Korean War Legacy Project

Tag: Message to Students



Political/Military Tags

1950 Pusan Perimeter, 8/4-9/181950 Inchon Landing, 9/15-9/191950 Seoul Recapture, 9/22-9/251950 Battle of Pyongyang, 10/15-171950 Wonsan Landing, 10/251950 Battle of Chosin Reservoir, 11/27-12/131950 Hamheung Evacuation, 12/10-12/241951 January 4 Withdrawal, 12/31-1/71951 Battle of Bloody Ridge, 8/18-9/15/1951 Battle of Heartbreak Ridge, 9/13-10/15/1951 Battle of Jipyeongri, 2/13-151952 Battle of Old Baldy, 6/26-8/41952 Battle of White Horse, 10/6-151952 Battle of Triangle Hill, 10/14-11/251952 Battle of Hill Eerie, 3/21-6/211953 Battle of the Hook, 5/28-291953 Battle of Pork Chop Hill, 3/23-7/161953 Sieges of Outpost Harry, 6/10-181953 Armistice 7/271968 Pueblo Abduction1968 Blue House attack1969 EC-1211976 Poplar Tree Ax Incident1983 Langgoon blowup1996 Gangneung attack1999 Yeonpyeong naval battle2000 South-North Summit2002 2nd Yeonpyeong naval battle2008 Geumgang Mountain killing2006 1st nuclear test, 10/92009 2nd nuclear test, 5/252010 Cheonan sinking2010 Yeonpyeong Island bombing2013 3rd nuclear test, 2/122016 4th and 5th nuclear tests, 1/6 and 9/9

Geographic Tags

AnyangAprokgang (Yalu River)BusanByeokdongCheonanCheongcheongang (River)ChuncheonDaeguDaejeonDongducheonEast SeaEuijeongbuGaesongGangneungGeojedoGeumgangGeumgang (River)GotoriHagalwooriHamheungHangang (River)HeungnamHwacheonHwangchoryeongImjingang (River)IncheonJangjinJipyeongriKunsanKunwooriLanggoonMasanNakdonggang (River)OsanPanmunjeomPohangPyungyangSeokdongSeoulSudongSuwonWolmidoWonjuWonsanYellow SeaYeongdeungpoYeonpyeongYudamri

Social Tags

Basic trainingChineseCiviliansCold wintersCommunistsDepressionFearFoodFront linesG.I. BillHome frontImpressions of KoreaKATUSALettersLiving conditionsMessage to StudentsModern KoreaMonsoonNorth KoreansOrphanagePersonal LossPhysical destructionPovertyPOWPridePrior knowledge of KoreaPropagandaRest and Relaxation (R&R)South KoreansWeaponsWomen

Adolfo Lugo Gaston

Message to the Audience / Mensaje para la Audiencia

Adolfo Lugo Gaston asks anyone that is watching the interview to be useful to their nation. If a group of people in another nation are under attack, he impels watchers to help. He believes that God will recognize this type of goodwill.

Adolfo Lugo Gastón le pide a cualquiera que esté viendo la entrevista que sea útil a su nación. Si un grupo de personas en otra nación está bajo ataque, le pide a la futura generación que los ayude. Él cree que Dios reconocerá este tipo de buena voluntad.



Alan Maggs

Lacking Support for the Remembrance of the War

When asked what the legacy of Korean War is in England, Alan Maggs states that there is “no legacy in a way.” He describes how the government has paid for other war memorials but would not pay for the Korean War one because they argue that these soldiers fought for the United Nations, not for England. Fortunately, Alan Maggs and others were able to raise the money necessary to build their own monument.



Albert (Hank) Daumann

Thoughts on the Korean War and his Veteran Organization

Hank Daumann discusses why he thinks The Korean War is often called "The Forgotten War". He talks about how there weren't any parades for returning veterans. He also talks about the importance and legacy of The Korean War and his organization's involvement in the local Korean community in Houston.



Albert Frisina

What Did You Do in Korea?

Albert Frisina speaks about his training in the Army Security Agency and the work he did. He shares he was a radar transmission locator and was stationed in Uijeongbu, South Korea. He and his unit would listen to radar transmissions in an attempt to locate and listen to the North Koreans. He recalls how they were not always sure about what was being said, but they were able to identify the transmission location through a method of triangulation.



Life in Korea

Albert Frisina recalls life in Uijeongbu. He remembers they would work six-hour shifts. He recalls eating and drinking very well and, sadly, remembers seeing Korean civilians digging through his company's garbage. He shares how he invited the Koreans to eat their leftovers, rather than having to dig through garbage. Despite the nice treatment he received, he remembers returning to the United States and kissing the ground.



Korean Now

Albert Frisina notes how free and prosperous South Korea is today. He expresses how proud he is that he was able to contribute to its success. He cites the successes that South Korea is witnessing now as reasons why the United States helped fight for what is now South Korea. He remembers witnessing Japan during leave time known as Rest and Relaxation and seeing how much it had progressed. He remembers hoping Korea would also progress. He expresses his pleasure in knowing that South Korea is now the tenth largest economy in the world.



Alford Rodriguez Rivera

Poud To Have Served the Flag

Alford Rodriguez Rivera shares that he is proud to have served the flag of the United States. To younger generations, he offers encouragement for joining the Army. He emphasizes his pride again regarding his service in Korea.



Alfredo Forero Parra

Message to students / Mensaje Para Los Estudiantes

Alfredo Forero Parra shares his thoughts on war and its many consequences. His message to future generations is that war should be avoided as it is cruel and inhumane. He adds that it is important for future generations to remember the valor and stoicism of Colombian troops.

Alfredo Forero Parra comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y sus múltiples consecuencias. Su mensaje a las generaciones futuras es que se debe evitar la guerra, ya que es cruel e inhumana. El termina su mensaje pidiéndole a las generaciones futuras que recuerden el valor y el estoicismo de las tropas colombianas.



Alice Allen

Thoughts on the Korean War Legacy Project

Alice Allen understands the importance of the Korean War Legacy Project and its potential impact on future generations. Her husband, Jack Allen, did not really discuss his Korean War experiences before the interview, and now he speaks freely about it. Alice Allen believes
that it is important that younger generation learn about the Korean War and the experiences of the veterans.



Alice Rosemary Christensen

Family Military History, Message to Students, and Feelings on Women in Combat

Alice Christensen reflects on the many benefits serving in the military provided her--personally, professionally, and financially. She admits she would have liked to have remained in the military and made it a career. She expresses that she doesn’t think women should serve in combat, but that there are many jobs available for women in the military. She shares that her family have been serving since the Revolutionary War. She shares that she even tried to convince her daughter to join, but without success. .



Allen Affolter

Message to Younger Generations

Allen Affolter offers a message to younger generations. He states that they should appreciate what they have and should take full advantage of the opportunities available to them. He shares that sacrifices must be made in order to obtain something and that they should limit their distractions in order to obtain what they want. He adds that they should practice being respectful of their elders, doing what they are told, and being punctual.



Alvin Jurrens

The Legacy is Freedom

Alvin Jurrens expresses that freedom is a Korean War legacy. He shares it is an honor to have served, and it is worth the pain he endured. He states that it is simply something you do for somebody.



Andrew Cleveland

Life Aboard a Destroyer Ship

Andrew Cleveland recalls what life was like on a destroyer ship. He remembers it being cramped though not as bad as a submarine. He recounts sleeping in a rack with only about eighteen inches between his bed and the next bed above and below him. He shares how everything one owned as a sailor was placed in a small cabinet on the ship deck. He recalls having a toothbrush and hair comb. He comments on how the food was a good mixture of meat and vegetables, sometimes even soup and sandwiches, and recollects being out at sea for six months at a time, with tankers coming regularly to refuel the ship.



Leaving Korea after the Armistice and Returning to Korea

Andrew Cleveland recalls leaving Korea earlier than planned in September of 1954. He shares how after the armistice was signed, soldiers who signed up for college could go home and attend school. He recounts attending the University of Texas after leaving Korea, thanks to the G.I. Bill. He shares how he returned to Korea twenty-eight years later on business, specifically to coordinate the manufacturing of new products for his company. He describes befriending a Korean manufacturer and visiting Korea multiple times a year for many years in a row. His shares how his grandson captured this friendship in a work of art.



Angad Singh

Korea, 1953

Angad Singh reflects on his impressions of Korea immediately following the war. He remembers arriving in Incheon in 1953 when Syngman Rhee was Korea's President. He noticed devastation everywhere. He arrived at the DMZ and recalls seeing no buildings left. He remembers seeing huts made from mud and next to no industry in the area.



Modern Korea

Angad Singh reflects on his recent trip back to Korea along with the Korean Veterans Association. He shares how he was well-received by the Korean people and recalls his amazement of the Incheon airport. He remembers seeing a sixteen-lane highway, which was impressive to him considering there were few functioning roads there after the war. He reflects on the improvement and progress made in Korea.



Experience in Korea

Angad Singh speaks about his living arrangements in Panmunjom, along the DMZ. He describes their living quarters, U.S. tents, being well-built and remembers having kerosine heaters in the tents because the temperatures in Korea were very cold. He recalls some of his duties while in Korea and adds that he left Korea and arrived home in India in August of 1954.



Mandeep Singh, Grandson of Angad Singh

Mandeep Singh, the grandson of Lieutenant Colonel Angad Singh, joins the interview. He was born on February 11, 1992. He shares his reflections on his grandfather's service in Korea and explains that he was able to join his grandfather on a return to Korea trip in 2009. He recalls attending the United Nations Peace Camp run by the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs of the Republic of Korea.



Aragaw Mselu

Poem about War

Aragaw Mselu describes a poem he made after defeating the Chinese at one particular mountain. Importantly, the poem is about his experience. Ethiopia came to Korea to defeat the enemy. Above all the enemy would have to kill the Ethiopians to take Korea. The poem illustrates the resolve of Aragaw Mselu.



Arthur W. Sorgatz

US and Korea Relations Today & The Importance of Military Service

Arthur Sorgatz felt that Koreans appreciate Korean and US soldiers more than citizens of the United States. He felt his time in Korea was a great experience. He wishes the draft was back to require young adults to experience discipline because he feels that it has been lost.



Asefa Werku Kassa

Korea, like my Baby

Asefa Werku Kassa describes how Korea is like his baby. He sacrificed his blood for the freedom of South Korea. He describes how he would still fight for South Korea. Asefa Werku Kassa wants to revisit to see what his sacrifices look like seventy years later.



Asfaw Teklemariam Habteyes

Korean War History in Schools

Asfaw Habteyes explains why the history of the war is not taught in schools. Ethiopia had a communist government for a time that forbid its teaching. He feels it should be taught now with the help of Korea.



Assefa Demissie Belete

Never Forget

Assefa Demissie Belete describes his excitement for the transformation of Korea. He feels that Korea and Ethiopia are brothers. Ethiopia helped Korea, now Korea helps Ethiopia. Assefa Demissie Belete wants Korea to continue to help Ethiopia. Korea should not forget Ethiopian sacrifices.



