearby. After fighting ended, their only hope was to communicate in sign language.



Melvin D. Hill

Life on the Front Lines: Busan to the Yalu River

Melvin Hill describes living on the front lines for thirteen months. He describes his journey through Seoul on his way to the Yalu River. He explains that a bullet struck his front tire, leaving him unable to steer the truck. He and another young man had to change the tire, surrounded by a multitude of people, completely unaware if they were North Korean or South Korean. He attributes their ability to change the tire in roughly fifteen seconds and throw a five-hundred pound tire onto the truck to fear and adrenaline.



A Brutal Attack

Melvin Hill explains a brutal attack at a roadblock on the way back from the Yalu river. He recalls his experience with hand-to-hand combat, saying he never thought he would ever put a knife into someone, stab someone with a bayonet or shoot someone right in front of him. He describes running over people in the middle of the road. He believes that his survival of the attack by the Chinese is only due to luck.



Melvin D. Lubbers

Incheon Destruction

Melvin D. Lubbers talks about the physical destruction he saw in Incheon upon his arrival in Korea. He explains that they didn’t get to a see a lot because it was nighttime, and they had been loaded up to move to another part. He remembers thinking “how could anyone even survive?”



Machine Gun

Melvin D. Lubbers discusses the 50 caliber machine gun that he operated while in Korea. He explains that it is a large, rapid-firing gun that is very lethal. He remembers that it was very heavy.



Merl Smith

The Hungnam Evacuation

Merl Smith discusses his role in the Heungnam Evacuation. He shares that his ship saved over fourteen thousand people from Heungnam after being called to duty from Pusan. He details how the ship only had supplies for forty-eight men, did not have heat or toilet facilities, and had very little water. He remembers the Chinese blew up the port as the ship was exiting Heungnam and sailing with the Korean refugees for three days while bringing them to safety.



Merle Degler

Jincheng Campaign- Battle at Kumsong "All Hell Broke Loose"

Merle Degler always carried in his pocket rolls of film he had taken during his time in Korea. One day, he found an empty ammo box and decided to put the film in the ammo box, and the next thing you knew, "All Hell Broke Loose." He recalls the ROK and his unit were overrun by the Chinese, so they were told to retreat. Merle Degler learned just a few months ago, that the the US artillery regiment left their equipment when they retreated, so the Chinese used the equipment against our own people. They reorganized before the next morning to create a new front line, but with a lot less equipment since they had lost it while retreating.



Enlisting, Training, and Preparing for the Korean War

Merle Degler enlisted in the National Guard as an 18 year old in 1951. After attending Fort Polk for basic training, he was shipped to Yokohama and Tokyo, Japan to get equipment for the war. Soon after that, Merle Degler took a ship to Pusan in Jan. 1953 and he was sent right to Yeongdeungpo, Korea. After being picked up by his regiment, he was brought to his duty station in the Iron Triangle (Kumwa Valley).



Fighting in the Iron Triangle in Jan. 1953

Merle Degler was stationed in the Iron Triangle and he fought along with the US Marines who had be run off an important hill by fighting the Chinese. He went to White Horse Hill right after a battle like WWI trenches right at the front line. After he had been in a bunker for a while, a soldier took him out of the trench towards no-man's-land, and he was taken to a field full of dead Chinese soldiers.



The Troubles with Traveling by a Truck

Merle Degler's job was to work on military trucks at the front lines in North Korea in early 1953. After being told that he had to move out, Merle Degler drove a truck up into the mountains with his regiment until the engine blew. Because he was not able to fix the truck on the side of the mountain, he was towed down the hill and back to a ROK camp where he had to stay until meeting up with additional soldiers willing to lead him back to his regiment.



Merle Peterson

Fighting at the Pusan Perimeter

Merle Peterson's unit landed at Busan in August 1950. He describes fighting the North Koreans for two to three weeks until his unit broke out on September 16th to march one hundred and three miles in twenty-three hours. He recalls an evening when he saw some men in a village with a Russian burp gun and later kicking the door to their shack down and taking the gun and ammunition.



Battles from City to City Across Korea

Merle Peterson describes the difference between the 2.6 rocket launchers and the new 3.5 models. He explains that the rockets from the 2.6 launcher merely bounced off the tanks but the 3.5s were able to pierce the tanks, enabling them to take out eight of the eleven tanks that had attacked them. He goes on to describe meeting with the 7th division in Osan and from there moving through Seoul, Pyongyang, and onto the Yalu River until the Chinese joined the North Koreans and they were forced to retreat.



The Chinese Invasion Changed the War

Merle Peterson describes fighting the Chinese at the Yalu River. He explains that though his unit had been told they would be home for Christmas, when the Chinese invaded, their plans to return home were ended. He describes having to retreat alongside many of the Korean people. He recalls having to fight in summer military clothes during the winter in the freezing weather and delousing after not showering for thirty days, which was the norm.



Michael Berardi

Frostbite

Michael Berardi describes how he incurred frostbite. In the midst of combat, a priority for him was to keep the radio equipment warm enough to function. While doing this, Michael Berardi was not consistently able to take measures to keep his own body warm and safe from frostbite.



Combat Chaos

Michael Berardi describes trying to manage communications in the midst of combat. As the situation evolves, he has to switch from running communications to running ammunition to soldiers under fire. During this time Michael Berardi got injured and was hit with shrapnel in the hip and face, and he still carries that shrapnel today.



Experience in Incheon

Michael Berardi describes what he remembers about landing in Incheon, which was already occupied by the United States. As a member of the Headquarters and Service company, he said that his job was to supply the telecommunication needs to those on the front lines. As a corporal, he said he often did not have first-hand experience of what was going on in the field.



Michael Corona

Sheer Strength

Mike Corona honors the strength of both the US soldiers and the Koreans loading 1-ton jets onto the Landing Ship Tank (LST). South Korean soldiers harnessed wooden boards to their shoulders and connected chains to the jets. Together, four South Korean soldiers sang a song while they dragged the 1-ton jet onto the LST.



Korea: A Huge Empty Lot

When Mike Corona first arrived in Korea, he said it was just a huge empty lot without big buildings, sidewalks, and streets.
Now, Korea looks like Las Vegas, NV because of the beautiful streets, landscapes, and multi-story buildings. After going back for the third revisit, Mike Corona experienced the Korean government's reenactment of the Inchon Landing.



House Boys and Sleeping Conditions

Everywhere Mike Corona's unit went, no matter how long they stayed, they had to dig a hole to sleep. He still remembers the two house boys the soldiers named "Pat" and "Mike." These boys cleaned and helped the soldiers with basic daily needs. In return for payment, US soldiers provided the boys with food and clothing.



Michael Daly

Importance of US Soldiers in Korea today

The US government, after the armistice was signed in 1953, extended this period to give soldiers benefits and there have been over 2 million soldiers still there in South Korea. Michael Daly explained that Korea has benefited greatly (uses the saying "trip wire" as an advantage) from US presence as a deterrent for North Korea, China, and possibly Japan since the end of WWII. With American soldiers, armor, and training, few countries would even attempt to attack American troops.



Michael Fryer

The Realities of Warfare

Michael Fryer recalls broken buildings, poverty, and the state of destitution of the Korean people. He describes the poor conditions in Seoul in late 1951. He recounts the shock he received when he encountered battered and dead American soldiers on the front line.



Lice and Rats

Michael Fryer talks about the cold weather that he experienced in Korea. He describes the living conditions, what he wore, and how how he slept during the bitterly cold months. He recalls his experiences in encountering lice and rats during his service in Korea.



Recollections from the Battle of the Hook

Michael Fryer recalls his experiences as an ammunition carrier for troops during the Battle of the Hook. He explains seeing large amounts of explosions and men who were machine gunned down. He describes watching as the bodies of deceased men were carried down and lain in a road.



Michael Glisczinski

Being a Tank Mechanic

Michael Glisczinski explains what his duties were during the Korean War. As a tank mechanic he had a “big job” to do with the assistance of a helper from Nebraska. He explains that he was in charge of keeping 5 tanks going to support the war effort.



Fixing Tanks on the Front Lines

Michael Glisczinski explains what it was like trying to work on a tank while the enemy was firing artillery. He states that they had to wait until night to try to get the tanks fixed before heading back to his company. He recalls that the most problems they experienced were with the batteries in the tanks.



Michael White

MIss Fires

Michael White recalls incidents of mortars miss firing due to the use of World War II surplus weapons.



South Koreans Help the British

Michael White talks about how the South Korean young men helped his mortar platoon by providing physical labor, digging weapon positions and working as ammunition resupply runners for the guns.



Rest and Relaxation

Michael White speaks about being on leave from the duties of the front line. He speaks about being able to get a proper sleep.



Living on the Front Line

Michael White speaks about the living conditions on the front lines. He talks about living with lice and rats as well as being able to clean up.



Fear on the Front Lines

Michael White shares a story about being on the front lines facing an impending attack from the Chinese.



Mike Mogridge

On the Front lines

MIke Mogridge talks about being in combat on "The Hook". He recalls some of the tactics used by the enemy. He also speaks about having to recover the bodies of the enemy dead.



Combat

Mike Morgridge speaks about his first experiences in combat. He also recounts the death of a fellow soldier.



Mike Scarano

Hungnam Evacuation

Mike Scarano was in Hungnam when, as he describes it, "the Chinese chased us out". He describes how his company emptied out as many supplies as they could, and burned the rest to prevent the Chinese from acquiring them. Then they got on the "Victory Ships" to evacuate to Pusan.



Milton W. Walker

Pusan Perimeter and Inchon Landing

Milton Walker describes his Marine regiment's participation in the securing of the Pusan Perimeter for thirty days in August of 1950. He explains that they were known as the Fire Brigade. After thirty days, they left Busan for Inchon and participated in the Inchon Landing.



Surviving the Chosin Reservoir and Multiple Attacks

Milton Walker explains that he drove a truck and jeep loaded with supplies for the troops throughout his time in the Korean War. He describes being told that he couldn't collect drinking water from the reservoir because they were surrounded by the Chinese and couldn't travel freely. He goes on to explain that the Chinese had blown up bridges and roads, prolonging efforts to get down the mountain until the Seabees and US engineers helped build temporary bridges.



Monte Curry

Cruelty of the Turks

Monte Curry felt sorry for the Chinese (Chinks) who were being picked off so easily by the Turks and other UN soldiers that were shooting them. With three waves of Chinese soldiers, the first round, only 1 out of 10 carried a gun, so the second wave picked up the weapons on the ground. The 3rd wave had more weapons and fought using guerrilla tactics hiding behind bushes. Monte Curry described how the Turks carried leather satchels to bring back the ears they had cut off of the enemy.



Awarded for his Idea & Peeing in Whiskey Bottles

Monte Curry had developed a way to protect the communication cable and wiring that was internally damaged from the mortars on the front line, so when the word got back to a general, he decided to reward Monte Curry for his efforts. They brought a white truck (said it looked like a Red Cross truck) and unloaded reels of movies, a projector, and a generator to the front lines so the soldiers could watch John Wayne westerns. Monte Curry was considered a hero since it was such a special treat for the men and some soldiers would walk miles just to get the opportunity to watch the movies. They were told not to drink the whiskey on the front line since they found out people were peeing in the bottles and selling it making people sick. He said they thought it was people who may have gone down to the DMZ and picked up these bottles from the local stores.



Kitty Movie Experience

Kitty Curry, Monte Curry's wife, was not told a lot about what her husband was experiencing during the Korean War. Before a movie began, instead of previews of other movies, a black and white news reel would review what was life like for the US soldiers in Korea. This included fighting and bombs dropping on the enemy. Kitty Curry's reaction about the news worried her, but her friends and faith kept her going.



Narce Caliva

Keeping US Forces Supplied

Narce Caliva discusses the mission of supplying US forces. He explains that every infantry man has 8-10 people in support positions backing him, making sure he has everything he needs to fight a war. He lists the items that were carried on supply trucks: food, ammunitions, clothes were some of the most important items he transported. He goes on to describe the difficulties they encountered; for instance, driving large convey trucks on newly cut roads that had frozen over on the Korean mountainsides.



Nathan Stovall

Picking up Pilots and POWs

Nathan Stovall describes how his ship supported the war effort by picking up pilots who were shot down. The ship also transported North Korean POWs to the South for interrogation. In the clip, Nathan Stovall describes how scared and starved the North Koreans looked.



Death of a parent

Nathan Stovall's mother died when he was 2 years old. His father died while his ship was on patrol near Korea. After he received word of his father's death, he describes the complicated and long journey home for mourning.



Never Set Foot on Korean Soil

Nathan Stovall patrolled the East Sea near Wonsan in the summer of 1951. He neither set foot on Korean soil nor saw enemy forces, but the USS Blue engaged in firefights along the coast. Once his unit assisted the ROC by shooting onto the shore while the ROC escaped a tight spot.



Neal C. Taylor

First Impressions of Korea

Neal Taylor never thought about Communism when he was sent to fight in the Korean War. He just went there to do a job. After he flew in, he noticed the lack of cars and technology. Sanitation conditions were deplorable.



Loading Bombs onto the Aircraft

Neal Taylor took pictures while he was stationed at the K9 Air Force Base. He loaded bombs on a plane with a mission to blow up a bridge. There was a loss of life and aircraft from that mission.



Necdet Yazıcıoğlu

Vegas Complex

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes the conditions of the war at the Vegas Complex. There were a series of battles that took place in May of 1953 in this area. Subsequently, the fighting was fierce. Moreover, negotiations for peace were occurring. Importantly, the battles ended in arguably a stalemate after a Chinese offensive. Further, this helped with negotiations for the United Nations



Fear Cannot Be Explained

Necdet Yazıcıoğlu describes in detail what a soldier goes through in battle. Firstly, he describes that everything gets quiet. Further, you start to see your wife or parents. Meanwhile, you hear the machine gun. Subsequently, people who have grave wounds "give up the ghost."



Nelson S. Ladd

Dear John Letter

Nelson Ladd was very in love with a young lady and he planned to get engaged before deployment. However, after 6 months of being overseas, he received a letter from his fiance stating that she had met someone else. There was nothing he could do being 7,000 miles away from home, and by the time he had returned, she was already married to someone else.



Operation X-Ray- The Libby Bridge Construction

Nelson Ladd was the surveyor for the bridge constructed over Imjin River known as the Libby Bridge. The high level, steel and concrete bridge that is still intact and in use today was named after Sergeant George C. Libby of the 3rd Engineer Combat Battalion. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his self-sacrifice at Taejon, Korea. Nelson Ladd was there during the dedication by Army General Maxwell Taylor on July 4, 1953.



Prisoner Exchange

Less than a month after the dedication of the Libby Bridge, Nelson Ladd was a witness to a prisoner exchange between the North and South Koreans. He estimated on the day of the exchange, some 80,000 prisoners were returned to North Korea despite the South had detained about 400,000 North Korean soldiers. He observed that many of the prisoners had thrown the clothes that had been given to them at the camps along the roadside except their shorts and boots. The trucks headed back picked up the articles of clothing left by the prisoners.



Advancements in Korea: Then vs Today

After having visited Korea in 2013, Nelson Ladd is still amazed by the advancements Korea has made and how ambitious the people have been throughout the years. He had seen images of what Korea looked like before his revisit, however he had feared that Korea would have become like many East Asian countries, disparaged and unable to recover. Nelson Ladd described the Taft-Katusa Agreement (1905) between the US and Japan that led occupation of Korea and the Philippines that created the oppression upon the peoples of those countries.



Military Allowances during Korean War

When Nelson Ladd was drafted into the war, he was paid $88.50 a month. By the time he came home as a Corporal, he earned $135 plus 50$ in overseas pay. Nelson Ladd said he earned enough to buy his first car for $1,600 and he gave money to his family.



Nelson Skinner

Toughest Battle at the Nakdong River

Nelson Skinner describes a fierce battle fought near the Nakdong River. He explains that his mission was to protect his regiment and another one in front of him. He describes the weaponry used during the battle. He goes on to describe being shot in the leg by a sniper and having to go to an overwhelmed MASH unit for medical aid.



Team Work was needed to Fight at the Nakdong River

Nelson Skinner describes being stationed at the front lines at the Nakdong River. He describes their daily routines which entailed eating, working, sleeping (when they could) and firing rounds 50 feet in front of the North Koreans. He goes on to describe the difficulties in maneuvering without any maps and not realizing the men on the next hill were not Allies but North Koreans.



Neville Williams

Not Easy to Handle

When asked about how he handled death, Neville Williams shares how everything about the war was about survival and how strong of a bond he had with the others. He remembers two of his comrades who struggled with the stress and circumstances, sharing how they were removed from the combat. He argues, however, that even when those situations occurred no one ever looked negatively at anyone else.



Nick Cortese

Losing Men Who Were Doing Their Job (GRAPHIC)

Nick Cortese recalls the terrible moments of clearing and laying the mines. He remembers one of his peers who died after making a fatal mistake- he describes in graphic details what happened. He states this that is one of the dangers of that particular job.



Bouncing Betty Mine

Nick Cortese describes what happened when the 19th Infantry was moving north and came across a "Bouncing Betty Mine." . As the Chinese were dropping artillery his company commander jumped to get out of the way and set off the mine that detonated, killing the commander. It was later that Nick Cortese found out that this occurred in the Iron Triangle area.



Not Knowing What Could Happen Next

Nick Cortese explains that he was horrified watching his friends dying. He often worried that he might be the next one. He explains that he was very religious, and he always carried his Bible and rosary. He again mentions how his company commander died unexpectedly.



Nick Mararac

The Forgotten Armistice and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission

Nick Mararac describes the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), and its role in the armistice/DMZ area. It was created during the armistice with North Korea. The NNSC is used during talks between North and South Korea ever since 1953.