Avery Creef

Basic Training at Fort Polk

Avery Creef, after enlisting in the Army in January of 1951, went to boot camp in Fort Polk, Louisiana. He reflects on his experiences and what he learned. He spent twelve weeks there and recalls countless marching drills and learning to shoot different weapons. He then went to Fort Benning, Georgia, for more training. He landed in Incheon, South Korea, in June of 1952.



Living Conditions, Daily Routine

Avery Creef recalls never being able take a shower. He recounts never being dressed properly for the freezing winter weather. He slept in a bunker and ate C-rations. He shares how he enjoyed eating the pork and beans and adds that everything else tasted terrible. He remembers receiving packages from home periodically which would include better food options. He also remembers writing letters home.



Ayhan Karabulut

Memories and a Message

Ayhan Karabulut describes how he cannot forget the memories of the men he served with who lost their lives. He also describes how he feared the sound of planes overhead after returning home. He did have a special message for the Republic of Korea, "May Allah give them long life."



Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros

Legacy of the War and Korean Progress

Belachew Amneshwa Welbekiros describes the legacy of the Korean War in Ethiopia. The war, comparable to many nations is underrepresented. He attributes this to the greater context of the war on communism. Also, Korea was destroyed for many years following the war and could not raise awareness for the war.



Belisario Flores

Economy in Korea Today and Closing Thoughts

Belisario Flores says the time he spent in the war and the tremendous success of Korea today gives him great satisfaction. He feels he played a "little bitty" part in the recovery of South Korea. He is very proud and wants young people to know that freedom is not free. He emphasizes one has to fight and stand up for what he/she believes in.



Beverly Lawrence Dunjill

Tuskegee Airmen Receiving the Congressional Gold Medal

Beverly Lawrence Dunjill expresses his pride in seeing the Tuskegee Airmen receive the Congressional Gold Medal despite the passing of sixty years. He highlights the pivotal role he and his fellow Tuskegee Airmen played in breaking down barriers for integration in the military and desegregation in the United States. He shares his thoughts on the country's progress over the years.



Billy Holbrook

Living Conditions & Relaxation

Billy Holbrook speaks about the living conditions on his boat. He shares how he read during his spare time. He recalls having good food, a warm place to sleep, and daily showers. He recounts how they would watch movies inside the ship. He thinks he was making somewhere between $30-$75/month. He adds they were, at times, allowed to go ashore and tour around the cities.



U.S.S. Destroyer Lofberg

Billy Holbrook talks about the ship he worked on, the U.S.S. Destroyer Lofberg DD 759. He describes the weapons on the ship and the crew that worked on it. He shares there were multiple weapons aboard and that the ship would carry a crew of three hundred thirty-six. He recalls how his ship went straight to the East Sea from San Diego. He recounts the tasks his ship would undertake, including saving pilots who were ejected out of their planes.



Bob Wickman

You Do Things for Other People

Bob Wichman offers his own advice to the young people of today. He believes that one needs to do things for others. He reflects on how after the Korean War and at the start of the Vietnam War the world experienced a generation of takers. He expresses hope that the new generations have become givers again.



Bradley J. Strait

Advice for a Different Era

Bradley Strait offers some advice on military service based on his experience. He promotes the Navy as he feels it prepared him in many ways from life lessons centering on teamwork to offering him benefits after service. He shares that he feels he received a better net return having gone the route he did compared to others he knew.



Bryan J. Johnson

A Teacher-Veteran, not Teaching About the War He Fought In

Bryan Johnson describes the legacy of the Korean War and how the United Nations rightly aided South Korea. He also describes how upon returning home to New Zealand he became a teacher and did not teach about the Korean War. Bryan Johnson explains that the Korean War was relatively brief in comparison to the First and Second World War as the main issue with the war, when designing a curriculum.



Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen

Military Service Makes You a Man or Destroys You

Carlos David Rodriguez Boissen describes his belief that military service either makes a person a man or destroys him. He adds that it is up to him to decide. He shares that a soldier must obey, do what he is told, and do his best. He feels his service in the United States Army made him into a man.



Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco shares his opinions on why he believes that war should be avoided. He explains that wars lead to hunger, disease, fallow fields, crying mothers, orphans, and leveled cities. In his opinion, he explains that diplomacy is a better way to solve disputes. He laments the fact that the Colombian government did not use their experience to try to solve the problems with guerilla fighters in their own nation.

Carlos Guillermo Latorre Franco comparte sus opiniones sobre por qué el cree que se debe evitar la guerra. Explica que las guerras provocan hambre, enfermedades, campos que no producen, madres que lloran, huérfanos y ciudades arrasadas. En su opinión, la diplomacia es una mejor manera de resolver problemas. Es por ello por lo que lamenta que el gobierno colombiano no aprendió su experiencia para intentar solucionar los problemas con los guerrilleros.



Carlos Julio Mora Zea

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Mora Zea shares his views on the legacy of the Korean War. He believes that all troops in the allied forces conserved liberty and demonstrated the ideals for all nations. He explains that while wars have negative consequences, Korea would not have the economy, peace, and stability it enjoys without the efforts of all that fought.

Carlos Julio Mora Zea comparte sus opiniones sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Él cree que todas las tropas de las fuerzas aliadas conservaron la libertad y demostraron los ideales para todas las naciones. Explica que, si bien las guerras tienen consecuencias negativas, Corea no tendría la economía, la paz y la estabilidad que disfruta sin los esfuerzos de todos los que lucharon.



Carlos Julio Rodriguez Riveros

The Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros shares his thoughts on the legacy of the War in Korea. He states that he is against wars as they hurt too many people and therefore governments around the world should avoid them whenever possible. He adds that he believes communism will eventually be eradicated from the earth and replaced by freedom.

Carlos Julio Rodríguez Riveros comparte su opinión sobre el legado de la Guerra de Corea. Afirma que está en contra de las guerras porque le hacen demasiado daño a la gente y, por lo tanto, los gobiernos de todo el mundo deberían evitarlas siempre que sea posible. Agrega que cree que el comunismo eventualmente será erradicado de la tierra y reemplazado por la libertad.



Carlos Rivera-Rivera

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Generaciones Futuras

Carlos Rivera-Rivera urges younger generations to defend the values of democracy. He states that even though war can be difficult, there is much to be learned from it. He concludes by stating that evil individuals who do not follow the rule of law need to be dealt with.

Carlos Rivera-Rivera les ruega a las generaciones más jóvenes que defiendan a los valores de la democracia. Afirma que, aunque la guerra puede ser difícil, hay mucho que aprender de ella. Concluye afirmando que es necesario lidiar con los lideres que no hacen bien en el mundo.



Cecilia A. Sulkowski

Feelings About the Army, Treating North Koreans, and Humor in Daily Life

Cecelia discusses a wide range of topics in this clip. She wholeheartedly recommends the Army for someone who wants a good and secure life. She recalls treating North Korean patients and how grateful they were for the good care they received. She speaks about the need for humor in their daily lives to help the medical professionals cope with the terrible things they would see on a daily basis. She remembers having to be very careful with their possessions as there was a lot of theft occurring for black market purposes.



Charles Falugo, Jr.

What were living conditions like in South Korea?

After a twenty-two day trip from Seattle, Washington, Charles Falugo recalls being relieved that they finally landed in Pusan, South Korea. He recalls the poor living conditions he witnessed--all Korean houses were made of clay, the people used oxen to help them transport water, and they picked roots for food. He also recalls South Korean children taking his unit's leftovers home to feed their families. He felt very lucky relative to the South Koreans he encountered and feels immense pride for the advancements South Korea has made today.



What is Korea like today?

Charles Falugo revisited South Korea in 2016 and was amazed at the differences he witnessed. The buildings, the highways, and other improvements he witnessed were so different from how he remembers Seoul in 1951. It was totally destroyed then, with only a couple of buildings standing.



What did you experience driving through Korea?

Charles Falugo recalls the roads being so bad that their truck chassis would constantly break. Every time his division would stop to fix its trucks, they would encounter starving children begging for food. He would give his rations to the children. He recalls moving into Seoul and only seeing the blue capitol building and the railroad station. All embassies were blown up. There was one Shell Oil Company building that was guarded, located right next to his company's housing.



Building Orphanages

Charles Falugo shares that some units would find bombed out schools and remodel them into orphanages for orphaned South Korean children. He recalls finding supplies for the units who rebuilt the buildings. He remembers working and living with a Christian missionary named Horace Grant Underwood, who was the founder of Underwood International College in Seoul.



Chester Coker

What Was the Point of War?

Chester Coker talks about how senseless he originally thought the war was. He reports being confused about his purpose and why the U.S. Army was there. He shares how he later understood the great value the war provided South Korea. He mentions stopping the spread of communism and shares he has returned to South Korea five times.



Clarence G. Atzenhoffer, Jr.

The Forgotten War

Clarence Atzenhoffer shares his thoughts on why the Korean War is seen as the Forgotten War. He explains that many young people do not know about the war and many of the Korean War veterans are no longer alive now to tell their story. He describes the South Korean government's efforts to help spread awareness regarding the war.



Curtis Pilgrim

Teach Korea

Curtis Pilgrim makes his point as to why teaching the Korean War is so valuable to the next generation and that somehow it had been lost between the Second World War and Vietnam. He recalls coming home in uniform and the cab driver being unaware of the Korean War, though his fellow Americans were living and dying there. He stresses the fact that it was so much more than a police action and that it should never be forgotten.



David Carsten Randby

Medals and President Moon Jae-in

David Randby describes the medals he earned for his service in the Korean War. He has personally met with President Moon Jae-in. President Moon Jae-in spoke with the veterans and reminded them that the North Korean leader is a dictator and South Korea is a democracy because of their actions.



Dennis Grogan

Recollections of Korea

Dennis Grogan talks about the sacrifice he made to serve in Korea. He explains how he received correspondence from his wife, saying his daughter had been born while he was in Korea. He discusses why he is proud to have been a part of the Korean War legacy and the issue of little acknowledgement of the sacrifices made by Korean War veterans.



Diego Dantone

No More War

Diego Dantone remembers his mother and father as happy people. He feels Sabino Dantone would have wished peace and happiness to the Korean people. He agrees to allow his documentary for use in educating Italian school children about the Korean War.



Interviewing School Children in the 68th Hospital

The Italian Red Cross operated in the 68th Hospital located in a Korean school. Diego Dantone visited the school when he filmed his documentary, A Forgotten War. The atmosphere of the place was still powerful even though the school had been damaged by fire and rebuilt. As the interview ends, Diego Dantone sends his father a message that he misses him and loves him, wishing they had shared more before Sabino Dantone died.



Don R. Childers

Going From the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves to Active Duty

Don R. Childers enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserves in Oklahoma City when he was eighteen years old. He recalls the policy of President Harry S. Truman's administration, in 1948, that anyone who enlisted in the U.S. Reserves would not be drafted. During his time in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves, he trained periodically at Camp Pendleton. After spending two years in the Reserves, he received advanced combat training when the Korean War started in 1950 and reported for active duty.



Forward Observer

Don R. Childers recalls the distressing experience of seeing the remains of enemy soldiers. He notes that the United States military retrieve the bodies of their fallen soldiers to bring them back home. He discusses his role as a forward observer, responsible for locating targets and requesting ammunition as required.



Honor Flight

Don R. Childers explains how he was selected for an Honor Flight to Washington D.C. He becomes emotional while describing the standing applause he and the other Honor Flight veterans received as they walked through the airport in Washington D.C. He shares how serving in the United States Marine Corps taught him the importance of being dependable.



Donald Arthur Summers

Desire to Learn

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his desire to pursue further education while serving in the United States Navy. He recalls an instance where an instructor at a training school in Norman, Oklahoma, gave him a second chance to study and pass the qualifying examination which he eventually did. He shares that, as a result of his hard work, he was able to attend an aviation structure and hydraulic school in Millington, Tennessee. He notes how after completing his enlistment, he was forced to spend some time in the hospital due to radiation exposure from Operation Castle.



Pride in Serving

Donald Arthur Summers expresses his gratitude for having served in the United States Armed Forces. He encourages young people to consider enlisting as he believes it can lead to a fulfilling career and personal growth. He explains how, during his time in the U.S. Navy, he completed aviation structure and hydraulic school which gave him the skills to have a successful career with American Airlines. He shares how being a veteran improved his self-esteem, furthered his education, and fulfilled his patriotic duty.



Donald Haller

Revisiting Korea

Donald Haller recalls revisiting Korea, along with his family, in the 1980s. He shares how vastly different Korea was from how he remembered it in the 1950s. He remembers how poor Korea was in the 1950s, lacking basic infrastructure such as proper roadways and bridges. He remembers the Koreans as both honest and hardworking. He comments he is not surprised that the Korean economy is now booming.



Prior Knowledge of Korea

Donald Haller recalls not learning much about Korea in high school. He does remember that an older brother of his friend was stationed in Korea after World War II and shares how he learned a little bit about Korea from him. He comments on his uncertainty about where Korea was on a map but notes how confident he was that the war would be over in just a few months. He realizes just how wrong he was. He mentions how much he enjoyed the service as he had not traveled outside of Michigan before the war. He shares how he joined the Navy Reserves so he could finish college but ended up being called to Korea in 1950.



Donald L. Buske

Lessons Learned through Service

Donald Buske describes the lessons he learned from being in the military- lessons he says he still applies every day to his life. He learned to have respect for others and not just himself. He believes that every youth that graduates high school should have to spend a month at boot camp to learn the same lessons before heading out into the real world.



Donald L. Mason

At the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir

Donald Mason recalls his experience at the Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir. He remembers having Thanksgiving dinner while there, and they stayed at the Reservoir through Christmas. He was responsible for guarding the ammunition. He remembers how bitterly cold it was.



Revisiting Korea

Donald Mason discusses revisiting Korea in 2019 with his wife. He compares his visit then to what he remembered from his time in 1950. He remembers Seoul being destroyed during the war, with all the tall buildings gone. There were some huts still standing. But in 2019, he remembers seeing large skyscrapers from his hotel room. He was amazed at how the city was rebuilt to such an impressive scale.



Donald Lynch

Legacy of the Korean War

Donald Lynch recalls not learning much about Korea in school. He thinks the Korean War was one of the greatest efforts put forth by the United States as it was an effort to stem the growth of world Communism. He believes the war's effects continue to resonate today. He speaks about many of the atrocities that the Koreans have had to face, including the invasions by Japan. He shares how impressed he is by the successes of Korea today.



Injuries and Difficult Experiences

Donald Lynch talks about being injured twice. He recalls going on a patrol one day on Hill 812 and the lead man stepping on a "Bouncing Betty" release-type booby trap. He recounts how all eight to ten men were hit by pellets. He shares how a pellet hit his thigh and came out about 50 years later when he was messing with it. He notes another injury which entailed a bayonet. He recalls of his war experience occurring in the Punchbowl region, close to the 38th parallel. He references witnessing all of the wounded men leaving the frontlines when he first arrived as his most difficult experience in Korea. He also recalls assisting the sewing of wounds.



Duties and Living Conditions

Donald Lynch recalls the patrols he went on along the Kansas Line, a line back from the frontlines. He details how he would help refill supplies and bring back any North Korean defectors they came across. He recalls there being a kitchen at the medical outfit and eating hot meals every day. He remembers showering opportunities varying based on his location and shares how, at one point, shampoo saved his life.



Ed Donahue

Basic Training Experience

Ed Donahue recalls his experience at boot camp in Parris Island, South Carolina. He remembers how his life changed as soon as he arrived. He describes being awakened the first night at three in the morning because someone spilled something on the floor. He recounts how he and all of the other new recruits were required to scrub the floor with a toothbrush. He shares how he only spent eight weeks there due to a growing need for troops in Korea. He recalls attending advanced rifle training at Camp Pendleton in California before being sent to Kobe, Japan, and then on to Pusan, Korea, in October of 1950.



The Chosin Few at Yudamni

Ed Donahue recalls arriving in Yudamni on Thanksgiving, November 23, 1950. He remembers not minding that their holiday meal was ice cold as their sights were set on being home for Christmas. He recalls being assigned to forward observation and recounts the difficulties of digging in as the ground was frozen. He remembers singing "I'll Be Home for Christmas" while at his post until the Chinese attacked.



Eddie Reyes Piña

"If You Do Not Know the Unknown Then You Are Going to Be Fearful"

Eddie Reyes Piña recalls how he returned from Korea while still a teenager. He reflects on the importance of learning about the Korean War and the country itself. He believes that by learning about the unknown we can eliminate much of the fear in the world.



Edmund W. Parkinson

Message to Students

Edmund Parkinson describes Korea as a marvelous piece of history and shares how proud he is to have served during the war. He offers a message to students stating that the war was not lovely, but it was necessary and worthwhile for the result. He is joined by his wife who shares that the Korea she knows now is fantastic due to its transformation in such a short time.



Edward B. Heimann

Thanks and Appreciation

Edward Heimann explains the reason why he agreed to be interviewed. He recalls that one day, while playing golf, a young South Korean man joined his group of three. He describes the man as being incredibly grateful for what he did for South Korea and being quite taken aback by the young man's gratitude.



Edward F. Foley, Sr.

Korean War Legacy

Edward Foley comments on the grateful attitudes South Koreans have towards the U.S. He shares that the legacy of the Korean War, despite it being called a police action and the Forgotten War, is being kept alive by the veterans associations and the Korean people themselves. He adds his thoughts on how young people should serve their country in some form or fashion for a few years.



Edward Rowny

Two- Sided Legacy of the Korean War

Edward Rowny explains that he had no idea how industrious and successful the Koreans would become after the War. He mentions the Korean world leadership in technology and calls it an "economic miracle". He shares his own fears that the present-day generation does not realize the grave danger of North Korea today. He advises them to keep their military trained and equipped at all times, even with the US nuclear capacity.



Rowny's Book About the War

Edward Rowny shares he has written books and provides information about his experiences with the Teachers and Veteran's Youth Corps Convention in 2015. He comments on how his book, An American Soldier's Saga in the Korean War, received a lot of coverage and was translated into Korean. He encourages students to pay attention to what they learn in class to prevent events like the Korean War from happening again. He summarizes his book as it retells his experiences and accomplishments in the War.



Emmanuel Pitsoulaki

A Message of Peace

Emmanuel Pitsoulaki wishes peace and unity among all Koreans.



Ernest J. Berry

"Pronounced Dead, the Continuing Tick of his Watch"

Ernest J. Berry wrote a book called "The Forgotten War" in 2000 to commemorate his experiences. The message of the book is that war was devastating and should be avoided. Invasion is unjustified. Ernest J. Berry describes Korea as a second home and laments the many lives lost in the conflict. He then reads poems from his book, Forgotten War, providing poignant vignettes of the Korean War.



Eugene Evers

I Hope We Did The Right Thing

Eugene "Gene" Evers reflects on his experience in the Korean War. He describes his hope that his contributions to the war effort were the right thing to do. He explains that he hopes that the United States involvement in the war was positive.



Eugene Ferris

Important to Learn About Sacrifices

Eugene Ferris believes that any war and the sacrifices people make are important for our future generations to learn. He shares his concern for people wanting power and the hope that people will learn from previous experiences. He elaborates on the legacy of the Korean War and the pride Americans have in our support of South Korea.



Lessons from Previous Generations

Eugene Ferris expresses his concern about younger generations not fully appreciating the experiences and sacrifices earlier generations endured. To elaborate on this, he reflects on lessons he learned during his youth from a World War II veteran. He reveals how he has expanded his own understanding of Korea’s history through the Tell America Program. He describes South Korea’s transformation as unbelievable and how the United States will continue to support their progress.



Fekede Belachew

Very Happy for Korea

Fekede Belachew describes the amazing transformation that South Korea has taken after the war. His service contributed to the security of South Korea. He describes how he would still defend Korea if called upon.



Felipe Aponte-Colon

Reflections on the War / Pensamientos Sobre la Guerra

Felipe Aponte-Colon shares his reflections on the war. He discusses the immense pride that he has having defended his country as a Puerto Rican. Additionally, he shares his ideas on Korean reunification. Lastly, he discusses the suffering which he continues to have.

Felipe Aponte-Colón comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra. El habla del inmenso orgullo que tiene de haber defendido a su país como puertorriqueño. También, comparte sus ideas sobre la reunificación coreana. Por último, habla del sufrimiento que sigue teniendo hasta este día.



Francis John Ezzo

Korea Then and Now

Francis Ezzo describes walking through the countryside. He recalls seeing rice paddies and giving kids some food. He shares that even though he has never been back, he is thankful that Koreans appreciate the sacrifices American soldiers made for their country.



War Made Me a Better Person

Francis Ezzo says the war made him a better person because he saw what happened during war. He explains that he heard about Word War II, but experiencing war helped him understand what war was like. He shares that the experience helped him appreciate life more.



Frank E. Butler

"I Love Them!"

Frank E. Butler sends his heartfelt love to the Korean people. He is proud of the medals bestowed upon him by the Korean government, but he wishes the government of New Zealand would honor him as well. He feels the North Korean people did not fully intend the conflict that has split Korea, but he asserts that the world owes the South Koreans a debt of gratitude for standing firm.



Fred Barnett

Legacy of Korean War Veterans

Fred Barnett says that his experiences during the war were good. He believes that that what the US accomplished for the Koreans was good and that we should continue to support them. While he has not gone back to Korea, he would like to, and was interested in the program of Korean Government helping veterans to visit.



Galip Fethi Okay

Acting and Pictures of the Past

Galip Fethi Okay describes his life after the Korean War. He became an irrigation digger. However, at one point he auditioned for a Turkish film and was hired. He was in a Turkish movie about the Korean War. He also provides pictures from the Korean War. One shows him at the Sand Bag Castle.