Noel G. Spence

Conditions for Korean Children

Noel G. Spence describes his duty driving trucks of waste. He recounts how desperate Korean children would come to the dump to find supplies. Seoul was captured and re-captured many times. People were in desperate conditions. The "lucky" Koreans had boxes for houses, clothing from soldiers and and scraps for food.



Dangerous Job

Noel G Spence recounts the dangers of his job working with artillery. He serviced 25 pound artillery. Repairing the guns meant a shell did not fire correctly. This required him to work around live ammunition that could explode at any moment. He also describes how there was no fixing a stuck anti-aircraft gun.



In Retrospect

Noel G Spence addresses why he fought in Korea. He discusses what fighting meant to him and how it saved South Korea. He expresses remorse about the shelling of the enemy. On the night before the signing of the aristice the allies used up their shells. Allies did not want to be responsible for live artillery shells.



Noreen Jankowski

Sending Supplies from Home

Noreen Jankowski recalls a conversation about the cold winters in Korea. She mentions how she sent supplies to her husband in Korea to keep him warm. She details sending hand and feet warmers and shares that he endured some difficulties with his legs later on perhaps due to the cold exposure.



Norma L. Holmes

Silence about the War

Norma Holmes shares what she heard from her husband about the Korean War. She tells a story of how her husband was ambushed at The Battle of the Hook. He told her mostly about the good times, including the fun that they had in Japan. She believes that this is because he was instructed not to share any details about his time in Korea.



Norman Charles Champagne

Attacks on Chinese Outposts

Norman C. Champagne describes a mission to attack Hill 150 and 153, which were two Chinese outposts. As a Fire Team Leader, his goal was to blow up the Chinese bunkers and trenches to break the lower and upper trench lines. He explains why the Chinese were formidable enemies, despite the additional dropping of napalm by Corsair bombers.



Battle for the Berlin's

Norman C. Champagne shares a story about being under attack near the end of the Korean War. When asked to describe a challenging time, he talks about the Battle for the Berlin's and Boulder City. While he and another officer were driving to deliver supplies, they came under attack, experiencing a few terrifying moments that continue to live on in his memory.



Norman Renouf

Impressions of Korea

Norman Renouf describes his first impressions of being in Korea. He highlights a sense of fear, but also describes seeing rice paddies for the first time.



First Battle

Norman Renouf describes the fear of his first battle. At one point it was so exhausted that he actually fell asleep and what woke him up was the shooting from fifty caliber weapons.



Prisoner of War

In this clip, Norman Renouf describes the circumstances that led to him becoming a Prisoner of War in April of 1951. He spent several days in a cave without food before surrendering.



Norman Spencer Hale

On the Front lines

Norman S. Hale speaks about being in combat surrounded by the enemy. He also talks about a friendly-fire incident.



Preparing to be Captured

Norman S. Hale describes how he and two other men were captured by the enemy.



POW March

Norman S. Hale speaks about the food his Chinese captors gave the prisoners. He also speaks about the "March" to POW Camp 5 that began in early December 1950 and ended in February 1951.



Ollie Thompson

Destruction in Korea

Ollie Thompson arrived in Korea at Inchon. When traveling by train through Seoul, he was able to see the destruction of the city. His first experience in combat took place in the Chorwon Valley in 1951.



Osman Yasar Eken

Description of War

Osman Eken describes war. He did not feel danger or think about death. The Vegas Battles left many Chinese dead. Osman Eken provides one of the most vivid accounts of the battle. Turkey lost one hundred and forty-seven soldiers in twenty-six hours.



Othal Cooper

Night Raids

Othal Cooper explains the night raid missions of the B-29 planes on which he worked. He details how the night flyers would drop tinfoil from their planes to deter enemy radar, referring to it as radar jamming. He explains that by doing this it was more difficult for the enemy to shoot the planes down and recalls no planes receiving a direct hit while he was there.



Ovid Odean Solberg

Landing in Korea

Ovid O. Solberg recalls landing in Busan and seeing the demolished villages. He remembers never setting foot in a building. He was stationed in North Korea with the 3rd Infantry.



P. Stanley Cobane

Mistaken Identity

P. Stanley Cobane describes his unit relieving an army organization on a small ridge that had had a fire fight the day and night before. While digging in they watched who they were told were South Koreans walking up the higher ridge above them. Later that night they were fired on by who they realized were actually North Koreans. His unit attacked the ridge that morning and the first platoon suffered almost total casualties. His unit lost a quarter of their men in that battle including several of his friends but they took the ridge that day.



Taking Wolmido

P. Stanley Cobane explains that Wolmido is an island in the Inchon harbor which has a causeway connecting the island to the mainland. He explains that it was the job of his platoon to protect the causeway so that a mainland landing could be made without any interference from the island. There was resistance but nobody was killed. He describes an explosion near him by what he later thought to be a WWII Japanese concussion grenade.



Shrapnel Injury Leading to Paralyzation During Battle

P. Stanley Cobane describes taking Hill 296 outside of Seoul. He describes a fierce battle that involved artillery and mortars. He describes sticking his head out of fox hole "at the wrong time." A mortar exploded and shrapnel went into his neck, hit a bone and splattered. He has had one surgery to remove the biggest piece of shrapnel but seven pieces still remain and he was left paralyzed. He goes on describe being pulled from the foxhole and taken to Hill 296 and was air-vac'ed out.



Patrick Vernon Hickey

Straight to the Front

Patrick Hickey recalls leaving Japan for Gimpo Airport and heading straight to the front lines. He describes changing specialties in Korea and joining a unit responsible for repairing guns. He explains that Unit 163 (Easy Troop) supported Hill 355 and the Battle of the Hook.



Cold Guns and Ingenuity

Patrick Hickey shares that he woke up at five each morning to remove guns from action for maintenance. He recalls that during the heat of summer the routine was fairly straightforward but adds that the guns froze in winter. He shares how he developed a mix of oil and kerosene to prevent the gun components from freezing, an innovation that spread quickly to other units. He describes the winters being so cold that soldiers had to disassemble their guns at night and place the parts by the fire so the guns would fire in the morning.



Three Trips to No-Man's Land

Patrick Hickey took cat naps to compensate for being awakened in the night to resupply the front lines with ammunition. He shares that one night he and three other soldiers volunteered to repair a phone line in No-Man's Land. He describes feeling invincible and not being worried, even when called to continue the phone line work on two more occasions.



All Was Quiet and Then Whoomph!

Patrick Hickey never felt scared, even though he could hear Chinese and North Korean soldiers all around him. Although never wounded, he experienced close calls. He recalls one memory of heading to the toilet behind a tiny Korean house, and while there, he shares that the enemy shelled and destroyed the house. He recounts how he and another soldier climbed into the trench he had dug until the shelling ceased.



Tom O'Neill

Patrick Hickey remembers losing Tom O'Neill to shrapnel. He shares how the officer in charge refused to go to check on the wounded soldier. He recalls another soldier calling the officer a coward and went himself to check on his wounded comrade. He remembers that by the time he reached Tom O'Neill, he was dead.



Kids Taking Care of Kids

Patrick Hickey remembers all the little boys without parents. He recalls taking in a boy named Kim who was about seven years old to do little jobs around camp. He shares how he would cut off the legs of his trousers to give the orphans something to wear. He recalls how some children carried babies on their backs - kids caring for kids.



Writing Home and Killing the Tiger

Patrick Hickey and his wife Joy describe their correspondence as being about everyday topics at home. Patrick shares how he did not want to worry Joy. He recalls that the battles were tough, and he describes the last battle of the war, the Third Battle of the Hook. He remembers that on the third night of the battle, thousands of Chinese attacked. He recalls how the United Nations forces killed one million Chinese soldiers in three nights and how the Chinese withdrew to sign the peace treaty.



Paul E. Bombardier

"Spotter" Planes

Paul E. Bombardier describes the mission of his unit, providing reconnaissance using what he called "spotter" planes, specifically the L-19 Cessna "Bird Dogs." He describes it as a two-seater airplane that rose up to 4,000 feet and were tasked with "spotting" targets.



Paul H. Cunningham

Basic Training, Technical School, and Arriving in Korea

Paul Cunningham recalls sitting for seven weeks waiting for his assignment after basic training. Since he did not want to go to Germany, he volunteered for Adak, Alaska, but while training in South Carolina, the Korean War began. He remembers arriving in Korea at Pusan on September 20, 1950, and recalls setting up a radar station at the top of a hill in Pusan. After that, he moved to Osan, Incheon, and Kimpo Air Base to continue setting up radar stations.



Radar Sites in Korea and a Last Look in February 1952

Paul Cunningham set up a large radar station near the Kimpo Air Base, and that ended his seventeen-month deployment in Korea after spending two long winters there. He recalls leaving Korea with the image of poverty, huts, and dirt roads in February 1952. He also remembers the rail transportation office in Seoul as being all broken down and adds that he never thought Korea would rebuild itself like it has today.



The Most Difficult Experience in Korea

Paul Cunningham identified the lack of solid support from the US government as the most difficult experience in Korea because all of the troops were ready to follow MacArthur all the way to the Yalu River. He shares that he was a part of the Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron, 502 Tactical Control Group during his time in Korea. He adds that his squadron performed air surveillance for three hundred miles in all directions using radar machines that were used during WWII.



Paul Hockla

Fighting on Pork Chop Hill

Paul Hockla describes what combat was like fighting against the Chinese at Pork Chop Hill.



Letter from Perry Edgar

Paul Hockla reads a letter from Perry Edgar, whose life he saved in combat while they were in Korea.



Paul Hummel

Always Have a Backup Plan

Paul Hummel remembered when the enemy forces figured out the weaknesses of United States' planes. Due to this, there needed to be a back up plan created to outwit the Chinese. Mosquito pilots used a variety of maneuvers while in the Hamhung area.



Protecting Bombers

Paul Hummel had many responsibilities as a pilot during the Korean War. Some of these responsibilities included protecting bombers while on missions and dog fighting just like old World War I air battles. A variety of plane tactics used, as well as new technology behind the MiG-15 fighter planes.



Not Like the Movies

Paul Hummel was assigned a mission to bomb North Korean and Chinese troops on the ground. He saw the troops, tanks, and weapons, so he started attacking not knowing exactly which enemy troop he hit. Machine guns were attached to Paul Hummel's plane, so he could get a betters shot from the air. He believes that the real air battle was different than movie depictions of the Korean War air warfare that took place.



Paul Summers

"All Hell Broke Loose"

Paul Summers and his division investigated a village overrun by guerrillas. When a firefight began, he ran toward a mound of dirt to throw a hand grenade into a group of North Korean soldiers. A bullet caught him in the shoulder, and he went down. A corpsman gave him a shot of morphine and some brandy while he awaited rescue.



Friendly Fire on the Pusan Perimeter

Paul Summers was digging into a hillside on the Pusan Perimeter one night. Troops were lobbing artillery over the hillside where the Marines were setting up camp. Hearing the whistling of an artillery round, he suspected it would fall short. The explosion left four Marines dead.



The Costs of War

Paul Summers remembers lying down in a skirmish line and watching a truck dump dead U.S. Marines into a big hole. Tanks filled in the hole. The image still haunts him. Later, his division marched to Hagalwoori but ran into a fortified bunker controlled by the Chinese. As the division pondered their situation, a general up the road announced they would take the hill no matter what.



Paulino Lucino Jr.

Destination Unknown

Paulino Lucino Jr. was never sure of his exact location when he was fighting in Korea. Often, he was put on the back of trucks or trains and had no idea where they were headed next. He felt that this was the most troublesome experience of his time in Korea.



Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)

Paulino Lucino Jr.'s job during the Korean War was a 81 millimeter mortar man. He still knows all of the details that he was taught during boot camp including the weight of the plate, barrels, and stakes he used. It was very hard to transport the 81 millimeter mortars on the Korean Peninsula's mountainous landscape.



The Korean War Armistice and Ceasefire

Paulino Lucino Jr. remembers in detail what it was like to be in Korea when the ceasefire was announced. He continued fighting until the last moments of the war. Since Paulino Lucino Jr. was stationed in Korea until 1954, he saw and felt the change in Korea during the year after the war.



Pell E. Johnson

Protecting the Front Lines at Old Baldy

Pell E. Johnson understood the importance of protecting the battle lines at Old Baldy. It was difficult to drive the Chinese out of the area. He won't ever forget changing the troops out and celebrating Thanksgiving on a cold night.



Guarding Prisoner of War Camps

Pell E. Johnson guarded Chinese and North Korean Prisoner of War camps. It was a rough placement due to the prisoners trying to mutiny. He feared Bay Day, a communist holiday and a possible uprising of prisoners.



Per Anton Sommernes

Morphine to Ease the Pain

Per Anton Sommernes describes being part of the Norwegian MASH (NorMASH) unit. Soldiers would come in wounded from the frontlines. NorMash would stabilize soldiers who lost limbs from combat. Men would receive morphine to ease the pain. Men would be stabilized in the field hospital and then transfer out after three to four days. Per Anton Sommernes also describes receiving supplies from the American military by helicopter.



No Experience or Training

Per Anton Sommernes describes his service as a male nurse for NorMASH during the Korean War. He had no formal training in Norway. His first instruction was giving penicillin shots to soldiers in Korea. The training was just telling him to push the needle in and inject. However, he did not kill anyone.



To Stay or To Evacuate

Per Anton Sommernes describes an incident where there was a possibility of being overrun by Chinese soldiers. Evacuating every wounded soldier was not an option. Some nurses and doctors would have to stay. Per Anton Sommernes grew up in China and knew the language and volunteered to stay back.



Percy D. Mohr

Very First Battle with North Koreans

Percy Mohr describes his very first encounter with the North Koreans. His artillery unit, right behind the infantry division, fought North Korean soldiers from hill to hill. Both divisions experienced casualties in the difficult battle.



We Never Saw a Bed!

Percy Mohr describes the worst parts of war. The cold weather made sleeping outside uncomfortable, and baths were rare. He also disliked the food.



Why Did They Miss Me?

Percy Mohr recounts the battle in which Chinese soldiers overran his division, pushing them back to headquarters. He was standing beside a captain who was shot by the Chinese, and he pauses to wonder why he survived. During the battle, Chinese soldiers overran his artillery division. When the U.S. soldiers returned to camp, they were greeted by a surprise.



Peter Elliott

Life as an Aircraftman

Peter Elliott shares his experiences working in airplane mechanics during the war as a leading Aircraftman. He explains what his responsibilities were as his specialty was repairing and maintaining the frames of airplanes. While they did not get paid much, he recalls how he was able to save money and buy a car when he returned to Australia.



Nothing Glamorous

Peter Elliott sheds light on the living conditions around the Battle of the Hook. He recalls how the men lived in dugout habitats with weather conditions that were either very hot or very cold depending on the season. He remembers that there was a lot of activity occurring before the major battle.



Peter Joseph Doyle, Jr.

Reality sets in

Peter Doyle describes his departure from San Francisco aboard the USS Hase to Korea, which included a brief stop in Japan. While on the train from Busan to the distribution point for further assignment, reality set in and it finally hit home that he was in Korea. From there he headed for the front lines where he connected with the "old-timers" who had been there for a while. He says it took about a week to acclimate and get stronger in order to keep up with the more experienced soldiers.



Supporting the Infantry

Peter Doyle describes his job in a heavy machine gun platoon and the fear of artillery fire on Old Baldy. He explains that his was a supporting role, that he supplied the machine gun with ammunition. After supplying the gun, his platoon would spread out to protect the gun which was a target for the opposition. He describes heavy artillery fire on Old Baldy that lasted for 2-3 nights; that the first night was the worst and "scared the hell" out of him.



Living and Working with Korean Soldiers

Peter Doyle explains that his division stayed several miles behind the front lines in the reserve area, sometimes for as long as two months at a time. He goes on to explain that the 7th division had some Korean soldiers mixed in with their nine man squads and what their exchanges were like. He says that their communication was limited but they were able to exchange some English, Korean, andJapanese words. He recalls one young Korean soldier, who he nicknamed Junebug, died after Peter left Korea. He describes how one day Junebug seemed bothered that the American soldiers get to leave the war to go home and the Korean soldiers do not get to leave.



Mail Call

Peter Doyle explains that his parents regularly sent him packages including film for his camera and food which he shared. One time he received a chocolate cake with what he thought was green frosting but was actually mold. He recalls when they were on the frontline, the company clerk would have to move through artillery and mortar fire to get the mail to the men. Occasionally the mess Sergeant and crew would cook hot meals and send them up in thermos with the Korean laborers who would also have to brave the artillery and mortars and sometimes were killed.



Phil Feehan

First Assignments

Phil Feehan discusses heading to Sandbag Castle, where he was stationed upon first arriving in Korea. He describes it as being opposite a North Korean division. After being at Sandbag Castle a short time, he was sent to Christmas Hill where he describes fighting 4 nights in a row.



Philip Davis

"I Was Not Afraid"

Philip Davis is recounting his first duties in Pusan. He remembers that the soldiers were young and had a lot of passion- not understanding what was really happening. Philip Davis admits that he wasn't afraid either.



I narrowly escaped death

Philip Davis believes that he and his fellow soldiers at that time were not really ready to fight. He describes the ammunition they were given and how many American soldiers died helplessly in rice paddies in Korea. He was very fortunate to escape with an army captain, but still struggles today knowing that those soldiers were left to die without any help coming.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring, and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



From Inchon to Wonsan

Philip S. Kelly describes the amphibious landing at Inchon. He recalls seeing the extreme poverty of the Korean people, and how his life was changed after he saw children fighting for scraps. He explains why he had limited information about his missions before they were carried out.