Garry Hashimoto

Life on the Front Lines

Garry Hashimoto remembers what it was like to be on the front lines in Korea. He recalls having to spend at least thirty days on the front lines, never having a shower or brushing his teeth. He remembers having to wear the same uniform and socks the entire time. He recalls how even if his boots were filled with water, he could not take them off until he made it to a safe place. He remembers his socks smelled so bad and how he ended up suffering from trench foot. He recounts how the allied forces would wear fluorescents so the airplanes knew where to drop food. He shares how they had c-rations to eat and remembers the ham or pork and beans being the best. He explains that he never went hungry and had plenty of cigarettes. He describes his bed being a foxhole, and he remembers it was very cold.



George Covel

A Rewarding Life, Legacy, and Message

George Covel discusses some of the challenges he faced regarding the GI Bill and choosing a differing career pathway when he returned to the States following the war. He emphasizes that the Army and his service made him a better man, and he offers his thoughts on the importance of the Korean War and the legacy of Korean War veterans. He stresses the importance of not forgetting history and encourages future generations to listen and learn from veterans so that they avoid the mistakes made in the past.



George Enice Lawhon Jr.

Preserving the Legacy of the Korean War

George Enice Lawhon Jr., was president of the Korean War Veteran's Association until 2014. The Korean War Veteran Association's Tell America Program is the "single most effective" effort to educate current and future generations about the Korean War. The program provides resources to students and teachers for use in the classroom. The program also sends Korean War Veterans to classrooms to engage with students.



George Staples

Luck in Being Wounded

George Staples describes being shot while piloting a helicopter. He recalls he was lucky that he was able to return to friendly territory. He notes he is proud he defended Koreans from the communists. He shares that, above all, the legacy of the Korean War was a sign to the Russians of the resolve of the Americans.



George Sullivan

Impressions of Korea

George Sullivan talks about his experiences in Korea during the 1950s. He remembers how cold the weather was and how destitute the South Koreans were. He recalls many of them living in tents or broken down cars and shares that Seoul was totally destroyed. He is amazed at the transformation South Korea has made over the last half century and adds that he really enjoys kimchi.



George Zimmerman

Well Worth It

George Zimmerman describes the landscape of Korea as "something else." Winters were especially cold near the DMZ and the Chosin Reservoir. At one point, he had permission to take R and R in Japan, but he felt too committed to his work in Korea and turned it down. He recounts his return trip to the states following his service in Korea. George Zimmerman reminds students of today that Korea was important, with terrible loss of life for an important cause.



Gerald ‘Gerry’ Farmer

Eyes Frozen Shut

Gerry Farmer describes the cold as unbelievable and recalls the temperature dropping to forty-two below at one point. He remembers his eyes would be frozen in the morning because they would go to bed wet. He explains had a parka that was warm and shares they were not allowed to wear the hoods to ensure their hearing was not hindered.



Gerald Land

Forgotten War

Gerald Land was disgraced by the term police action instead of calling the Korean War, a war. He was also upset that people, particularly educators, didn't know anything about the war when he came home. With so many people who risked their lives for the people of South Korea and to label it the way people have, is just awful.



Don't Take Life For Granted

Gerald Land left the interview with advice for the listeners. Don't take life for granted, buckle down, get out to get a job, and earn what you get. Don't expect handouts and work your way to the top. He also said the technology that kids have today isn't completely necessary to live a good life. Working hard is the way to go!



Geraldene Felton

Influence of the Military on Her Life

Geraldene Felton recalls the immense impact of the U.S. Army on her life. She expresses she is especially grateful for the support of the G.I. Bill and how it allowed her to practice nursing and develop her career. She shares that the rules in the military were something she enjoyed, as well as the structure the military provided.



Later Career and Message to Students

Geraldene Felton describes her gratitude for the military. She feels her long career in military nursing prepared her for her later career as a nurse anesthetist and later a nursing educator. She recommends people work hard and take advantage of opportunities when they arise. She expresses her gratitude for the opportunities she received as a member of the U.S. Army Nursing Corps.



Gilberto Rodríguez Orama

Message to Viewers / Mensaje para las Generaciones Futuras

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama reflects on a time when community and family values were more important. His message to viewers is that core moral values should be followed as opposed to solely pursuing material wealth. He worries that greedy leaders from around the world who wish to hoard the riches of their nations, will cause more disastrous wars. He emphasizes the importance of community cooperation, respect, and having the will to progress.

Gilberto Rodríguez Orama refleja sobre una época en la cual los valores de la comunidad y la familia eran lo más importante. Su mensaje a los espectadores es que se deben seguir los valores del trabajo y el progreso de la comunidad en vez de perseguir únicamente riquezas. Le preocupa que hay líderes ambiciosos en el mundo que desean acaparar las riquezas de sus naciones y sus acciones van a provocar más guerras desastrosas. El recalca la importancia de la cooperación comunitaria, el respeto y la voluntad de progresar.



Girma Mola Endeshaw

Not Heroic

Girma Mola Endeshaw describes the complications of Ethiopia after the Korean War. Communists came into power in 1974 in Ethiopia. The government stripped Korean War veterans of many of their possessions. This is because the veterans participated in a war to defeat communism. Still, to this day, South Korea helps the veterans, not Ethiopia.



Gordon H. McIntyre

Contemporary Issues

Gordon McIntyre discusses PTSD and and the effects of the Korean War on returning soldiers. During a return trip to Korea in 2008, he visited the DMZ and viewed Hill 355. Reminiscing on the death of a friend just before the cease fire, he reiterates that many men died in the last days before the cease fire. He considers the peace talks a big mistake. He feels that efforts at reunification are hampered by contemporary North Koreans' "skillful" ability to do nothing, and he doubts Donald Trump will be able to break that trend. He reminds students of the Korean War's lasting message: "Freedom is not free."



Guidberto Barona Silva

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Admiral Guidberto Barona Silva feels it is unfortunate that the Korean War has become a “forgotten war.” In his opinion, the success of South Korea is an example to other nations as it has become a significant economic power and a beacon of democracy. He believes that it can serve as a model for nations which are still developing as South Korea is a symbol of the advancements of the human spirit.

El almirante Guidberto Barona Silva siente que es lamentable que la Guerra de Corea es una “guerra olvidada”. En su opinión, el éxito de Corea del Sur es un ejemplo para otras naciones, porque el país se ha desarrollado mucho y tiene una económica robusta y una democracia fuerte. Él cree que puede servir como ejemplo para las naciones que aún se están desarrollando, porque Corea del Sur es un símbolo de los avances del espíritu humano.



Halil Tasci

Not "Forgotten"

Halil Tasci describes the activities of the Karsiyaka Association. The Karsiyaka works hard to provide services daily. He and his wife provide meals for the veterans five days a week. The association helps veterans with receiving benefits and salary. They also help with funerals for the soldiers when they pass. The association values the history and the sacrifices of the Korean War veterans.



Heroism of the Turkish Soldiers

Halil Tasci describes the heroism of the Turkish soldiers. He feels pride and respect for the veterans. The veterans represent the history of the Turkish soldier. Turkish soldiers have always proven to be brave. Turkish Korean War veterans make the citizen of Turkey proud because of their heroism and sacrifices.



Sacrifices of War

Halil Tasci describes the Korean War as an experience. Soldiers died before their time. He wants to share the experiences to help prevent future wars. Halil Tasci leaves with a message from the Great Leader Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, wars could be murder if for no reason or forgotten.



Hank Daumann

The Forgotten War?

Mr. Daumann explains why he believes the Korean War is referred to as the forgotten war. He explains that the veterans who returned after the Korean War were not greeted with grand receptions or parades. They were treated as one would be treated upon returning home from school. He goes on to explain the importance of younger people knowing about the Korean War and the work his Chapter does with the Veterans and school education programs.



Harold Huff

The Effects of War

Harold Huff speaks about the effects of war on him as an individual. He cites his time in the military as a time of true growth. He shares how he learned a greater respect for the world and gained a greater perspective. He says that the experience helped him grow up and that he will never forget his time during the Korean War.



Harry Olson

Best War Our Country Was In

Harry Olson recalls the feeling of nervous trepidation, in fear of the memories that would return if he returned to Korea. He describes his final decision to make the trip back to Korea and the overwhelming appreciation the Korean people showed him for his service. He compares this experience to his experience returning home from the war and his service not being acknowledged.



Henry Martinez

Joining the Military at 16

Henry Martinez explains how he was able to get into the military at the age of 16, after deciding that he wasn’t learning anything in school and was struggling with his peers. He gives a basic overview of his basic training. He also explains why his parents allowed him to go.



Henry River, Jr.

The Korean War in World History

Henry River, Jr., states he has personally never thought of the Korean War as the Forgotten War because so many Americans served in the war and have served in Korean defense since. He shares that his grandson attended the Peace Camp in Korea during college and enjoyed the experience. He adds that the experience in Korea enlightened him on the what the world should be.



Modern Korean Economic Growth

Henry River, Jr., talks about the economic growth in Korea he witnessed by being a banker in the United States. He recalls being impressed by the Korean automobile and banking industries in particular. He discusses other South Korean advances and just how tremendously successful they have been as a country, especially given both where they came from and the constant stress created by their northern counterparts.



Living Conditions

Henry River, Jr., talks about his wife and how much he was paid. He recounts what his living conditions were like. He recalls his division having a tent compound which included the officer's tent, mess tents, and squat tents for the soldiers.



Herbert Currier

Making Sure the War is Not Forgotten

Herbert Currier shares how we must discuss the Korean War with future generations. He shares that it should be publicized and written about. He also shares that movies can help. He explains how he feels photos share the most and are the best teaching tool.



Herbert Schreiner

Reflection on Korean War Experience

Herbert Schreiner describes his role with Tell America and states that the number one question he receives from students centers on whether or not he was afraid while serving in Korea. He shares that he was and that fear was present amid the troops in combat areas. He also reflects on his experience and his gratefulness for the opportunity to serve in Korea as he feels it made him a better person.



Message to Younger Generations

Herbert Schreiner offers a message to younger generations in both the United States and Korea. He admits there is a great deal of sacrifice involved when it comes to war but asks younger generations to reflect on what would have happened throughout history to the countries involved had those wars not been fought. He further explains how the service can be of value to anyone's life and emphasizes the importance of honoring our servicemen.



Homer Garrett

Dedicated to Improving Civilian Lives

Homer Garrett never witnessed people in such despair not want help from their government, yet the Korean civilians continued to prosper with what they had. Korean civilians had a willingness to improve their lives. Homer Garrett felt the values of the South Korean people are lessons all Americans could learn from. He appreciated what he witnessed and respected Koreans' desire to succeed.



Hong Berm Hur

Recognition Not Going Unnoticed

Hong Berm Hur mentioned the gratitude the Republic of Korea has for the soldiers that sacrificed so much by honoring them with the Distinguished Ambassador for Peace Medal. He went on to share that during World War II, no countries ever thanked the US soldiers for extending their efforts to help rid the world of dictators. Hong Berm Hur believes that recognition and the sacrifice of soldiers should be done around the world.



Success in South Korea

Hong Berm Hur is very proud of the relationship between the US military and the South Korean government. The US soldiers and sailors worked very hard during the Korean War to protect South Korea. The alliance between the US and South Korea has led to the success in South Korea.