The Battle of Chosin Reservoir and Roadblocks

Philip S. Kelly describes thinking he would be home by Christmas 1950, but instead he encountered a surprise attack by the Chinese in what became the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls that the United States Army pulled out and left the U.S. Marines exposed to the Chinese attack. He explains how he fought as an infantryman, and the difficulty experienced by the soldiers in trying to clear out Chinese road blocks.



Philip Vatcher

Destitute Korea

Philip Vatcher's his first impressions of Korea were that of a desolate landscape. He there weren't any trees, roads, and barely any shops. Korea during the war was like slave country when the Japanese ran Korea.



Expendable Resource

Philip Vatcher was most bothered by the murder of a military officer in Korea. He witnessed an officer killed because his life was worth less than the value of a military jeep. Despite the circumstance, he understands that war is war.



Civilian Rescue

Philip Vatcher details a time when they rescued a guy on the road. This man's intestines were outside of his body. They had to clean up his intestines and wrap him up. The man's life was sparred and he kept communications with him after the war.



Phillip Olson

A Sniper Almost Took Me Out!

Phillip Olson was almost shot in the spine while traveling on a train with other South Korean soldiers. Actually, this wasn't the first time that he was shot at by a sniper because as he moved large loads of dirt into the rice patties, snipers would shoot the hood of his Caterpillar vehicle.



Letters, Cookies and War

Phillip Olson tried his best to consume his time while he was not on the front lines working with large equipment. He wrote letters to his family about Korea. They in turn sent cookies and letters back to him while he was stationed there from 1952-1953.



Transitioning From Basic Training to Running Heavy Equipment

Phillip Olson enlisted in 1951 and attended a variety of training while in the United States as part of the United States Army. His specialty was heavy equipment such as bull dozers, cranes, caterpillars, and earth movers. One of the roles that he remembered fondly was building an air strip between the 36th and 38th parallel so that the US Air Force could drop bombs on North Korea.



Death All Around While Landing in Pusan

Phillip Olson could smell the port by Pusan even before he entered the bay. Dead soldiers were still floating near the shore while dead fish also added to the smell of decay. He was shocked at the beginning because it was not what he would imagine it would look like in Korea.



Rafael Gomez Hernandez

Chosin Reservoir Experience

Rafael Gomez Hernandez describes his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls the deep snow, cold temperatures, cold food, and having to fight the Chinese. He shares that he saw many refugees at the time and that his unit was the last to leave the Heungnam port during the Chosin Reservoir evacuation.



Rahim Gunay

Vegas Battle

Rahim Günay describes the Vegas Battle. At the Nevada Complex, the Americans were on the left and the British on the right. The Chinese attacked the Turkish soldiers in the middle. Further, for thirty-six hours the Turkish forces held off the Chinese Offensive. Also, this principle battle took place as cease-fire negotiations were taking place.



Ralph A Gastelum

My First Experience at Inchon Landing September 15, 1950

Ralph recalls being very anxious, had arrived just before nightfall and was circling out at sea for awhile. He remembers watching the beach being heavily shelled (Just like you see in the movies," he said.) which he thought was incredible before they went in. Once they landed they had little resistance but found a large foxhole they stayed in for the night (with no sleep) and something kept crawling around in the hole but he couldn't figure out what it was. The next morning he realized it was a frog, but being in a foreign land he wasn't sure what to expect.



Death Results in PTSD Chosin Reservoir

Ralph describes the number of bodies on the battlefield as far as the eye could see both the enemy and their fallen comrades frozen the way they had fell. The bulldozer that was shoveling North Korean soldiers bodies and covering them up.The moaning and the groaning at night just got to them both and the bitterness they have. Their wives didn't talk at the time but when they sleep they tell them what they say and their reactions to it. Both Ed and Ralph live with this daily they just learn to cope with it.



Ralph Blum

Dangers

Ralph Blum said he was usually a half mile to three miles behind the front lines. He said the North Koreans were good at mortars, and he said you do not hear those coming. He recalls being shelled about every third day. He said they would watch the sky because the North Koreans would zero in with sky bursts, and then they would know there would be incoming mortars. He said they would hide under the 105 Howitzer when they moved behind the infantry to avoid being shelled until foxholes could be built.



Makeshift Stove for Warmth

Ralph Blum said he built a bunker with a couple other Marines.  Their bunker had three feet of dirt on top.  Because it was cold they made a stove out of a fuse box, put sand in it, used fuses from shells, and used beer cans to make a chimney. They used a five galloon can with diesel fuel which kept them reasonably warm for when they were in there at night.



Ralph Burcham

Fighing in Korea

Ralph Burcham was busy as a forward observer in the Army. He valued the insight that seasoned soldiers imparted to new soldiers. As a soldier, Ralph Burcham was taught important skills that helped him survive.



Weather in Korea

Ralph Burhcam and other soldiers were negatively affected by the weather. The cold winters weren't the worst part, it was also the summer heat and mosquitoes. Soldiers tried to be creative to survive the elements, but their creativity was not always encouraged by military regulations.



Ralph Howard

Paratrooper Battles During Korean War

Ralph Howard recalls traveling all over Korea. He recounts how he performed airdrops into assorted battles including the Battle of Sukchon-Sunchon, the Battle of Triangle Hill, and the assault of Kot'o-ri. He described a mission where he was supposed to stop an enemy train carrying Allied POWs; however, the enemy had killed all but twenty-six POWs right outside the train.



Chute-Packing Races, C-Rations, and Poor Civilians

Ralph Howard discusses how he was scared until his parachute opened. He recalls not having to pack his own chute but adds that during training, they would compete to see who could pack his chute first. He remembers how General Westmoreland tried to ensure all men on the front lines received a hot meal once a day. He recalls enjoying beanie weenies, sausage, and hamburger from C-Rations. He notes that during his downtime, he would share some of his rations with Korean civilians as they were very poor.



Ramon D. Soto

Life in the Trenches

Ramon D. Soto remembers life on the frontline in the trenches. He discusses the difficulties soldiers faced such as trench foot, frost bite, horrible sleeping conditions, rationing of food, and nightly fear of Chinese soldiers. In this clip, Ramon D. Soto recalls the $75 a month he earned, and sent home each and every month. He also recalls the letters from his wife that he read while on the frontline.



Raul Aguilar

Going Naked Up the Hill

Raul Aguilar describes bathing in a stream in Korea with a fellow soldier. Once shrapnel began hitting the water around them, they ran up the hill back to their troop. He explains what it was like to run naked up a hill in Korea.



Raymond DiVacky

A Nontraditional Educational Path

Raymond DiVacky explains why he never graduated high school. He shares what he did with the Army Transportation Service before trying to go back to school. While he thought he took the GED, he found out after the war that it wasn’t recognized when he tried to apply for college due to peculiar circumstances, so he had to take it again.



Raymond L. Fish

The Pusan Perimeter

Raymond L. Fish recounts his role as a medic at the Pusan Perimeter. He recalls having to keep up with inventory, which was sometimes a challenge when it came to dealing with soldiers who had alcoholic tendencies. He explains how casualties were treated for wounds at varying locations.



Saved by a Canteen

Raymond L. Fish was sent on one-week detachments to provide aid to Chinese prisoners of war who were under supervision by the United Nations. He shares how a little while later, he was injured while running from the Chinese. He shares the story of how his canteen protected him from what could have been a fatal wound during the war.



Raymond Scott

Flying in the Face of Danger

Raymond Scott had to endure very dangerous moments while being a Flight Navigator. He explains the challenges of having to plot charts around communist islands in the face of the challenges brought by fog, strong winds, and weapons firing across war zones. He recalls a story of how a plane crashed when it hit a cross wind.



Raymond Unger

Captured by North Koreans

Raymond Unger tells the story of how he was captured by five North Korean soldiers.



Raymond W. Guenthner

Mortar, Machine Guns, and Multiple Hits

Raymond Guenthner describes the fear of fellow soldiers and the advice he provided to them. He explains what it was like being in the middle of a mortar and machine gun attack. After being hit, he tries to make it to safety while being targeted by Chinese machine gun forces.



PTSD and Bronze Stars

Raymond Guenthner describes his memories of being injured during the war. He discusses his PTSD and therapy. He explains how his commanding officer was angry that he lost his weapon while trying to save his own life and his disappointment in not reaching the top of the hill. He also highlights earning the Purple Heart.



Reginald V. Rawls

A Strong Love for Korean Civilians

Reginald Rawls believes that the Korean War should be recognized and remembered.
That's why many people call this war, the "Forgotten War." Any extra food, he gave to the Korean civilians because most were starving. During the war, Reginald Rawls had many interactions with Korean civilians, one man was even his driver.



Rex L. McCall

Battle of the Hook

Rex McCall discusses arriving in Korea and describes his experiences in the Battle of the Hook. He said there was sporadic fire from the Chinese and he went on night time patrols. He would try to get sleep in a bunker farther down the hill during the day. He says it reminded him of trench warfare during World War I. The Chinese were about 450 feet away.



Ricardo Torres Perez

Fighting for His Father

Ricardo Torres Perez wanted to represent and work hard for his father since his father served in the Korean War with the 65th Infantry Division from Puerto Rico. His father his under 2 dead bodies while the Chinese were looking for living soldiers to take as POWs.



Richard A. Houser

Leaving for Korean War in 1953

Richard Houser took a ship and landed in Inchon in April 1953 after a lonely 20 day ship ride to Korea. While traveling to his base in the Chorwon Valley known as the Iron Triangle, Richard Houser was able to see Seoul leveled, small thatched homes, and dirt roads all around him.



The Korean War Ceasefire

Richard Houser fought until the last second to hold Porkchop Hill in the Chorwon Valley right before the ceasefire. It felt great for him when the war ended because he was able to build new trenches farther off the 38th parallel.



Fighting Alongside with UN Nations

Richard Houser fought along with Turks, Aussies, Ethiopians, Greeks, and Columbians while fighting against communism. The Chinese were afraid of the Turks because they would cut off the ear of their enemy as a trophy.



The Ceasefire, Korean Civilians, and the Death of a Friend

Richard Houser protected the 38th parallel throughout the winter of 1953 from a trench and Camp Casey. After the ceasefire civilians wanted to go back to their land to farm, but it was filled with mines which took the lives of many civilians.



Richard A. Simpson

Civilian's Life

Richard Simpson describes the despair of the Korean people. He describes an incident of a woman trying to commit suicide by lying on train tracks and describes giving simple necessities such as a shirt to Korean people. Richard Simpson also describes the actions by troops.



Richard Bartlett

Legacy of the Korean Defense Veteran

Richard Bartlett believes that the defense veterans serve and fill the void after the Korean War ended. He feels defense veterans over the years have done a very good job keeping the North and South Koreans separated since the war. He wishes he had personally done more to help the Korean people while there.



Richard Botto

Firing From the USS Salem

Richard Botto was on the USS Salem during his time in the Korean War. He was supposed to go in with a few friends, but he was left to join alone. After training in the Great Lakes, he was sent to Massachusetts and then he was stationed on the USS Salem. Richard Botto didn't go into Korea, but he was east of Korea and continued to follow the shoreline to fire 8 inch guns into the mountains during 1952-1953.



Duties While in the East Sea Along Korea's Shore

Richard Botto was busy on Quarter Watch because he had to do whatever he was told to do. He could see the mortar shells coming from his ship and landing into the side of Korea's mountains. He was not in danger while he was there, he thought, because Richard Botto was protected by 1,400 sailors. In February 1953, he was done with his time in the East Sea, so he was sent to the Mediterranean Sea to help NATO with a humanitarian mission.



Richard Brandt

The Dutch Were Tough: an American Soldier's Perspective

Richard Brandt felt the Dutch were very brave and they had forcefulness in battle. Soldiers would pick fights with each other, box, and wrestle in their free time. The Dutch didn't take prisoners, so as soon as they interrogated an enemy, they would kill them. Dutch solders were mean, salty, very tough, and unreal!



Weekly Sermons Halted After Preacher was a No-Show

Church was usually done every Sunday on the hood of a cloth-draped jeep. The preacher would hold the bible in his hand and deliver the weekly sermon. One Sunday, the soldiers were present to start the service, but the preacher wasn't there. The soldiers saw in the distance a jeep driving about 90 miles an hour up the the soldiers to tell them that the preacher had checkout out a rifle to go pheasant hunting, stepped on a land mine and was killed.



Jackpot Charlie (Morale Booster)

Richard Brandt remembered an old airplane and a guy named Jackpot Charlie (thought to have been Bed-Check Charlie) flew over North Korea and American soldiers dropping thousands of small square propaganda leaflets. They were written for the soldiers and the leaflets said, " Don't you want to be home for Christmas GI? Tell your president you want to leave and lay down your arms." The pilot came around 2-3 times and Richard Brandt said that this plane had more bullets holes than any other plane he'd ever seen during the war.



Helping a Father See His Son

The most memorable moment in Korea was when a young soldier from Iowa ran up daily for mail call to get information about his new baby. Every time they got mail, the young soldier received many pictures of his son bathing in the tub (always naked), he was so proud. The young soldier asked Richard Brandt when he was going home and he replied that it was within two weeks, but after speaking to his commander, Richard Brandt allowed the young soldier to go home in his place to see his son.



Richard Carey – Part 1

Incheon Objective

Richard Carey discusses the landing on Incheon. He shares how his platoon landed. He shares his platoon's objective.



March to Seoul

Richard Carey describes a recognizance mission. He shares an encounter with North Korean troops on the way to Seoul. He explains how he was awarded the Bronze Star for capturing the North Korean platoon.



Covered in Blood for Days

Richard Carey describes the situation in Seoul as his platoon tried to help recapture it from the North Koreans. He shares information about his squadron leaders and injuries of his platoon. He explains how they stopped for a breather and what happened in the process.



Wonsan

Richard Carey explains the goal of landing at Wonson. He shared how they wanted to cut off the North Koreans. He explains how they had to patrol and captured North Koreans.



Richard Carey – Part 2

Evacuation after the Chosin Reservoir

Richard Carey describes taking as many Korean evacuees on ships. He shares the sheer number of evacuees that followed them after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. He explains how the Korean police were interviewing the evacuees.



Richard Davey

Working with Americans While Stationed at HQ

Richard Davey recounts being stationed at the Royal Army's Headquarters (HQ) during the May 1953, 3rd Battle of the Hook. Due to bombing and busy telephone lines, he recalls having to hot loop (go around the regular telephone communication system) to communicate with other HQs. During that battle, over thirty-eight thousand shells were used during the fight.



A Bunker and a Radio, What Else Would You Need?

Richard Davey shares that his job in HQ was to man the radio to maintain and assist communication between the frontlines and HQRA. Therefore, he had to store many pieces of equipment to keep the radio running all day and night. He recalls being able to stay in a bunker inside of a trench and adds that he was even able to maintain a bookshelf with books to share with the American soldiers that he was stationed with at the time.



Arrival in Pusan in the Midst of 1952

Richard Davey recalls arriving in Pusan to a band playing in the background and small camps set up with Canadian troops waiting to be shipped out. After a train and truck ride, he was stationed with the Headquarters Royal Artillery (HQRA). While stationed there, he was provided food, summer clothes, and guns.



Richard Davis

Rare Experience

Richard Davis describes one of his rare experiences in Korea. He recalls walking down the railroad tracks and remembers a plane flying low over him. He recounts entering a village the next day and capturing two hundred fifty North Koreans.



Chosin Reservoir Reflection

Richard Davis reflects on his experiences at the Chosin Reservoir. He recounts the bitterly cold conditions and being outnumbered by the Chinese. He describes the sleeping bag situation, digging foxholes, and the food available.



Desperate Times, Desperate Measures

Richard Davis describes the Thanksgiving meal offered at the Chosin Reservoir. He recalls airplanes dropping the food, it being cooked, collecting the food, and it being frozen by the time he could eat it. He recounts sitting on food to keep it warm. He mentions eating c-rations as well as vegetables from Korean civilian gardens which gave him and other soldiers worms due to being fertilized by human waste.



Richard Franklin

Introduction to the War in Korea

Richard Franklin describes the first night after joining his medical unit in Korea. He talks about sleeping between two oil drums and waking up to wounded soldiers.



Life in a MASH Unit

Richard Franklin describes life in his MASH unit during his tour in Korea. Specifically, he mentions his experience during the summer of 1952 and the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Inspecting Kitchens on the Front Lines?

Richard Franklin talks about his duties as a mortar, mess, and supply officer during the later stage of his tour. Describing his duties, he recalls inspecting kitchens on the front lines, requesting doughnuts to be made, and traveling the Korean countryside.



"Don't Shoot, It's the Major!"

Richard Franklin tells a story from his time working at a medical aid station near the Punchbowl area. One of the few times that kitchen personnel were ordered to carry their weapons, he recalls a major that was afraid of friendly fire.



Richard Friedman

The Loss of Friends

Richard Friedman shares that losing friends was the most difficult aspect of service. He mentions losing several friends during his time in Korea. He recounts how associations to one soldier in particular over the years continues to affect his emotions.



Richard Fuller

Wounded and Recovery

Richard Fuller recounts his wounds while in Korea. He incurred shrapnel in his legs on October 20, 1952, and was taken to Japan for treatment and rehabilitation. He returned to his unit in Korea 3 months later.



Helmets Without a Strap

Richard Fuller shares that his helmet was blown off 3 times. He, along with other soldiers, chose not to wear his helmet chinstrap. He describes his reasoning for his decision not to do so.



Richard H. Fastenau

The Good and Bad Times of the Korean War

Richard H. Fastenau describes why he prefers not to talk or think about the bad things that happened in Korea.