Howard W. Bradshaw

Service To My Country

Howard Bradshaw felt so proud to be in a country where one can serve to protect the very freedoms we enjoy. He also believed that the ability to choose and honor is the greatest gift he received serving for his country. He's so proud to be able to wave the American flag.



Hussen Mohammed Omar

Atonement for Father's Killing

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes why he joined the military. Ethiopia was invaded by the Italians during the 1930's. His father imprisoned and later killed for causing problems. He wanted to help protect other families from his experience.



Relations Between Korea and Veterans

Hussen Mohammed Omar describes how the relationship between the Korean government and the veterans is strong. The Korean government pays soldiers a salary. They also help build schools in Ethiopia and provide a scholarship.



Ian J. Nathan

Democracy v. Totalitarianism: Walls Don't Work!

Ian Nathan considers the Korean War very important in world history, particularly due to the development of South Korea as a highly educated, economically strong nation with a stable government. He feels the seventy-year time span since the armistice is unfortunate, with gamesmanship and the sadness of separated families between North Korea and South Korea. He compares the divide between North and South Korea to the Berlin Wall and the wall on the southern United States border.



Ibrahim Yalςinkaya

Sorrow for Friends Lost

Ibrahim Yalςinkaya describes returning to Korea in 2005. He went to a Korean War Memorial and looked for his friends' names, which many were missing. He wishes there was no war. Many people lost their lives and he wishes for "healthy days, days without war."



Iluminado Santiago

Pride and Best Wishes to the Korean People

Iluminado Santiago reflects on the advancements in modern South Korea and the legacy of his service. He is proud to have served in Korea to stop the advancement of North Korea. He wishes the best for the Korean people and hopes the service of the Puerto Ricans in the 65th regiment will continue to be remembered.



Ishwar Chandra Narang

Visiting Korea

Naresh Paul recalls the trip in which he accompanied his father-in-law to Korea in June of 2013. He remembers the amount of press that was there upon their arrival. All of the war veterans were interviewed and then taken to a lunch inside the National Assembly. The President of Korea invited the veterans to inaugurate a new memorial.



Madhu Patel's Reflections of her Father and Korea

Madhu Patel reflects on the stories of her father. She visited Korea in 2010 with her father for the 60th anniversary of the beginning of the Korean War. She remembers him telling her about the war and was excited to join him on the anniversary trip. She remembers visiting all of the war memorials around the country. She speaks about how down-to-earth and appreciative the Korean people are.



Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez

Reflection of Service

Israel Irizarry-Rodriguez shares his thoughts on his service during the Korean War and why the United States went to help South Korea. He expresses his fondness for the Korean people and culture. He shares his pride regarding the progress South Korea has made economically since the war.



Jack Cooper

Pride and Korea Today

Jack Cooper shares that he is proud to say that Korea is what it is today thanks to the efforts of the American military and the partnership created in Korea between both entities to stop Communism. He states that the Korean people are very grateful as they often thank him for his service. He also comments on Korea's economic status, the legacy of the Korean War, and offers a message to younger generations.



Jack Kronenberger

Importance of Military Service

Jack Kronenberger describes the poverty he saw in Seoul. He describes people living in shacks, making him realize how fortunate he was. He explains how this is a completely different way of life than he had experienced. He says the experiences were so important for a young man, and believes re-instating mandatory military service would be very helpful for the youth of our country, although he doubts it will happen.



James “Jim” Cawyer

A Dedication of Honor

James "Jim" Cawyer recalls performing with the Air Force Band at a United Nations Cemetery dedication at Busan on Memorial Day, 1951. He describes seeing the large burial trench for approximately three thousand bodies, and how emotional it was to see so many men in body bags. He recalls the terrible stench of the area, which was due to the long period of time it took for the soldiers to have a proper burial during the Korean War.



James Ferris

Keeping the Memory of the Korean War Veterans Alive

James Ferris shares about his daily work to keep the memory of the Korean War alive, honor the fallen soldiers, and celebrate all the accomplishments of South Korea. He explains as State and then National Korean War Veteran Association President, he strives to reach out to all the Korean War defense veterans (soldiers after 1954) who have served at the DMZ. He expresses that the longevity of the Korean War legacy is with the next generation.



James Houp

Enlisting in the U.S. Army

James Houp recalls his experience enlisting in the U.S. Army. He graduated in 1949 and enlisted in the Army that same year. He recalls not learning anything about Korea in school. He attended boot camp at Fort Knox and advanced training at Fort Monmouth where he graduated at the top of his class. He describes being sent to Tokyo, Japan, before ultimately heading to Korea for the Invasion of Incheon.



Korea Today and the Honor Flight

James Houp recalls reading about Korea today and recognizes its great economic achievements. He remembers participating in an honor flight to the Korean War Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. He shares how three South Koreans stopped him to take a picture and were very grateful for his service in Korea. He emphasizes how he cannot believe the transformation Korea has made from a very poor country to one of the richest in the world today. He expresses his pride in being a Korean War Veteran.



James Low

Contemporary Korea and a Message to Future Generations

James Low hopes that future generations are able to experience one democratic Korea. He stresses the importance that future generations understand the Korean War was fought against three Communist countries: North Korea, China, and Russia. James Low believes that the Korean war helped to impede any further advancement of Russian Communism.



James T. Markley

Message to the Younger Generation

James Markley gives students a message on the achievements of the Korean people. After the devastation of World War II and the Korean war, the Korean people have set a great example for the entire world. They have become a resilient nation of people.



James Vance Scott

Post-War Reflections

James Vance Scott describes his reflections on how servicemen are treated by the American public. He shares that the Korean War was not considered a victory because of the way it ended, which contributed to it being called "the forgotten war". He reflects on the shrinking size of his chapter of the Korean War Veterans Association because of continually losing veterans.



Jesse Sanchez Berain

Self-Discipline

Jesse Sanchez Berain shares the life lessons he learned while serving in the military. He discusses how self-discipline helped him to attain the rank of Master Sergeant in just two years. He explains how he has used his self-discipline later in life to help others, such as by supporting the Farm Workers Movement in Twin Falls, Idaho.



Jesús María Cabra Vargas

Legacy of the War / EL Legado de la Guerra

Jesús María Cabra Vargas discusses what he believes is the legacy of the war. He explains that it was important for the free world to fight against communism. He implores future generations to protect God and democracy as there continue to be communist leaders that wish to brain wash their people.

Jesús María Cabra Vargas habla de lo que él cree que es el legado de la guerra. Él explica que fue importante que el mundo libre lucho contra el comunismo. En su mensaje para las generaciones futuras les pide que protejan a Dios y la democracia ya que sigue habiendo líderes comunistas que desean lavarle el cerebro a su gente.



Jesus Perez

Message For Future Generations

Jesus Perez shares an important message for future generations about why it is necessary to learn our history. He explains the significance of understanding sacrifice and the suffering of war, so that we can be better prepared should we face it again. He describes the impact of seeing orphans fighting for garbage because they were hungry.



Joe H. Ager

Glad I Survived

Joe Ager offers an overview of the withdrawal. Under the orders of Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith, they began abandoning resources so that the Chinese would not know they were retreating. He reflects on Lieutenant Colonel Don Faith’s treatment of African American soldiers. During the withdrawal, he remembers encounters with the Chinese and the heavy loses they suffered. He shares that three hundred eighty-five out of the two thousand men reached Heungnam. He reflects on feelings of guilt for surviving but emphasizes not wasting time and energy on regret.



Joe Henmuller

Life Lessons

Joe Henmuller expresses that he learned a lot from the military. He describes the skills he learned which included how to follow orders and teamwork. He shares how he thinks it would be a good idea for every person to serve one or two years in the military.



Joe Lopez

Love Your Country

When asked what lesson he learned from his experience, Joe Lopez replied emotionally to love your country. He has seen a lot and if you go to another country, you would discover how lucky you are to be living in America and people should be thankful to those who served in the US military. Joe Lopez said that It is your duty to learn about your country and become educated so that you know the decisions that were made on behalf of the US. Many soldiers who are injured or don't return, did it for their country.



John Hartup, Jr.

Mixed Emotions

John Hartup, Jr., discusses his mixed emotions about his time in Korea. While he shares that he did have some fond recollections of his time, he describes the living conditions as miserably cold during the winter. He remembers their heaters not working most of the time and feeling the need to try anything to get warm. He recounts his relief to leave Korea and return to college at Washington State in November 1947. He shares that he studied civil engineering.



Comparing Korea: Before, During, and After the War

John Hartup, Jr., compares the Korea he witnessed in 1946-1947 to the Korea he experienced in 1951. He recalls seeing many refugees going south in 1951. He remembers the city of Incheon as a bustling metropolis in 1947, and in 1951, it was completely leveled and destroyed. He remembers the same about Seoul. He recounts how there was no farming or agriculture taking place in 1951. He shares that he revisited Korea three times after the war and emphasizes that he was very impressed by modern Korea. He notes that it is difficult to compare modern Korea to the devastation he witnessed during the war.



John McBroom

Several Incidents on Board

John McBroom recalls several incidents on board the U.S.S. Symbol while in the Hamhueng area. He remembers North Koreans firing at the ship from the beach. He recalls gunfire from both the North Koreans and another the USS Wiltsie (DD-716) that was posted nearby for protection.



John McWaters

Korea, Then and Now

John McWaters compares his memories of Korea in the 1950s and Korea today. When he left Korea after the war, there were only three buildings still standing in Seoul. When he returned in 2016, he witnessed a very modern and highly developed city. He shares how continuously impressed he is by the changes Korea is undergoing.



Why Should We Study the Korean War?

John McWaters speaks about why he believes students need to learn about Korea and why it has become known as the forgotten war. He reflects on his experiences talking to high school students about the Korean War. He wants to correct the public perception of the forgotten war and frame it as an important victory, as we saved a fine country and enabled it to become the impressive nation is it today. He recollects the brilliant reception he received from South Koreans on his Revisit Korea trip.



Origins of the Tell America Program

John McWaters describes the Tell America program, a program in which Korean War Veterans go into high school classrooms in central Florida to teach students about the Korean War. National Geographic provided maps for the program, which immediately sent him down memory lane. He remembered the towns and villages he visited. Thanks to the maps, he was able to grow the program.



John T. “Sonny” Edwards

Life on the Base and in the Brotherhood

John T. "Sonny" Edwards gives a brief description of the base in South Korea where he was stationed in 1957, south of the DMZ. He recalls always being on alert to respond if a siren went off at the DMZ. He discusses his personal admiration for military service and the distinctive brotherhood that comes with being a member of the armed forces. He describes his sentiment toward serving the United States and his strong feelings toward the symbol of the American Flag.



We Need to tell the Story

John T. "Sonny" Edwards shares his opinion on why the story of the Korean War has been absent in history. He discusses how having a proper historical perspective has been affected by the attitude from the United States Government toward the Korean War. He shares his vision for getting more information out to the public and imparting it to the younger generations.



John Tobia

What was war like? What did Korea look like?

John Tobia talks about being dropped off by a truck to meet his company line. He recalls seeing two helicopters swooping down, apparently transporting the dead and the wounded. Seeing that was his introduction to his company and to the war. He shares how it was a real eye-opener. He contrasts the Seoul he witnessed during and after the war. He also describes a Korean "honeypot".



War Experiences and Its Side Effects

John Tobia shares just how difficult war was and how he was not sure he would make it out alive. He recalls troops from Puerto Rico and Canada, as well as others who fought hard. He talks about suffering from battlefield fatigue, similar to PTSD, and recognized that he was not well mentally. He remembers being offered a promotion by his commanding officer but declined it so he could go home.



John Turner

Prepping for War

John Turner discusses the process he went through from enlistment to arriving in Incheon, South Korea. He enlisted in the Marines and attended Parris Island for bootcamp. After he graduated from basic training, he attended advanced training at Camp Pendleton in California. After advanced training, he departed from San Diego for Inchoen.



Were you afraid? Did you ever think you would die?

John Turner talks about his experiences on the front lines of the war. Once his leg was grazed by a bullet, which ended up sending him to a M.A.S.H. (mobile army surgical hospital) in Seoul for a ten-day recovery. After feeling better, he returned to the front lines and was injured again shortly after, this time with a concussion from North Korean fire and explosions in a cave. He recalls trouble sleeping at night due to constant loud and bright explosions.



Everyday Life in Korea

John Turner talks about what it was like to sleep and eat in Korea. They slept in sleeping bags inside two-man tents and would receive one hot meal a week; other than that, they ate rations. He recalls the weather not being as cold as it was up north. They were occasionally allowed to shower. He recalls writing letters to his wife when he could.



José Aníbal Beltrán Luna

Message to future generations / Mensaje a las Futura Generaciones

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna shares his ideas regarding the effects and causes of war. He explains that he fought in Korea with pride and valor but would not want others to experience war. He concludes by stating that without the veterans that fought, there would be no South Korea.

José Aníbal Beltrán Luna comparte sus ideas sobre los efectos y las causas de la guerra. Explica que luchó en Corea con orgullo y valor, pero que no querría que otros tengan que sufrir con la guerra. Concluye afirmando que sin los veteranos que lucharon, no existiría Corea del Sur.



Jose Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez

Legacy for Colombia / El Legado para Colombia

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez offers his opinion on what the legacy of the war means for Colombian veterans. He explains that the war revolutionized the Colombian military and left it changed for the better. In fact, the Batallón Colombia adopted an American military style and abandoned its use of German training.

José Jaime Rodríguez Rodríguez ofrece su opinión sobre el legado de la guerra para los veteranos colombianos. Explica que la guerra revolucionó a las fuerzas armadas colombianas y las dejó cambiadas para mejor. De hecho, el Batallón Colombia adoptó un estilo militar estadounidense y abandonó el uso del entrenamiento alemán.



Jose Ramon Chisica Torres

The Legacy of the Korean War / El Legado de La Guerra de Corea

José Ramón Chisica Torres provides his analysis of the legacy of the war and that of the veterans who participated in it. He marvels at the economic transformation of the country and discusses the role that the United Nations played in helping Korea after the War. He mentions that all the Korean veterans can leave to the next generation are their memories.

José Ramón Chisica Torres analiza el legado de la Guerra de Corea y el de los veteranos de la guerra. Se maravilla de la transformación económica del país coreano, y habla sobre la ayuda que Las Naciones Unidas le dio a Corea después de la guerra. Finalmente, menciona que todo lo que los veteranos de la guerra pueden dejarle a la próxima generación son sus recuerdos.



Juan Manuel Santini-Martínez.

His Brother's Legacy / El Legado de su Hermano

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez shares his message to future generations and explains the toll the war had on him and his family. He explains that soldiers must defend liberty, protect poor people, and serve with dignity and valor. Moreover, he speaks about his older brother, Luis Santini, who was a Major in the Army and served thirty years.

Juan Manuel Santini Martínez comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y explica el costo que la guerra tuvo para él y su familia. Explica que los soldados deben defender la libertad, proteger a los pobres y servir con dignidad y valor. Además, habla de su hermano mayor, Luis Santini, quien fue Mayor del Ejército y presto su servicio por treinta años en el ejercito.



Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez shares his opinions on his participation in the war. He states that he thanked God that the United States got involved in the war because it was better to fight communism in Korea than allow it to enter the United States or Puerto Rico. He believes it was a just war because it saved Korea.

Julio Cesar Lugo Ramírez comparte sus opiniones sobre su participación en la guerra. Afirma que agradeció a Dios que Estados Unidos se involucró en la guerra porque fue mejor combatir el comunismo en Corea que dejarlo entrar a Estados Unidos o a Puerto Rico. Él cree que fue una guerra justa porque salvó a Corea.



Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez

Living in Peace with Others

Julio Cesar Mercado Martinez shares his hope for all war and discrimination in the world to end. He emphasizes the importance of living in peace with others. He encourages everyone to treat others kindly.



Kaku Akagi

Segregation at Basic Training

Kaku Akagi remembers being drafted into the United States Army in 1951 and undergoing basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. He explains how his college ROTC experience had helped prepare him for boot camp. He describes how the barracks and training groups at Fort Leonard Wood were segregated which signified how different the United States was at the time from other nations due to this kind of discrimination.



Kebede Teferi Desta

Korean Transformation

Kebede Teferi Desta describes the worst and best parts of his Korean War experience. He has since revisited Korea. Korea has undergone a complete transformation. He describes the large train stations and road network. Overall, he is happy about the transformation.



Keith Gunn

The Forgotten War

Keith Gunn shares that the Korean War, also known as the Forgotten War, received little attention during the effort as well as today despite the positive outcome. He adds that the Korean War was the first major United Nations effort and therefore should receive more attention. He also offers his opinion on political correctness and the role he feels it is playing today regarding content being taught in schools.



Kenneth Dillard

Life in the Navy

Kenneth Dillard describes his learning experiences during basic training. He recalls learning to swim, as well as using his own clothing to make a flotation device. He explains how he came to be stationed on a destroyer ship, where he regularly had to ration water while aboard.



Kenneth F. Dawson

Seoul Was a Dead Place

Kenneth F. Dawson describes the cruelty of Chinese soldiers and their murder of a Korean woman as they retreated from a battle. He recounts the destruction that took place in Seoul. He is proud to have served the Korean people and asks to join a group of veterans returning to Korea for the 70th anniversary celebration.



Kenneth Newton

A Message to America's Youth

Kenneth Newton offers a message to the younger generations. He shares that American youth could learn a lesson from the South Korean people regarding gratefulness. He encourages younger generations to find a love for their country if they do not already and to become stewards of good citizenship.



Kenneth S. Shankland

The Korean War Legacy and Hope for Reunification

Kenneth Shankland explains that the lag in understanding about the Korean War arose from soldiers in the Royal New Zealand Navy being under orders to maintain secrecy about their maneuvers. Until the 1970s, soldiers risked death by firing squad for talking about their service in Korea. He believes the legacy of the Korean War is the recovery and modernization of South Korea, but he laments to separation of the two Koreas. Kenneth Shankland shares that he does not trust either Donald Trump or Kim Jong-un to successfully reunite North Korea and South Korea.



Lawrence Paul Murray (Paul Murray)

Daily Reminders

Lawrence Paul Murray describes how he encounters daily reminders of his service in Korea, from the prominence of Korean products to seeing the success of South Korea today. He discusses his pride for his service and how it allows him to participate in an interview with a South Korean today. He goes on to explain how the Korean War was an important step in the effort to neutralize the spread of Communism.



Luis Arcenio Sánchez

Legacy of the War / El Legado de la Guerra

Luis Arcenio Sánchez shares his opinions regarding a possible reunification and the success of South Korea. He explains that communism should never be accepted by the South. He adds that he is proud of his service and encourages the next generation to represent Colombia as well as his generation did.

Luis Arcenio Sánchez comparte su opinion sobre la reunificación entre las dos Coreas y el éxito de la economía de Corea del Sur. Explica que el comunismo nunca debe ser aceptado por el sur. Agrega que está orgulloso de su servicio y le pide a la próxima generación a representar a Colombia tan bien como lo hizo su generación.



Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa

The Armistice / El Armisticio

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explains how the news of the armistice was received by Colombian troops. He details the day of the signing of the armistice and the joy he felt at the thought that he would be returning home. He credits South Korea’s peace with the service of all the individuals that fought during the war.

Luis Laureano Dulce Figueroa explica cómo fue recibida la noticia del armisticio por las tropas colombianas. Detalla el día de la firma del armisticio y la alegría que sintió al pensar que volvería a su país. Él atribuye la paz de Corea del Sur al servicio de todos los que lucharon durante la guerra.



Luis Perez Alvarez

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Futuras Generaciones

Luis A. Perez Alvarez shares his hopes that the valor and sacrifices of Puerto Rican soldiers be remembered by future generations. He laments that Puerto Rican troops have been all but forgotten even after having fought alongside American troops in the last four major wars. He adds an anecdote about how beloved Puerto Rican soldiers were in Korea.

Luis A. Pérez Alvarez comparte su esperanza de que el valor y los sacrificios de los soldados puertorriqueños sean recordados por las generaciones futuras. Lamenta que las tropas puertorriqueñas fueron olvidadas después de haber luchado junto a las tropas estadounidenses en las últimas cuatro guerras. Añade una anécdota sobre lo queridos que eran los soldados puertorriqueños en Corea.



Marc Villanueva

Message for younger generations

Marc Villanueva advises the younger generation to be themselves, be heroes and show their love for their country; this is a free nation. He explains that as an immigrant, he was very fortunate to have been able to take advantage of the opportunity this country has to offer. He expresses gratitude and pride in the opportunities he was able to provide for his four children who have all gone to college, one of whom is now a doctor. He says everybody should go after an education.



Mark C. Sison

Boxing and Cooking

Mark C. Sison remembers his time as a member of the U.S.S. Iowa’s boxing team where he won the runner-up position in the Battleship Cruiser competition. He recalls the unique experience of serving TDY (temporary duty travel) while the crew resided on an Army base and worked on the ship while it was docked. He mentions being assigned to cook breakfast for the ship’s captain and reveals that on one occasion, they had the honor of preparing dinner for the king of Norway.



Marvin Dunn

Talking About the War

Marvin Dunn explains that it took him many years to talk about his experiences in the Korean War. He describes feeling as though nobody who wasn't there could possibly be able understand; thus, he refrained from recounting his experiences. He goes on to explain that only upon joining a local KWVA chapter was he able to share what happened to him with friends, family, and students.



Marvin Ummel

Landing at Incheon, Impressions of Korea

On August 1, 1952, Marvin Ummel's unit made it to Incheon, South Korea. The entry into Incheon was challenging due to bad weather and the fact that the communists had destroyed most of the harbor. The ship captain had to improvise their landing. Shortly after landing, he boarded a railroad car to his first duty station near Seoul. He noticed garbage and destruction all over the landscape of South Korea. He acknowledges not knowing what it looked like prior to the war, but his first impression was a total mess. There was no building that had not been at least damaged by the war. The condition of Seoul was pretty distressing.