Richard Higa

"Friendly Fire, They Call It"

Richard Higa describes an incident when allied Australian warplanes accidentally strafed his unit's position. This misidentified them as North Korean forces. During the incident, he was wounded by shrapnel.



Korean Refugee Retreat, 1950

Richard Higa describes witnessing streams of Korean Refugees fleeing south in late 1950. He talks about the difficult terrain and conditions that the refugees encountered that led to many of them dying during the journey.



Richard L. Boxwell, Jr.

Alcohol on a Naval Ship

Richard Boxwell describes attitudes about beer and alcohol. Beer was not considered alcohol, at that time. Certain on-board personnel were given beer as any flight could be their last flight.



Richard P. Holgin

First Impressions of Korea

Richard P. Holgin describes arriving at Incheon at the beginning of the Korean War. He goes into detail about seeing burnt bodies all over and crossing through cities ravaged by the Chinese. Richard P. Holgin's his job responsibilities changed when he shifted from a rifleman to an infantryman.



Burning Bridges at the Chosin Reservoir

Richard P. Holgin experienced subzero temperatures and fierce fighting at the Chosin Reservoir. After his company's missions, they would have to blow up bridges and roads so that no enemy could follow them. The weather was a major factor in the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir.



Persevering through Frostbite

Richard P. Holgin experienced terrible frostbite on his leg. Despite this condition, he continued to serve to the best of his ability, until a superior noticed his injury. Richard P. Holgin was then cared for in Busan and in Japan.



Richard Perkins

Direct Hit

Richard Perkins recalls in late 1950, off the east coast of Korea, when the destroyer he crewed, the USS Charles S. Sperry took three direct hits from enemy shore batteries. He describes where the ship was hit and what happened after the incident.



Downed Pilot

Richard Perkins describes retrieving a downed Navy pilot from the sea after his parachute had not deployed. Unfortunately, the pilot did not survive.



Duty off the Coast of Korea

Richard Perkins describes the mission of the Navy destroyer, USS Charles S. Sperry during the Korean War. He talks about all-night firing missions aimed at Chinese beach patrols on the east coast of Korea. He mentions the ship encountering refugees and giving aid in the form of food and supplies.



Richard Preston Vaughn

Picking Up The Dead After A Battle

Richard Vaughn talks about his memories of picking up dead enemy soldiers after a battle near where he was stationed.



Richard V. Gordon

Guarding the Seas Off South Korea

Richard V. Gordon describes patrolling the seas off Korea from the Communists. He describes blowing up a floating mine and provides a picture of the explosion. Richard Gordon describes not really engaging the enemy due to the North Koreans not really having a Navy.



Life on the Ship and in the Navy

Richard V. Gordon describes life aboard the HMS Tutira. He describes making his hammock and putting it up every morning and the food. He also describes the pay in the Navy and sending money home to his new wife. Richard V. Gordon also describes the waves on the ship, even in a frigate.



Lasting Memory and Pictures from the Ship

Richard V. Gordon describes his one lasting memory, the loss of a fellow shipmate in the China Sea. He, also provides pictures of the USS Missouri and cold conditions aboard the ship. Richard V. Gordon provides a picture where people are covered in snow while on the ship during the winter.



Robert “Bob” W. Ezell

Journey to Korea

Bob Ezell talks about his journey to Korea and the process "Replacements" went through being assigned to a unit.



First Experience in Combat

Bob Ezell describes his first experience in combat at Toktong Pass during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir on November 27, 1950



Wounded

Bob Ezell describes how he survived being wounded by playing dead as the enemy stole his gloves.



Thoughts of Dying

Bob Ezell talks about how he felt after being wounded and how grateful he is to have survived. He also mentions the magnitude of death at Toktong Pass and a friend who was killed there.



Survival In the Aid Tent

Bob Ezell describes surviving while wounded in the aid tent as his unit was cut off and surrounded for 5 days near the Toktong Pass



Robert Battdorff

Traveling to the Chosin Reservoir

Robert Battdorff moved through Seoul, Ko do Re Pass, and then went onto the Chosin Reservoir. Using a line of soldiers, 20 feet apart, he made his way to East Hill overlooking the Chosin Reservoir. Without any enemy resistance, Robert Battdorff sent out patrols to check the different possible enemy positions in November 1950.



The Chinese Take Robert Battdorff

Marine engineers were building an airstrip near the Chosin Reservoir when Robert Battdorff moved onto Toktong Pass to set up positions. That's where the Chinese took over the hill and he was taken prisoner while on watch. It was November 28, 1950 and he was on watch in a sleeping bag because the weather was 40 below zero.



A Near Death Experience with the Chinese

The Chinese put Robert Battdorff in a cow shed and then put him in their own foxholes because the sun was coming up, so they assumed the US would be bombing soon from the air. Two other men were captured with him, but no US soldiers came to resume them right away. On the first assault, there were 28 casualties during that attack. The guard that captured the 3 US soldiers had the men kneel near a frozen stream so that he could kill them, but another Chinese soldier stopped the killing.



Marching and Traveling all over the Chosin Reservoir as a POW

After a further search and surviving a shooting, Robert Battdorff had to hide in a foxhole because the Australians were shooting up multiple buildings where the Chinese were hiding. One guard walked the POWs all day to Yudam ni, near Hamgyong, North Korea. He was moved many places to hide throughout December 1950 while the Chinese were picking up additional British POWs.



Travel, Food, and UN Attacks on Chinese as a POW

Robert Battdorff and one other US POW were forced to walk south to the 38th parallel in May 1951 as the US soldiers were pushing the Chinese back in battle. He was told that he was brought down south just in case if the Chinese came across additional prisoners. He would walk at night 6 days a week and then take Sunday off. Since the Chinese were traveling with supplies during the night, UN pilots looked for the headlights of the trucks to know where to hit.



33 Months as a POW

Robert Battdorff was watched by only 1 guard for all 25 POWs until the Chinese realized that it would be safer for them to separate the POWs. After moving all the Koreans out of the next city, the homes were called Camp 3 where they stayed during October 1951. He had to deal with Communist Indoctrination for over 2 years. Robert Battdorff was finally released in August 1953 after the Korean War came to a stalemate.



Robert Boyd Layman

First Impressions of Icheon

Robert Boyd Layman describes his first impressions of landing at Incheon. He explains that he had trouble understanding why Americans would be in Korea to fight. He also describes the immediate reminder that he was in a war zone from the stacked bodies he saw and the wounded being taken to hospitals.



Unprepared for War

Robert Boyd Layman describes arriving in Korea already as a Platoon Sergeant. He explains how he felt unprepared to take command of soldiers who had already seen action. He describes his interaction with a regiment commander at Icheon who asked if he had any experience and upon discovering that he didn't, the commander advised him to "learn fast".



Listening to a Barrage of Artillery Fire

Robert Boyd Layman describes where he was when the Armistice was signed. He explains that there was artillery being fired around the clock on both sides since no one wanted to carry it all back. He describes being incredulous that the war was actually stopping when he was used to hearing gunfire constantly.



Robert C. Jagger

Work on the Front Lines

When asked about any dangerous moments, Robert C Jagger describes his work on Hill 355, also known as Kowang San. He describes the shelling by the North Koreans. He also describes the various jobs he held while on the Hill as part of the artillery unit.



Robert Chisolm

Battle at Pork Chop Hill

Robert Chisolm was assigned the 187th Parachute Regiment 7th Infantry Division. He was stationed right near Pork Chop Hill in the Cheorwon Valley with defensive positions. The Chinese were were attacking on July 25, 1953 (a few days before the ceasefire) and Robert Chisolm had to call for an artillery barrage.



Living conditions during the Battle at Pork Chop Hill

Robert Chisolm didn't get to shower until they came back to camp. He slept inside a bunker near his trenches with three other men in the company command post.



Robert F. Wright

Witnessing the Wounded

Robert remembers the worst part of his experience in Korea was passing by a train filled with wounded soldiers and how sorry he felt for those men which upset him. There was a 17 year old boy from New York that was with him on his train and saw the same thing and told Robert, "What did I get myself into, I want to go home." Doesn't know what happened to that kid.



Robert Fickbohm

Infantry Scout Dogs Saving Lives

Robert Fickbohm explains the role and duties of the scout dog in the Korean War. He shares multiple stories of scout dogs saving the lives of American soldiers. He recounts the importance of the scout dog during the war and elaborates on its ability to sense danger.



And Then The Firing Stopped

Robert Fickbohm recounts the day the Armistice was signed. He shares that the artillery on both sides continued and that he and the men he was with did not think there was going to be a truce. He recollects that late that night, the firing stopped and it was completely quiet.



Robert Fischer

Heading to the Front Lines

Robert Fischer describes what it was like to head to the front lines. He describes the hills and the fires they saw along the road. On the journey, his company saw a tank that had run over a civilian. Because he did not have an assignment, Robert Fischer became the one who had to carry the radio.



Robert Fitts

Seasickness En Route to Korea

Robert Fitts details his journey to Korea aboard a ship. He experienced sea sickness and as did other servicemen on board. He recounts his arrival in Japan and narrates his transport from there to Korea and to his post in Korea via train.



Driving to the Front Lines

Robert Fitts was promoted to Motor Sergeant/Staff Sergeant and was in charge of assigning drivers to tasks among other duties. He shares the story of a driver's willingness to carry supplies to the front lines for another driver who returned with a vehicle maintenance issue. He details the outcome of the second attempt.



Robert H. Pellow

I Knew I'd Survive

Robert H. Pellow describes his weapons job during the war and describes loading an ammunition belt into a machine gun. He also describes being hit from three to four thousand yards away by enemy fire. He states that he never doubted he would survive.



Robert J. Auletti

Korean Soldiers Became an Army

Robert Auletti describes his experience in the Battle of White Horse Mountain. He also describes fighting alongside the Republic of Korea soldiers (ROK) and how they were treated poorly by other soldiers. However, he describes that the ROK earned respect by how hard they fought against the Chinese.



Robert Johnson

Paralyzed for Days

Robert Johnson describes the details of his work on a Caterpillar machine in Korea when it becoming stuck. As it was stuck, he describes how he fell off and became paralyzed in the back for five days. He describes his hospitalization and recovery.



A Burning Truck

Robert Johnson recollects on a dangerous experience in Korea when he was in a truck filled with TNT and how it led to a fire. He also describes seeing constant planes fly over his station. Although he didn't engage in combat, he was near much of the fighting.



Robert Kam Chong Young

Incheon Landing

Robert Kam Chong Young speaks about his first experiences in Korea and his participation in the Inchon landing.



Robert Kodama

Finding His Assistant in the Apple Orchard

Feeling hopefulness that they would not find any survivors, Robert Kodama and his company went back to their base near Taegu. However, he eventually saw someone moving in the bushes of the apple orchards- it turned out to be his former assistant! This man ran towards him and explained that everyone had scattered when they got overrun and he ended up going the wrong direction. To survive, the assistant had to drink rice paddy water and had limited food for 10 days.



Robert L. Atkins

A “Hot” Cold Place

Robert Atkins remembers that things were really “hot and heavy” from Thanksgiving to the first of December. He explains how they were ambushed often and how the Chinese crossed the Yalu River. Even though they were outnumbered, he shares that the Fox Company was able to fight the Chinese and it became a turning point.



Robert L. Wessa

First In, Last Out

Robert L. Wessa describes his time in Korea evacuating wounded soldiers from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. The battle wounded so many soldiers that during the time of the evacuation Robert Wessa never got the chance to leave the temporary airstrip.



Air Drop- All Business

Robert L. Wessa recalls the special missions where he dropped off paratroopers as a response to many different battles. Often he would drop off a small set of people in the dead of night on top of a mountain ridge. To this day, Robert L. Wessa does not know what they were doing or what happened to them but he knew not to ask because the missions were top secret.



Robert M. Longden

Digging Tunnels North of the 38th Parallel

Robert M. Longden shows photos of his experience in Korea. One photograph features him serving as a wireless operator. Others include images of Hill 355 north of the 38th Parallel. His regiment dug a fifty-meter tunnel to get to the outpost while avoiding exposure to the enemy. He has agreed to scan his photos for young people to view as they study the Korean War.



Robert Mount

Witnessing Napalm Bombs

Robert Mount describes how he worked in the reserves behind the front lines. He did not engage the enemy, but did get shot at while searching for explosives. He recalls a time when he saw the Air Force drop napalm bombs on the hill, causing the enemy to run out of the bunkers-- it was like a scene from a movie.



Inspecting Dead Corpses

After the Inchon invasion, Robert Mount's company headed North to river just beyond Daegu where there was a flat bridge. His platoon leader left Robert Mount and a detail there to defend the bridge. Only eighteen years old, he spotted a dozen apparently dead North Korean soldiers across the bridge and went over to inspect the corpses.



North Korean Refugees

On the road to Seoul, Robert Mount describes the devastated landscape and the streams of refugees that he witnessed heading south. He describes how they were carrying as much as they could on their backs, very disheveled and sick-looking. He shows a picture of a refugee in North Korea; he does not remember who took it.



Robert O. Gray

From Hospitals to Prisons

Robert Gray discusses how he got hit and went to the hospital. He explains his motivation for lying to avoid staying in the hospital. He also describes how that decision caused him to be captured by the Chinese as a prisoner of war (POW).



Say No to Indoctrination

Robert Gray describes his capture by the Chinese. He explains how he and others spoke out against the indoctrination. He also explains why he thinks some POWs won't talk about their imprisonment.



Robert S. Chessum

Battle of Kapyong

Robert Chessum describes the Battle of Kapyong. The Chinese were on the Offensive until Kapyong. Robert Chessum was part of the 16 New Zealand Field Regiment providing support to the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. He describes being on a full offensive prior to the Battle of Kapyong and how his unit became really efficient as an artillery unit. Robert Chessum provides a complete description about the prelude to the Battle and ultimate Battle of Kapyong.



Memory of Engagement and Artillery

Robert Chessum describes a Chinese threat at one moment because his unit was too far forward due to a Chinese Offensive. He describes the New Zealand artillery, providing specific details on the various guns. He then describes becoming part of the 1st Commonwealth Brigade.



Hill 355 and Hill 317

Robert Chessum describes being a Temporary Captain on the assault of Hill 355 and Hill 317. He was wounded during the campaigns by mortar fire. He was evacuated to a hospital for a week and transferred to Hero Camp in Japan. Robert Chessum eventually came back to Imjin after a six month recuperation and was eventually discharged in 1952.



Robert Stephens

F.O.R.D., Fix Or Repair Daily

Robert Stephens describes fixing tanks. The tanks used in Korea had Ford V-8 engines and often the spark plug housing would crack. This occurred often and created a supply chain issue. Robert Stephens also describes how the tanks would slip their tracks. He would have to go out into the combat zone and fix the slipped track.



Mechanically Inclined

Robert Stephens describes his training to become a mechanic on tanks. He describes being trained on the M46 with a Continental engine, whereas the tanks in Korea were the M4 with a Ford engine. The role of a tank mechanic was to keep the tanks and Jeeps running. His particular unit was support for many different UN forces. Robert Stephens describes how when the tanks broke down in the combat zone and he and his crew would have to go into danger to fix a broken down tank.



Robert Steven Duffy

Right Place, Right Time

Robert Duffy remembers a moment of fear. He talks about being a part of a charge to take a hill and the courage of a certain Lieutenant. He was in the "right place at the right time" to avoid getting shot.



Rotating Home

Robert Duffy describes the story about when he was called to rotate back home because of the help of a friend.



Robert Talmadge

Incheon Landing

Robert Talmadge describes the initial ground attack of Wolmido Island before the artillery assault during the Inchon Landing. He shares some of the rationale behind the attack and when it occurred. He then explains what happened right before the landing.



Hamheung Evacuation aka Hungnam Evacuation (code name Christmas Cargo)

Robert Talmadge talks about the Miracle Evacuation of Korean civilians from Hungnam including the loading of the civilians onto the USS Victory. He remembers 99,000 civilians on the pier that loaded onto the ship. He explains how the civilians had to leave all of their belongings before boarding.



Robert W. Hammelsmith

First Impressions

Robert Hammelsmith describes his first impressions of Korea after landing at Busan. He recalls being assigned to the Recon Platoon of the 89th Tank Battalion and being relocated to Masan. He explains that his first duties were performing communications relay on a hill near Masan, Korea.



Wounded

Robert Hammelsmith describes being wounded by machine gun fire while on a scouting patrol near the Manchurian border in November of 1950. He explains that he was carried out on a stretcher and then transported on the second of two ambulances, the first of which was attacked by the Chinese. He goes on to describe his evacuation to a hospital in Japan where the bullet in his shoulder was removed.



Robert Whited

Two Big Things

Robert Whited describes two things that a captured North Korean officer said about fighting against the US Marine Corps.



"One of the Greatest Things We Ever Did"

Robert Whited recalls protecting thousands of Korean refugees as his unit retreated from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, boarded troop ships, and traveled to Busan.



Living Conditions in Korea

Robert Whited talks about the difficult living conditions that his unit found themselves in upon arriving in Korea.



Rodney Ramsey

Life as an American Soldier on the Front Lines: From Bunkers to Bullets

Rodney Ramsey was supported by Korean Augmentation to United States Army (KATUSA) and these troops were seasoned fighters by the time Rodney Ramsey entered the war in 1952. While sleeping in sand-bag bunkers at the front lines in Geumgang, North Korea, he was comfortable with his summer fatigues including a field jacket. Some of the most dangerous times were when Rodney Ramsey was going on patrol or raids where the Chinese were dug in. He was shot through the helmet with a minor wound when an African American soldier standing next to him was shot with the same bullet and died.



The Happiest Times Within the Bunkers

Rodney Ramsey experienced a few pleasant times during the Korean War. He loved that he had a hot meal every day because a chow bunker was hidden behind the hill where he was dug-in, so a jeep would bring the men fresh food. Another great time was when he was brought off the front line and had a delicious Thanksgiving meal.



Legacy of the Korean War Veterans

Rodney Ramsey was proud that the UN troops for pushing back the Chinese and North Koreans. He wishes that they could have made all of Korea non-communist, but life was better for the civilians in the South. The Korean War was named the "Forgotten War" due to it being called a conflict, not a war. After the Korean War, civilians on the home front did not see the war on television like they did for the Vietnam War. As the Korean War veterans came home, many people did not even know that they had left to fight in a war.



Rodney Stock

Reenlistment: Above the DMZ

Rodney F. Stock remembers being one of the first to receive a $500 bonus to reenlist. When he returned to Korea in 1954, Seoul looked less war torn than when he had left. That initial recovery was a testimony to the Korean people who had already begun the rebuilding process. Serving above the DMZ, at one point he came face to face with an entire Chinese division.



Too Many Cooks

Rodney F. Stock arrived in Korean in January of 1952. Assigned as a cook, he disliked his position and convinced his superiors that he could work switchboards, repair phone lines, and act as courier to outposts. Besides maintenance and communications, his army unit protected the soldiers of the Fifth U.S. Air Force. As Rodney F. Stock traversed the countryside around Yeongdeungpo, he was particularly impressed by the lovely old farmhouses.



War Wounds and Train Attacks

Rodney F. Stock explains that North Koreans left farms in Yeongdeungpo unmolested since North Korea relied heavily on rice harvests. The U.S. soldiers were not so fortunate. A sniper shot at him while he repaired a wire up a telephone pole. The bullet missed him, but wood splinters embedded in his leg. He resents not being listed as wounded in combat since he wasn't hit by the actual bullet. Other dangerous experiences included the armored train ride from Yeongdeungpo to Pusan, with enemy attacks on the train each time they passed through Tegu.



Roger Myers

Rumor of a Cease Fire in 1952

Robert Myers recalls what it was like in Korea in 1952. He describes how both sides had patrols going back at forth across the DMZ at night. The rumor was that there was going to be a ceasefire, so each side tried to get as much territory as possible.



Courier duty

Robert Myers describes how headquarters had a courier who would send information back and forth every night. When he did not return one night, Robert Myers and other went looking for him and found that his jeep had crashed. As a result, Robert Myers had to do the duty for several nights until they found a replacement.



Roger S. Stringham

Skirmishes in Korea

Roger Stringham recounts that he was attending art school when he was drafted into the Army in late 1950. He recalls receiving his four-month basic training at Camp Roberts in California and being shipped to Korea shortly thereafter. He offers an account of the skirmishes he experienced and speaks of lives lost from a machine gun burst.



Out on Patrol

Roger Stringham explains that he spent his first six months in Korea serving in Item Company of the 21st Infantry Regiment and the last six months in Headquaters Company. He recounts his duties in Headquarters Company which entailed night patrols through the hills in temperatures that reached fifty degrees below zero at times. He shares he did not regret the experience but adds that he thought often of his friends while there and has since experienced PTSD.



Roland Dean Brown

First Impressions and Friendly Fire Encounters

Roland Brown recalls his first impressions upon arrival in Pusan. He describes the scene as horrible, recounting the sewage running in gutters down the streets, children begging for food, and the poor living conditions. He shares that many soldiers were killed from friendly fire due to inadequate training and a lack of communication, adding that he and others even dug holes with their helmets as defense during friendly fire encounters.



Food Scarcity and Living Conditions

Roland Brown recounts the food scarcity he and fellow soldiers experienced on the front lines. He recalls being surrounded by the Chinese and North Koreans, a situation that required an airdrop of provisions. He shares that he and fellow soldiers had to fight the enemy for the goods dropped, which included food and ammunition, as the Chinese and North Koreans had acquired U.S. weapons from American soldiers they had overrun and needed ammunition. He additionally comments on the living conditions, stating that they often slept on the ground and sometimes in foxholes or old bunkers.



Roland Fredh

Treating Napalm

Roland Fredh describes being part of the operating team in Busan. He treated patients that Napalm wounds. The hospital was uncovered and quite dusty. Patients required lots of work. Yet, Roland Fredh is proud of his service.



Roland Kleinschmidt

Preparing Ammunition to be Fired

Roland Kleinschmidt explains what his life was like in Korea. He lived in sandbag bunkers and worked on a rotating eight-hour shift. His role was to compute the data to determine how much ammunition was needed to hit the target. He shares a time when he drove a major to a cave to fire on the North Koreans.



“Like a Tomb” on July 27, 1953

While they fired a lot of missions during the war, Roland Kleinschmidt recalls how much ammunition was fired at the end of the war. He says that from the time both sides signed the truce until it went into effect, both sides shot off a lot of ammunition- both to kill people at the end but also because they didn’t want to “haul it back.” However, at midnight when the armistice went into effect, it was “like a tomb” because everything on both sides just shut off.



Rollo Minchaca

Kimpo Airfield

Rollo Minchaca describes arriving in Pusan and Incheon Landing. He talks about the 300 rounds of ammo he carried, while his assistant carried twice as much. He had a very difficult job at the age of 18.



Two Chinese Soldiers

Rollo Minchaca is describing his interaction during the war with the Chinese soldiers. He witnessed a 17 year old machine gunner crying for his mother during the war when his division was ambushed by the Chinese. As a browning automatic rifle man, he almost died because they were running low on ammunition.



Ronald Bourgon

Sleeping Near the Enemy

Ronald Bourgon describes moving towards the front lines near Jipyeongri. He remembers counting eighty-nine dead American soldiers along the way who had been killed in their sleeping bags or while attempting to run away from the North Korean enemy. He shares that many were African-American soldiers and that they had been stripped of their clothes and equipment. He recalls orders being given to not sleep in their sleeping bags despite the cold February temperature after the incident had been discovered.



Rain of Steel

Ronald Bourgon recalls being completely surrounded by the Chinese for three days. He details the plan to combine weaponry from the US, New Zealand, and Canada to open an artillery barrage on their location. He recalls orders given to his company to get down in foxholes and to not come out as fire would be opened on their location in an attempt to stop the Chinese. He remembers the ravaged scene of dead Chinese soldiers once the barrage had ceased.



A Close Call

Ronald Bourgon shares a dangerous moment memory. He recalls carrying the radio and rounding a big rock to avoid hitting branches where a soldier stood with his gun raised. He remembers the soldier pulling the trigger and the gun misfiring. He recounts the soldier apologizing for the mistake and stating that the guns never work as he pointed it to the ground and pulled the trigger again. He remembers the gun firing and shares he was lucky it misfired the first time.



Worst Memory

Ronald Bourgon details his worst memory while in Korea that has caused him grief over the years. He shares that in one encounter with the Chinese, he received a small shrapnel wound while another soldier was hit in the neck and was bleeding profusely. He recalls holding pressure on the soldier's neck as they made their way down the mountain towards a medical team. He shares that the soldier died due to blood loss, and he adds that he has questioned himself since as to whether he could have done more for him.



Ronald Rosser

Part of My Job

Ronald Rosser’s job was to protect the American soldiers while also killing the enemy. He served with Americans, Koreans, Turkish, Dutch and French soldiers. He explains that while he killed many people, it was part of his job and necessary for survival.



Combat Victories and Injuries

Setting the record for hand-to-hand combat, Ronald Rosser shares how he killed 12 people through this method. He remembers getting wounded in his foot by shrapnel during Heartbreak Ridge. He also recounts some of his dangerous incidents during the war.



Ronald Shaw

A Near Miss in the Trench

Ronald Shaw describes what it was like in battle and in the trenches. While he jokes that the biggest enemies were the rats, he quickly shifts to a memory of when he was almost killed. Had the Corporal not demanded that Ronald Shaw come to see him, he would have been killed by a shell that hit their trench shortly after he left.



Lucky to Be Alive

Ronald Shaw describes a time during the Battle of the Hook when he felt like he was lucky to be alive. He explains how there was a Chinese officer near him, but he was able to blend in with the sandbag. If his Bren Gun (light machine gun) had not been set on single shot, the outcome of the situation could have been deadly for Ronald Shaw.



Losing a Friend

Ronald Shaw remembers the first time that he saw a soldier killed. While he went to get a cup of tea for his friend, his friend went out to use the bathroom and was killed by a mortar. It was difficult for Ronald Shaw to believe that his friend to whom he was just speaking was gone that quickly. He tied the soldier’s shoes to send him off properly and then went back to his bunk and cried.



Ronald Yardley

What Made It Worse

Ronald Yardley describes sleeping in hammocks aboard the HMS Belfast when the 6 inch guns of the ship would fire. He explains that the blast would cause soldiers to be lifted in their hammocks and then dropped. He also describes how the entire ship would turn to the side whenever the guns would fire, then settle back into the ocean.



Rondo T. Farrer

Living on the Front Line

Rondo T. Farrer describes the food and living conditions on the front line during the Battle of Kapyong. He discusses how he felt being a part of the Battle of Kapyong. He shares his personal thoughts about the possibility of dying in Korea.



Ross Pittman

Job Specialty

Ross Pittman explains his job specialty in the Navy during the Korean War. He shares that he specialized in visual communications which entailed relaying messages between ships. He recounts that semaphore code was utilized to pass along the messages. He also shares that unofficial questions were asked between those aboard each ship as an attempt to locate friends.



Visuals aboard Ship

Ross Pittman expresses that their main mission aboard ship was to help ground forces and to destroy enemy supply lines, warehouses, and the like. He explains that they traveled the coast to hit targets. He remembers the terrain as hilly and explains that the weapons on board were capable of hitting targets 20 to 25 miles inland. He recalls watching a crane topple after a location was fired upon and recounts other visuals of destruction.



Roy Aldridge

We Broke Their Will

Roy Aldridge describes how he crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea. He shares how the North Koreans shed their uniforms, put on civilian clothing, and fled. He shares how there wasn't much resistance. He explains how the North Koreans had killed all of the prisoners of war and where they put them.



"An Angel Sitting on My Shoulder"

Roy Aldridge describes their unit being the first airborne unit that was completely self-contained. He explains how they had artillery, trucks, jeeps, ammunition, and medics. He describes the dates and movements of his Batallion. He describes the extremely cold temperatures ranging between 40-50 degrees below zero, and how they were attacked by the Chinese.



Roy Cameron

The Job of Battalion Soil Engineers

Since Roy Cameron was working on his Bachelors Degree in soil science, he was assigned to the Battalion Soil Engineers where he built roads and bridges for the troops. While traveling in his Jeep near Pusan, he as thousands of refugees coming from the North in order to escape war.



Death Near Taegu and PTSD

Roy Cameron was traveling a road near Taegu and Taejon when they were ambushed. Two soldiers were killed and he had to take their bodies back to Grave Registration, so seeing those bodies has given Roy Cameron PTSD.



Roy Painter

Bloody Millions of Them

Roy Painter describes his career as a radio operator in the Korean War. He explains that of his earliest messages as an operator concerned the wounding of a soldier he had sat next to in school. He also explains how he found himself in the 1st Australian Regiment after their radio operator was removed for coarse language.



Rudolph “Rudy” J. Green

2,000 Riflemen On Board

Rudy Green describes taking a train from Busan that was so heavy with smoke that it was very difficult to breathe. He describes how when they arrive at their destination, there was no way to distinguish the white soldiers from the African American soldiers because they were all covered in soot. He explains his amazement in surviving that train ride.



Russel Kingston

Evading Capture from the Chinese

Russel Kingston describes how they hid in a perimeter that had been dug for a day and night; however, the Chinese dug trenches by hand to get to them. They retreated, and then swam the Yalu river all the way across. He then explains how he evaded the Chinese that night.



Ruth Powell (Wife of John Powell)

Dealing with PTSD after the War

Ruth Powell introduces herself as the wife of veteran, John Powell. She describes her husband's struggles with PTSD after returning from Korea. She comments on John Powell's experiences as a prisoner of war (POW), its effects on him, and the treatments he endured to aid and better his psychological state.



Sahlemariam Wmichaea

Messenger Duty

Sahlemariam Wmichaea describes what is was like to be a messenger during wartime. He describes having to run and hide moving between units to deliver messages. Even though it was risky running through enemy fire, Sahlemariam Wmichaea never got injured.



Salvatore R. Conte

Capture and Traveling to the POW Camp

Salvatore Conte remembers traveling toward Hagalwoori when his vehicle was hit and the men went into a ditch. All three of the soldiers were injured in his group and then they were taken by the Chinese. Salvatore Conte recalls being taken to Geojedo POW camp in January 1951. He gives a thorough account of what it was like in the camps.



Salvatore Scarlato

Possessions from Korea

Salvatore Scarlato presents a battle banner given to him by a Korean marine during the war and shares its significance. He presents a poncho he used while in Korea and elaborates on its many uses. He recalls a poncho being used as a stretcher to carry the wounded, covering to bury the dead, and as a tent.



Salvatore Schillaci

The Wounding of Rifleman Salvatore Schillaci in 1952

Salvatore Schillaci suffered an abdominal wound during a nighttime reconnaissance mission. His Sergeant ordered him to take an enemy's machine gun. Unfortunately, as he walked forward, the enemy opened fire. The VA hospital gave him great care upon his return to the United States.



"Pieces of His Body Were Flying Around."

Salvatore Schillaci thinks about the bad things that happened when he has nothing else to do. A friend of his stepped on a mine and was killed. When he himself was injured, he returned home to receive hospital care in Massachusetts. Upon recovery, he returned to university to study geology on the GI Bill.



Always C Rations

Salvatore Schillaci doesn't recall where he landed when he arrived in Korea in 1951. As part of a reconnaissance team, they slept in foxholes or even on the open ground. He remembers extreme cold and C Rations. Once he tried unsuccessfully to heat up a can of pork and beans on the exhaust manifold of a truck.



Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr.

Difficult and Rewarding Times

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., talks about being under enemy artillery fire. He recalls making it quickly into a foxhole. He discusses being scared and describes his most rewarding times in Korea and the special experience.



Biggest Memory

Samuel Boyd Fielder, Jr., describes firing so much that the barrels of the guns were red hot. He recalls how they poured water on the guns to cool them off. He says they were firing seven rounds per minute which was almost double what they said was the maximum that could be fired per minute.



Samuel Stoltzfus

Close Calls in Korea

Samuel Stoltzfus arrived in Pusan to board a train for the front lines north of Seoul. As a truck driver and radio operator, he hauled his radio across locations that included Old Baldy and Porkchop. He drove officers and radios through enemy fire. Once, during a speedy dash through enemy-observed territory, a hand grenade tumbled from the glove compartment onto the floor of his Jeep.



Scary Moment During Service

Samuel Stoltzfus drove officers all around the front lines. Once, while parked at the bottom of a mountain waiting for Colonel Rouse and Lieutenant Ruble, he heard the shouts of a South Korean pinned under a tire he had been changing. As Samuel Stoltzfus went to help, North Koreans began firing white phosphorous shells at him. He retreated and hid under his Jeep. Another time, he was late for Christmas dinner because he drove a colonel up to a bunker that had sustained a direct hit. Because he was with an officer, they returned to find the cooks had saved the best food for them.



Proud of his Service and South Korea

Samuel Stoltzfus attributes the success of modern Korea to the intelligent, friendly, and hardworking Korean people. He is proud of his service because of how far Korea has come, but he points out the horrific battles that helped make it happen. Once, while standing guard at headquarters, a truck driven by a Turkish soldier returned from the reservoir. In the back, litters of wounded were stacked upon piles of dead soldiers. Despite the deaths he experienced, Samuel Stoltzfus feels he was fortunate during his service.



Sanford Epstein

Heartbreak Ridge Memories

Sanford Epstein describes the living conditions he experienced during his first winter in Korea. He recounts how cold it was and comments on the food available. He recalls a fellow soldier's death during the Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.



Sangmoon Olsson

Life During the War

Sangmoon Olsson describes her life during the Korean War. Her brother had a high position under the Japanese Imperial control and when the communists took over, they wanted to capture her brother. Sangmoon had to go into hiding for a total of eight months, interrupting her nursing studies. When the Allies eventually pushed back the Communists, Sangmoon Olsson was able to complete her nursing studies.



Santos Rodriguez Santiago

Life in the Punchbowl

Santos Rodriguez Santiago remembers not knowing much about the area as they traveled to the Punchbowl. A lot of his time was spent observing the enemy among the hills. He remembers some of his officers being hit by snipers as the two sides often exchanged gun fire. He says that after 2-3 months they began to get used to this lifestyle.



The Hardest Thing

Santos Rodriguez Santiago shares that one of the most difficult things was watching people get killed. He wonders why people are unable to live in harmony. He remembers that he was unsure about whether or not he would come home alive.



Seymour Bernstein

Playing for the Others

Seymour Bernstein explains how he had trained to originally be an infantryman. He and his colleague had asked to give a piano concert for the soldiers and we allowed even though there was some skepticism. He recalls getting assistance in moving a piano to the theater so that he could play. This was the start of a tour to play for many others.



Stanley Fujii

Night Patrol, the Enemy, and Explosions

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of a fellow soldier who lost his mind during a night patrol. His description also includes going to take a mountain with a company of 160 men. The endeavor to take the mountain began with encountering explosions in the flatland, ultimately causing retreat. He describes his encounter with land mines, enemy flares, mortars, machine guns, and tanks.



Glorious Mail Call

Stanley Fujii describes the emotional experience of mail call for soldiers, and the camaraderie that came along with getting communication from loved ones on the homefront. His heartwarming testimony reflects on his writing letters for a fellow soldier from Minnesota who was illiterate. His friend from Minnesota later died in a bombardment.