Prisoner of War Exchange

Marvin Ummel recalls witnessing the exchange of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the released prisoners changing clothes once released and many Korean locals picking up and taking the clothes back to their homes. Doctors would inspect the released POWs before sending them back home. Often the POWs were in poor condition, some even being sprayed with DDT insecticide to kill off vermin. He recalls that while the soldiers were thrilled to be back, the condition the POWs arrived in was poor and very depressing.



Impressions of South Korea, Then and Now

Marvin Ummel revisited South Korea in 2017. He reports that the opportunity to travel back with Revisit Korea was incredible. He recalls the development in Seoul being impressive, as there were no undamaged buildings present when he was there in 1952. Now, the buildings, houses, and roadways are numerous and well-constructed. He rode the bullet train from Seoul to Pusan and was impressed that it went over one hundred and eighty miles an hour! He also remembers just how thankful the South Koreans were to Americans for their help during the war.



Why is the Korea War the Forgotten War?

Given the wonderful transformation South Korea has seen between the 1950s and today and the deep gratitude Koreans have for American Veterans, the Korean War is still known as the Forgotten War. Marvin Ummel recalls people not knowing much about Korea, even after he returned from the war. Many people were still thinking about World War II.



Mathew Thomas

Mission in Korea

Mathew Thomas recalls his job description. He and his battalion were in charge of taking care of prisoners of war (POWs). He remembers the role being dangerous because some POWs were not checked for weapons when they were brought into the camp facility. He shares how there were times when POWs tried to escape.



Maurice Morby

Unbelievable

Maurice Morby talks about his revisit to Korea. He describes the his amazement at the transformation of the country and his appreciation for the courtesy shown to veterans by the people of Korea.



Mehmet Arif Boran

We Shed Our Blood for Korea

Mehmet Arif Boran describes his revisit to Korea. He is very proud of Korea's accomplishments. He calls Korea, Super Korea due to the buildings and accomplishments. Mehmet Arif Boran would stay in Korea if asked.



Melvin J. Behnen

I Was Bitter

Melvin Behnen reveals that being drafted and forced to sell his company made him bitter at first. He shares that during the trip to Korea, he came to terms with his reality and focused on his duty. Nonetheless, he advises future generations to do their best. He recalls how when his son entered the Marines, he provided this same advice to him. He draws connections between his son’s experiences in the Persian Gulf and his experiences in Korea.



Merl Smith

Serving as a Merchant Marine

Merl Smith discusses his role as a merchant marine in the Korean War. Merchant Marines were a civilian unit supplying troops with whatever they needed. He recounts his time at the Incheon Landing. He remembers taking on four North Koreans who wanted to surrender. He also recalls seeing the invasion from afar on his boat. He, alongside a friend, rode up to Seoul, following the American troops.



Revisiting Korea

Merl Smith discusses his impressions of Korea during a visit in 2007. He recalls not believing the recovery of Seoul. He was amazed at the prosperous and happy people, which was in complete contrast to what he witnessed in 1950. He believes the Korean people are resilient people and have a positive outlook on life.



Milton E. Vega

The Legacy / El Legado

Milton Vega Rivera shares his message for future generations and discusses the legacy of the war. He states that he does not like war but believes it to be a necessary evil which can help countries, like Korea. He relays the importance of serving one’s country and deems it the highest duty of every citizen.

Milton Vega Rivera comparte su mensaje para las generaciones futuras y discute el legado de la guerra. Afirma que no le gusta la guerra, pero cree que es un mal necesario que puede ayudar a países como Corea. Además, él testifica la importancia de servir a la patria y lo considera el deber más importante de todos los ciudadanos.



Morris J. Selwyn

Wish

Morris J. Selwyn feels proud of his service in Korea and describes his amazement at South Korea's expanding economy. He wishes for the reunification of North and South Korea and hopes that Kim Jong-un will be able to help Korea reach that goal.



Noreen Jankowski

Message of Peace

Noreen Jankowski explains how the Korean War should be identified as a war because we defended the South Koreans and many lives were lost. She wishes all people could live in peace and harmony. She shares her thoughts on wars being avoided . Yet she acknowledges if the United States is needed somewhere, they would have her support.



Orville Jones

Life Aboard the U.S.S. Manchester

Orville Jones recalls life on the U.S.S. Manchester. He recalls sleeping in a bunk, eating hot meals everyday, and having the ability to shower each day if he wanted. He talks about how much money he made and what he could spend it on. He recalls being able to save some money by sending some of it home. He could also spend some of his money in Japan or Taiwan when on Rest and Relaxation.



Osman Yasar Eken

Endless Memories

Osman Eken describes the constant reliving of the Korean War. He cannot shake the memories. People always ask about physical scars. However, Osman Eken's mind is impacted. The real injury is to his mind.



Otto G. Logan

Reflections on Kindness

Otto G. Logan reflects on how his military service affected his life. He shares that his service taught him to love his neighbor as he would anyone else. He also commends the Korean people for job well done restoring the country following the war.



Paul Spohn

The Transformation of Korea

Paul Spohn offers his thoughts on Korea's transformation since the war. He shares that it embodies a lot of what is good about Western civilization. He adds that humankind's main emphasis should be that everyone experiences a good life.



Paul Welsh

"Korea is Special to Me"

Paul Welsh states that Korea is special to him because he shed his blood there. It is apparent that there are a lot of emotions intertwined in his memories. Like with many veterans, the time in Korea had a lasting impact on him.



PD Sharma

Revisiting Korea

Rajeev Sharma recalls his visits to Korea. His father, a Korean War Veteran, was able to accompany him on the first of his two trips. He remembers his father noticing the huge transformation Korea has made over the years. He compares Korea's rise to India's and believes Korea has surpassed India in development. He was very amazed at the infrastructure in Korea. He also mentions how hardworking the Korean people are.



Pete Arias

Serving in Korea

Pete Arias shares his experiences of being discharged from the military in 1946 and later enlisting in the United States Reserves. He recounts how his brother was captured while serving in the U.S. Army overseas and spent thirty-four months in a prisoner of war camp. He remembers when the military planned to send him home, but he refused as he wanted to stay and fight for his captured brother. As a result, he was transferred to an outfit in Seoul, which he admits was the best living conditions he had experienced while serving in the military.



Pete Flores

Attitude Toward Military and War

Pete Flores says he had two brothers who served in the military as well as a brother-in-law in World War II. He emphasizes that military service taught him discipline and determination which he applied in his successful business after his four years of service. He shares how he helps returning veterans when they leave service.



Philip S. Kelly

64th Anniversary of the War

Philip S. Kelly reads letters he wrote for the 64th Anniversary of the Korean War. He describes the Battle of Chosin (Jangjin) Reservoir by reading details of his personal experience. He recalls hearing the bugles of the Chinese blaring and engaging in hand-to-hand combat as a combat infantryman.



Rafael Rivera Méndez

Message to Future Generations / Mensaje a las Generaciones Futuras

Rafael Rivera Méndez shares his thoughts about the war and its legacy with future generations. He urges young people to serve their country because it is the highest calling in his opinion. He states that through war, the principles, honor, and values of a nation are magnified. Because of his belief in the importance of helping people who are being abused, he never regretted his decision to join the army.

Rafael Rivera Méndez comparte sus pensamientos sobre la guerra y el legado de la guerra para las generaciones futuras. Él les pide a los jóvenes que sirvan a su país porque es la vocación más alta. Afirma que a través de la guerra se ven los principios, el honor y los valores de una nación y sus soldados. Debido a su creencia en la importancia de ayudar a las personas que sufren abusos, nunca se arrepintió de su decisión de unirse al ejército.



Rajindar Chatrath

Stories from His Father

Rajiv Chatrath shares stories of his father's experience in Korea. His father went to Toyko and Hiroshima, Japan for Rest and Relaxation. He also reads some of his father's notes about the war and postwar when he was able to revisit Korea in the 2000s. His father attended the Revisit Korea program and was able to meet the Korean Ambassador. He recalls his father mentioning how hard-working the Korean people are.



Raymond L. Ayon

Training as a Corpsman

Raymond L. Ayon shares he enlisted in the United States Air Force in 1948 after graduating from high school. He explains how while serving in Japan, he operated a rig to refuel large aircraft. He remembers how, one day, he was transferred to a medical laboratory technical school to train as a corpsman, providing aid to the wounded. Having excelled in biology in high school with straight A's, he believes this was a factor in his selection as a corpsman. He describes the challenging task of taking and giving blood samples with his fellow trainees. He confesses to being unaware of what this new specialty would entail.



Reginald Clifton Grier

Experiences in a Desegregated Military

Reginald Clifton Grier explains how the desegregation of the military transformed the institution but not necessarily the people within it. He recalls how he received lower evaluations simply because his commanding officer could not give a Black and White soldier the same rating. He notes how during his evaluations of junior officers, he drew upon his own experiences and upheld the principles of impartial assessment to evaluate their leadership and skills with utmost fairness.



Richard A. Simpson

War, What Is It Good For?

Richard Simpson describes war through religion. He questions what God thinks of war and ultimately what comes from war. He discusses the impact of the war on his life and how the war helped him enter the priesthood.



Richard Edward Watchempino

Drafted Into the U.S. Army

Richard Edward Watchempino shares his experiences of being drafted by the United States Army at the age of twenty-one and undergoing his basic training. He explains how his boot camp training equipped him with the necessary skills to survive and serve during the war. He recalls the weapon training he received, which included the M1 rifle, bazooka, and mortar.



Richard Friedman

The Legacy of the Korean War

Richard Friedman coveys his views on the Korean War Legacy. He shares that no one was there to thank him for his service upon his return home. Richard Friedman states that the Korean War's Legacy needs to be built upon, and he acknowledges that measures are being taken by various individuals and groups to do so. He shares that he respects why he was there, what was achieved, and was proud to have served.



Robert M. Longden

Trump and Kim Jong-un

His message to New Zealand children would include the incredible hospitality offered to veterans by the Korean people. Further, he articulates the importance of forging a peace deal. He hopes the meeting between U.S. President Donald Trump and North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un can achieve unification so that families in Korea can see one another again.



Robert S. Chessum

Forgotten Men of the Unknown War

Robert Chessum describes how the Korean War is "forgotten." He explains how there was nothing for the troops when they returned. Robert Chessum also describes how changing the perception of the Korean War will be difficult, because teaching about war is unpopular.



Ronald W. Taylor

Message to Students

Ronald W. Taylor wants students to understand and respect military veterans, especially high school students. He wants students to understand not just what veterans did in service but what they have done after with regards to civic work. He hopes students consider a military career as he described it as "one of the best things I ever did."



Roy Orville Hawthorne

Education is Like a Ladder

Roy Orville Hawthorne shares he utilized the benefits of the GI Bill to attend a Bible Seminary school where he earned a bachelor's and master's degree, followed by a Ph.D. He emphasizes the significance of education by citing Navajo Chief Manuelito's analogy of education being like a ladder which his people must climb to achieve opportunity and happiness. He acknowledges the positive influence of his military service in attaining his professional and personal aspirations.