Running from Napalm

Stanley Fujii describes the experience of seeing the bodies of young soldiers in Chinese uniforms who were burned from Napalm. His testimony describes being on patrol to look for another location to move his company to and noticing a lot of dead bodies. The bodies were burned to a crisp and the faces were very young. He saw maggots crawling from the flesh and buzzards coming down to eat the flesh.



Stanley I. Hashiro

"I probably won't come home."

Stanley I. Hashiro had a long chaotic journey leaving Japan and arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He travelled from ship, train, and bus, having no clue where his final destination was. Stanley I. Hashiro realizes in this moment of his life that he is in the midst of the war now and probably will not come back home.



Process to Receive an Award

Once Stanley I. Hashiro found his station in Korea, he was assigned his duties while in Korea. He worked on paper work to deliver special awards/decorations to combat soldiers. He reveals even how this had to be done in secret for soldiers who were Prisoners of War, due to their delicate situation.



Moving from Place to Place

Stanley I. Hashiro moved around a lot with his unit in Korea. He had to live in desolate conditions, taking baths in the river, and living in bombed out concrete buildings. Within the desolate mountain valleys was another location that Stanley I. Hashiro had to stay in the extreme weather conditions.



Stanley Jones

Experiencing the Front Lines

Stanley Jones describes the differences he saw between the National Guard and the traditional Army. He shares an experience he had where officers were relieved and chaos and mistreatment ensued. He describes where the ballistic stations were located and a situation of a fuel bur in Busan that happened.



Stephen Frangos

What Did You Do in Korea?

Stephen Frangos, as a 2nd Lieutenant, was a platoon leader of a radio platoon. He describes the radio relay spots in Korea and what his platoon did to keep communications flowing, supporting the ROK army. He talks about the other types of radios they had. He remembers that his troops were all over, near the 38th parallel. He discusses having to fly often due to the remote locations of some of the radio relayers and adds that he survived three flight accidents.



Sterling D. Mestad

Communicating with Pork Chop Hill

Sterling D. Mestad offers his account of the Pork Chop Hill experience on the communications side. He shares that he did not see as much as the men who were on the lines but adds that he was never far from danger. He recounts a soldier right behind him hit in the face suffering a serious wound.



Breaking Ice to Bathe

Sterling D. Mestad recounts bathing experiences during the winter months in Korea. He details having to break ice and heat water and recalls the winter shower point experience which involved a big tent with warm water followed by a clean clothes distribution. He shares that a group of soldiers were headed to the shower point on one occasion and were hit by a mortar.



Steven G. Olmstead

"High Diddle Diddle, Right up the Middle"

Steven Olmstead describes his unit's movement through "Hellfire Alley" on its way to Hagaru. He talks about being engaged by enemy Chinese soldiers and the esprit de corps among the marines in his company. He recalls the actions of Rocco Zullo, the first sergeant in his marine unit, during the movement to Hagaru. He describes Sergeant Zullo's heroic actions which were thought to have led to his death and shares surprising news about the first sergeant.



The Importance of Hagaru

Steven Olmstead describes the importance of three positions that were held during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, including the hill at Hagaru. He emphasizes that the 1st Marine Division would have been annihilated had control of the positions he describes not been maintained. He recounts the retreat of US forces.



"We Were a Team"

Steven Olmstead describes his state of mind on the battlefield. He talks about being too busy to think about food or home while engaged with the enemy. He comments on the winter living conditions and offers his reasoning as to why he and his comrades were able to survive in such a harsh environment. He recounts his unit's withdrawal from the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the significance of the "Star of Kotori", and the sufferings of the Chinese Army.



Stuart Gunn

The Dreaded Capture

Stuart Gunn had a confrontation with the Chinese military at the Battle of Hill 187. The Chinese were very organized. He remembers the moment him and his partners were capture and the pain they all endured. These moments lead to his capture as a Prisoner of War.



Red China: Brainwashing

Stuart Gunn had a very difficult time living in a Chinese POW camp. While at the camp, the Chinese Communist government had educational materials promoting their government for the prisoners that were printed in English. Other POWs at the camp responded to these materials and the mandatory classes in a variety of ways.



Suwan Chinda

Pork Chop Hill

Suwan Chinda recalls his experience at the Battle of Pork Chop Hill. He shares that he was assigned to communications and was sent to repair lines when needed. He remembers receiving orders to repair a line that had been damaged by bombs near the front lines on one particular occasion and recalls members of his team arguing with the officer who assigned them to the job as they were fearful of becoming injured. He shares that he was not scared and was willing to fight. He adds that he sustained no wounds at the battle.



T.J. Martin

Hoengsong Massacre February 1951 (Full Story)

T.J. Martin chronicles the Hoengsong Massacre where he states that approximately 2,400 Americans died. He details the events of the massacre, recalling thousands of Chinese soldiers advancing with hand grenades, rifles, and some even empty-handed, and provides a vivid account of his movements during those two days. He recalls the moments leading up to his capture by the Chinese.



Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya

Bazooka and Never Leave a Man Behind

Taddese Weldmedhen Metaferiya describes his experience in Korea. He was a bazooka shooter. For example, one occurrence almost left him dead when a shell did not fire. Importantly, he describes never leaving a lost soldier behind. The Ethiopians never lost a soldier to Prisoner of War.



Ted Bacha

Remembering the Battles

Ted Bacha remembers what it was like in Daegu, Daejion, Pyongyang, Pusan, and other battles. He explains that his friends got captured, and General Dean was captured as well. He states that they were firing their weapons almost daily.



Ted Kocon

Switching from Foxhole to Airborne

Ted Kocon shares that he joined the Air Force following World War II as he did not enjoy living in a fox hole while in the Army during the war. He recounts receiving his orders to go to Japan in 1952, leaving behind his wife and child. He adds that he was stationed at Brady Field in Japan, served as a crew chief and engine mechanic, and assisted in flying cargo planes carrying troops and supplies to Korea.



Telila Deresa

Heaven to Hell

Telila Deresa describes living conditions during the war. Soldiers would battle for three months and rest for one month. During one rest, he was able to go to Japan. In Japan, men could go to nightclubs. Comparing nightclubs in Japan and going to the front is like heaven and hell.



Tereda Mersha

Wounded in Action

Tereda Mersha describes his arrival on the frontlines and action at Yoke Mountain. His unit lost their commander in the fighting. Tereda Mersha was shot three times and believes he only survived death with the help of Emperor Haile Selassie.



Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen

Service During Armistice

Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes his service that started after the signing of the Armistice. The war was technically over. However, patrolling was very important. Constant observation for lights or fires were reported to commanders for a possible enemy. Tesfaye Asmamau Kewen describes constant climbing of mountains as the toughest part of his service during Armistice.



Teurangaotera Tuhaka

Engaging the North Koreans

Teurangaotera Tuhaka fought the North Koreans. One incident entailed firing on a North Korean supply train. His frigate held a record for firing forty-two times in a minute. He was fired upon by the North Koreans, and to get away, his ship had to zigzag out of the way. He shares how lucky they were to escape.



Patrolling the Han River and Frigate Life

Teurangaotera Tuhaka spent a lot of his service patrolling the Han River (also known as the Hangang River) while receiving support from additional United Nations ships. He had to focus on his job so that he did not have fear while fighting the North Koreans. Conditions were rough at sea because he had to break through ice to get the frigate through the water.



Tex Malcolm

Shallow Graves in Wonju

Tex Malcom discusses his experience in the push off offensive against the Chinese and North Koreans in Wonju. He had an "unsettling" experience as they dug into the hills, and realized they were digging into shallow graves where the North Koreans had buried their dead. During this offensive, supplies were air dropped into a valley.



Arriving at Masan

Tex Malcolm arrived at Masan by train and he assisted other Marine Reserves out of their LST, but they looked terrible. In the city, he only saw fox holes and no buildings. After being assigned to Baker Company, 7th Marines, Tex Malcolm volunteered to shoot the 3.5 guns to protect the command staff.



April 1951 Attacks From the Chinese

On April 23, 1951, Tex Malcolm was protecting another hill when the Chinese were trying to take Charlie Company out. By 2am, the Chinese started to attack his hill and the US Marines were running out of ammunition. Sadly, a Marine right next to Tex Malcolm was shot and killed.



Theodore Paul

Chinese and Napalm in the Chosin Reservoir

Theodore Paul recalls his experience at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He describes it as disturbing and shares memories of seeing napalm dropped. He recounts fighting the Chinese from all directions.



Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas “Tommy” Tahara

Arrival in Korea

Thomas Tahara describes being aboard a ship in the Pusan Harbor for over a week waiting to be called into action in Korea. He recounts seeing dead bodies for the first time and experiencing combat. He speaks of the fear he experienced as an eighteen-year-old while in a combat situation.



Horrors of War (Graphic)

Thomas Tahara shares his experience seeing the use of napalm for the first time. He recounts the horrible effects napalm had on the North Koreans. He describes how he still remembers what he witnessed.



Thomas B. Smith

Bunker Destruction

Thomas B. Smith shares the details of an incident which cost the lives of two American soldiers and wounded others. He recounts Chinese soldiers overshooting their target and hitting a bunker being dug to serve as a warming place during the winter months. He adds that two soldiers were killed; two were wounded; and the other three involved were deeply shaken by the event.



Transfer to Safety in the Back

Thomas B. Smith describes his transfer off the front lines to a safer location in the back. He shares that his section leader who had become his friend helped him secure a typing job. He explains that he merely typed a sheet of paper and was offered the position.



Thomas DiGiovanna

Memories of the Ceasefire

Thomas DiGiovanna recalls his experience when the ceasefire was called, which was one of the most dangerous periods of time he experienced. Instead of carrying their leftover ammunition with them back to base, soldiers were lightening their payloads by shooting off rounds of bullets into the air. Many of these bullets hit objects, and he was almost hit by shrapnel.



Thomas F. Miller

Basic Training and Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller went to basic training in Georgia and then he was shipped to Inchon Harbor to start his tour of duty. After landing, he noticed poor living conditions of the civilians which looked like America in the early 1800s.



Living and Working Conditions in Korea During the 1960s

Thomas Miller was a supply specialist who helped provide clothes, oil, and food rations to the troops. He stayed in quonset huts, had cold showers, and ate a hot meal most of his time in Korea.



Thomas J Dailey

Chosin Reservoir Recollections

Thomas Dailey recalls his arrival in Korea and time spent at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes collecting injured and frozen soldiers and placing them on the back of armored tanks due to the lack of space inside the tanks. He remembers one occasion where he was forced to pull his pistol on a soldier who kept attempting to get inside the tank due to thinking it was warmer.



Thomas LaCroix

Graphic Encounters in the Bay

Thomas LaCroix describes his experience in the United States Navy aboard an aircraft carrier that was guarding ocean bays along the coast of Korea. He explains the task of taking enemy remains to a location that appeared to be quarantined due to the presence of severe illness. The location was in a bay area off the southern coast of Korea. He explains seeing people with sickness, leaving the impression that he likely encountered a leper colony.



Coastal Deployment and Geography

Thomas LaCroix describes his experience in the United States Navy aboard an aircraft carrier that was guarding ocean bays along the coast of Korea. In his recollection, he speaks of the geographical locations where he was stationed early in his naval deployment, which included: San Diego, California-Tarawa Atoll- and Tsingtao, China. Additionally, he recounts the assignment of his aircraft carrier to safely guide pilots who were in trouble to the bay area for pick up by the warship.



Bombing from the Sky

Thomas LaCroix describes his experience in the United States Navy aboard an aircraft carrier that was guarding ocean bays along the coast of Korea. In his recollection, he tells of bombing coming down around the aircraft carrier he was aboard. His description tells of how the bombers claimed that every once in a while they would "take the paint off," in reference to the aircraft carrier.



Thomas Norman Thompson

The Forgotten War

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls seeing small children who were bare feet in the snow as he describes devastation in Korea during the war. He says it seemed that civilians only had the choice of going to the rice paddies or mountains to get away from combat areas. He tells that although a cease-fire was ordered, some people did not realize it, causing him to be ambushed a few times as he attempted to make his deliveries. He tells why the Korean War is the forgotten war.



Laundry on the War Front

Thomas Norman Thompson recalls the winter conditions faced by men on the Korean war front. He tells that after he washed his socks in the cold river, he had to put them in his underarms, using his body heat to dry the socks. He remembers that Korean women would do laundry for the entire company he was in. Additionally, he would pay $1.00 for the women to clean and press his uniform. He tells of how much gratitude the Korean people continue to show American veterans.



Thomas Nuzzo

The Forgotten War

Thomas Nuzzo felt that the Korean War was the forgotten war. Since it was so close to the end of WWII, the civilians in the United States didn't want to fight. Soldiers didn't even have supplies that they needed, so this hurt the moral.



Fighting With and Training the ROK

Thomas Nuzzo went to bootcamp and specialized as an infantryman. Once he was sent to Korea, he was stationed with the 1st Republic of Korea (ROK) to train the South Korean troops. By the end of his time in Korea in 1954, Thomas Nuzzo was able to participate in a changing of the guard for the 10th Headquarters which made him very proud.



Thomas O’Dell

Using DDT to Cook in Korea

Thomas O'Dell used DDT for killing insects including gnats and fleas. He even used DDT for cooking C-rations by adding it to his fire in the trenches to warm he food. Hot water for baths were also warmed over a DDT-created fire.



Chinese Propaganda Leaflets and Speeches

Thomas O'Dell fought against the Chinese and North Koreans. There was propaganda slogans broadcast over loudspeakers throughout the night to try to brainwash the US troops. Leaflets were shot over the trenches by the Chinese to convince the US troops to surrender or to switch to the Chinese's side.



Fighting the Chinese While Eating Kimchi

Thomas O'Dell was told not to shoot the Chinese, so he fought hand-to-hand combat against a a soldier with a sword. While fighting on the frontlines, he received food from the South Korean soldiers who were stationed with him. Still to this day, Thomas O'Dell makes fresh kimchi just like he was fed in the trenches by his allies.



No Fear and The Invincibility of Thomas O'Dell as a Fifteen Year Old in the Korean War

Thomas O'Dell was not scared during the Korean War because he was only fifteen years old and he felt invincible. During the Battle of Pork Chop Hill, as he was dug in the trenches, Corporal Thomas O'Dell was confronted with his commander with his birth certificate. He was caught being a fifteen year old in the Korean War, but he was able to sneak back into another battle during the mayhem.



Thomas Parkinson

Korea: Unbelievable Differences Between 1952 to 2000

Thomas Parkinson shares how he saw unbelievable differences between the time he was stationed in Korea in 1952 to 2000 during his first revisit. He describes going back four times since 2000 and recalls how the advancements in buildings, technology, and bridges was astounding. He shares how the changes from the Korean cardboard houses to the multi-stored houses was a visible difference.



Fighting and Living in Korea From 1952-1953

Thomas Parkinson recalls fighting from the Kansas Line and the Jamestown Line while in Korea from 1952-1953. He remembers eating American C-Rations, sleeping in trenches, and writing letters home to his mom along with pen pals from England.



The Korean War Yielded the Most Difficult and Rewarding Moments

Thomas Parkinson shares that his most difficult time was when a Jeep landed on his legs with petrol and napalm spilling around him. He recalls how, even though it was such a scary time, he will never forget the Indian regiment that helped him recover in a field ambulance. He shares that the most rewarding moment was related to helping the Korean children in and out of Seoul and the surrounding cities.



Thomas Tsuda

Journey to Korea

Thomas Tsuda recalls his journey to Korea and landing in Incheon in September of 1952. He speaks of the destruction he witnessed and shares that he felt sorry for the Korean people. He adds that he soon found himself on the front lines fighting the Chinese.



Typical Day on the Front Lines

Thomas Tsuda remembers what it was like fighting on the front lines. He comments on the cold temperatures he and other fellow soldiers experienced and shares that most of the fighting took place at night. He recalls resting, sleeping, and writing letters during the day while there was little action taking place. He speaks of the wounds he sustained on the front lines and shares his pride in serving to prevent the spread of Communism.



On the Line during the Ceasefire

Thomas Tsuda recalls where he was at the time of the ceasefire. He remembers being on the front line and seeing Chinese soldiers waving white flags. He explains that he and fellow soldiers were hesitant at first to greet them but shares that they slowly began to talk to them and shake hands. He adds that held no anger towards the Chinese as they were merely doing their job like he was. He expresses his pride in serving his country.



Thomas W. Stevens

Black Tuesday

Thomas Stevens describes Black Tuesday, a time when the U.S. Air Force lost multiple B29s flying missions over North Korea due to the newly introduced Russian MiG 15, jet propelled and faster than the P-51 Mustang escorts. He attributes this to the superiority of the MiG-15's speed. Thomas Stevens says that after Black Tuesday, the U.S. Air Command, under Curtis Lamay decreed that there would be no more daylight missions to North Korea.



Bombing Raids over North Korea

Thomas Stevens describes bombing raids over North Korea. All of the bombing missions were done at night, and had to use triangulation of an electronic arc. He describes the targets as belligerent stockpiles and bridges. Thomas Stevens describes the bombing missions as difficult, because of dropping bombs from 26,000 feet and trying to hit a small target. These bombing missions were far into North Korea and at times the planes went into Chinese airspace.



Hot Cold War to Driving Off in the Sunset

Thomas Stevens describes the military aircraft advances from B-29's, a WWII aircraft which had limited distance, to B-50's that could be air-refueled and travel to the Soviet Union if needed. He describes his training to load atomic bombs on planes in case the U.S. wanted to drop one on the Soviet Union. Air advances, like the B-47 made Thomas Stevens obsolete without more training. This led Thomas Stevens to be discharged from the Air Force.



Tom Collier

Hill 355 and Military Life

Tom Collier describes the fighting at Hill 355 and said many New Zealand soldiers died in the battle. He was never in imminent danger, but there was a constant threat from Chinese artillery. Tom Collier also fondly recollects a South Korean houseboy who was about fourteen years old that completed chores such as laundry and Tom Collier said the boy lost all his money gambling. He looked for the houseboy upon return to South Korea, but could not find him.



Pusan and Seoul Living Conditions

Tom Collier describes a rough trip to Pusan by ship and overall conditions of the people. People would make houses of anything they could, mostly tin and cardboard. The people did not know English and lived in poverty. Tom Collier then transferred to Seoul and describes the conditions of the people as similar to Pusan.



Contemporary Seoul

Tom Collier returned to South Korea in 2004 and was amazed at the different place Seoul had become. He tried to locate landmarks from his days fighting in Korea and could find nothing that was similar because of the transformation. Tom Collier is also proud of his service and how South Korea has turned out.



Tom Muller

Not M*A*S*H

Tom Muller describes life on the front lines and compares this to the TV show M*A*S*H*. He likes the show, but disagrees with the drama and the antics of the show. He describes having a potbelly stove that was adequate up to 10 feet away. He goes further and describes the South Korean people, scrawny and begging for food near Busan.



Tommy Clough

Chinese Enter and Refugee Recollections

Tommy Clough remembers advancing with his unit up to Pyongyang and within sight of the Yalu River. He shares that he and fellow soldiers began to wonder what was going on when they say American soldiers and Korean refugees coming back rather than advancing. He recounts how the Chinese had entered the war and crossed the Yalu River, forcing the Americans to retreat and causing the Korean civilians to flee. He comments on the poor conditions of the refugees.



Transporting a Wounded Chinese Soldier

Tommy Clough offers an account of transporting a wounded Chinese soldier. He recalls his unit's location at Hill 327 and remembers that a moaning noise was identified coming from no man's land. He recounts that they were cautious at first as they thought it might be a trap but shares that the moaning was coming from a wounded Chinese soldier. He details having to transport the wounded soldier to receive medical treatment and shares how he convinced the driver to continue the journey rather than killing the wounded soldier on the way.



Napalm Usage

Tommy Clough recounts the usage of napalm during the war. He recalls one particular battle where United States forces dropped napalm on a nearby hill covered with Chinese soldiers. He offers a historical tidbit on when napalm was developed and shares how it was a terrible explosion to witness. He admits that he can still hear the screams and smell burnt flesh despite how many years have passed.



Value of Life

Tommy Clough chronicles the lead-up to his capture. He details catching up to his assigned officer and advancing towards a hill only to find Chinese soldiers looking down at them with a machine gun. He recalls that he lifted his rifle on instinct and shot one of the Chinese soldiers. He shares that after he and fellow soldiers reached the other side of the hill, they were surrounded by the Chinese. He recounts being taken to the spot where the soldier he had shot earlier lay and of how little the Chinese seemed to value life.



Tony and Tom Bazouska

Fear of Losing a Brother (Graphic)

Tony and Tom Bazouska share a battle story where they were both serving as medics in the same company. They recount being on opposite sides of a hill, unable to see each other on that particular day. They recall that Tom's side was being shelled heavily, blowing three men, including Tom, over the hill to their assumed death. They remember Tony being ordered over to help as the medic (Tom) was believed dead. They recall the scene where they found each other amid the chaos.



Medical Success Story (Graphic)

Tony and Tom Bazouska detail saving the life of a fellow soldier. They recount the graphic state of the soldier who had been severely wounded and was bleeding profusely. They recall performing a tracheotomy on him and supplying multiple limbs with blood. They share that they both feel the initial shelling incident that brought them back together on the battlefield was the reason the soldier survived as it took two of them to tend to his wounds. They recount that they were contacted by the soldier years later and feel it was a proud moment during their service.



Medic Identification and Weapons

Tony and Tom Bazouska explain that medics carried little to no identification while serving out on the front lines. They share that killing a medic would demoralize the unit, so all they carried in terms of ID was their Geneva Convention Cards. They add that when they became medics they were both given a M2 automatic carbine and a .45 pistol as they needed the ability to react quickly if in danger and to return to work.



Panic Jumping from a Airplane

Tony and Tom Bazouska describe what it was like jumping from an airplane as part of the airborne division. They recall the panic and fear involved but elaborate on they high they received from the experience. They detail the procedure, the sights they saw from above, and the dangers involved.



Tony Espino

Inchon Landing

Tony Espino describes his experience as a United States Marine during the Inchon Landing. He shares it is a date he will never forget and speaks of his boat ride towards Red Beach. He recalls the fear he experienced as the boat grew closer to the beach and comments on the casualty numbers.



Battle of Chosin Reservoir

Tony Espino comments on his experience as a United States Marine during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He recalls his company digging in at a canyon and not being able to utilize mortars or flares against the Chinese as a strategy to keep their positions hidden. He remembers a significant number of Chinese soldiers pouring through the canyon.



Tony White

Cease Fire

Tony White discussed how hostilities continued after there was a cease fire and the process of laying mines. They could not see Chinese soldiers during the day with planes, but knew they were there because of gunfire at night. He laid explosives at one point in a big pit and saw a lot of the land collapse around it and realized The Chinese were hiding in tunnels during the day.



Trygve Jensen

Why Korea?

Trygve Jensen explains why he chose to go to an active war from his peaceful service in the Norwegian Army occupying Germany. At the time, he thought the experience treating wounded patients would be good for his paramedic career. He arrived during the final three months of the war and assisted with surgeries.



A Memorable Patient

Trygve Jensen describes one memorable patient who was severely wounded when his artillery gun exploded killing 7 of the 8 soldiers working it. The soldier had lost his hands and his legs. The paramedic on site used a flamethrower to cauterize his wounds and save his life. Later, the wounded soldier sent the unit a picture of himself back home with prosthetic legs.



Tsege Cherenet Degn

Impressions of Korea on Arrival

Tsege Cherenet Degn arrived in Korea in September of 1954. He comments on how empty and devoid of plants and green his post was near the DMZ. Even though the war was over, he was not sure peace would continue and was on constant alert.



Vartkess Tarbassian

First Impressions of Korea near Busan (Pusan Perimeter)

Vartkess Tarbassian was surprised when he saw the devastation in the Pusan Perimeter (Busan). There were shell holes from the mortars all across the land. Korean civilians were staving and missing shelter.



Welcome to Your Duty Station

After arriving in Korea in 1953, Vartkess Tarbassian was stationed in the Iron Triangle. He had to live in a foxhole to protect the area from the North Koreans. After surviving the cold and terrain, Vartkess Tarbassian was sent home in November 1954.



Veli Atasoy

Battle of Kunu-ri

Veli Atasoy describes the fighting conditions at the Battle of Kunu-ri. There were many casualties of the Turkish troops and to evacuate, therefore approximately twenty five men were needed per Jeep. The person in command took a wrong turn into harm's way. The Chinese had surrounded the entire area and eventually killed many Americans, but spared Veli Atasoy and many of his fellow Turkish troops. After that the men walked under armed escort to Pyoktong, near the Chinese-North Korean border.



Vern Rubey

Supporting Infantry behind the Front Lines

Vern Rubey comments on his branch change from infantry to artillery which he was pleased with and recalls landing at Incheon. He describes the role of the service battery that he was assigned to as a First Sergeant in the Army. He shares memories of the scenery he saw while traveling throughout Korea supporting differing artillery units.



Vernon Walden

Life as one of the first soldiers in the Korean War

Vernon Waldon was exposed to the elements of weather, lack of food, and limited supply of ammunition. He explains what it was like to be one of the first soldiers in Korea, including hills, muddy roads, and rough terrain were all around the soldiers. He remembers a night of shooting a plane from North Korea.



Fighting Through the Winter of 1950

Vernon Walden was only seven miles from China's border when General MacArthur wanted to invade, but he was told to pull his troops back. Vernon Waldon explains that when his regiment began to retreat in 40 below zero weather, gas began to run out along with food and ammunition. He describes how snow blindness was a condition that troops had to deal with while traveling on foot with snow up their knees.



Victor Burdette Spaulding

Armistice Ceasefire

Victor Spaulding details the lead-up to the Armistice ceasefire. He recalls the immense shelling taking place on Heartbreak Ridge for four days prior to 10PM on July 27, 1953. He recounts the uncanniness of deafening silence from both sides at the exact time planned. He comments on the fear of wondering whether or not the enemy would honor the ceasefire agreement.



Victor D. Freudenberger

Not Just Fighting but Surviving

Victor Freudenberger talks about the role every Marine played during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir--working during the day and fighting at night. He describes how exhaustion set in after a couple of days and remembers a nap in which he awoke to find that captured mortars had been thrown into his tent by the Chinese. He remembers that the pins of the mortars had not been pulled out and laughs about simply returning to his nap.



Vincent A. Bentz

Enemy Tactics

Vincent Bentz explains the company that he was in and his responsibilities. He speaks about seeing the results of a mass execution near Taejon (Daejeon). He also describes the attack tactics used by the enemy



Learning to Kill

Vincent Bentz describes being in combat near the Kum (Geumgang) River and doing what he "had to do". He explains how the rows of weapons were set up and how the rows just kept coming. He shares what he was thinking during that time, including how it is hard to shoot someone during that time and how it still bothers him.



Scavenging for Fresh Food

Vincent Bentz describes how soldiers got food to eat other than the issued C-Rations. He remembers catching chickens and cooking them. He explains how he lost weight because they were not eating regularly.



KIll or Be Killed

Vincent Bentz talks about the resistance they experienced. He remembers being attacked by young children and having to defend himself. He also shares how he honors his buddies who never returned



Vincent Ariola

The Tank on the Front-lines

Vincent Ariola remembers that South Korean soldiers were present in camps with American soldiers, but not brought north with tanks to prevent them from getting killed by American soldiers who could confuse them with the enemy. He describes fighting against forces atop Hill 266, at the Battle of Old Baldy. He remembers seeing a young American soldier in a foxhole before closing the tank hatch when firing broke out, and then seeing the same soldier dead after the firing stopped. His recollection includes his description of the hot atmosphere inside the tank.



Revisiting Life in a Tank

Vincent Ariola describes his reasons for not wanting to go back to visit South Korea. He explains that although he spent many hours in his tank, he did not sleep in it, but tanker operators slept in tents. He describes his experiences with having guard duty very often and being very tired from not being relieved. He further explains that artillery came very close to his tank and to his astonishment, he was never hit.



The Loneliness of Warfare

Vincent Ariola recalls that due to the isolated nature of serving in a tank, during the Korean War he did not learn names of fellow servicemen other than for functional purposes of doing his job. He remembers that his primary feeling during the war was the feeling of being alone. He describes why he did not take time to tell his family about his Korean War experiences. He tells of his son never opening up to his own warfare experiences in Somalia in the same way, and reflects on the American losses during the Korean War.



A New Beginning

Vincent Ariola reflects on his difficulty forgetting things he encountered during his time serving in the Korean War. He calls the experience of being drafted a new beginning and describes why he believes it is. He description paints a picture of what life is like for a young man who is drafted and has never been away from home.



Virbel Trotter

Fear of the Frontline

Virbel Trotter responses to a question about whether or not he was nervous heading to Korea. He explains that it was an unknown to him. The people who trained him at served in Korea at the early part of the war and shared stories about how rough it was.



Job During the War

Virbel Trotter explains what his job was during the war. He explains that they were a support group that had to ensure the front lines had the supplies that they needed. He remembers it being somewhat dangerous because of mortar fire.



"Get Through and Get Out"

Virbel Trotter was attacked by mortal 2-3 times during the war. He describes how you would need to get into a ditch to try to get away from it. He remembers thinking wanting to “get through and get out.”



Virgil Malone

Life in Daegu During the Korean War

This clip shows primary source pictures that Vigil Malone took in Daegu, South Korea. The pictures illustrate living and working conditions of the South Koreans in Daegu. The primary sources touch upon the economic disparity among South Koreans during the war; some lived in farmhouses, while others lived in huts.



Air Policeman

Virgil Malone was sent to Lackland Air Force Base for basic training. He went to Florida to get training to become a Air Policeman. It's the Air Force's version of the military police. When he was in Daegu, he was attached to the 5th Division to guard the headquarters, but nothing near the front lines. Later on, he was moved to Seoul after the headquarters moved there.



A Typical Day of an Air Policeman

Virgil Malone's typical day in Daegu included riding shotgun to protect the military vehicles. There was guerilla warfare activity along all the roads. There were 3 shifts on post to protect the 5th headquarters.



Walter Kreider Jr.

Landing in Korea and Military Entry

Walter Kreider Jr. recounts landing in Korea. He shares that he was greeted by soldiers waiting to return home and recalls how they shouted words in an effort to frighten the arriving soldiers. He details riding a train up to the front lines near Panmunjeom. He backtracks and describes how he was drafted and his placement in artillery.



Warren Housten Thomas

Fighting in the Punch Bowl

Warren Thomas was stationed in the "Punch Bowl" which was an area in Korea surrounded by hills and mountains. The Punch Bowl is an area south of the 38th parallel in the Gangwon Province. In between the mountains, drifts were 20 feet high which made it difficult to travel using his tractor.



Hearing Trouble

Warren Thomas was affected by the artillery fire since it was so loud that it hurt his hearing. Airplanes flying over and mortars were going off all the time, but none of the soldiers received ear plugs. These are the reasons Warren Thomas believes he has hearing loss.



Warren Middlekauf

The Significance of the 52nd Ordnance Ammunition Company

Warren Middlekauf's ship landed in Incheon in Jan. 1953 after a long trip. After loading a train to Pusan, he dropped off supplies and traveled to Taegu. While driving his truck, filled with ammunition, Warren Middlekauf went to Osan to unload boxes of weapons to supply Yongjong.



School, Letters, and the Excitement of the Armistice

Warren Middlekauf's military base was located near a Korean school that continued through the war. During the armistice of 1953, he was in Korea and was excited to send the US soldiers home. Throughout his time in the war, Warren Middlekauf wrote letters to his wife along with money to save for after the war.



Warren Ramsey

Air Transport Duties and Making Connections With the Injured Soldiers in Flight

Warren Ramsey started serving at Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii in 1949. Before the Korean War started, he would service and repair air planes. Once the war began, he deliver supplies and troops from Hawaii while pulling out the injured United States soldiers.



A Quiet, Ignored, Forgotten War

Warren Ramsey was stationed in Germany from 1952-1955 when the Korean War ended. He considered it a quiet war because United States civilians were not informed through mass media about the Korean War since WWII just ended 5 years before the war started. Since Warren Ramsey fought in both the Korean War and the Vietnam War, he was able to compare the experiences of soldiers coming home from war. He was ignored for one and called "Baby Killer" after the other war.



Wayne Mitchell

Life in an Artillery Unit

Wayne Mitchell recalls his experiences in an artillery battalion stationed roughly three to five miles behind the front line. His unit had hot food and beds every night during the war- a privilege that not many soldiers in the war had. In his unit, many Americans worked side-by side with Koreans in jobs that ranged from manning the artillery guns to cooking in the kitchen. He goes on to describe the cold weather and living in tents.



On-the-run from 100,000 North Koreans

Wayne Mitchell explains that his artillery unit served in over four major battles toward the end of the Korean War, one of them was at the Chorwon Valley. He describes the night 100,000 North Koreans pushed through the valley and his unit was forced to leave behind their artillery and retreat. Wayne Mitchell remembers that not all of his comrades in his unit were lucky enough to make it back - some were taken as POW's or killed.



Wendell Murphy

Iron Triangle, Pork Chop Hill, Heartbreak Ridge

Wendell Murphy tells of his participation in several famous battles. On Sept 19, 1951 at Heartbreak Ridge he was hit by a land mine. It killed the Sergeant and Corporal in front of him; he was hit in the legs, ribs and head. He was only 18 years old, injured and unable to move. He hid to avoid being captured by Chinese.



Fighting the Chinese

He describes being in trenches, explaining that he was as close as 300 yards from the enemy. He describes how beautiful the mountains were, but all the trees were full of gunshot. He describes how the Chinese would come by the thousands, and describes a night at Heartbreak Ridge when about 60 men were killed, mainly by rifle fire, in September 1951.



Wilfred Lack

Big Prison Break

Wilfred Lack describes the big prisoner break in 1953, that resulted in the escape of over 600 Korean prisoners. Wilfred Lack suspects that there was cooperation between the prisoners and Korean guards that resulted in the loss of 80% of the prison population.



Prisioner Exchange Mode

Wilfred Lack describes his role during the cease-fire. Working with other soldiers, he rode in helicopters to exchange many Korean prisoners for American prisoners. During this time Wilfred Lack was able to see the true beauty of Korea and was fascinated by the land and tides of the sea.



William “Bill” F. Beasley

Up To My Knees In Mud

William "Bill" Beasley describes his Unit arriving in Inchon in September 1950. He describes the troublesome deboarding of the Amtrak due to his equipment. He describes that because of the weight instead of just getting mud on his feet like the others when he jumped off, he sank into the mud up to his knees. He describes three unknown men that helped him get to the shore.



Did Taking My Shoes Off Stop the Pain? Frostbite.

William "Bill" Beasley describes the suffering and cold at the Chosin Reservoir. He describes that it was so cold that if he stopped crystals would form on his feet. He recalls being told since he couldn't feel his feet to remove his boots and socks while on a listing post, which resulted in him getting severe frostbite.