Rudolph Valentine Archer

Integration of the U.S. Military

Rudolph Valentine Archer reflects on the segregation of the United States military in 1948. He recollects being a part of an all-Black unit before the integration of the armed forces. He remembers that the African American officers he served under after integration were highly skilled individuals and excellent mentors. He narrates his experience of arriving at his first job assignment and being informed that he was not allowed to supervise white troops, even though the military had been integrated.



Shorty Neff

Letter from a Korean Friend

Shorty Neff reads and reflects on a letter he received from a Korean friend who was a Sergeant in the Korean Army and served as an interpreter. "Hello, Neff (July 8, 1953) - I received the package from you, and I was very glad to get it. I and all the boys enjoyed ourselves with the candies. How have you been lately, Neff? I bet you have a nice time in your home life. Do you remember the night you left here? I was on guard that night. As soon as I walked in the tent from the guard, you were going out with two bags. Then I helped you carry your baggage. I was very sorry because I was on guard. I should write you before but I didn't know your address. Now I know your address so I can write you whenever I have time. I'd like to hear from you and let me know how things are going. Is that okay? Well, nothing is new over here, so I think I better close for now. Until I hear from you, take care good care of yourself, Neff. Thanks again for your package. From sincerely friend..." He then reflects on his time with his friend.



Soonok Chun

The Miracle of Korea

Soonuk Chun describes the sense of pride she felt when revisiting Korea later in life and seeing the remarkable recovery. She explains the importance of younger generations needing to learn how their parents lived during the war and how poor they were in order to appreciate what they have today. She calls today's Korea a miracle.



Sotirios Patrakis

Preservation and Educating Youth

Sotirios Patrakis shares his thoughts on preserving the memory of Korean War veterans' service and on educating youth about the Korean War. He expresses that this endeavor began rather late as many veterans have since passed or mix their facts due to age. He adds that it is good to do it even now though so that everyone knows and remembers this history.



Stephen Frangos

Impressions of Korea and of Koreans

Stephen Frangos reflects on his impressions of Korea and of Koreans. He describes a Seoul that was devastated but adds he did see signs of revival. He remembers having tremendous optimism for Korea because of the hard working and industrious people. He comments that he knew they would be successful but states he did not realize just how successful they would turn out to be.



Suwan Chinda

No More Fighting

Suwan Chinda shares his thoughts on war. He speaks of war negatively and adds that he does not want to see people fighting. He comments on Vietnam being one country and states that he would like to see Korea as one country as well.



Telila Deresa

Still Hatred

Telila Deresa describes how he still has a hatred for Chinese. China has built many things in Ethiopia like trains, bridges and roadways. However, he still loves Korea. Korea is like a mother and provides for the veterans.



Theodore Garnette

Eagle Feather Ceremony and Radio School

Theodore Garnette acknowledges that his decision to enlist in the United States Air Force was highly admired by other members of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. He vividly recalls being honored as a warrior with an eagle feather ceremony, the highest recognition awarded to members of the tribe. Later, he was transferred to Biloxi, Mississippi, for radio school where he received training to become an intercept operator.



The Affects of Serving

Theodore Garnette expresses his frustration regarding his discharge from the military due to the classified duties he performed while serving in Korea. He reveals that he signed a secrecy act upon leaving the service which prevented him from discussing his missions during the Korean War. He shares he did not receive any medals for his classified work. Despite these challenges, he acknowledges that serving in the military had a positive impact on his life and admits he has continued to receive excellent care from the VA hospital.



Theodore Paul

Reflections on Service

Theodore Paul reflects on his service and participation in two of the most memorable battles during the Korean War--the Battle of Inchon Landing and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir. He admits that he was scared but did what every other soldier does. He applauds Korea's development since the war and commends the efforts of the Korean people to become a world superpower.



Thomas E. Cork, Sr.

Proud to be a U.S. Marine and Korean War Veteran

Thomas E. Cork, Sr. expresses his pride in serving his country as a U.S. Marine during the Korean War. He appreciates the recognition he receives for his service. Despite being injured, he does not harbor any bitterness, considers himself fortunate to have good health, and acknowledges the sacrifices made by all who served. He reflects on the support he has received from the Veterans Administration after being injured and is grateful for their assistance.



Thomas Nuzzo

The Forgotten War

Thomas Nuzzo felt that the Korean War was the forgotten war. Since it was so close to the end of WWII, the civilians in the United States didn't want to fight. Soldiers didn't even have supplies that they needed, so this hurt the moral.



Thomas W. Stevens (2nd Interview)

Reaching the Next Generation

Thomas W. Stevens serves as president of his local chapter of the Korean War Veterans Association. He discusses the many challenges of meeting the needs of its members, some complimentary and some critical. He stresses the importance of reaching the next generation and teaching them the importance of freedom and the sacrifices made to ensure those freedoms.



Tom Muller

Homecoming for Korean Veterans v. WWII Veterans

Tom Muller describes pride in his service during the Korean War. He recollects his time as a teen and going to victory parades for World War II veterans. Tom Muller then compares this experience with his own coming home and a "tie" parade.



Ulises Barreto González

Legacy of the War/ Legado de la Guerra

Ulises Barreto González shares some of his memories of the Korean countryside. He also explains what he believes is the legacy of the war and why the Korean War was a just one.

Ulises Barreto González comparte algunos de sus recuerdos del paisaje coreano. También explica cuál cree que es el legado de la guerra y explica por qué la Guerra de Corea fue una guerra justa.



Vikram Tuli

Opportunities To Visit South Korea

Vikram Tuli discusses the benefits of college students attending the peace camp funded by the Korean Ministry of Patriots and Veteran Affairs. His children have attended those camps, as well as many other Indian students. The peace camp is one of two programs run by the Ministry, the other being the Revisit Korea program for its war veterans. It is important to pass on the legacy of the Korean War Veterans in that way so that they can become future change makers. He also discusses his visit to Seoul seven years prior, remembering the war memorial and the solemn ceremony he attended. He remains impressed by the progress Korea has made.



The Costs of War

Vikram Tuli talks about the effects of war, and how the families of veterans from twenty-two countries were affected by this conflict. Generations will pass before that wound fully heals. He believes the deeper connections between countries such as education, commerce, and culture will help prevent these types of conflicts in the future. He reminds us to love thy neighbor and that we are one.



Vincent Segarra

Legacy of the War / Legado de la Guerra

Vicente Segarra reflects on the legacy of the war and his participation in it. He believes that people should remember that Puerto Ricans fought bravely and helped defend the United States and allowed democracy to triumph in South Korea. He urges future generations to join the military as wars are necessary to stop evil dictators from destroying the planet.

Vicente Segarra refleja sobre el legado de la guerra y su participación en la misma. Él cree que la gente debería recordar que los puertorriqueños lucharon con valor y ayudaron a defender a Estados Unidos y permitieron que la democracia triunfara en Corea del Sur. Insta a las generaciones futuras a unirse al ejército, ya que las guerras son necesarias para evitar que dictadores destruyan el planeta.



Warren Middlekauf

Chapter 312: "The best thing that ever happened"

Warren Middlekauf discusses the Korean War Veteran's Association Chapter 312 located in Maryland. Chapter 312 is the most active chapter in Maryland, the East Coast, and perhaps the country. He also makes a contemporary connection analyzing the help and support veterans receive today, unlike the Korean War Veterans who never even got a proper welcome home. He remarks about the numerous entities that exist today to honor, and provide assistance to war veterans.



Werner Lamprecht

Impact of the Navy

Werner Lamprecht explains the Navy impacted his life after returning home. He shares he learned how to be independent even though he missed his wife and parents. He expresses that the experience changed him from a little man to a big man. He notes he has not been to Korea but shares his amazement of what the Korean government has done for Korean War veterans.



Wilbur Barnes

Promotion Experience

Wilbur Barnes shares his experience of almost missing out on a promotion to Sergeant. He credits the Master Sergeant in his unit for advocating for his promotion. He takes pride in being the only Black Sergeant in his unit.



Willard Maktima

Basic Training and Ship Duties

Willard Maktima recounts his experience attending boot camp where he was the only American Indian in his company but was able to interact with people from different backgrounds. He shares how basic training involved a lot of marching, learning about Naval history, and firing weapons. He recalls how, upon completing boot camp, he was stationed on the USS Furse destroyer ship which was docked at the San Diego Harbor. He explains their main responsibility was to protect battle and supply ships that sailed out at sea. He details how the crew would track foreign submarines and prepare to intercept any potential torpedoes.



Discrimination in the Southeast U.S.

Willard Maktima explains that during the war, his squadron was split in half with one half being sent to Korea and the other half (to which he belonged) being stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, to prepare for the Cold War campaign. He shares how he, unfortunately, experienced discrimination while stationed in the southeastern region of the United States due to being an American Indian. He recounts how this discrimination was enforced by the Jim Crow laws which required him to use separate bathrooms and drinking fountains from White people. He recalls how, on one occasion, he informed a bus driver he was an American Indian, not White, and chose to sit in the back of the bus where African Americans were also segregated.



A Desire to Learn

Willard Maktima shares his experience as a second-class petty officer at the air missile test center in Point Mugu, California. He explains he was responsible for documenting court marshals that took place on the base and delivering confidential messages between missile test sites. He notes how, during his downtime, he would often read books in the library. He reminisces on one of the librarians asking him about his future plans after the service which inspired him to obtain a GED and later pursue a college degree.



William Eugene Woodward

Importance of the U.S. Air Force

William Eugene Woodward discusses the significant impact the United States Air Force had during the wars of the twentieth century. He recalls a personal experience where he had a near miss with a U.S. fighter plane in Korea. He expresses his patriotism and pride in serving his country during the Korean War.



William Jacque

Rather Fight Communism There Than Here

William Jacque shares the reasoning for his willingness to serve in Korea. He explains that he wanted to fight for the Korean people as he was familiar with Communism and it's movement into Korea. He shares that he would rather fight Communism somewhere else than in his own country.



William McLaughlin

What is the Legacy of the Korean War?

William McLaughlin discusses the legacy of the Korean War. He believes the legacy is a democratic and thriving South Korea. He was not sure if that would have happened if the Americans had not fought alongside the South Koreans and then stayed there throughout the subsequent decades to help with defense.



William O’Kane

"The Forgotten War"

William O'Kane felt that the Korean War should not have been called "The Forgotten War." He really became upset when the war that he fought in was called a Korean police action or the Korean Conflict. Soldiers from around the world fought and died during the Korean War, so William O'Kane wished that more people remembered the war.



William Puls

The Impact of the Forgotten War

William Puls describes his revisits to South Korea in 2000 and 2010. He explains his amazement at the cleanliness and modernization of the cities in South Korea. He praises the South Koreans for their admiration and respect toward Korean War veterans. He shares his opinion on what can be done to resolve the continued division between the countries of North Korea and South Korea.



Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda

Sacrifices for Good

Zenebwrk Balaynea Geamda describes revisiting Korea. He is amazed at the transformation Korea has undergone. His sacrifices were not wasted. Korea also has given back to the Ethiopian soldiers. The Ethiopian government has given the veterans nothing.