William Alli

Land of the Morning Calm

William Alli describes his arrival to Korea at Busan. As he was leaving the ship, there was a morning calm that quickly disappeared with a horrible stench, people in rags, and the anxiety of not knowing what comes next. He describes travelling deeper into Korea by trains and trucks, and his realization of his being a part of the sixth replacement draft. He describes his experience with being a machine gun ammo carrier and his first encounters with tracers and sniper fire from the surrounding hills.



In the Midst of Combat

William Alli explains the details of getting sick while in a fox hole. After his recovery, he went back to the line to face combat with North Korean and Chinese enemy fire as a part of the stretcher crew, carrying bodies of the wounded out of the combat area. He describes having to find his way to safety in the dark, with only the light of flares that were being dropped by planes from above.



Raining Flares and Mistaken Identity

William Alli describes his experience with retreating a major combat zone. He recalls helping his foxhole buddy who was wounded in combat. He further describes a unique experience in Korea where he reconnected with his father's cousin, who was fighting as a part of the United Nations forces with the Turkish troops. While on route to visit his cousin, he was mistaken for a Communist spy. He describes how he was arrested and had to get out of this situation.



William Arnaiz

A "Typical" Day

When asked to describe a typical day or battle he remembers, William Arnaiz describes how most people carried weapons even when they were delivering messages and picking up packets. He remembers times when they were under heavy fire and other times when they had to rebuild the bunkers. He describes how the North Koreans did a blanket raid on a barrack that was typically full of men showering-- it was only because the pipes had froze that many lives were saved that day.



Under Siege

William Arnaiz remembers a time when they all got alerted there was to be a mass attempt to overrun the "Punchbowl". During this time, he was assigned to a self propelled vehicle with Quad 50 machine guns. All remained on heavy alert for a 54 hour siege, but it ended up being a small skirmish fortunately.



William Beals

Stuck in the Mud

William Beals explains what happened when they landed in Incheon. The first thing that he noticed was the Union Pacific switch train and then a house that had been destroyed. He explains how they then moved to a hospital tent in a muddy, freezing area.



William Burns

Catch Them if You Can!

William Burns never captured any Chinese soldiers while fighting in Korea. There was an incentive program created by the armed forces to capture the enemy to earn additional Rest and Relaxation (R & R) time in Japan. Even though he didn't earn any additional R & R, William Burns did receive one rotation to Japan for time away from the front lines.



Conditions in the Korean War

It was trench warfare in 1952 and it was hit or miss fighting because the Chinese were very savage. The United States fire power is what saved William Burns' troops. The soldiers slept in the ground during the winter and it was just as cold as New York because it was not as bad as the winters of 1950-1951. Hill 1062 was a huge hill that was located near William Burns' trench and the Chinese had hospitals built into the hill along with military weapons.



US Soldiers Fighting Along Side KATUSA

William Burns worked with many KATUSA and Korean civilians during his 11 months in Korea during the war. The Koreans who worked with the US troops worked hard, but had a difficulty with communication. William Burns showed personal pictures of two KATUSA that he worked closely with during the war, but he remembers about 10-15 were stationed with this regiment.



William C. “Bill” Coe

Landing in Pusan

William Coe explains that he left for Korea from Japan on the July 1, 1950. He shares that they took a C-54 with Company B. He was remembers that they got right on a train and that they were ready to “fight” and tried not to be afraid. not to be afraid.



Famous Task Force Smith

William Coe was a member of the famous “Task Force Smith.” He explains why the group was so well-known and important. He gives some details about what happened during that time, including taking a Russian vehicle.



Battle of Osan and Interaction with North Koreans

William Coe remembers his experiences at Osan with the North Koreans. He would have to shoot many North Koreans that were attacking, and he lost a lot of his friends during this battle. He was very lucky as a radio operator because he was not really hit.



Nakdonggang River Battles

During the Nakdonggang River Battles, William Coe remembers that he was supposed to fight with an all-African American regiment and a South Korean regiment, but they retreated. William Co shares that he put tanks on the hill to shoot the North Koreans, but his regiment had to fall back to prevent them from being captured. He thought that they were losing at the time and the war didn’t look good for the Americans.



Fighting the Chinese Up to the Yalu River

William Coe’s company fought the Chinese all the way up to the Yalu River. He describes the scene at the time, explaining that the North Koreans didn't take any prisoners, so either did the US. William Coe recalls a time when he had to blow up many US supplies so that the Chinese wouldn't use them against him.



William D. Freeman

Hoengsong Massacre

William Freeman describes a little known event during the Korean War, the Hoengsong Massacre. He recalls his capture as a Prisoner of War (POW). He describes the details of the event as well as his project archiving the experiences of the American soldiers captured there.



Recaptured as a POW

William Freeman details his experiences being recaptured as a POW after his release in Panmunjeom. He recalls the rough march to the camp and being buried alive after US forces blew up the camp. He discusses the differences in treatment by Chinese soldiers versus North Korean soldiers, describing the North Koreans as being the most brutal.



Life at Camp One

William Freeman elaborates on his experience as a prisoner of war at Camp One. He shares that Camp One was managed by Chinese soldiers. He explains how he purposely acted "crazy" at the camp because the Chinese would treat him better due to their superstitions of people with mental illnesses. He recalls acquiring roughly forty-two dozen eggs over a period of one and a half years which helped keep him and his comrades alive.



William Duffy

What was it like in Korea?

William Duffy shares what it was like in Korea. He recalls it being freezing cold, calling it "the coldest place on Earth." He talks about his day-to-day duties and cites water being very difficult to find. He also recalls filling sand bags at his bunker with snow. Once the weather warmed, he recounts losing all protection in his bunker.



A Episode to Remember

Wiliam Duffy talks about a time when he went to NCO (non-commissioned officer) school. He shares how the experience was like a different world from the front lines. It had warm food, barbershops, showers, a pub, etc. While there, he recalls how his officer offered him multiple drinks. He shares that he suspected there was some bad news and learned that his squad was attacked. He recounts how only four of the twelve men survived.



What were living conditions like?

William Duffy recalls his life on the frontlines. He remembers living in bunkers, which was basically a hole in the ground. He recalls cutting down a lot of trees to get material to build structures. He also remembers not wanting to be at the bottom of a hill when it rained because the bunker would fill with water.



William Dumas

Wounded for the First Time

William Dumas describes the first time he was wounded in Seoul. He shares the lasting effects of the shrapnel still in his body. He shares his experiences working for General Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller.



Retreat from the Chosin Reservoir

William Dumas describes his temporary attached duty. He describes his experiences during the retreat from the Chosin Reservoir. He explains the work of the Seabees to rebuild a bridge that facilitated the withdrawal.



Loss of a Friend

William Dumas describes his second injury in 1951. He describes the incident in Korea and losing his radioman. He describes how difficult it was.



William F. Honaman

First Experience with Death

William Honaman describes what his living conditions were like when he first encountered the death of other soldiers. He explains that he was encamped in ditches surrounded by barbed wire with only one entrance from the back. He recalls how homemade alarms were fashioned out of empty beer cans filled with rocks. He remembers the entrance was adorned with the bodies of the dead who had tried to get in.



Purple Hearts

William Honaman describes earning his first Purple Heart after being wounded during a patrol. He explains that the point man he was accompanying stepped on a land mine, losing his leg but not his life in the process. He recalls wearing an armored vest at the time, but had unzipped it due to the heat, an action that allowed the shrapnel to pierce his chest. He describes receiving his second Purple Heart in June of 1953 after five grenades exploded around him.



Arriving in Korea

William Honaman describes his long route to Busan, Korea, from the United States. He remembers arriving in Busan and it being full of military personnel. He describes being herded to the trains and not remembering much of Busan. He recalls eventually arriving at the front line across from the Freedom Bridge. He notes his first impression of Korea in 1953 was of war and lots of devastation.



William Gortney

Gortney's involvement at the beginning of Korean War

William Gortney was on the carrie, the Valley Forge, when the Korean War broke out. His plane was one of the first Navy jets in combat and the second plane to cross the 38th parallel at the beginning of the Korean War. He saw combat very early in the war at Pyungyang.



The Importance of Airpower

Captain William Gortney's mission was to anything moving south in order to protect UN ground forces. He performed low attacks with little air battles with the North Koreans and Chinese. He is able to explain how important the airpower was during the war.



Inchon Landing

William Gortney's first mission was to take out oil tanks at the Inchon air field before the Inchon landing started. During the landing, William Gortney provided air cover for soldiers who were landing. He explains that the biggest problem in that area was the tides.



Life on a Korean War Carrier

William Gortney explains what life was like on the aircraft carrier. He shares that they used a straight deck in order to land on the carrier, which varies from how it is done today. There were 5 barrier cables that were used to catch planes that missed the deck hook.



William Herold

Inchon Landing & Seoul Recapture

William Herold describes landing in Inchon around amid Korea's heavy rain. He recounts having to wait the night out by himself until daylight when his company could regroup. He adds that there was little resistance other than sniper fire. He explains that he did not have a chance to really look around Inchon as he and his platoon members had no opportunity to get out. William Herold describes the march to Seoul following the Inchon Landing, adding that there was resistance.



Wounded at the Chosin Reservoir

William Herold recounts his Thanksgiving meal experience before heading up into the mountains of the Chosin Reservoir. He describes being outnumbered by the Chinese 36 to 1 and a fire fight commencing. He remembers silence that followed except for one round sounding out, adding that it was the round which wounded his right leg. He recalls being transported via jeep out of the mountains and eventually to the hospital ship, Consolation.



Living Among the Cold and Bullets

William Herold shares his experiences with the freezing cold of Korea. He describes keeping his shoes in his sleeping bag in order for them to keep from freezing and adds that one's urination was ice by the time it hit the ground. He explains how war made one reckless and offers a relating story of a WWII veteran who removed his helmet and was momentarily shot in the head. He recounts the changes he experienced in weight due to lack of food.



William J. Leber

On the Move

William J. Leber discusses the movements that occurred during his time in Korea. He recalls moving to Kelly Hill, Porkchop Hill as well as others. He recalls carrying drums of gas up hills for other soldiers.



Dangerous Moments

William J. Leber discusses some dangerous moments during his time in Korea. He recalls the difficulties with guard duty at night and the sounds of incoming artillery.



William Jacque

Guarding A Truck Under Chinese Fire

William Jacque details a supply route mishap while on a truck carrying ammunition. He recounts the route being under fire by the Chinese and describes his truck hitting a hole and tipping over. He shares that he was forced to guard the truck until a wrecker could recover it, and he adds that he hitchhiked a ride back to his unit.



Talking to the Dead

William Jacque recounts his experience at a M.A.S.H. (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) after sustaining a shoulder and hip injury. He describes waking up to use the restroom and tripping over a person on the way. He shares that he felt so badly about the incident that he spent the next 2 hours talking to the soldier only to find out that the unidentified man was deceased when morning came.



William MacSwain

Horrors of War

William MacSwain describes some of the horrors of war experiences. He portrays a vivid image of scenes of war that illustrate the hardships Korean War soldiers faced. These first-hand accounts show the fear in every soldiers' mind.



William McLaughlin

Events in Korea

William McLaughlin discusses his responsibilities while in Korea as well as his training. He also discusses some dangerous events, including when two drunk Korean soldiers stole a cab and were eventually killed by his brigade. A Korean newspaper, though, called it a suicide. This made him question what he was reading in the newspapers. He also witnessed the Rangoon bombing in October of 1983. He recounts his experience.



William O’Kane

Arrival in Korea in 1952

William O'Kane arrived in Korean in 1952 at Sokcho-Ri. He was assigned his job as a wireman with Head Quarters Company 2nd Battalion 11th Marines. He remembers a lot about the conditions in Korea when he arrived and the conditions of the villages.



Interaction with Korean Marine Corps and Anzacs

William O'Kane worked with a seventeen year old Korean interpreter for his battery group. The Korean Marine Corps were tough and they worked on the left side of William O'Kane's regiment. He also fought along side with the Commonwealth Division of New Zealand (Anzacs/Australians) and had fun sharing stories about politics.



Volunteering After WWII

William O'Kane volunteered for the Marine Corps because his brother was in the military along with many of his friends. While in bootcamp at Camp Pendleton, SC, he read about the war and followed it because many people he knew were involved in the war. He said that since he was so young when he enlisted, he felt that he was invincible.



William Puls

Trench War and Stretcher Duty

William Puls describes his experience on trench patrol during the last part of the Korean War just before the Armistice. He describes fighting from a position at an outpost, then having to pick up dead bodies from the trenches, which were about three-hundred yards away. He shares the repercussions of having to fire massive amounts of ammunition during the fighting.



Nightwatchman and No Bath

William Puls describes arriving in Korea, and recalls a number of soldiers who were sick from the journey at sea. He tells of the landing at Incheon, and being transported to the front on Christmas Hill. He describes the circumstances of fighting for twenty-one consecutive days without being able to stop to shower because of the intensity. His references are in reflection of the fighting shortly before the Armistice.



William Watson

On the Hunt for Enemy Submarines

William Watson recalls his speciality as a boatswain's mate aboard the USS Philip during the Korean War. He elaborates on the destroyer's mission to locate enemy submarines. He shares that several enemy submarines were encountered during his service but that none were ever fired upon.



William Weber

Forgotten and Unknown War

William Weber quantitatively compares the Korean War to other twentieth century wars. He comments on the personnel utilized during the war and shares that this information and these statistics are largely lost in American history. He elaborates on the need for an additional Wall of Remembrance for Korean War veterans on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.



William Whitley

Inchon Landing and Whitley's Job in Military

Whitley was supposed to be sent to Japan, but his orders were changed to Korea at the last minute. On Sept. 15, 1950, Whitley participated in the Inchon Landing. Even though Whitley went through a training to become an engineer, his job was switched to NCO.



Additional Information About the Inchon Landing

Whitely took an LST to get from his ship to the shore since the harbor was so shallow. No one that he knew was killed during the landing, but his close friend died near their base when he drown in water near his base.



Willis Remus

Captured

Willis Remus describes how he and his whole platoon were captured by the North Koreans and marched to Chongsong. He said they were captured without a fight because they were sleeping and surrounded when they woke up.



Basic Training

Willis Remus describes how he was trained to be a combat engineer during his time in basic training, but once he arrived overseas in Pusan, he became part of Headquarters Company instead.



Willis Verch

Overnight Flights

Willis Verch describes the round trip flights made by the Royal Canadian Air Force from McChord Air Force Base in Tacoma, Washington, to Haneda Air Force Base in Japan. The flights were made to transport American cargo and troops to Japan, so they could be taken to Korea on the war front. He uses a map to show the stopping points in the Aleutian Islands, and the locations of all airports that were used to accomplish the transport missions.



Yilma Belachew

Ethiopian Kagnew Soldiers

Yilma Belachew describes the Ethiopian soldiers' experience. He identifies that no Ethiopian soldier became a POW and that the soldier must sacrifice their life. Therefore, men who were injured would continue to fight even when seriously injured. Yilma Belachew also describes training by Swedish elite soldiers. Soldiers must prepare their minds for combat in addition to the physical battle.



Another Life

Yilma Belachew describes the condition of Korea upon arrival at Busan. He describes the destruction he observed. For example, there were deceased people lying in fields and destroyed buildings. However, the people of Korea were still working in the fields during the Civil War. Yilma Belachew also describes having to retrain on newer American weapons in Korea.



Ambush Patrol

Yilma Belachew describes his command of the Ambush Patrol. He describes how he would encounter Chinese on the front with just fourteen other soldiers. His platoon did not lose a single man. The patrols were very dangerous and difficult. Ambush Patrols were carried out in the dark with no lights and then waiting for the enemy with a small number of soldiers.



Yusuf Artuc

Reality of a Soldier

Yusuf Artuc describes how when he arrived in Korea he went directly to the front. Cars transported soldiers to the front. He also describes fighting at Sandbag Castle (Kumkale). In addition, Yusuf Artuc describes one particular instance at Mirrored Village. Further, at Mirrored Village many soldiers were injured. Injured soldiers were evacuated to Tokyo to heal. Then they would return to the battlefield. Out of the injured soldiers, two of three returned to battle.



Supplies on the Front

Yusuf Artuc describes how the US military would re-supply Turkish soldiers. The US military would use helicopters to bring food to the soldiers. Also, the same helicopters would also bring weapons that needed to be assembled. Soldiers did not suffer from a lack of supplies.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

No Regret to Kill

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes the suffering of the Korean people. Children were orphaned, their parents were killed by the war. People were begging for food. Seeing these images made the Ethiopians fight harder. Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes having no regret to face the Chinese and ultimately kill them.



Dangers of a Sniper

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes being a sniper during the war. On one occasion a mortar exploded near him. The explosion covered him in dirt and took the life of the man beside him. Events of the war, however, made him stronger, not scared. He also describes Chinese were good at karate.



Engagement with the Chinese

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes engaging the enemy. He describes how he sniped and killed seven Chinese soldiers. The incident occurred at night. The Ethiopians waited to be given orders to fire. Firing at night would give your position away. He also describes being so cold that he put his leg in a fire to keep it warm. His leg ultimately ended up being damaged from this incident.



Ziya Dilimer

Repair

Ziya Dilimer describes his Korean War experience. His War experience is different from other Turkish soldiers. He was behind the front and not in danger. His role was to fix vehicles and guns. He would receive cars with bullet holes and swap out parts. A major thing he had to fix was the barrels of guns. Heat would damage the barrels.



Rations

Ziya Dilimer describes being given a pack of cigarettes a day. This would have been part of his K-Ration. Each man in his unit received a K-Ration daily. Zika Dilimer was fond of the Chesterfield cigarettes included. Also, men were given ice cream, even in the winter.